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School Age

 Deciduous teeth are ruptured and

permanent teeth erupt

 At age 6, children start to endlessly jump,

 Assessment: tumble, skip and hop (Gross Motor Dev’t)

 Physical Growth and Development  They have enough coordination to walk a

straight line
 They grow slowly but steadily
 At age 6 also, they can easily tie their
 Annual average weight gain is
shoelaces (Fine Motor Dev’t)
approximately 3 to 5 lb; the increase in
height is 1 to 2 inches  Cognitive

 Posture becomes more erect  Period from 5-7 years is a transitional

stage when children undergo a shift from
 By age 10, brain growth is complete so fine
the preoperational thought they used as
motor coordination becomes refined
preschoolers to concrete operational
 The eye globe reaches its final shape so thought or the ability to reason through
that an adult vision is achieved any problem that they can actually
 If the eruption of permanent teeth and
growth of the jaw do not correlate with the  Several new concepts learned by school-
final head growth, malocclusion with teeth age children includes:
misalignment may result
• Decentering- ability to project self
 IgG and IgA reach adult levels and into other people’s situation
lymphatic tissue continues to grow up until
• Accommodation- ability to adapt
about age 9
thought to fit what is perceived
 Left ventricle of the heart enlarges to be
• Conservation- ability to appreciate
strong enough to pump blood to the
that a change in shape does not
growing body
necessarily mean a change in size
 Time of the onset for PUBERTY
• Class inclusion- ability to understand
 Changes in physical appearance lead to that objects can belong to more
problems and worries for both children and than one classification
their parents
 Personality and Temperament
 They enter the stage of preconventional  Much of a child’s talk is concerned with
reasoning these concepts as he or she practices them
and shows them off for family and friends
 They concentrate on niceness or fairness
 By age 9, they discover dirty jokes and
 The distinction between right and wrong share them to friends or try to understand
becomes more important to them those shared by adults

 They are rule-oriented, when they pray  By 12 years, a sense of humor is apparent
they expect their God to follow rules also
 Emotional
 Because they are still limited in their
ability to understand other’s views,  Developmental task: Industry versus
they may interpret something as Inferiority
being right because it is good for
them, not because it is right for  They tend to learn a sense of industry and
humanity as a whole accomplishment-learning how to do things
 Communication
 They have the ability to trust others and
 They talk in full sentences, using language with a sense of respect of their own worth
easily and with meaning
 They can accomplish small task
 They no longer sound as though talking is independently because they want to be
an experiment but appear to have independent
incorporated language easily
 They should have mimicked adult roles and
 They still define objects by their use: a key had the opportunity to explore at
is to unlock a door; a fork is to eat with preschool or other social environments

 Most of them can tell the time in hours, but  They should have learned to share, to have
they may have trouble with concepts such discovered that learning is fun and an
as half past and quarter to, especially with adventure, and to have learned that doing
the prevalence of digital clocks things is more important and more
rewarding than just watching things done
 They know the months of the year and can
name the months in which holidays fall.  Play

 Play continues to be rough; however, when

children discover reading as an enjoyable
activity that opens doors to other worlds,
they will begin to spend time with books  Planning and Implementation for Health
 By age 7, they require more props for play
than they were younger  School Age Safety
 They also develop a an interest in  They are ready on their own without direct
collecting items e.g. baseball cards, dolls, adult supervision
rocks, marbles
 By age 8 and 9, many children stay by
 8-year olds like table games but hate to themselves after school
lose, so they tend to avoid competitive
games  As with adults, accidents tend to occur
when children are under stress
 By age 9, they enter a phase of reading
comic books, they play hard  Sexual abuse is an unfortunate and all-too
common hazard for children
 They begin music lessons for children
 Nutrition Health
 At 10-years old, they spend most of their
time playing handheld or television  Most school age children have good
remote games; they tend to have interest appetites, although any meal is influenced
in rules and fairness by the day’s activities.

 By 11 and 12 years old, they enjoy dancing  School age children need breakfast to
to popular music and playing table games provide enough energy to get them
through active mornings at school
 Diagnosis:
 Most children are hungry when they arrive
 Health-seeking behaviors related to normal home, so snacks should be available
school age growth and development
 As part of fostering industry, school-aged
 Readiness for enhanced parenting related to children usually enjoy helping meals
improved family living conditions
 It is important that the increasing energy
 Anxiety related to slow growth pattern of child requirements that come with this age are
met daily with foods of high nutritional
 Risk for injury related to deficient parental
knowledge about safety precautions for a school-
aged child  School-Age child in Daily Activities
 With life centered on school activities and  Malocclusion
friends, the school-age child needs
parental guidance for most daily activities  While about 90 percent of school-aged
children have some degree of
 Promoting Healthy Family Functioning malocclusion, only about 10 to 15 percent
of these have severe malocclusion that
 At 6 years of age, most children have requires treatment.
passed through a preschool phase of
attraction for the parent of the opposite  The upper jaw in children matures rapidly
sex and identify again with the parent of in early childhood along with skull growth,
the same sex the lower jaw forms more slowly, which
forces teeth to make a prolonged series of
 To their parent’s annoyance, many 6-year- changes until they reach their final adult
olds often quote their teacher as the final alignment and position
authority in all subjects
 Children who suck their thumbs or fingers
 Parents often must be reminded that even beyond the age of 5 have an increased
the simplest tasks of everyday life require chance of developing malocclusion.
repeated practice before they can be Children with a very small space between
accomplished well their primary teeth (baby teeth) are at risk
for having problems with malocclusion
when their permanent teeth appear,
 Parental Concerns related to normal because the permanent teeth are larger
development: and require more space.

 Dental Caries  Good teeth occlusion is necessary for

optimal formation of teeth, health of the
 School aged children usually have cavities
supporting tissue, optimal speech
due to excess eating of sweets.
development, and what most people view
as a pleasant physical appearance for high
 It is important to teach them the proper
way of brushing their teeth, also, making
the brushing a fun experience, three times
 Language Development
a day! Some children may have to wear
special dental correctors such as braces,  They talk in full sentences, using language
with special types and ways to brush, be easily and with meaning
sure to teach the child the right way to
brush them.
 They no longer sound as though talking is grade school is different: the rules are
an experiment but appear to have firmer and the elective feeling is gone
incorporated language easily
 School Phobia: Fear of attending school;
 They still define objects by their use: a key children who resist attending school this
is to unlock a door; a fork is to eat with way may develop physical signs of illness,
such as vomiting, diarrhea, headache or
 At age 6, they have limited ability to abdominal pains on school days.
understand complicated language
structures. From ages 6 to 10, children  Home Schooling
gradually begin to think in more complex
ways. This growth enables them to  education of children at home, typically by
understand and use the nuances and parents but sometimes by tutors, rather
subtleties of language. than in a formal setting of public or private
school. Homeschooling is a legal option in
 Most of them can tell the time in hours, but many places for parents to provide their
they may have trouble with concepts such children with a learning environment as an
as half past and quarter to, especially with alternative to publicly-provided schools.
the prevalence of digital clocks Parents cite numerous reasons as
motivations to home school, including
 They know the months of the year and can better academic test results, poor public
name the months in which holidays fall. school environment, improved
character/morality development, and
 Much of a child’s talk is concerned with
objections to what is taught locally in
these concepts as he or she practices them
public school. It is also an alternative for
and shows them off for family and friends
families living in isolated rural locations or
 By age 9, they discover dirty jokes and living temporarily abroad.
share them to friends or try to understand
 Latchkey Children
those shared by adults
 Schoolchildren who are without adult
 By 12 years, a sense of humor is apparent
supervision for part of each weekday.
 Common Fears and Anxieties
 The term alludes to the fact that they
 Anxiety related to Beginning School: generally carry a key so they can let
Adjusting to grade school is a big task for 6 themselves into their home after school
years old. Even if they attended preschool,
 A major concern is that latchkey key
children can feel lonely or have an
increased tendency to have accidents, appreciation is not yet balanced by strong
delinquent behaviors, alcohol and moral principles.
beginning drug abuse, and decreased
school performance from lack of adult  This usually happens at around 7 years of
supervision. age, when children are first learning how to
make change and discovering the
 Sex Education importance of money. Stealing is one of
the most common acts that children get
 It is important that school aged children be involved in, especially during their school
educated about pubertal changes and life. Some do it consciously. Most of them
responsible sexual practices so they are seize other people’s belonging
well prepared for these. unconsciously. At this age, children cannot
differentiate between their things and
 Preteens should also have adults whom
those of others and hence, steal. The act of
they can turn to for answers to questions
stealing, which has become a prevalent
about sex
child behavior problem, is an immediate
 Ideally, these should be parents, but concern for parents. But before taking any
because sex is an emotionally charged corrective steps, they must try to find out
topic, some parents may be extremely the reason why their child is indulging in
uncomfortable discussing it with their such a behavior. There are several facts
children. As a result, health care personnel that compel children to steal, such as low
often become resource persons. self-esteem, peer pressure, etc. It might
also be possible that they do not have
 When your school-age child inquires about friends and are trying to ‘buy’ their friends.
sex, ask what he or she already knows.
Correct any misconceptions, and then offer  Violence and Terrorism
enough details to answer the specific
 Children basically view their world as safe,
questions. Don't laugh at your child's
so it is a shock to them when violence such
questions or use nicknames for your child's
as at school shooting or international
sexual anatomy, which may send the
terrorists enter their lives
signal that these body parts shouldn't be
discussed.  Children at this age tend to imitate and
follow what they see on the TV. It is
 Stealing
important to filter the shows the child
 Stealing occurs because although the child watches so as to prevent them from
is gaining an appreciation for money, this following the violent actions.

 Bullying
 A frequent reason that school-aged  Children with alcoholic parents are prone
children cite for feeling so violent that they to abuse, may it be physical or emotional.
turn guns in fellow classmates is that they They may also see this as something right
were ridiculed or bullied to the point they and fun since their parents are doing so.
could no longer take such abuse
 Obesity
 Some children bully others, either because
they want to feel more superior, to get  As many as 50 % of school age children
attention, or because it is the type of are obese by body mass index guidelines
environment they live in. It’s best to talk to for ideal weight. Some of these children
them about his and tell them that this have been overweight since pregnancy;
should not be tolerated. Immediate action their prepubertal weight gain makes them
must be made. obese

 Recreational Drug Abuse  Children who are obese tend to be laughed

at or gain low self esteem from peers, and
 Because alcohol and inhalants are sometimes may cause isolation and
available in so many homes and often can discrimination. Nutritional teaching and
be purchased in small stores without proof guidance should be done by parents in
of age, these are the commonly abused order to aid the child, but do not scold the
drugs of this age group. child nor make fun of him. Instead, tell him
the good things that will happen to him/her
 Some become addicted to glue, thus this if they eat right and engage in sports.
may cause physical effects in the future
and this must be reprimanded
 Children of Alcoholic Parents
Pilitterri, A., 2003. Maternal and Child Health
 As many as one in five children live with an Nursing: Care of the Childbearing and Childrearing
alcoholic parent family. Philippines: Lippicott Williams and Wilkins.

 Such children are at a greater risk for

having emotional problems

 Alcoholism may have a genetic cause, so

children of alcoholics are more likely to
become alcoholics