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Representation and Reproductions Overview Our ultimate end is to probe the possibilities of building architecture as a poetic translation, not

a prosaic transcription of its representations. Alberto Perez Gomez

efore we start discussing the significance of the built environment, we should e!plore the wa"s, possibilities and meaning of the designer#s modus operandi. $n this wa", we can then establish a communication channel based on the discipline#s tools of interaction.

%an" argue that ever since we found a wa" of communicating through other media, architecture#s & or what some would call realit" & power as a communication tool diminished. 'rawings and models became the media through which we shared ideas and the natural and built environment & its actual cities, buildings, sculptures and landscapes & were no longer the medium through which philosophies were taught and (nowledge was shared.

)he goal of this section is to understand that architecture has not alwa"s been dependent on strict methods of representation *drawings, models, renderings, etc.+ and to thin( criticall" about how the following statement affects our relationship to the design, creation and e!perience of the built environment,

)he tas( of the architect is not to -ma(e# buildings but rather the mediating artifacts that ma(e significant buildings possible.

And so, when reference is made to mediation . that is

to establish a relation between two differing persons or things,

we are tal(ing about finding a wa" to represent architecture *a building, space+ through something else *a drawing, a model, etc.+ $f one consults -representation# in /i(ipedia, one will find that,

Representation refers to the use of signs that stand in for and ta(e the place of something else. $t is through representation that people organize the world and realit" through the act of naming its elements. 0igns are created in order to form semantic constructions and e!press relations between things and ideas. 1or man" philosophers, both ancient and modern, man is regarded as the 2representational animal2 or homo s"mbolicum, the creature whose distinct character is the creation and the manipulation of signs . things that 2stand for2 or 2ta(e the place of2 something else. )he term 3representation3 carries a range of meanings and interpretations. $n literar" theor", 3representation3 is commonl" defined in three wa"s. 4)o loo( li(e or resemble 4)o stand in for something or someone 4)o present a second time 5re&present6 )o represent is then 2to bring to mind b" description,2 or also 2to s"mbolize, to be the embodiment of2 A representation is a t"pe of recording in which the sensor" information about a ph"sical ob7ect is described in a medium.

Once something . an ob7ect, space, idea or realit", is re&presented b" another entit", then it becomes an abstraction.

Abstractions ma" be formed b" reducing the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, t"picall" to retain onl" information which is relevant for a particular purpose.

)he concept of representation can be e!plored in Rene %agritte#s famous painting )he )reacher" of $mages . where it shows a pipe and below it, written, it sa"s 28eci n3est pas une

pipe2 or )his is not a pipe. )he painting is not a pipe, but rather an image of a pipe, which was %agritte3s point.

)he )reacher" of $mages b" Rene %agritte $n his own words, %agritte referred to the painting, 8ould "ou stuff m" pipe9 :o, it3s 7ust a representation, is it not9 0o if $ had written on m" picture 2)his is a pipe,2 $3d have been l"ing;

And if this is the case for images and drawings . the tools of communication use b" architects . then important <uestions for the designers of the built environment arise, =8an architecture be represented in its totalit"9 =/hat in architecture needs to or could be represented9 =>ow does the medium representing architecture inform the methods and processes of the discipline9 =>ow can architectural ideas be given definition prior to being constructed9 /hat is 'esign9 Architects design architecture.

)his simple, and almost tautological, statement might as well serve as the beginning for an in<uir" into the field of architecture. Architecture is certainl" an ob7ect we inhabit and e!perience. And the ob7ect has at least one sub7ect, the person who holds the title architect. )hus, it is the word 3design3 that lin(s the sub7ect with its ob7ect. 'esign as a verb describes the actions the sub7ect performs to bring the ob7ect into being. And design as a noun refers to the ob7ect that is the result of actions. 'esign is the activit" that architects perform and it is the conse<uence of their efforts. )he" design designs.

ut when e!actl" is the ob7ect called AR8>$)?8)@R? born9

/ith habitation9 $n other words, when the occupants move into the building and start living their lives in the building, ma(ing an imprint on the structure with their dail" lives. $s that when the architecture can be said to be complete and finall" realized9

After it has been full" described b" drawings and models9

%a"be architecture can be said to be born when the design idea has escaped the mind of the architect and is available for all to see. /hen drawings and a model are presented to the

public, that is a moment when the future building is no longer 7ust internal to the architect#s mind, but is e!ternal and observable.

At the point of conceptualization b" the architect9 /hen the building e!ists as a glint in the e"e9 %a"be the real point of birth is when the idea first 7umps into the mind of the architect. After that point ever"thing else is 7ust wor(ing through the details.

@pon construction9 %a"be the first time the architectural ob7ect is trul" realized is when the building is finall" erected, but before users start using the building. )his state probabl" is most li(e the architect#s vision && a structure devoid of people and the simple pla" of light and shadow on surfaces. :o grim" paw prints in this vision.

$t is difficult to precisel" answer the <uestion of birth && the point when process stops and the product is born. /e are searching for that point in time when the building has a presence and is no longer un(nowable because of internalization. )he struggle is to (now when presence is achieved. )his is important because it is presence that we can use as evidence that an ob7ect e!ists. ut ob7ectification is tric(". Ob7ects can be statements. )he" can even be thoughts that have a life of their own that seem outside of the author#s mind. >ave "ou ever had an idea that once it is thought seems to have its own rules and direction that are independent of "ou9 Aou thought it and as soon as "ou did the thought began to dictate things "ou had not anticipated. At that point the thought seems other than "ou. 8ould we sa" it has a presence because it seems different and outside of "our control9

$n the first e!ample above, the birth of the building is when the building is inhabited and in use. >ow else could architecture be measured and appreciated if it is not when people use it9 $n the last e!ample, architecture is seen as more pure, more li(e an art ob7ect than something determined or defined b" function. @pon construction, the structure is the largest scale model built to date. $t is a full&size realization of the architect#s vision. )o complicate matters 7ust a bit more... man" buildings continue to be designed and built after the (e"s are turned over to the owner. People inhabit a building and continue to change and alter it to reflect their new needs and desires. 1rom this perspective we could sa" that the process of design is a never&ending process.

Process and product

)he intimatel" coupled relationship between p r o c e s s *act of design+ and product *ob7ect of design+ is difficult to cleanl" separate into two distinct realms when we loo( at the word design. process ... product

)he solving of architectural problems, and most environmental problems, involves a process that leads to a desired product && usuall" a plan of some sort. 1or an architectural problem the output is most often a new structure, a renovation, or a combination of both. )he output for environmental problems is often a plan of action or a set of policies that will lead to the desired outcome. /hat we wish to do in this section is to understand the nature of problems, the processes used to solve problems as well as the relationship between these two categories.

Gaining insight into the process of architectural problem solving can benefit from the wealth of literature written to describe problem investigations, decision ma(ing, creative problem solving, and the development of good ideas. )his module provides an overview of this literature lac( o! versus Glass o! >ow we ma(e decisions and the process we use to arrive at creative solutions to problems is an important area of academic investigation. /e all want to (now more about how creative people thin(. /h"9 0o we might learn their process and duplicate their success when confronting our own challenging problems. >ow did Picasso imagine the ull#s >ead from a bic"cle seat and handlebars9 >ow did Apple come up with the iPhone or iPad9 /hen an architect is thin(ing about a solution to a problem and is activel" engaged in the act of designing, how does she thin( about the problem and how does she arrive at the form9 )his is the creative process we want to understand. $f we can gain an understanding of how one goes about finding creative solutions, we can duplicate that effort and produce e<uall" wonderful designs or ideas. ecause thought processes seem so dependent on individuals we might as(,$s the process of creative problem solving open to view9 Are the thought processes that one uses when creativel" solving a problem open to our observations9 Or, are the inner wor(ings of the mind hidden from our observations9 $s the creative mind a glass bo! into which we can see and observe the process9 Or is the mind more li(e a blac( bo! that inhibits an" observable tendencies that we could anal"ze9 $f a glass bo!, then we can observe the process and find its inherent rationalit". $f a blac( bo!, the creative process is not available for observation, thus we will not have much that can be shared about the process that can be useful to the novice creative problem solver.

/e do have means to observe the brain when it is wor(ing on a problem. )hese observations have led to some popular conclusions about the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain and their ver" different capabilities. )hese popular ps"chological conclusions are far from scientific fact, and ongoing studies are being conducted. :onetheless, there are some generalizations that can be stated. Bisual stimuli, spatial manipulation, and artistic abilit" seem to be functions of the right hemisphere. Cinear reasoning and language functions are more associated with the left side. 8onse<uentl" when it comes to creative problem solving, pop (nowledge tends to sa" that right brain people are more creative and able to thin( out of bo!es more easil" than left brain t"pes. @nfortunatel", or ma"be fortunatel" for some of us, this popular description is not reall" how our brains confront difficult problems re<uiring creativit", and it does not do 7ustice to the ver" nature of solving problems. %ost reall" difficult problems are a combination of thin(ing outside the bo! *right&side thin(ing+ and long periods of rational anal"sis *left&side thin(ing+. )he empirical observations on the functions of the hemispheres of the brain provide some insight but the" do not begin to unloc( the <uestions of how the mind tac(les a creative problem&solving e!ercise. ?ven if we can measure electrical activit" in the brain during creative problem solving it will not e!plain the steps to ta(e to be an effective problem solver. rain observations onl" tell us when we are duplicating the same mental activit", not what steps need to be ta(en to be a creative person.

'escriptive %odels

1ortunatel" for us there has been some speculation on creative problem solving. )hese descriptions tend to be focused on thought processes that are rational and observable. %a"be not observable b" a neutral and ob7ective third part", but observable in the sense that creative problem solvers have reflected on their process and shared their thoughts. ut first additional clarit" on some general terms we are using && decision ma(ing and problem solving.

'ecision ma(ing usuall" refers to a rational process of deductive thought processes that leads to a desired outcome. %an" tend to view the decision&ma(ing process as a logical and rational se<uence of decisions that leads to a desired outcome or result. Often a decision&ma(ing process resembles the image of a tree or web where each decision leads to a new situation that re<uiring new information, assessment of options, and another decision. )o view the process as a web or tree is to recognize that man" decisions are made in parallel through sub&routines that contribute to the final overall result.

)o loo( at design as a decision&ma(ing process usuall" means that three general steps are ta(en,

= establish the measures of good performance

= generate a variet" of solutions

=evaluate each possible solution and select the one that achieves the highest performance.

'ecisions can commence once the problem is defined and a direction is set. $t is important to (eep distinct problem anal"sis and problem see(ing from the decision&ma(ing process. 'ecision&ma(ing ta(es over once the ob7ective has been established and the decision ma(er is read" to state performance or measures of success.

Problem solving is a higher order cognitive process that builds upon the use of s(ills and more foundational (nowledge. )o solve a problem presumes that there is a clearl" articulated goal or problem statement that one sets out to solve, and that it is possible to select the most successful solution. $nherent in problem solving is an abilit" to articulate a new and improved state to be achieved through a series of actions. )he interesting thing about loo(ing at the design process as a problem&solving process is that the formulation of the problem has the potential solutions embedded within the statement of the problem. /hen one states the problem to be solved one constrains the set of possible solutions and therefore implies what the solution can be from the ver" beginning of the search. /hat does this mean9 Cet#s sa" a couple approaches "ou to design an addition to their home. 'uring discussions with them the" e!plain that the" re<uire time awa" from their children so the" can nurture themselves and attend to famil" matters. /ith this information "ou can decide the" re<uire a new master bedroom suite or a new famil" room, or a couples# vacation and no addition to their home. 'epending on how "ou see the problem the solution will be remar(abl" different. )his is what we mean when we sa" the problem statement constrains the set of possible solutions. /e usuall" place the modifier -creative# in front of the term problem solving when we want to emphasize the desire to see( the formulation of the problem before launching into the finding of a solution *see, http,DDen.wi(ipedia.orgDwi(iD8reative4problem4solving+

)he difficult" with loo(ing at design as a problem to solve is that it presumes that there is a correct answer. 'esign, unli(e a game of chess, has no correct or final answer. )he 2solution2

to a design is alwa"s governed b" e!ternal things such as the time available, resources at hand, or the desire of the designer, and not b" some rules internal to the problem itself. )here is no correct or true answer to a design investigation.

?ach of the above observations about design thin(ing can be combined and classified into the following models for the creative problem&solving process.

)he design process can be described as a linear process, where one step leads to another step which leads to the ne!t, and so on. A linear process t"picall" refers to four se<uential steps,

E. problem definition

F. anal"sis

G. s"nthesis

H. evaluation

)his linear view of the process suggests a deterministic and rigid se<uence. As a process it is descriptive of the operations we perform when we follow a recipe, or the instructions one follows

when building a plastic model of an airplane. $t does not seem to ade<uatel" describe the vague and d"namic process associated with the design of a building.

:onetheless, some design pro7ects such as the design of an econom" hotel can be described as a linear process, particularl" after one has designed and built several pro7ects of this t"pe. /hen the design process follows a formula or is s"stemic it is an indication that the design for the building or its interior follows something that loo(s ver" much li(e a linear process. $t might be helpful to thin( of this s"stemic process as something a(in to a recipe for ba(ing bread. 1ollowing the linear process under such conditions can lead to positive results. >owever, most problems we confront do not lend themselves to a listing of se<uential steps leading to the desired result.

%an" designers view the design process as an iterative c"cle, a process that can be described as c"clical or repeating acts where each subse<uent c"cle produces further refinement. ?ach iterative step provides more refinement and an increase in the information to be considered. ?ach c"cle provides more specificit". An iterative process moves from the general to the specific.

)he repeating c"cles in the process can be visualized as a tightening spiral with the solution emerging at the end of the spiral. /hen a designer overla"s a preliminar" design with tracing paper and wor(s on top of the initial drawing in an effort to refine the design and repeats this techni<ue over and over, we have an e!ample of using an iterative design process. /hen designers wor( in this manner the" begin the design process with broad generalized ideas about a formal organization. ?ach subse<uent iteration wor(s at the particulars of the design as the designer drills down to resolve items within the overall organization. )he greater level of scrutin" permits the designer to test an initial resolution and its abilit" to accommodate the more distinct and particular aspects of the problem being solved.

)his model of the creative problem&solving process has its shortcomings. Once the c"cle is started it is ver" hard to brea( out in a new direction. $terative thought processes can lead to tunnel vision. )he model also does not give us a clear indication of the variables that should be considered at each step in the iterative process.

0ome designers prefer to view the design process as a process governed b" intuition, the use of creative, non&rational insight. )his view of the design process suggests the most important part of design occurs deep inside the designer#s ps"che and is out of his or her conscious control.

)here are man" designers who concur with this view. )he" feel that man" aspects of a design solution, a solution in which one has considerable confidence, lie outside of our abilit" to describe how this solution was obtained or to completel" describe the solution#s merits. $ntuition is an important counterpart to the deductive reasoning *deductive reasoning I reasoning based upon (nown principles+ abilities that we emplo". Recent ps"chological e!periments have shown that when sub7ects were presented with a <uic( succession of problems that re<uire fast decisions the" use e!perience and pattern recognition to <uic(l" assimilate the problem and ma(e a decision that was a feasible solution to the problem. $ntuition relies on our beliefs and emotional appeal as opposed to more reflective thought.

8losel" related to intuition is creative insight or a creative leap that occurs at a specific moment in the design process. 1or some designers the act of design is reduced to the point of intuitive insight where a creative leap is made that launches the design in a uni<ue direction. 1or them it

is this creative insight that defines the act of design since the subse<uent actions are derived from this moment of insight and can be further developed using logic and rationalit". 1or this perspective on creative problem solving it is the creative act that is uni<ue to the individual, the rest is based upon principles which can be learned.

One who sees design as this creative moment tends to assign significance to the s(etch that mar(s this point. )his s(etch is often referred to as the concept drawing or parti. $n the informal discussion among designers the" often refer to this creative s(etch as the -coc(tail nap(in# s(etch && a <uic( and highl"&intuitive s(etch that cr"stalizes the design solution to pursue.

?ach of these descriptions attempts to describe the thought process used for creative problem solving. @nfortunatel", the" lac( specifics and provide onl" a general model or paradigm of what the process might loo( li(e under different circumstances. Problem solving (nowledge t"pes

/e have been tal(ing about the design process and problem solving without loo(ing at these terms and establishing clear definitions. 0o let#s turn our attention to problems and understand how problems emerge.

Problems emerge when there is a discrepanc" between what is and what ought to be.

$f ever"thing is fine and there is no need for a change, then there is no problem for us to solve. /hen things are fine, continuing along the same trac( seems to be in order. >owever, after thoroughl" loo(ing at the e!isting circumstances, what is, and finding that the situation is unsatisfactor" because we envision something better, what ought to be, then a problem has been identified. Problems emerge because there is a discrepanc" between what is and what ought to be. /ith this realization we have identified two (nowledge t"pes that a problem solver

will re<uire, /hat is (nowledge or 1actual Jnowledge, and /hat ought to be (nowledge or 'eontic Jnowledge 5from Gree( deon dut", from impersonal dei it behooves, it is binding6. 'eontic (nowledge is usuall" derived from (nowing what is in the best interest from a professional or dispassionate perspective. 'eontic (nowledge is about dreams and aspirations. )he" outline the desired outcome of the intervention that will lead to a change in the current condition. 1actual (nowledge is the (nowledge that will be needed and used to ascertain the current condition. $t is the facts; >owever, it is important to note that the facts are not necessaril" the truth. )he description of the e!isting state is controlled b" the (nowledge that we use to describe the current situation. Our description ma" be flawed.

Once a discrepanc" between -what is# and -what ought to be# has been identified, it is necessar" to e!plain how this discrepanc" e!ists. $n other words we re<uire ?!planator" Jnowledge. )he e!planation for wh" the discrepanc" e!ists will lead the problem solver to ta(e the necessar" steps re<uired to cause the current situation to improve toward the desired end.

)he last form of (nowledge re<uired to solve a problem is how to (nowledge or $nstrumental Jnowledge. $nstrumental (nowledge provides the (nowledge necessar" to devise actions that will cause the desired change in the current situation.

Cet#s see how the four (nowledges can be used to define a problem and the process of solving that problem. Aou feel "our famil" is not spending enough time together. Aour famil" is t"pical of man" families in contemporar" America && famil" members are pursuing their own interests and there is little time for ever"one to be together as a famil". Aou observe that there are two times when the famil" might come together, at meal time and for entertainment. Aour current house has onl" a dining room and a (itchen bar. %ost meals ta(e place at the (itchen bar since the dining room is too formal and difficult to clean if it is used dail" for meals. ?ntertainment activities for the famil" occur around the television and computers. )he current television is in a small e!tra bedroom that is also used as a guest room. 8omputers are in the children#s bedrooms or in a stud" near the master bedroom. Aou would li(e an area that combines all entertainment electronics and is a rela!ed and comfortable place to gather, certainl" not the formal living room with its furniture arranged for conversation instead of viewing a screen, or in the current and too small guest room.

At this point "ou have used two forms of problem solving (nowledge && 1actual and 'eontic. 1actual Jnowledge is used to describe the current situation && where people eat, where the" watch television. 'eontic Jnowledge outlines the desired situation && the famil" should spend more time together as a unit. /hat to do9 )he reason for the discrepanc" is that there is no place for the famil" to share together. $f "ou built a new room that combined informal eating and an entertainment area, then the famil" would have a place to spend time together rather than

being in different rooms or spaces that are too small for ever"one to comfortabl" sit together. $n other words "ou need a new famil" room. :ow that we have e!plained wh" the discrepanc" e!ists && no common and comfortable room for all && we are read" to develop the list of tas(s that need to be done to get a new famil" room. Aou might need to visit "our ban(er and secure a loan, "ou might consult local codes to see what zoning restrictions appl", "ou might as( friends to recommend contractors to build an addition onto the house, and perhaps "ou could start loo(ing at pictures of the room "ou envision. Aou might decide to hire an architect to do some of these things for "ou. )hese tas(s and man" more would have to be accomplished before "our new addition would be a realit". )he listing of the tas(s to accomplish the addition to the house is $nstrumental Jnowledge at wor(. /hat is 'esign9 *cont.+ )he :ature of Architectural Problems Architectural problems, li(e most environmental problems, share some attributes that ma(e them distinct from man" of the other problems we confront in our dail" life. /hat are these characteristics that separate architectural problems into a different class9

Architectural problems increasingl" involve multiple client groups and large teams of professionals. )hese groups can hold different values that lead to different and conflicting viewpoints on the appropriate or best solution to the problem. )he disagreement between ever"one reflects a disagreement involving deontic (nowledge and factual (nowledge && at the root is a disagreement over the appropriate problem formulation. >ow does this occur9

)here are multiple reasons such a disagreement emerges. )he fragmentation of the client into multiple groups can challenge an architect#s abilit" to gain a common understanding on the problem or the appropriate solution. )he groups are so different in their values and ob7ectives that s"nthesis can be problematic. Another reason for disagreement might stem from a distrust of the architect or professional advice in general. Groups might thin( the architect#s deontic (nowledge is not dispassionate and the architect comes to the pro7ect with an underl"ing bias. 'isagreement can also come from a lac( of clarit" over who is in charge and who has the ultimate authorit" over the building#s design. %an" building pro7ects for large organizations separate the client, the one who has decided the building pro7ect should be underta(en, from the users who will eventuall" inhabit the building. )his separation can lead to confusion and differences between the client and users over desired outcomes. )his situation is easil" illustrated if we imagine a new universit" building. 1or such a pro7ect we might naivel" sa" that the obvious client is the universit". " such a statement we might be referring to the president of the institution or ma"be the state government, if it is a state supported universit". $n either case the vast ma7orit" of college buildings are not designed specificall" for these people, though the" do have a (een interest in the pro7ect outcome and general appearance. $nstead, students, facult" and staff who will inhabit the building who as users could be considered the clients. $n

addition to these groups the -client# can be e!panded to include the facilities management department for the universit". )he" are the professionals who represent the universit"#s interest in the pro7ect and ensure that the long&term financial interests of the universit" are met through technical re<uirements. )o carr" the discussion further if the new building is on the edge of campus, is part of a campus e!pansion, or is large enough to impact the surrounding communit", then the communit"#s interests could be considered part of the -client# group to be considered. Or if there is a large donor, whose name will be attached to the building, that individual will most li(el" want to have a sa" in its design. /ithout too much difficult" we see that the -client# is made up of multiple groups who ma" have competing interests. )he architects# 7ob is to meet their different e!pectations. Gathering these different groups behind a single and common design can be e!tremel" challenging. )he challenge increases if the groups lac( trust between them.

A multi&headed client presents challenges to the thoughtful problem solver. $ntegrating competing points of view into a coherent whole that meets a variet" of e!pectations is difficult. /hat ma(es it even more difficult is that the architect cannot use his or her own perspective or point of view as the baseline from which to ma(e decisions. %ore often than not, the architect does not share the same values and perspectives as some or possibl" all of the -client# groups. )herefore when a choice has to be made, the architect often cannot 7ustif" using her own intuition, or his own -gut# to see if the right course is being pursued. )his ma(es decision& ma(ing ver" difficult.

:ot onl" can the architect not rel" on their professional point of view, the architect is often a member of a team consisting of different professionals and not an individual solving a problem. )he architect in toda"#s professional world is part of a team of designers, engineers, pro7ect managers, contractors, and other e!perts who wor( collaborativel" to solve the problem. $f there is some belief that somehow the architect is able to identif" with a diverse client group and thereb" integrate the multiple and competing interests into a coherent whole, that thought surel" evaporates when we realize that the architectural team is not a single person but a group of people holding different e!pertise ... and most li(el" different ideas on what is the best solution.

As if the previous conditions does not ma(e the situation of designing a building and solving an architectural problem difficult enough, there is one more aspect of architectural design we need to consider. )he architect is a professional. $n the @.0. architects are licensed professionals. )he license is granted b" the public because architects are charged to protect the public#s welfare and safet" when the building is designed. $n the broad picture of problem&solving this professional responsibilit" means that a professional architect has no right to be wrong. )he public e!pects the architect to protect their interests and get things right. )hat is wh" the" granted a license to the profession.

:ast" Problems

On the one hand, problem solving as we described it using the (nowledge t"pes necessar" to solve a problem seems relativel" eas" && find the discrepanc", e!plain wh" it is that the problem e!ists and start listing the tas(s to reach the desired changes. Granted, some problems are harder and bigger in scale, but the same sets of (nowledges and s(ills would help us whittle things down to size. On the other hand, we have begun to see there are complications, significant complications, that ma(e problem solving more difficult to successfull" manage.

>orst Rittel and %elvin /ebber, two planners and design thin(ers in the EKLMs, identified two broad categories of problem t"pes && tame or simple problems, and nast" or wic(ed problems. )ame or simple problems are the problems associated with common mathematics, puzzles, games li(e chess, etc. )hese are problems that have clear problem statements && we (now the area within which to search for a solution and, more importantl", (now when we have the answer because it is possible to chec( the results. $n a structural problem such as the design of a steel beam that spans between two columns it is possible to chec( the answer and confirm that the beam size is correct. )he mathematical formula that describes the function of a steel beam when sub7ect to a load is well understood. $n chess, the solution is correct when chec( mate is achieved and "our opponent is defeated. )ame problems have clear and unambiguous problem statements. )here are a finite set of operations to be performed to arrive at a solution, and there are stopping rules so "ou (now "ou solved the problem. Again to illustrate && in a game of chess each chess piece has certain moves that can be performed and anal"zed at each stage of the game. ishops move in one wa", roo(s in another, and pawns in "et another. At ever" point in the game there are a finite number of moves that can occur. At ever" point in the game the potential moves can be assessed and given a strategic advantage over other moves. )he game ends when one pla"er has allowed his (ing to be placed in a situation where no move is available without being in 7eopard" and so surrender is the onl" option. $t is these characteristics, a clear problem and set of goals, finite options, and a stopping rule that defines a tame problem. $t is wh" a computer can pla" chess.

:ast" or wic(ed problems are of a different order. )he" have attributes that are ver" different from tame problems. )here are si! distinct <ualities to nast" problems,

E. )here is no definitive statement of the problemN in fact, there is often broad disagreement on what constitutes 2the problem.

)he information needed to solve the problem depends on one#s point of view as to how it can be solved. @sing the description above regarding the structure and (nowledge of problems we can sa" that with nast" problems there is agreement that a discrepanc" e!ists between what is and what ought to be, but there is little agreement as to the e!planation for wh" the discrepanc" e!ists. )he reason for this is that the contentious e!planation is ideological or fundamentall" political in nature.

F. )hese problems have no stopping rules. /ithout a definitive statement of the problem there can be no definitive answer, and therefore no clear signal that an optimum solution has been reached. $n actualit", there are competing solutions that can activate a great deal of discord among team members and sta(eholders ali(e. )he problem seems to mutate and transform as "ou wor( on it. )he designer never (nows when to stop and therefore stops because the" run out of time, out of mone", or the problem 7ust stops being interesting.

G. ?ver" wic(ed problem is uni<ue. )here are no categories or t"pes of nast" problems in the sense that there are no principles of solution that can be applied to a collection of problems. )he art of dealing with nast" problems is the art of not forming the problem too <uic(l". /h" is this an important art9 ecause the definition of the problem determines the solution space.

H. )here is no ultimate test of a solution to a nast" problem. )he onl" wa" to reall" understand the problem is to devise a potential solution and watch what it reveals about the problem itself through the changes it effects *thus reversing the normal flow of thin(ing, with wic(ed problems, a solution must come before the problem;+. >owever, an" change in the area of a nast" problem will cause waves of conse<uences over an e!tended period of time. %oreover, the implemented and incremental changes ma" have utterl" undesirable conse<uences that alter and preclude certain future and beneficial solutions. And an attempt to reverse a direction, even if incremental, is itself another nast" problem. )o ma(e matters worse, as a creative problem solver "ou have no right to be wrong. )his is ver" different from a scientific researcher where a h"pothesis can be refuted. A problem solver is to advance the change for the better and should not ma(e suggestions that lead in the wrong direction.

O. ?ver" nast" problem can be considered to be a s"mptom of another nast" problem.

%an" internal aspects of a nast" problem can be considered as s"mptoms of another wic(ed problem. /here in the hierarch" of levels for a problem should the designer focus his energ"9

P. 0olutions to these problems are not true or false answers but better or worse. 0olutions to wic(ed problems are not right or wrong, merel" better, worse, good enough, or not good enough. )here is a high degree of sub7ectivit" and each sta(eholder brings her own perception to the table, causing discord.

:ast" problems are firml" rooted in architectural design and most creative problem solving involves communities or groups of constituents. /hat ma(es design problems nast" problems is the contemporar" relationship between architects and their clients. $n contemporar" societ" the design of a building is complicated b" at least two issues, E+ the client is more often than not a fragmented group consisting of owners, users, managers of the environment, and financial interests that are not often combined into one coherent person or point of view, "et each has an interest in the pro7ect and its design. %a(ing matters worse is the fact that the architect cannot count on sharing values with one or an" of these groups. 8onse<uentl", the architect cannot use him& or herself as a measure for the achievement of a <ualit" solution. F+ 8ontemporar" institutions are changing profoundl" because of globalization and the technolog" that supports the phenomena. As a conse<uence of these complications architects can not rel" on past building t"pes and use patterns to guide their design solutions. /hen it comes to nast" problems, precedents can not be relied upon to produce a positive solution.

)o give "ou some sense of this relationship see the following article b" Adam Richardson, 'irector of Product 0trateg", frog design, 0an 1rancisco. According to their website frog *http,DDwww.frogdesign.comDabout+ wor(s with the world#s leading companies, helping them to design, engineer, and bring to mar(et meaningful products and services. /ith an interdisciplinar" team of more than E,PMM designers, strategists, and software engineers, frog delivers connected e!periences that span multiple technologies, platforms, and media. )he designers at frog (now something about nast" problems. >ere is what Adam Richardson wrote about wor(ing with nast" and wic(ed problems.

)he other reference on nast" problems to review is the video from the firm $'?O *http,DDwww.ideo.comD+. Ci(e frog, the design firm $'?O wor(s closel" with clients in both the public and private sectors to to innovate products and grow mar(et share. )he" also wrestle with nast" problems ever"da". )he video features $'?O#s )om >ulme describing the creative

process. :otice the importance he places on (eeping the problem ill&defined for as long as possible and the advantage that can serve when see(ing creative solutions. 8reative $deas )he source of creative ideas is illusive and perple!ing for the researcher tr"ing to unloc( the m"steries of trul" creative thin(ing. %an" believe that the secret to creative ideas is to ma(e connections between seemingl" disparate points of information, to ma(e new combinations or a lin(age connecting what heretofore were unrelated or unconnected pieces of (nowledge. )his connecting tissue results from "our personal and ver" distinct e!periences.

Biew the following two videos and loo( for connections between them. One video is b" 0teven Qohnson on where good ideas come from. 0teven Qohnson is the author of /here Good $deas 8ome 1rom, )he :atural >istor" of $nnovation. As the )?' lectures describe him, he writes on the intersection of science, technolog" and personal e!perience.

)he second video is b" 0teve Qobs, someone who probabl" needs no introduction as the co& inventor of the Apple computer and the leader behind iPod, iPhone and iPad. 0teve#s tal( too( place at a commencement ceremon" for 0tanford @niversit". $n his remar(s he described his own personal 7ourne" to creativit".)he message of 0teven Qohnson and 0teve Qobs is that the disparate pieces of (nowledge that we collect along the wa" have the potential to be connected in new and e!citing wa"s as long as we sta" curious and open to the possibilities. /e often are not able to (now that the two or three things are connectable until some distant time. As 0teve Qobs e!plains, it was not until man" "ears after he too( the calligraph" course that good t"polog" was seen as a part of what a %ac computer ought to incorporate.

Castl", and ma"be more importantl", creativit" is hard wor(. A great idea will not leap into realit" full and rich. %ost often it will come to us as a cloud" and partiall" obscured -hunch# that will re<uire a combination of gestation and ver" hard wor( to ma(e the idea strong and presentable to "ourself and others. )his wor( is often a struggle. >aving discipline and the drive to stic( with the -idea# will be re<uired.

1rom this perspective on the creative process we can see that the left or right brain dichotom" and the privilege given to the right side for creative and artistic efforts is over&emphasized. /hat seems e<uall" important to the creative process is drive, in<uisitiveness, and courage to thin( differentl". )hese attributes are not present in 7ust one hemisphere of the brain. 8onclusion

Perhaps the best we can hope for in see(ing a definition of design is an agreement that there is an activit" and a product that results from the activit". ut this simple statement re<uires some additional <ualification.

)he relationship between thought and ob7ect is hard to describe simpl" as linear, whereb" one action leads to the ne!t, nor finite, where one can mar( the end. )he relationship between thought and ob7ect, or process and product, is best envisioned as interactive and interdependent.

)he architect ma(es ob7ects, fre<uentl" in the form of drawings and models, to see the tangible evidence of the process of thought. )he tangible evidence of a thought becomes an independent ob7ect that stimulates additional thoughts which leads to another, fuller ob7ect, and so on. )he completed building is merel" the largest realization of a series of thoughts and previous vicarious realizations. )he process of inhabiting the building results in the continuation of the c"cle of thoughts leading to changes to the surroundings.

)he connection between process and product is intertwined because we use the product, an ob7ect, to understand our thoughts and to communicate to ourselves and others what we are thin(ing. $f we ma(e an ob7ect that is understood in a similar manner b" ourselves and others, then we feel confident that the internalized thought has found an e!pression that is independent of ourselves.

)he product of design is a mirror reflection of the process of thin(ing that leads up to its e!istence. $dentif"ing the Re<uisite Jnowledge for AR8>$)?8)@R? $f we cannot gain a clear and definitive description of the process of design nor a solid determination of the product, then perhaps a discussion of the (nowledge re<uired for understanding architecture *as compared to problem solving which we discussed in the last theme+ might prove an appropriate doorwa" into an understanding of design and its ob7ect && architecture.

8an we determine the re<uisite (nowledge that is re<uired for understanding architecture9

$f we can, then we will (now what sub7ects need to be studied and learned to be effective architects and related designers. 0o let#s start with a simple design problem. %a"be if we stud" a simple design e!ample we can gain some insight into the design of architecture and therefore uncovering what we will need to (now to properl" understand architecture. %ost li(el", this morning "ou were involved in the activit" of design. Aou got dressed after selecting clothes from "our closet and drawers. )he resulting outfit was an e!pression made b" "ou with consideration for the following,

function *how cold or warm is it9+,

durabilit" *how long will these clothes last before re<uiring replacement9+, and

aesthetics *will the colors of these garments loo( good together9+.

ut "our design considerations did not stop here. )he resulting ensemble could be sub7ected to a social criti<ue. /e use the garments we wear to ma(e a commentar" on the role we wish to pla" in societ". 1or instance, when adolescents tenaciousl" subscribe to a dress code of blue 7eans, a pair of :i(e athletic shoes and leather 7ac(et over a sport" tee&shirt, the" are communicating a strong bond to a particular social group and communicating a disli(e for another && sa" those who wear three&piece suits with starched shirts and ties. ut we can go further with possible considerations affecting "our morning design decisions.

)he selected clothes were produced from either natural or s"nthetic fibers. ecause ma(ing clothing consumes resources their production has an impact on the environment and continues to impact our ecolog" after the garments are discarded and become refuse. :atural fibers come from renewable resources while s"nthetic fibers do not. Ci(e it or not, selecting "our soc(s has some implications on sustainabilit".

0ustainabilit" e!plained through animation, Aoutube, G 1ebruar" FMEF, http,DDwww."outube.comDwatch9vI O:i):Mch7M )o pursue other effects of our design decisions, the selected garments were manufactured and therefore had an impact on the lives of the producers. " purchasing and wearing a garment "ou might be supporting unfair and e!ploitive wage practices. )he wor(ers in the factories that manufacture :i(e shoes in $ndochina are paid so little that with their wages the" cannot

purchase sufficient calories to sustain themselves. Aour soc( selection has impact on political power and social 7ustice. >ad toda" been "our wedding da" the design decisions would have been in an entirel" different arena. )he conventions of the ritual would have come to bear on the selection of "our clothing. 'epending upon "our traditions, "ou would li(el" have wrestled with the conventions of ceremon" && for e!ample, white for the bride s"mbolizing purit" and a morning suit for the groom to reflect the st"le of dress of successful men. )he morning selection of m" soc(s seems to stretch from a comment on m" self image, to m" perceived social role, and finall" to the ecolog" and health of the environment. $t even impacts whether m" toes are warm or not. Our simple e!ample of design has <uic(l" become a wic(ed or nast" problem. Our e!ample opens a Pandora3s bo! of intertwined issues where design decisions encompass an unending chain that includes almost ever"thing we can thin( of. '?0$G: is something we do, but a discussion of it seems to re<uire (nowledge of ever"thing else. >owever, if we can find a wa" around this parado! we will reveal e!actl" the (ind and depth of (nowledge an architect re<uires to design. Our discover" will do nothing less than outline the educational agenda for an architect; 1ortunatel" this problem is not 7ust of our invention. $t has been confronted b" others. Perhaps, the" can find the wa" out of this parado!.

Bitruvius /hen the ancient Roman architect *c.RM&LM, died after c.EO 8?+ was confronted with a similar <uestion he struggled to provide an answer. Bitruvius wrote about the education of an architect, 2)he architect should be e<uipped with (nowledge of man" branches of stud" and varied (inds of learning, ... . Cet him be educated, s(illful with the pencil, instructed in geometr", (now much histor", have followed the philosophers with attention, understand music, have some (nowledge of medicine, (now the opinions of the 7urists, and be ac<uainted with astronom" and the theor" of the heavens.2 Bitruvius3s list of re<uisite (nowledge seems to be confirming our predicament. >e is listing 7ust about ever" (nown field of in<uir" from the ancient world.

1ilarete

1ilarete *c.EHMM& c.EHPK+ wrote his treatise between EHPE and EHPH. $n general, 1ilarete subscribes to Bitruvius3 agenda for the education of an architect. )o Bitruvius3s long list of letters, geometr", philosoph", music, astrolog", medicine, and civil law, 1ilarete adds in his )reatise on Architecture the following re<uirements, 2)hat is he should understand man" s(ills and be able to demonstrate them with the wor( of his hand, ... .2 1ilarete wants an architect to be well educated and be an accomplished craftsperson. >e sees a lin( between creative thin(ing and education coupled with the ma(ing of things with one3s hands.

)his idea that architects and designers should be accomplished craftspersons is still believed toda". %an" contemporar" architects and scholars subscribe to this perspective. 1ilarete seems to be suggesting that an architect not onl" needs to be highl" educated && that is #boo( learned#&& but also a master craftsperson.

Alberti Alberti *EHMH&EHLF+, the Renaissance architect and theoretician, had an e!pansive view of what an architect needs to (now, 2'oubtless architecture is a ver" noble science, not fit for ever" head. >e *the architect+ ought to be a %an of fine genius, of a great application, of the best education, of thorough e!perience, and especiall" of strong *common+ sense and sound 7udgement, that presumes to declare himself an architect.2 $n addition to being a genius of the highest education, Alberti re<uests that the architect pursue precedent with a passion. 2Castl", in the stud" of his art $ would have him follow the e!ample of those that appl" themselves to the Cetters, for no man thin(s he is sufficientl" learned in an" science, unless he has read and e!amined all the authors, as well bad as good, that have wrote in that science which he is pursuing. $n the same manner $ would have the architect diligentl" consider all the buildings that have an" tolerable reputation.2 $s there an" doubt that the re<uisite (nowledge from Alberti#s view is considerable and almost all encompassing9

/ittgenstein A <uote from the philosopherDarchitect Cudwig /ittgenstein *ERRK&EKOE+ will give us an indication of both the enormit" and challenge of our tas(, Aou thin( philosoph" is difficult enough, but $ can tell "ou it is nothing to the difficult" of being a good architect. *from 8onversations with /ittgenstein+ $f our areas of stud" are hierarchicall" arranged, and man" believe the" are, then most would agree that philosoph" is at the top in terms of difficult" and as the source from which all other (nowledge springs forth. /hat /ittgenstein3s <uote alerts us to

is his conviction that the discipline of architecture ma" challenge this commonl" held hierarch" of (nowledge, at least from the perspective of difficult". Our frustration in arriving at a clear listing of the re<uired (nowledge to be an architect stems from our inabilit" to arrive at a full and complete definition of architecture that will place it within some conte!t and ma(e the term sufficientl" bounded to contemplate. Our speculation on architecture seems to lead to a definition that is so broad and all encompassing as to leave nothing leftover upon which to place it within to provide a conte!t. )his is wh" we appear to be encountering a parado!. Another wa" of describing our predicament is to point out that if we are to define architecture in the wa" suggested b" Bitruvius and others, it will re<uire the remainder of this webpage to be nothing less than the entire librar" itself, including those boo(s not "et written;

)he reason there is no place left in which which to provide a conte!t for architecture is that architecture tells us about ourselves. /hen we scoop ever"thing off the table we need to define architecture *ta(ing the table as well+, and note that there is nothing left upon which to place the assembl", it is because what we hold is nothing less than what is necessar" to describe ourselves. Architecture is a reflection of our self&perception. $t is a form of representation that strives to re&present our idea of ourselves to ourselves. $n short, architecture is a form of cultural communication.

efore proceeding, it might be appropriate to again as( the <uestion that started this section in a slightl" different formulation, 8an we determine some broad re<uisite (nowledge necessar" for understanding architecture9 /e can tentativel" answer this <uestion. 0ince architecture e!ists for humans it will be necessar" to gain insight into our biological capabilities and social e!istence. )he biological has to do with the limits and operations of our ph"siolog". )he wor(ings of the social and cultural arenas are more conceptual. 1irst we will outline some of the biological issues that architecture will need to ta(e into account, followed b" an introduction of how we might understand the cultural and social arenas.