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Robotics, Nano Technology and Nobel Prize 2013 (Laymen Language)

Prologue

Definition and History of Robots

Humanoid Robot its Capacities and Kirobo

Basic Components of a Robot

Applications of a Robot

Nanotechnology (Darshan Chotey but Kaam Mothey

History of Nanotechnology

!raphene and Carbon Nano "ubes(CN"

NanoMaterial and Applications of CN"

Nobel Pri#e $%&' ((ast but certainly not the least

Robotics Branch of )cience and technology *hich deals *ith application design and manufacturing of Robots using computer Applications+ ,n a more crude language Robot is automated *or-able machine *hich may or may not resemble human+ "he term Robotics *as introduced by a )cience .iction author named ,saac Asimou(&//& Time Line o Robot !e"elo#ment Name Karel ChapeRobot named 2"ele3o45 &/$& &/$6 0ear 1or- Done ,ntroduced the 1ord Robot 1orld7s first 1or-able Robot named "ele3o4(De3eloped by 1esting House Co8operation of 9)A =apan7s .irst Robot designed by Mo-oto Creation of 9nimation(,t is an industrial Robot Manufacturing company Artificial ,ntelligence term introduced (Artificial intelligence emulates the intelligence beha3ior in a machine !erman ,ndustrial Robotic Manufacturing company named K9KA produced ,nternational Robot named .amulus 1orld Chess champion !ary Kasparo3 lost to Robot ,BM Deep Blue )ea ,st Humanoid Robot named A),MA created by Honda Motor Company

!AK9":N);K9(Name of a Robot !eorge Charles Mar*in Mins-y and =ohn Mccarthy

&/$< &/>? &/>6

.amulus(Name of a robot

&/@'

2Machine defeats Man5 A),MA (Name of a Robot

&//@ $%%%

Ty#es o Robots =apanA 9)A and !ermany are leading countries in research of Robotics+ .irst emotional Robot K,)M:"

$ndustrial Robots 8 An industrial robot is defined by as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in two or more axis

!omestic Robot B 9sed for House Hold chores (Both ,ndoor and ;utdoor + "he highest le3el Domestic Robot is Domobot autonomously connected to *ifi home net*or- and )martphone

%umanoid Robot B A humanoid Robot is a Robot *ith its o3erall appearance based on that of a human body+ ,t is an autonomous Robot (Pre8programmed Robot because it can adapt to change in its en3ironment or in itself C continue to reach its goals

Capacities of Humanoid Robot

)elf Maintenance (Can recharge itself Autonomous learning (i+e+ learn or gain ne* capabilities *ithout outside assistance "o adapt to ne* situations C to a3oid harmful situation to peopleA property and itself (:+g+ Chiti robot (RaDni-anth Mo3ie lolls )afe ,nteraction *ith Human Being and en3ironment :+g+ of Humanoid Robot B A),M; (&d"anced 'te# in $nno"ati"e (obility) made be Honda Motor Company+ Asimo resembles a small Astronaut *earing a bac- pac- *hich can run at a speed of 6 -mEhr )lassi ication o a Robot(*ased on the ty#e o +ob they #er orm)

1or- *hich a Robot can perform better that Humans A 1here Robots can increase speedA Producti3ity C Accuracy e+g+ ,ndustrial Robot

=obs *hich a human could do better than a robotA but Robots free us from dangerous dull and dirty *or- e+g+ Domestic Robot and Military Robot

,irobo .irst tal-ing Humanoid Robot B launched in ,nternational )pace )ystem(,))

F Arun Bhai *hat is ,nternational )pace )tation ()ome of you might ha3e this Guestion in your mindE )o , *ill Dust *rite the Guestions and the ans*ersA these *here the Guestions *hich , as-ed myself H A "he first to dream of building the ,nternational )pace )tation (,)) *as the 9nited )tates+ ,n &/<?A Ronald ReaganA the then president of the 9nited )tatesA announced his support to build a base in space *here people could li3e and conduct research+ He belie3ed that this proDect should be reali#ed through international cooperation+ "hrough an appeal by the 9nited )tatesA the :uropean countries decided to Doin in &/<>A follo*ed by Canada and =apan+ ,n &//'A Russia agreed to Doin+ No*A *ith the participation of &> countriesA it has truly become a great global proDect ,nternational space system is a Iero8!ra3ity areaA so people float o3er there+ Coming bac- to Kirobo8Can tal- in =apanese a (anguage+ )end in ,)) to help +a#anese 'cientist ,-$)%$ .&,&T& Aim of sending Kirobo to ,)) 8 " o analy#e ho* a non8human can pro3ide emotional support for people isolated o3er long periods Kirobo de3eloped by Tomota/a Ta/a%asi+ Kirobo sent to ,)) through a cargo carrying roc-et named K;9N;";R,8? on August &%th $%&' Kirobo can communicate *ith another robot(Mirata bac- on earth+ Physical .eatures of Kirobo a '? cm tall

& -g body *eight

)pecial .eatures & $ ' ? )peech Recognition Natural (anguage Processing .acial Recognition camera C camera for reading )pecially designed to mo3e in #ero gra3ity en3ironment *asic )om#onents o a Robot A typical robot has a mo3able physical structureA a motor of some sortA a sensor systemA a po*er supply and a computer JbrainJ that controls all of these elements+ :ssentiallyA robots are man8made 3ersions of animal life 88 they are machines that replicate human and animal beha3ior+ 0 main )om#onents o a Robot & (&N$P1L&T-R (Arm of a Robot 8 Manipulator 8 *hich is the robot7s armA consists of segments Dointed together *ith a4es capable of motion in 3arious directions allo*ing the robot to perform *or-

$ T%2 2N! 2332)T-R (1H,CH ,) "H: PAR" ;. "H: MAN,P9(A";R 8 "he end effectors *hich is a gripper toolA a special de3iceA or fi4ture attached to the robot7s armA actually performs the *or' T%2 P-.2R '1PLL4 8 pro3ides and regulates the energy that is con3erted to motion by the robot actuatorA and it may be either electricA pneumaticA or hydraulic ? T%2 )-NTR-LL2R 8 initiatesA terminatesA and coordinates the motion of seGuences of a robot+ Also it accepts the necessary inputs to the robot and pro3ides the outputs to interface *ith

the outside *orld+

MAN,P9(A";R 8 ,s a mechanical unit that pro3ides motion similar to that of a human arm+ ,ts primary function is to pro3ide the specific motions that *ill enable the tooling at the end of the arm to do the reGuired *or-+ A robot mo3ement can be di3ided into t*o general categoriesK arm and body (shoulder and elbo* motions and *rist motions+ "he indi3idual Doint motions associated *ith these categories are referred to as degree of freedom+ :ach a4is is eGual to one degree of freedom+ typically an ,ndustrial robots are eGuipped *ith ? 8 6 degrees of freedom :nd :ffector 8 ,s the de3ice that is mechanically opened and closed+ Act as the tool8 mounting plate depending on the type of operation+ Con3entional end

effectors are eGuipped *ith 3arious de3ices and tool attachmentsA as follo*sK grippersA hoo-sA scoopsA electromagnetsA 3acuum cupsA and adhesi3e fingers for material handling+ spray gun for painting+ Attachments for spot and arc *elding and arc cutting+ Po*er tools such as drillsA nut dri3ersA and burrs+ )pecial de3ices and fi4tures for machining and assembly+ measuring instrumentsA such as dial indicatorsA depth gauges Po*er )upply B .unction of Po*er )upply is to pro3ide and regulate energy that is reGuired for a robot to be operated :lectric Motor B Depends on the tas- the robot should perform+ 1hen high speed is reGuired *ith lo* load application Hydraulic B Pressure of fluid con3erted into Mechanical Application (suited for high load and slo* speed Pneumatic B 9sed for (o* speed and lo* or medium loads )elf collision detection obstacle a3oidance for this collection of data important Ty#es o sensor "ilt sensor B "o analy#e degree of inclination performed by the robot Digital Compass B 9sed to Mo3e in right direction Pro8pri Cepti3e )ensor B )elf collision detectionA tilt sensorA digital compassA sensing heat in itself :4tero capti3e )ensor B 9ses ultra sensorA sonic *a3es for sound na3igation+ Lision sensor B CCD(Charged Couple De3ice CameraA captures photons on light C con3ert it to digital sensor )ound )ensor B ,s Performed by Microphone helps in the speech interpretation and collection of 3oice sound &##lications o Robotics Robotics and Artificial ,ntelligence (A, go hand in hand+ Artificial ,ntelligence 8 )cience of creating computers that can perform tas- that *e associate *ith human intelligence+ ,t is emulation of intelligent beha3ior by a Machine+ Performs comple4 sol3ing tas- that reGuires thin-ing and reasoning *hich process 3ast amount of -no*ledge

&uto5(obile $ndustry ,n this ,ndustrial Robots are used because of its speedA accuracy and reliability+ Directly used in manufacturing of Automobiles 1or- Performed by the Robot B 1ieldingA )pray PaintingA Material Handling 2lectronics 9sed to fit chips in Motherboard of a machine+ "hese chips are 3ery small in si#e (Nano chips and hence difficult for humans to fit it +

(ilitary &##lications "ele8 Robots used as 9AL(9nmanned Armed Lehicle to perform at dangerous far at dangerous far a*ay or inaccessible places+ 1or- Performed B )ecurity C )ur3eillance in enemy territory+ Robots such as iRobot Pac-Bot C .oster Miller "allon used by 9)A in ,raG and Afghanistan to diffuse road side bombs %ealth and (edicine Robotic )urgery is done + ,t uses robots in performing surgery C one such robotic surgery *idely used is DA VINCI surgerical system pro3ided *ith a 'D8 Lision system *hich can be used to perform minimally ,n3asi3e surgery *ith follo*ing ad3antages i Minimi#e blood loss ii )maller ,ncision(&+$cm *hich reduces pain C shortens reco3ery time+ iii (ess pain8 so minimum medication needed 2n"ironment Nano robots can be used to clear oil spills C disassemble pollutants specially non8 Biodegradable ones reducing their polluting impact Robots can be used in Nuclear plants for handling C disposal of nuclear *aste materialA *hich sa3es the *or-ers in the plant from potential e4posure to ha#ardous radiations ":PC; M ("o-yo :lectro Po*er Cooperation deployed iRobot Pac-ed Bot to the .u-ushima Nuclear plant in =apanA as it is designed to cope *ith ha#ardous conditionsA so

pac-ed bot entered the facility *ith an attached 3ideo camera allo*ing ":PC; to recei3e li3e interior images and temperature reading of the troubled reactor building Robotics $n $ndia DRD; has de3eloped Daksh5 Robot+ ,t is a counter terrorist remotely operated designed to handle ha#ardous material and suspect obDect in public places+ ,t is pro3ided *ith multiple camera used for sur3eillance DRD; has initiated a proDect to ma-e Robotics )oldiers Deployed in the (;C ((ine of Control but the challenge is to integrate cogniti3e s-ills under A, to differentiate bet*een a threat and a friend Centre for Artificial ,ntelligence C robotics (CA,R Bangalore has de3eloped a C A!"# Robot *ith 3ision sensor to pic- up obDects in the 3isual field A,,M)(Delhi has successfully performed Robotic )urgery in a patient suffering from Auto8 ,mmune Disease Myasthenia *here they successfully remo3ed the thymus gland in the patient+

Nano Technology ,magine if you climbed out of the sho*er only to disco3er youNd shrun- in the *ash by about &>%% million timesO ,f you stepped into your li3ing roomA *hat youNd see around you *ould not be chairsA tablesA computersA and your family but atomsA moleculesA proteinsA and cells+ )hrun- do*n to the JnanoscaleAJ youNd not only see the atoms that e3erything is made fromPyouNd actually be able to mo3e them aroundO No* suppose you started stic-ing those atoms together in interesting ne* *aysA li-e tiny (:!; bric-s of nature+ 0ou could build all -inds of fantastic materialsA e3erything from brand ne* medicines to ultra8fast computer chips+ Ma-ing ne* things on this incredibly small scale is called nanotechnology Nanotechnology is scienceA engineeringA and technology conducted at the nanoscaleA *hich is about & to &%% nanometers+

Nano science and nanotechnology are the study and application of e4tremely small things and can be used across all the other science fieldsA such as chemistryA biologyA physicsA materials scienceA and engineering+

Physicist Richard .eynmanA the father of nanotechnology+ %o6 it 'tarted "he ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started *ith a tal- entitled 2"here7s Plenty of Room at the Bottom5 by physicist Richard .eynman at an American Physical )ociety meeting at the California ,nstitute of "echnology on December $/A &/>/A long before the term nanotechnology *as used+ ,n his tal-A .eynman described a process in *hich scientists *ould be able to manipulate and control indi3idual atoms and molecules+ ;3er a decade laterA in his e4plorations of ultra precision machiningA Professor Norio "aniguchi coined the term nanotechnology+ ,t *asnNt until &/<&A *ith the de3elopment of the scanning tunneling microscope that could JseeJ indi3idual atoms that modern nanotechnology began+

3undamental )once#ts in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology ,t7s hard to imagine Dust ho* small nanotechnology is+ ;ne nanometer is a billionth of a meterA or &%8/ of a meter+ Here are a fe* illustrati3e e4amplesK "here are $>A?%%A%%% nanometers in an inch

A sheet of ne*spaper is about &%%A%%% nanometers thic;n a comparati3e scaleA if a marble *ere a nanometerA then one meter *ould be the si#e of the :arth Nano science and nanotechnology in3ol3e the ability to see and to control indi3idual atoms and molecules+ :3erything on :arth is made up of atomsPthe food *e eatA the clothes *e *earA the buildings and houses *e li3e inA and our o*n bodies+ But something as small as an atom is impossible to see *ith the na-ed eye+ ,n factA it7s impossible to see *ith the microscopes typically used in a high school science classes+ "he microscopes needed to see things at the nanoscale *ere in3ented relati3ely recently Pabout '% years ago+ ;nce scientists had the right toolsA such as the scanning tunneling microscope ()"M and the atomic force microscope (A.M A the age of nanotechnology *as born+ .hats so good about Nanoscale

,t turns out there are some 3ery interesting things about the nanoscale+ (ots of substances beha3e 3ery differently in the *orld of atoms and molecules+ .or e4ampleA the metal copper is transparent on the nanoscale *hile goldA *hich is normally unreacti3eA becomes chemically 3ery acti3e+ CarbonA *hich is Guite soft in its normally occurring form (graphite A becomes incredibly hard *hen itNs tightly pac-ed into a nanoscopic arrangement called a nanotube+ ,n other *ordsA materials can ha3e different physical properties on the nanoscale e3en though theyNre still the same materialsO ;n the nanoscaleA itNs easier for atoms and molecules to mo3e around and bet*een one anotherA so the chemical properties of materials can also be different+ Nanoparticles ha3e much more surface area e4posed to other nanoparticlesA so they are 3ery good as catalysts (substances that speed up chemical reactions + Reasons or this

;ne reason for these differences is that different factors become important on the nanoscale+ ,n our e3eryday *orldA gra3ity is the most important force *e encounterK it dominates e3erything around usA from the *ay our hair hangs do*n around our head to the *ay :arth has different seasons at different times of year+ But on the nanoscaleA gra3ity is much less important than the electromagnetic forces bet*een atoms and molecules+ .actors li-e thermal 3ibrations (the *ay atoms and molecules store heat by Diggling about also become e4tremely significant+ ,n shortA the game of science has different rules *hen you play it on the nanoscale+

The Nanoscale ;rdinary obDects are absolutely huge measured on *hat scientists call the nanoscaleK

AtomK Q%+& nanometers+ Atoms in a moleculeK Q%+&> nanometers apart+ DNA double8heli4K Q$ nanometers in diameter+ "ypical proteinK Q&% nanometers long+ Computer transistor (s*itch K Q&%%8$%% nanometers *ide+ "ypical bacteriaK Q$%% nanometers long+ Human hairK >%A%%%B&%%A%%% nanometers in diameter+ ;ne piece of paperK Q&%%A%%% nanometers thic-+ !irl &+$ m (?ft tallK Q&$%% million nanometers tall+ Man $m (6+> ft tall Q $%%% million nanometers tall+ :mpire )tate BuildingK '<&m (&$>% ft tallK Q'<&A%%% million nanometers tall+

7ra#hene !raphene is the strongest material -no*n to science at the present time+ It is $%% times stronger than steel+ ,t is the strongestA thinnestA and lightest material in the *orld+ !raphene is single layer of pure carbons arranged in a he4agonal lattice pattern+ ,t is so thin it is considered to be a $ BD(Dimensional obDect+ ,t is also 3ery malleable but at the same time it is 3ery strong+ "his means it can be used for many different things such as high capacity batteriesA flat screens tele3isionsA and for 3ery small computer chips+ But ho* is graphene madeH ,t7s made by ta-ing special adhesi3e tape to collect residue from graphiteA the same material used in e3eryday pencils+ "his easy and simple yet groundbrea-ing e4periment *as conducted by Andre !eim and Konstantin No3oselo3

' million sheets of !raphene on top of each other *ould be & mm thic- graphite

Pro#erties o 7ra#hene -#tical Trans#arency 8Ama#ing thing about !raphene is that you can see it+ 0ou can lay a sheet on a *hite piece of paper and actually see it+ ,t is ama#ingly transparentA absorbing Dust $+' percent of light that lands on it 'trength B &%% times stronger than steel Thermal )onducti"ity B ,t can conduct heat &% times better that copper so can act as a heat sin- to conduct heat or transfer heat+ 2lectrical Pro#erties B Due to the presence of belocali#ed or free electron there is Balistic conduction or free flo* of electron across the grapheme layer+ )arbon Nano Tube ()NT)

,tNs a tube made out of graphite molecules+ A sheet of graphite molecules loo-s li-e a layer of he4agons+ ,f you *ere to roll that sheet into a tubeA youNd end up *ith a carbon nanotube+ Nanotubes e4hibit different Gualities depending upon the direction you choose to roll the tube+

)cientists say that if you roll it correctlyA youNd end up *ith a material se3eral times stronger and lighter than steel+ ;ther uses for nanotubes include e3erything from building semiconductors to de3eloping a suit that theoretically *ould allo* you to climb up the side of a building li-e )pider8Man+ Ty#es o )NT

1) )ingle *alled Carbon Nano "ube B Are indi3idual !raphene cylinder *ith & nm to $ nm

diameter 2) Multi 1alled Carbon Nano "ube B "hey are collection of se3eral concentric grapheme cylinders *ith > nm to >% nm (Nm M nano metre &##lications o Nano5Technology 3ield o $T and 2lectronics

;bDecti3e B "o ma-e huge data storage in small dis-s+ ,n Nano8"echnology silicon chips are replaced *ith !raphene chips or CN"+ "he JmicroJ part of that *ord suggests computer chips *or- on the microscopic scalePand they do+ But since terms li-e JmicrochipJ *ere coined in the &/@%sA electronic engineers ha3e found *ays of pac-ing e3en more transistor s*itches into integrated circuits to ma-e computers that are smallerA fasterA and cheaper than e3er before+ Micro8circuit M &%%% chips (,n case of silicon chips M &%A%%% chips (,n case of !raphene Chips

Miniaturi#ation of dis-s

Hence data storage capacity is enhanced+ And itNs not Dust the chips inside computers that use nanotechnology+ "he displays on e3erything from iPods and cell phones to laptops and flat screen "Ls are shifting to organic light8emitting diodes (;(:Ds A made from plastic films built on the nanoscale+

&uto5mobile $ndustry

,f an engine component is made up of Carbon Nano "ubeA the efficiency of oil utili#ation is more :+g+ ,n (ayman (anguage M 1hen *e cut onion into more small pieces C put it into a "A1A *ith 3ery little oilA as the pieces are small the oil is used efficiently+

,n the same *ay the smaller the smaller the engine componentsA the more efficiently oil is utili#ed ;ne of the most e4citing areas of nanotechnology is the possibility of building incredibly small machinesPthings li-e gearsA s*itchesA pumpsA or enginesPfrom indi3idual atoms+ Nanomachines could be made into nanorobots (sometimes called nanobots that could be inDected into our bodies to carry out repairs or sent into ha#ardous or dangerous en3ironmentsA perhaps to clean up disused nuclear po*er plants

%ealth 8 (edicine (Nano medicine)

a) Nano Technology in ield o !rug !eli"ery B ,f your drug use consists of an

occasional aspirinA you may not see the need for serious *or- on drug deli3ery+ But if you *ere a diabeticA ha3ing to inDect insulin se3eral times a day or a cancer patient e4periencing debilitating (ma-ing someone *ea- side effects+ "he benefits of impro3ed drug deli3ery can change your life+

e+g+ i 9se of nanoparticles to deli3er drugs to cancer cells ii Particles are engineered so that they are attracted to diseased cells *hich allo* direct treatment of those cells+ "his techniGue reduces damage to healthy cells in the body

"his has been patented by ,ndian )cientist in 9+) name Dr. Rao Papineni

b) )ancer !iagnostic and treatment B 9se of Nano technology(N" in cancer

treatment offers possibility of destroying cancer tumors *ith minimal damage to healthy tissue C organs as *ell as the detection and elimination of cancer cells before they form tumors+

N" can locate and then eliminate cancer cells using !old Nano )hells+

!old Nano )hells are targeted to bind to cancerous cells by targeting or attaching Anti8Bodies to Nano )hell surface+

By irradiating the area of tumor *ith an infra red laserA *hich passes through the body flesh *ithout heating itA but the gold is heated significantly to cause death to cancer cells As- any cancer patient ho* to ma-e chemotherapy more endurableA and the number one ans*er *ould li-ely be 2relie3e the side effects5+ Ne* chemotherapy techniGues in3ol3ing the use of drug8coated nanoparticles promise to do Dust that+ Medical researchers at the 1ashington 9ni3ersity )chool of Medicine in )t+ (ouis ha3e coated nanometer8si#ed oil droplets and coated them *ith po*erfulA pro3en effecti3e anti8cancer drugs+ ;nce inDectedA the nanoparticles conglomerate at locations in cancerous tumors *here blood 3essel gro*th occurs+ Depri3ed of nutritionA the tumors shrin- and die B and the results *ere achie3ed *ith drug concentrations &A%%% times lo*er than normally usedA thus mitigating to4ic and other*ise unpleasant side effects+

Tissue 2ngineering B N" can help to repair damage tissue through tissue engineering ma-ing healing fasterA it includes the use of bio8degradable polymer such as Polycaprolactone coated *ith collagen to promote cell to cell attachment or *ound healing process (edical Nano Robots B "o create robots close to Microscopic scale of nanometer "hese robots can na3igate through the human bodyA transport important moleculesA manipulate *ith microscopic obDects C also communicate *ith physician by *ay of miniature sensors+ "hese are computer controlled small robots used in cancer detection and treatment+ "hese Robots can also distinguish bet*een cancerous cells C normal cellsA by chec-ing their surface antigen+ Medical robots acting as artificial Red Blood Cells(RBC *hich can deli3er e3en &%%% times more o4ygen than natural RBC and this is called Respirocyte+ Medical Robots acting as artificial 1hite Blood Cells (1BC to perform the process of phagocytosis Dust li-e natural 1BCA these are called Microbi3ore+ &any more applications are there I ha'e co'ered the important one do sur( on the net to (ind more applications o( Nanotechnology 'ome $m#lications o Nanotechnology & Nanotechnology sounds li-e a *orld of great promiseA but there are contro3ersial issues too that must be considered and resol3ed+ People ha3e raised concerns that nanoscale organisms or machines could harm human life or the en3ironment+ ;ne

problem is that tiny particles can be e4tremely to4ic to the human body+ No8one really -no*s *hat harmful effect ne* nanomaterials or substances could ha3e

"he ultimate nano8nightmareA the problem of Jgray gooAJ *as first highlighted by :ric Dre4ler+ 1hat happens if *ell8meaning humans create nanobots that run riot through the biosphereA gobbling up all li3ing things and lea3ing behind nothing but a che*ed8up mass of "gray goo"

'

:n3ironment Ris- B N" may lead to Nano8 pollution *hich includes all the *aste generated by manufacturing of Nano BMaterials C the nano8de3ices+ Due to their e4tremely small si#e Nano8*aste can float in the air and might easily penetrate into animal and plant cells causing undesirable effects+

Health ,ssues B Nanoparticle being slo*ly degradable may accumulate inside the body C because of their large surface area to 3olume ratio they might get absorbed into surface of tissue and fuilds *hich may affect the regulatory meachanism of en#ymes C other proteins+

>

;3er e4posure to sil3er nano particles causes Algyria (Bluish Colour of s-in

Nano Technology $n $ndia

Prof C+N+R Rao ()cientific ad3isor to P+M A under his guidance the =a*aharlal nehru centre for ad3anced scientific research is engaged in *orld class research in Nano8)cience in ,ndia+ ,n $%%@ a national mission on nanoscience C N" appro3ed by !o3ernment of ,ndia(!;, *hich aims at ma-ing ,ndia a *orld class centre for Nano"echnology+ !;, sanctioned Rs &%%% Crore for a period of > years and Department of )cience and technology its nodal agency MaDor 9tility areas of the Mission a "raining C creation of large s-illed man po*er base+

De3elopment of NanoMaterial useful for drug deli3eryA safe drin-ing *ater using Nano )il3er coating on ceramic filters to eliminate Bacteria C Lirus Promoting foreign collaboration in Nano8"echnology Programme+

Nobel Prize 2013 (No $ndians This year Toooo) Nobel Prize or Physics (&n $ndian connection is there here9)

'ol"ing the #rocess o mass ormation

.rancois :nglert C Peter 1 Higgs M A*arded Nobel Pri#e $%&' for their theory of ho* particles acGuired mass ,n &/6? they proposed the theory independent of each other+ ,n $%&$ their ideas *ere confirmed by the disco3ery if Higgs Particle at C:RN("he :uropean ;rgani#ation for Nuclear Research lab outside !ene3a in )*it#erland

*ig *ang Theory Most astronomers belie3e the 9ni3erse began in a Big Bang about &? billion years ago+ At that timeA the entire 9ni3erse *as inside a bubble that *as thousands of times smaller than a pinhead+ ,t *as hotter and denser than anything *e can imagine "hen it suddenly e4ploded+ "he 9ni3erse that *e -no* *as born+ "imeA space and matter all began *ith the Big Bang+ ,n a fraction of a secondA the 9ni3erse gre* from smaller than a single atom to bigger than a gala4y+ And it -ept on gro*ing at a fantastic rate+ ,t is still e4panding today+ As the 9ni3erse e4panded and cooledA energy changed into particles of matter and antimatter+ "hese t*o opposite types of particles largely destroyed each other+ But some matter sur3i3ed+ More stable particles called protons and neutrons started to form *hen the 9ni3erse *as one second old+ ;3er the ne4t three minutesA the temperature dropped belo* & billion degrees Celsius+ ,t *as no* cool enough for the protons and neutrons to come togetherA forming hydrogen and helium nuclei+ After '%% %%% yearsA the 9ni3erse had cooled to about '%%% degrees+ Atomic nuclei could finally capture electrons to form atoms+ "he 9ni3erse filled *ith clouds of hydrogen and helium gas+

(atter

Matter is e3erything and e3ery*here+ "here are three physical properties of matter 3olumeA massA and *eight+ "he properties of matterA massA 3olumeA and *eight includeK the states of matterA the changing states of matterA and density+ "he states of matter are solidA liGuidA gasA plasmaA and Bose8:instein Condensate+ Pro#erties o (atter 8 Matter is made of atoms and molecules+ ,t also is e3erything and e3ery*here+ Atoms are made of protonsA neutronsA and electrons

*ose52instein *asics "he Bose8:instein state of matter *as created in &//>Aby t*o scientistsA Cornell and 1eimanA they finally created the condensate+ 1hen you hear the *ord condensateA thin- about condensation and the *ay gas molecules come together and condense and to a liGuid+

"he molecules get denser or pac-ed closer together "*o other scientistsA )atyendra Bose(,ndian Connection and Albert :insteinA had predicted it in the &/$%sA but they didnNt ha3e the eGuipment and facilities to ma-e it happen at that time+ No* *e do+ ,f plasmas are super hot and super e4cited atomsA the atoms in a Bose8:instein condensate (B:C are total opposites+ "hey are super une4cited and super cold atoms+

F Arun Bhai but *hat is condensation H A Condensation happens *hen se3eral gas molecules come together and form a liGuid+ ,t all happens because of a loss o energy+ !ases are really e4cited atoms+ 1hen they lose energyA they slo* do*n and begin to collect+ "hey can collect into one drop+ 1ater (H$; 3apor in the form of steam condenses on the lid of your pot *hen you boil *ater+ ,t cools on the metal and becomes a liGuid again+ 0ou *ould then ha3e a condensate+ "he B:C happens at super lo* temperatures+ 1e ha3e tal-ed about temperature scales and ,el"in('o 6ater boils at 3:3 ,)+ At #ero Kel3in (absolute zero all molecular motion stops+ )cientists ha3e figured out a *ay to get a temperature only a fe* billionths of a degree abo3e absolute #ero+

1hen temperatures get that lo*A you can create a B:C *ith a fe* special elements+ Cornell and 1eiman did it *ith rubidium (Rb +

I guess that)s enough to clear atleast *% percent o( your doubts+ Now lets go back to Nobel ,ri-e $%./

2;#lanation or 6hy they 6ere gi"en Nobel Prize A*arded theory is a central part of the standard model of particle physics that ho* the *orld is constructed+ According to standard model 8 :3erything from flo*ers C people to stars C planets consist of Dust a fe* building bloc-s M Matter Particles( "hese particles are held together by strong electrical forces 'tandard (odel The entire standard model also rests on the e4istence of a special -ind of particle B "he Higgs Particle+ "he particle originates from an in3isible field that fills up all space+ :3en *hen the uni3erse seems empty this field is thereA *ithout it *e *ould not e4istA because it is from contact *ith the field that particles acGuire mass+ "he theory that *as proposed by :nglert C Higgs describes this process+ ;n =uly $%&$ at C:RN lab for Particle physics the theory *as confirmed by the disco3ery if Higgs particle C:RN7s particle collider (HC((arge Hadron Collider is probably the largest C the most comple4 machine e3er constructed by Humans+ $ !roups of some 'A%%% scientist each A"(A) C CM) managed to e4tract the Higgs from billions of collisions in the (HC But Job Not Done 0es it7s a great achie3ement to ha3e found Higgs ParticleA 8 the missing piece in the standard Model Pu##le+ But the standard Model is not the final piece in the cosmic pu##le+ Reasons & $ ,s that the standard Model treats certain particlesA for e+g+ neutrinos M as being 3irtually mass lessA but recent study sho*s that they actually do ha3e mass "his model only describes 3isible matter *hich only accounts for &E> th (of all the matter in the cosmos

(ain -b<ecti"e B "o find Mysterious dar- matter C )cientists continue the chase of un-no*n particles at C:RN+

Nobel Prize or chemistry 2013 ((artin ,ar#lus, (ichael Le"itt, &rieh .arshel) Letting the com#uter un"eil the chemical #rocesses

Chemists all o3er the *orld de3ise C carry out e4periments on their computer in daily basis+ And this is all because of the abo3e ' gentlemen *ho ha3e been a*arded the Nobel Pri#e $%&' for chemistry A Picture says more than a thousand *ords B but not e3erything ,magine if you are a chemist *or-ing on some proDect+ .ind any '8D image of the proteins that go3ern the photosynthesis B such images are freely accessible in large databases on the internet+ ,n your laptopEcomputer you can t*ist C turn the image as you li-eA it *ill un3eil gigantic protein molecules consisting of the tens of thousands+ )ome*here in the middle there is a little region called the reaction centre+ "his is *here *ater molecules are split(Ho*e3er only fe* atoms are directly in3ol3ed in the reaction

Among other things you *ill also see & $ ' ? Manganese ions & calcium ion )e3eral o4ygen atoms

,mage sho*s clearly ho* atoms C ions are positioned in relation to each other but it says nothing about *hat these atoms and ions do+ "his is *hat more chemists *ere interested to find outA but *as not possible beforeA the soft*are de3eloped by the three Nobel laureates+ "he details of this process are 3irtually impossible to map using traditional methods+ Because many things happen in a fraction of a millisecond 8R a rate that rules out most -inds of test tube e4periments+ And image that you ha3e in your computer for that imageA it is difficult to guess the reaction processA because it *as ta-en *hen the proteins *here in a state of rest+ And in nature *hen sunlight hits the green lea3esA ho*e3er the proteins are filled *ith energy the entire atomic structure is changed+ ,n laymen language it is difficult to create a soft*are that *ill stimulate the real *orld en3ironment in *hich the chemists *or- into their home machines and this Dob done by ' Nobel pri#e *inners $%&'+ 2arlier 'o t6are

"he pre3ious soft*are at scientist disposal *as based upon either classical Ne*tonian physical theories or Guantum physicsA both *ith *ea-ness and strengths+ Classical programs ga3e chemists a good representation of ho* the atoms *ere positioned in the molecules but only displayed molecules in a state of rest+ During reactions molecules are filled *ith energyA they become e4cited+ Classical physics simply ha3e no understanding for such states B a se'ere limitation

)o *hen scientists *anted to stimulate chemical reactions they turned to Guantum physics+ Fuantam physics B ,s a theory *here electrons can be both particles and *a3es simultaneously+ ,t is unbiased and e4cludes any of the scientist7s preconceptionsA ma-ing simulations more realistic+ )o Classical and Fuantum *ere t*o fundamentally different ri3aling *orlds+ But the Nobel (aureates in Chemistry $%&' ha3e opened a gate bet*een these *orlds+ 0uantum Chemistry collaborating with classical physics

All the hard *or- started in &/@%7s and in &/@6 they reached their goal and published the first computeri#ed model of an en#ymatic reaction+ 'ome $m#ortant )ontributions

& $

Program could be used for any -ind of molecule+ )i#e *as no longer an issue+ )cientists can perform demanding Guantum physical calculations on electrons and atomic nuclei that directly impact the chemical process+ "he other parts of the molecules are modeled using classical eGuations+ ,t is possible to merge se3eral atoms during calculations+ ,n modern calculationsA scientists add a third layer to the simulation+ "hey bundle atoms and molecules into a single homogenous mass called dielectric medium+ "his also can be done using this soft*are+

' ?

Nobel Prize or medicine or Psysiology 2013 (Thomas 'udho , . 'chec/man, +ames Rothman Note 1 2ill try to explain this in a nutshell+ Not a expert in 3iology so do (orgi'e and correct me (or the mistake I make+

.hy = 3or disco"eries o machine regulating "esicle tra ic, a ma<or trans#ort system in our cells Nano "echnology(e4plained abo3e is a hot topic in science+ Not a day goes by *ithout ne*s of some cle3er de3ice forged using components measuring billionths of meter+ (Nano meter But al*ays before any scientist or great thin-er un3eils somethingA Mother Nature al*ays reaches there first+ ()o compare e3erything *ith nature and you *ill get solution to e3erything in this *orld (i3ing cells are nano8tecnhological factories of stunning comple4ityA containing the assembly linesA po*er stationsA con3eyor belts C control rooms necessary to -eep life going+ ' )cientists e4plained ho* one of these nano technological systems *or-+ "he scientists also e4plained ho* cellular bodies called 3esicles((ittle bubbles encased in fat are used to ship hormonesA en#ymes C other 3arious manufactured goods around a cell and e4port them to outside *orld

F 1hat are 3esiclesH A Lesicles are small enclosed (self8contained compartments inside a cell that are separated from the Cytosol(the internal fluid of a cell by atleast one bi8layer membrane+ "his biomembrane enclosing the 3esicle is same as that of the outer celluloid membrane+ Lesicles8 are basic tool of the cell to organi#e its metabolism+ Lesciles are used for digesti3e purposes as transport 3essels and as en#ymes storage+ Are also used chemical reaction chambers+ )ontribution by !r . 'chec/man 8 ,n the late &/@%7s he e4plored the genetic mechanism *hich controls 3esicle transport+ He used genetic screening B a ne* technology at that time B to spot yeast cells *hose transport system *ere failingA causing Dams in some parts of the cell C supply shortage in others+

F 1hat are yeast cellsH A 0east cells are a 3ery common -ind of eu-aryote cell+ "hey 3ary in si#eA but are usually about ? thousandths of a millimeter (? microns in diameterA too small to see *ithout a microscope+ 0east are one8celled creatures that eat starches and sugars+ :n#ymes inside the mitochondria in the yeast cells use o4ygen to brea- up the food molecules into smaller molecules and let out some energy for the cell to po*er itself+ "his process also ma-es some carbon dio4ide moleculesA and the yeast cell considers the carbon dio4ide molecules to be garbageA puts them in 3acuolesA and gets rid of them through the cell membrane+

)oA Dr )chec-man compared defecti3e cells *ith properly ones+ He *as able to isolate three different classes of genesA mutations in *hich he felt might be the reason for such chaos Dr )chec-man Dust applied the fundamental principle 2 to -no* ho* an machine can brea- do*n it is important in understanding it5+ But so is -no*ing ho* it is meant to *or-+ .or/ by +ames Rothman

Disco3ered the molecular mechanism by *hich indi3idual 3esicles transport their cargoes to *here they are needed+ He disco3ered a pair of protein comple4esA one on the 3esicles C one set on their specific targets that bind to each other li-e $ hal3es of a #ip+ ,t7s li-e a pass*ord+ ,f the protein matchesA the 3esicles opens C discharges its cargoA if they do not it remains shut+ .or/ by !r Thomas 'udho

Applied these insights to the specific Guestion of ho* brain cells communicate+ Ner3e cells tal- to each other *ith a mi4ture of electrical C chemical signals+ 1hen a neuron firesA an electrical impulse tra3els do*n its length until it reaches the synapse (,t is the point *hich one neuron Doins *ith another "henA the electric signal stimulates the release of neuro transmittersA speciali#ed molecules that cross the synaptic gap C stimulate the second neuron in turn )udhof described e4actly ho* an arri3ing electrical impulse stimulates a rush of calcium ions into a cellA *hich subseGuently causes 3esicles loaded *ith neuro8transmitters to bind to the cell *all disgorging their contents across the gap+

Nobel Prize or Piece 2013 > -P). (-rganisation o Prohibition o chemical 6ea#ons)9 *ut $ eel (alala 4ousa zai should ha"e 6on this #rize9 Nobel Prize or 2conomics 2013 5 :ugene .+ .amaA (ars Peter Hansen and Robert =+ )hiller 8 for Trends#otting in asset mar/ets9

References 8 "he Hindu ***+google+com

***+nobelpri#e+org Name B Arun Chettiar