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Commands on MSC:

CHATC - define, change and delete threshold values Example 1: CHATC:THRES !!",TRA#C A$$,%ST& A$$' All thresholds are set for all TCs and for all (%TS and the default destination) An alarm is generated *hen the num+er of ,-ans*ered calls *ithout C%R in an- TC or an- com+ination of TC and destination reaches the value !!") Example .: CHATC:THRES 1"//,TRA#C R0A(1&2,%ST& %E#' The threshold *ill +e set for the traffic case R0A(1&2 and the default destination) The alarm *ill +e generated at the threshold value 1"//) Example 3: CHATC:THRES 1"//,TRA#C R0A(1&2' The threshold *ill +e set for the traffic case R0A(1&2) The alarm *ill +e generated at the threshold value 1"//) CHDTP - threshold values can +e printed per TC and per TC and destination com+ination) CHAMI - initiate the function Charging Audit Example CHA(1:(T4E 3/,AC$ A1,T54E S1(4$E' The measurement *ill +e initiated *ith a measurement time period of 3/ minutes) The alarm class *ill +e set to A1) The 6S1(4$E7 format *ill +e used for the file output) ALARM: Charging Audit Threshold Overflow Example CHAR21&2 A8%1T THRESH0$% 09ER#$0: TRA#C %ST& ,A&S:C&T &0&C%RC&T (0 1" ;/// !!" E&% Command CHATR: Example CHATR:TRA#C (0,%ST& A$$' Resetting of issued alarm on Traffic Case (0 for all (%TS and the %efault

destinations) A$AR(: Charging Audit Out ut !rror An alarm printout is issued in case of unsuccesful +uffer allocation or 1nput<0utput =1<0> fault) CHAM! " The measurement can +e temporaril- or permanentl- ended

Charging Audit function is temporarily deactivated. In this case, the threshold values are kept.

Charging Audit Function is permanently deactivated and threshold values are reset.


&An ALLOCATION FAULT alarm is received.

This procedure may only be performed at low traffic. This Operational Instruction is only to be used by e perienced personnel with the proper authority. No other modification! dumpin" or testin" activities are in pro"ress. #

4rintout: A$$0CAT10& #A8$T TEST test Test designation. MDS Actual memory, Data store. MPS Actual memory, Program store. MRS Actual memory, Reference store.

LAATI :TST'MDS(MPSRS order allocation test of all three stores)

ALLOCATION T ST R S!LT T ST test P"AS #$ase O% &

DP)SP* - print the state of C4 R!CCI* - restore the C4 +ac? to normal state

MML COMMA#DS: %,TS4' - This command prints a ta+le or a specified part of a ta+le) Ex: @%,TS4:TA,
R4S4H5SR4T54ES' %ATA,ASE TA,$E ,$0CA TA, TA,$E :RA44E% R4A%( R4S4H5SR4T54ES &0 R4T54E&0 T54E E(1# R4,8S .B R4 :1TH 2R084 S:1TCH 1&TER#ACE - - SER .; R4; 1<1 S1CE, R4 :1TH R:( E(,1&TER#ACE SER .3 R4; 1<. S1CE, R4 :1TH R:( E(,1&TER#ACE SER .. (0%ER&1CE% R4 ,8S C0&9ERTER - - 4AR .1 (0%ER&1CE% S12&A$$1&2 TER(1&A$ - - 4AR ./ (0%ER&1CE% S12&A$$1&2 TER(1&A$ - - 4AR 1D R4 :1TH 2R084 S:1TCH 1&TER#ACE - - 4AR 1B AEE EETER&A$ S4EC1A$ EF814(E&T - - 4AR 1" R4 A%A4TER #0R A4&1BG - - 4AR 1; R4 S1(8$AT1&2 EF814(E&T - - 4AR 13 %1RECT C0&&) 0# A44$) T0 ,8S - - 4AR 1. R4 ,8S C0&9ERTER - - 4AR 11 S12&A$$1&2 TER(1&A$ - - 4AR 1/ =R4 :1TH R:(> - - 4AR E&%

-Hust interested in a part of a ta+le, it is possi+le to add a parameter:

%,TS4:TA, R4S4H5SR4T54ES,R4T54E&0 .;'

%,TR1' - initiates a transaction =pag 13/> a> T*o-phase commit not *anted: The transaction can +e concluded *ith the command %,TRE:C0( and +oth crosschec?ing of specification commands and commit *ill +e done) +> T*o-phase commit *anted: The transaction must +e concluded *ith the command %,TRE follo*ed +- %,TRS or %,TRR) %,TRE closes the transaction and cross-chec?s all the specification commands) %,TRS commits the transaction) All ordered updates *ill +e performed) $ogging on the command log starts) %,TRR rolls the transaction +ac?) &o ordered updates *ill +e performed) =See commands %,TRS and %,TRR> :hen the command is executed, printout %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10&E9E&T is received)


The transactions identit- =TR1%> is uniIue for each event) The TR1% num+er ma?es it possi+le to ma?e changes in the passive ta+le first and later activate the change even in the active ta+le) 1n this case the TR1% num+er has to +e given) =See command %,TRS> An automatic roll +ac? =ta+le *ill +e restored to its origin shape> is performed +- the s-stem, if the command %,TR1 is not follo*ed +- a ne* data+ase command *ithin five minutes) 4rintout %ATA,ASE R0$$E% ,ACA is received) The external transaction identit- =EETR1%> gives the user the possi+ilit- to specif- an o*n identit- to the transaction, for example the identit- of the *or?order) D+TRI:!,TRID'A+-./01*

DBTRC; - changes data fields for an existing ro* in a ta+le)

The ro* to +e changed is specified +- the primar- ?e- value =e) g) in the ta+le R4SR4,S40S the R4 address) An automatic roll +ac? is performed +- the s-stem if the command is not follo*ed +- a ne* data+ase command *ithin five minutes) 4rintout %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& R0$$E% ,ACA is received)
R4A%%R ,R&0 (A2&0 S$0T&0 ,8SC0&& B; 1 G 1! &0 Change parameter ,8SC0&& from &0 to 5ES: @%,TR1' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""B1 STARTE% E&%: @%,TSC:TA, R4SR4,S40S,R4A%%R B;,,8SC0&& 5ES' EEEC8TE%

DBTSI; - This command inserts a ro* in a ta+le, and also assigns initial
values to data fields in the ne* ro*) 1f a ne* R4 has to +e defined in the R4SR4,S40S ta+le, the definition has first to +e initialised +- the command %,TR1 and then the definition is made +- the command %,TS1)
@%,TR1' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""B1 STARTE% E&%: @%,TS1:TA, R4SR4,S40S,R4A%%R B;,,R&0 .,(A2&0 3,S$0T&0 /,,8SC0&& 5ES' EEEC8TE%

1n this example the R4 B; *hich is located on R4, num+er ., in magaJine 3 and on slot num+er / has +e defined *ith a R4 +us connection in the front)

DBTSE; - This command deletes an existing ro* from a ta+le) The relevant
ro* is specified +- the primar- ?e- value =e)g) in the ta+le R4SR4,S40S the R4 address) @%,TR1' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""B1 STARTE% E&%: @%,TSE:TA, R4SR4,S40S,R4A%%R B;'

1n the figure a+ove the regional processor B; has +een deleted from the R4SR4,S40S ta+le) 1t is not necessar- to name all parameters, the primar- ?e- value is enough) An automatic roll +ac? is performed +- the s-stem, if the command is not follo*ed +- a ne* data+ase command *ithin five minutes) 4rintout %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& R0$$E% ,ACA is received)

DBTRE; - Command %,TRE:C0(' commits a transaction, crosschec?s all

the specification commands, and updates the data+ase) $ogging on the command log starts) 1f parameter C0( is omitted, command %,TRE must +e follo*ed +- %,TRS or %,TRR to close a transaction) Command %,TRS then commits the transaction and updates the data+ase, and command %,TRR rolls the *hole

transaction +ac? so no updates are performed)

@%,TRE:C0(' %,TRE:C0(' @' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""B1 C0((1TE% E&%

D+TRS* - commits a transaction) All ordered updates are performed) $ogging on the command log starts)
@%,TR1' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""B3 STARTE% E&%: @%,TSE:TA, R4SR4,S40S,R4A%%R B;' EEEC8TE% @%,TRE' %,TRE' @' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""B3 4RE4ARE% E&%

A transaction has started, in this case deleting of a ro* in the ta+le R4SR4,S40S) ,ut the transaction has not +een committed -et =the parameter C0( is missing +ehind the command %,TRE>) This is indicated +- the *ord 4RE4ARE%) That means that this change *ill not +e visual in a printout) The transaction is onl- made in the passive ta+le) 1f this transaction no* has to +e committed even in the active ta+le the command %,TRS has to +e used)
@%,TRS:TR1% .""B3 %,TRS:TR1% .""B3 @' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""B3 C0((1TTE% E&%

1t is mandator- to add the transaction identit- TR1% to the command %,TRS) 1t has to +e the same TR1% as the one, *hich is

related to the prepared transaction)

DBTRR; - rolls +ac? a transaction)

:hen giving the command %,TRR it is mandator- to specif- the transaction *hich is to +e rolled +ac?) This is done +- the transaction identit- TR1%) 1t has to +e the same TR1% as the one *hich is related to the prepared transaction)
@%,TR1' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""BG STARTE% E&%: @%,TSE:TA, R4SR4,S40S,R4A%%R B1' EEEC8TE% @%,TRE' %,TRE' @' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""BG 4RE4ARE% E&% @%,TRR:TR1% .""BG' %,TRR:TR1% .""BG' @' %ATA,ASE TRA&SACT10& E9E&T TR1% ACT10& .""BG R0$$E% ,ACA E&%

The most freIuentl- used ta+les are: RPSPH2SRPT2P!S RPSRP+SPOS RPSRPPROP!RTI!S RPST2P!STOPROPS RPSRPT2P!S RPSD!$OSRS%S Each of these ta+les are duplicated) 0ne is passive and the other one is active) =See command %,TR1 and %,TRE>) RPSPH2SRPT2P!S " The ta+le contains all the different ph-sical R4 t-pes that can +e used in the s-stem) ,oth a uniIue R4 t-pe num+er and a description are stored for each t-pe) The Extension (odule =E(> interface information =parameter E(1#> is also stored as *ell as R4, t-pe =R4,8S, SER for serial +us and 4AR for parallel +us>) :hen connecting a ne* R4, the R4 t-pe has to +e defined in the R4S4H5SR4T54ES ta+le, if not alread- defined) The t-pe and revision of all R4s connected to the C4 can +e printed out +-

command !,RPP:RP'ALL*
,$0CA TA, TA,$E :RA44E% R4A%( R4S4H5SR4T54ES &0 R4T54E&0 T54E E(1# R4,8S .B R4 :1TH 2R084 S:1TCH 1&TER#ACE - - SER .; R4; 1<1 S1CE, R4 :1TH R:( E(,1&TER#ACE SER .3 R4; 1<. S1CE, R4 :1TH R:( E(,1&TER#ACE SER .. (0%ER&1CE% R4 ,8S C0&9ERTER - - 4AR .1 (0%ER&1CE% S12&A$$1&2 TER(1&A$ - - 4AR ./ (0%ER&1CE% S12&A$$1&2 TER(1&A$ - - 4AR 1D R4 :1TH 2R084 S:1TCH 1&TER#ACE - - 4AR 1B AEE EETER&A$ S4EC1A$ EF814(E&T - - 4AR 1" R4 A%A4TER #0R A4&1BG - - 4AR 1; R4 S1(8$AT1&2 EF814(E&T - - 4AR 13 %1RECT C0&&) 0# A44$) T0 ,8S - - 4AR 1. R4 ,8S C0&9ERTER - - 4AR 11 S12&A$$1&2 TER(1&A$ - - 4AR 1/ =R4 :1TH R:(> - - 4AR ! =R4 :1TH R:(> -- 4AR D R4 :1TH R:( E(,1&TER#ACE 4AR G =0$% R4 :1TH R:(> E(,1&TER#ACE 4AR B 0$% R4:1TH 4R0( E(,1&TER#ACE 4AR " 0$% R4 :1TH R:( E(,1&TER#ACE 4AR ; 0$% R4 :1TH 4R0( E(,1&TER#ACE 4AR 3 =0$% R4 :1TH R:(> E(1E 4AR . 0$% R4 :1TH R:( E(,1&TER#ACE 4AR 1 0$% R4:1TH 4R0( E(1E 4AR / 0$% R4 :1TH 4R0( E(1E 4AR

RPSRPBSPOS - The ta+le contains all the positions on the serial R4 +us to *hich
an R4 has +een connected) 1t assigns a logical R4 address to the ph-sical position on the serial R4 +us) The ph-sical position consists of +us +ranch, magaJine and slot identities)
,$0CA TA, TA,$E :RA44E% R4A%( R4SR4,S40S &0 R4A%%R ,R&0 (A2&0 S$0T&0 ,8SC0&& ". 1 ! 1B &0 "1 1 ! 1! 5ES "/ 1 ! / 5ES ;! 1 1. D &0 ;D 1 1. B &0 ;G 1 1. ; &0 ;B 1 1. . &0 ;" 1 3 1! 5ES ;; 1 3 / 5ES ;3 1 . 1! 5ES ;. 1 . / 5ES ;1 1 1 G 5ES ;/ 1 1 / 5ES 3! 1 / D 5ES 3D 1 / / 5ES 3G 1 " 1; &0

3B 1 ; ; &0 3" 1 " 1D 5ES 3; 1 ; / 5ES 33 1 " 1. &0 3. 1 ; B &0

The parameter R4A%%R is the same num+er as the R4 identitThe parameter ,R&0 gives the information a+out *hich R4 +us the R4 is connected to) 1n the parallel +us s-stem there *as a fixed relation +et*een R4, num+er and R4 identit-, i) ex) to +us num+er 1 the R4s 3. - B3 *ere connected and to +us num+er . the R4s B; - !") The parameter (A2&0 defines in *hich magaJine the R4 is located) The magaJine receives its address from a 1/ pins address STRA,, located on the left side of the magaJine) The availa+le magaJine num+ers are / to 1" The S$0T&0 informs *here in the magaJine the R4 is located) Slot num+ering starts from the left *ith the num+er / and ends at the right *ith the num+er 1!) The ,8SC0&& parameter defines *hether the R4 has a connection to the R4, in the front or not) The R4 ;s in the generic device magaJine, located on slot num+er / and 1!, al*a-s have a +us connection, *hereas the R42s do not)

RPSRPPROPERTIES - This ta+le contains all the different R4 t-pe properties that
can +e used *ithin the R4S) Each propert- represents certain functionalit- and is defined *ith +oth a num+er and a descriptive text string) 0ne propert- is represented +- one ro* in the ta+le)
,$0CA TA, TA,$E :RA44E% R4A%( R4SR44R04ERT1ES &0 4R04 4R04%ES 10ST0C 10 C0&&ECTE% ST0CKK) RE4TREC RE4EATE% REC09ER5 ATTE(4TS))))) E(SETS A44$) ,0AR%S (A5 C0&TA1& L 1 E( E(292S T1E T0 E(2 THR082H 2R084 S:1TCH %8(S12 %E(A&% RESET 0## R4 A%%R) $021C #%S841 S84ER91CE THAT R4 ST1$$ :0RA1&2 S4,0R,1 S4 ,$0CA 0R%ER 0& ,-$E9E$)))))) ,8SCHA1 R4 ,8SSE&%ER ,$0CA1&2 CHECA)))) A4&E0, E(4T51&2 R4 08T,8##ER AT START) #R41&#0 R4 CA& HA&%$E #ETCHR41&#0 S12)) $0&2S12 R4 CA& HA&%$E $0&2 S12&A$S))))) STC.0S EEEC) S5STE( 1&TER#ACE STC-.))) ECH0CHA R08T1&E ECH0 CHECA 0# R4))))))) &0%1A2& %1A2&0S1S A&% RE4A1R))))))))))) (0,$12A R4S HA9E (A1&TE&A&CE 0,$12AT10& E(1E E( 1&TER#ACE E(1E)))))))))))))) E(CB E( 1&TER#ACE E(CB)))))))))))))) (AEB;E( EF814A,$E :1TH (AE B; E(MS))))) (AE1BE( EF814A,$E :1TH (AE 1B E(MS))))) STC10S EEEC) S5STE( 1&TER#ACE STC-1))) R4.0S EEEC) S5STE( 1&TER#ACE R4-.))))

R410S EEEC) S5STE( 1&TER#ACE R4-1)))) E(2T1E E(2 CA& ,E T1E% T0 R4)))))))))) T:1& T:1& R4 CA& ,E T1E% T0 R4)))))) $A,$E $0A%A,$E 4S 1& R4)))))))))))))) $(EAS $0A%(EAS8R1&2 40SS1,$E))))))))) 44A2E 4R02RA( 4A2ES EE1ST)))))))))))) E(,8S E( ,8S EE1ST))))))))))))))))))) $SHARE $0A%SHAR1&2 0# R4 40SS1,$E)))))

RPSTYPESTOPROPS - All R4 t-pes do not have the same functionalit-) #or

example some R4 t-pes can onl- handle load sharing +et*een t*o R4s) The functionalitof an R4 t-pe is defined +- means of a num+er of properties =$SHARE, E(,8S and so on>, *here each propert- represents a certain functionalit-)
,$0CA TA, TA,$E :RA44E% R4A%( R4ST54EST04R04S 5ES 33 &0 &0 &0 5ES 5ES &0 &0 &0 5ES &0 (AE1BE( (AEB;E( E(CB E(1E (0,$12A &0%1A2& ECH0CHA STC.0S 5ES &0 &0 &0 5ES 5ES 5ES &0 $0&2S12 #R41&#0 A4&E0, ,8SCHA1 S4,0R,1 #%S841 %8(S12 E(292S 5ES 5ES &0 &0 &0 &0 &0 &0 E(SETS RE4TREC 10ST0C &0 5ES 5ES 3. &0 &0 &0 5ES 5ES &0 &0 &0 5ES &0 (AE1BE( (AEB;E( E(CB E(1E (0,$12A &0%1A2& ECH0CHA STC.0S $0&2S12 #R41&#0 A4&E0, ,8SCHA1 S4,0R,1 #%S841 %8(S12 E(292S E(SETS RE4TREC 10ST0C &0 5ES 5ES (AE1BE( (AEB;E( E(CB E(1E (0,$12A &0%1A2& ECH0CHA STC.0S $0&2S12 #R41&#0 A4&E0, ,8SCHA1 S4,0R,1 #%S841 %8(S12 E(292S E(SETS RE4TREC 10ST0C &0 &0 &0

RPSRPTYPES - The R4SR4T54ES ta+le lin?s the R4 t-pe num+er, mentioned in

ta+le R4S4H5R4T54ES, *ith the R4 t-pe)
,$0CATA, TA,$E :RA44E% R4A%(R4SR4T54ES &0 T54E&0 T54E #A(1$5 4T54E&0 33 R4210S1 R4% .B 3. R421041 R4% 1D 31 R42C0S1 R4% .B 3/ R42C041 R4% 1D .! R4%C01A R4% 13 .D R4(B2 R4. D .G STC2.A R4% .B .B R42.A R4% .B ." R4;$12 R4. .; .; R4;$1A R4. .; .3 R4;S1A R4. .3 .. R4,C.C STC .. .1 STC.% STC .1 ./ STC.C STC ./ 1! STC21A R4% 1D 1D R421A R4% 1D 1B AEEEET R4EET 1B 1" R4A R4EET 1" 1; A4&1A R4S1( 1; 13R4%1A R4% 13 1.R4,C1A STC 1. 11STC1A STC 11

1/R4(G, R4. 1/ !R4(GA R4. ! DR4(BA R4. D GR4(3, R:(R4 G BR4(3A R41 B "R4(., R:(R4 " ;R4(.A R41 ; 3R4(1% R:(R4 3 .R4(1C R:(R4 . 1R4(1, R41 1 /R4(1A R41 / E&%

RPSDEFOSRSUS - The ta+le specifies default RS8s for R4 t-pes) 0nl- RS8s of
0S =0perating S-stem> t-pe can +e predefined) This includes the operating s-stem itself as *ell as 0S applications)
@%,TS4:TA, R4S%E#0SRS8S,T54E&0 3D' %ATA,ASE TA,$E ,$0CA TA, TA,$E :RA44E% R4A%(. R4S%E#0SRS8S &0 T54E&0 S81% 3D !///<CEC 1;B .3 R1A/1 3D !///<CEC 1;B .1 R1A/" 3D !///<CEC 1;B ./ R1A/B 3D !///<CEC 1;B 13 R3,/. 3D !///<CEC 1;B 1/ R1,/1 E&%

The predefined RS8s are automaticall- connected to the R4 *hen the R4 is defined through command EER41 +- adding parameter D %RS!. The function is onl- active for loada+le R4s *ithout program pages)
%,TR1' %,TS1:TA, R4S%E#0SRS8S, T54E&0 3G, S81% N!///<CEC 1;B 1/ R1,/1N' %,TS1:TA, R4S%E#0SRS8S, T54E&0 3G, S81% N!///<CEC 1;B 13 R;A/;N' %,TS1:TA, R4S%E#0SRS8S, T54E&0 3G, S81% N!///<CEC 1;B .3 R1A/1N' %,TS1:TA, R4SR4,S40S,R4A%%R 3;,,R&0 1,(A2&0 /,S$0T&0 1,,8SC0&& &0' %,TRE:C0(' EER41:R4 3;,T54E R411A,%E#RS8'

RPSRPBESWS; - The data+ase ta+le R4SR4,ES:S contains information a+out

the 2ES,s =#irst $evel S*itch and Ca+inet S*itch> that +elongs to R4,-E) Each 2ES, is assigned an R4,-E s*itch num+er in the range / - ."") The data is used in order to +e a+le to turn on the (anual 1ntervention Allo*ed =(1A> $ight Emitting %iode =$E%> on a 2ES, *hen it is going to +e repaired) #or each 2ES, its R4,-E s*itch num+er =S:&0> and its ph-sical address is stored in the data+ase ta+le R4SR4,ES:S) The ph-sical address is the +ranch num+er =,R&0>, the magaJine num+er =(A2&0> and the slot num+er =S$0T&0> of the 2ES,) The +ranch num+er of a 2ES, is the same as the +ranch num+er of the leftmost SC,-R4 in the same magaJine) The follo*ing R4,-E s*itch num+ers =S:&0> are reserved: / is reserved for the 2ES, that is #irst $evel S*itch =#$E> on R4,-E net A)

1 is reserved for the 2ES, that is #$E on R4,-E net ,) . is reserved for the 2ES, that is Extended first level s*itch on R4,-E net A) 3 is reserved for the 2ES, that is Extended first level s*itch on R4,-E net ,) 1t is recommended that 2ES,s +elonging to R4,-E net A are assigned even num+ers and 2ES,s that +elongs to R4,-E net , are assigned odd num+ers) dbtsp:tab=rpsrpbesws; DATABASE TABLE BLOCK TAB TABLE RENFD RPSRPBESWS SWNO BRNO MAGNO SLOTNO 3 3 ! " " 3 ! 3 3 ! "3 # 3 ! END

Group Switch
The ne* commands for the group s*itch are: 2%C01<2%C0E to create or delete group s*itch units) 2%C04 and 2%ST4 to print status and units in the group s*itch) 2%TE1 to test units in the group s*itch) 2%,$1<2%,$E to +loc? and de+loc? units) 2%C94 to print the control values of the cloc?s) %efine cloc?s 2%C01:8&1T C$(-/<1,9AR n' %efine s*itch +oards 2%C01:8&1T E(-r-c,9AR n' %efine %$E, 2%C01:8&1T (8E3;-A<,-n,A4 E(-r-c-s,9AR /' %efine %$H, 2%C01:8&1T (8E3-A<,-n,A4 (8E3;-A<,-n,9AR n' S&T in 2E( =TRA < EC4> &TC01:S&T K,S&T4 E(-r-c-s,S&T9 K,(0%E K' S&T in 2E( =ET1""> &TC01:S&T K,S&T4 E(-r-c-s,S&T9 K, (0%E K, 4R0T /<1'

Si ! A"t!r#tio$

SAE 1/!; is used for &o of (84 individuals) 1t is traffic dependant and therefore calculations of traffic mix and volume must +e done to determine the value) Responsi+le +loc?s are C0SE( O C0E) SAE ;;. is used for the 2S siJe in hard*are) (aximum is &1 "1., in steps of 1BA) SAE B// determines the su+rate s*itch siJe, maximum &1 1.D) Responsi+le +loc?s are CH and E( &1 is no* eIual to E( capacit- =1 1/.; (84>) The order of definitions can +e found in A1 for +loc? E()

Di%%!r!$t &AR '#"u!(

The different values for the 9AR parameters can +e seen in the ta+les +elo*:
Var X eaning ! "ormal #ate $%& '(itch )X*+, $ 'u-rate $%& '(itch )X*+, . 'u-rate $%& '(itch ""#/ )X"+, 0 "ormal #ate $%& '(itch ""#/ )X"+,

To s-nchroniJe the cloc?s *ith the net*or?, the follo*ing commands can +e used: Create<%elete:


Cloc? Reference %ata:



The &S%AC command contain some parameters that are of interest, see figure +elo*)
% Ti)!


:ander is the drift from the D?HJ freIuenc- at a specific moment in time) Although the average freIuenc- might +e D ?HJ, the actual freIuenc- at a specific moment might differ too much) 4rintout of cloc? reference supervision data using command NSDAP)

4R1 priorit- is used if more than one reference is availa+le, to tell to the s-stem *hich one to use) The d-namic data sho*s the actual values of deviation and *ander) :ith parameter NSSTP the status of the defined references can +e chec?ed)

The figure a+ove sho*s that there are three references defined, and CC(-/ is executive) RC(-/O-1 are in state stand+-) The follo*ing 041s can +e used to handle net*or? s-nchroniJation in AEE: &et*or? S-nchroniJation, 1nitiate &et*or? S-nchroniJation, End &et*or? S-nchroniJation, Cloc? Reference, Connect &et*or? S-nchroniJation, Cloc? Reference, %isconnect &et*or? S-nchroniJation, Cloc? Reference, Repair

9arious device t-pes are connected to the 2S via a device interface called S*itching &et*or? Terminal =S&T>, *hich is the standard device interface used for all telephondevices availa+le in the s*itch) The S&T is hence an internal interface, *hilst the %igital 4ath =%14>, is the external connections to other nodes in the net*or?)


To create S&Ts the follo*ing command is used: NTCO&:SNT=s't% SNTP=s'tp% SNT(=s't); The S&T parameter is the uniIue name of the connection) 1t consists of the S&T o*ning +loc? name and a num+er separated +- h-phen, e)g) 84ET-/) The S&T4, s*itching net*or? terminal connection point, is the point in the 2S *here the S&T is connected) S&T9 is the S&T variant and the value must +e chec?ed in application information, it is not the same for all S&Ts) To delete and print S&Ts the follo*ing commands can +e used: NTCOE:SNT=s't; NTCOP:SNT=s't; To +loc? and de+loc? S&Ts the follo*ing commands can +e used: NTBL&:SNT=s't; NTBLE:SNT=s't; To test S&Ts the follo*ing command can +e used: NTTE&:SNT=s't; All these commands onl- use the S&T parameter) 041s to handle the S&Ts are: S*itching &et*or? Terminal, Connect<%isconnect<Repair %evices to S*itching &et*or? Terminal, Connect <%isconnect Configuration of a S*itching &et*or? Terminal, Change


There are t*o t-pes of digital paths: %14, digital path 4%H standard for . (+it<s ETS1 =E1> and 1," (+it<s A&S1 and 4%C =T1>) 1mplemented on ETC" in 2%() S%14, s-nchronous digital path S%H standard for 1"" (+it<s ETS1, A&S1 and 4%C =ST(-1>, 1mplemented in ET1""-G in 2%( and ET1""-1 in 2E() B3 E1 %14s and D; T1 %14s can +e muxed into a ST(-1) Commands to handle %14s are: DTD&&:D&P=d*p%+; To create the %14) There are different parameters depending on *hat t-pe of %14 it is) DTD&E:D&P=d*p; To delete the %14) The onl- parameter is the %14 name) DTD&P:D&P=d*p+; To print data for a %14) DTBL&,DTBLE:D&P=d*p; These commands are used to +loc? and de+loc? %14s) DT&DP:D&P=d*p; 8sed to print %14 initial data) Example of this t-pe of data are c-clic redundanc- chec?, and supervision parameters) DT&DC:D&P=d*p%+%+; This command is used to change the initial data) The ET1"" %14 P S-nchronous %14 =S%14> contains B3Q%14 for E1 or D;Q%14 for T1 standards) Commands to handle the S%14: TPCO&:SD&P=sd*p%SNT=s't; 8sed to define a S%14, parameters are the S%14 name and the S&T name) TPCOE:SD&P=sd*p; 8sed to delete S%14s) TPCOP:SD&P=sd*p;

8sed to print data for S%14s) TPBL&,TPBLE:SD&P=sd*p; ,loc?s and de+loc?s S%14s) TP&DP:SD&P=sd*p; 4rint initial data for S%14s) TP&DC:SD&P=sd*p%+; Change initial data for S%14s)
1TPCOP(SDIP+8 TM:S5NC"RONO!S DI6ITAL PAT" DATA SDIP SNT MS CLR % "P LP DIP SDIPO7N R 8 TM: TM:38 MS38 4C<38 4C:&38 8*TD8 SDIPM: 4C:&3: :*TD8 4C:&3& &*TD8 4C:&3= =*TD8 , , , , ND

The S%14 correspond to the ST(-1 1"" (+it<s lin?) The S%14 contain a num+er of la-ers, from (S, to H4, to $4) (S =multiplex section> is the highest la-er for the S%H standard) H4 is the highorder path, the second la-er in the S%H frame) $4 is the logical path *ithin the (S, *hich is the lo*est la-er in the S%H frame, in case of E1 multiplexing there are B3 $4s)

The S%14 initial data contain the thresholds =%E2THR> for +it errors on different la-ers of S%H =(S, H4 and $4>) %E2( is the monitoring period sliding *indo* in seconds, and (SRE1( is the multiplex section remote error indication mode, 0& or 0##) 041s to handle S%14s: S-nchronous %igital 4ath, ,loc?ing, End<1nitiate S-nchronous %igital 4ath, Connect<%isconnect S-nchronous %igital 4ath, Connection, Change S-nchronous %igital 4ath, 1nitial %ata, Change S-nchronous %igital 4ath, #ault Supervision, End<1nitiate S-nchronous %igital 4ath, #ault Supervision Severit-, Change S-nchronous %igital 4ath, Fualit- Supervision, 1nitiate <End<Change

DIP Sup!r'i(io$
1t is possi+le to set %14 fault and Iualit- supervision parameters)

That is done *ith the follo*ing commands: %14 #ault Supervision:

'DT%SI ) DT%S ) DT%SC ) DT%SP %14 Fualit- Supervision: 'DT;SI ) DT;S ) DT;SC ) DT;SP ) DT;SR

,elo* is an example of %14 fault supervision parameters printed *ith command %T#S4)

The #A8$T parameters correspond to certain %14 faults) The meaning of them can +e found in the printout description) : Alarm indication signal & $oss of frame alignment = Excessive error rate < Remote defect indication =Alarm indication from remote end in some A1. documents> @ Alarm indication signal in time slot 1B > $oss of multiframe alignment ? Alarm indication from the remote end signaling eIuipment A Alarm indication signal, A$$1 9 $oss of incoming signal :8 Consecutive severel- errored seconds :: 4o*er failure &T1 :& Reception of A1S at $T := A8E4 =$0S at line side of $T> :< $oss of signal at line side of &T1 :@ $oss of frame alignment at TE<&T. :> $oss of frame alignment at &T1 :? 8nintentional loop+ac? :A 1ncoming send alarm :9 Alarm indication, T&R1 =Transmission not read- 1> &8 Alarm indication, T&R. =Transmission not read- .> AIS Alarm indication signal LO% $oss of frame alignment RAT Excessive error rate RDI Remote defect indication =RE## in some A1. documents> AISM Alarm indication signal in time slot 1B LOM% $oss of multiframe alignment R %M Alarm indication from the remote end signaling

eIuipment ALL: Alarm indication signal LOS $oss of incoming signal CS S Consecutive severel- errored seconds P%NT: 4o*er failure &T1 %CDLD Reception of A1S at $T %C: A8E4 =$0S at line side of $T> %C& $oss of frame alignment at TE<&T. %C= $oss of signal at line side of &T1 %C< $oss of frame alignment at &T1
1' AX2 3peration - $44 - 5 2ricsson .!!% 678 $.0 %9%. #:A
!ILOOP 8nintentional loop+ac? ISA 1ncoming send alarm TNR: Alarm indication =Transmission TNR& Alarm indication =Transmission

not read- 1> not read- .> 1t is also possi+le to handle supervision of %14s connected to 1S%& primar- rate access and +asic access =4RA<,A>: %14 $a-er 1 Supervision =1S%& 4RA<,A>:
'DTL:I ) DTL: ) DTL:P %14 $a-er . Supervision =1S%& 'DTL&I ) DTL& ) DTL&P %14 $a-er 3 Supervision =1S%& 'DTL=I ) DTL= ) DTL=P

4RA<,A>: 4RA<,A>:

Rout!( #$, ,!'ic!(

The E-RO& command is used for setting up the route for the first time: !,ROI:R'IS%PO-(IS%PI-3 D!T2'%PD3 $#C'/3 SP'." 03SI'IS%P* 1n this example, the affiliated routes identified +- the s-m+olic names 1S8411 =for incoming route> and 1S8401 =for outgoing route> are initiated *ith function code 3) The routes are 84% routes *ith Signaling S-stem &o)G) The service indicator value 1S84 indicates the set of protocols associated *ith the routes) #inall- the signaling point indicates an exchange, value t*o represents the t-pe of net*or? and value four represents the destination point code for identif-ing the exchange at the other end of the route) The E-RBC command is used *hen more route data is to +e assigned to the route) Also existing routes can +e changed using this command) !,R+C:R'IS%PO-3ATT'-* 1n this example, the route *ith the s-m+olic name 1S8401 has parameter ATT specified, *hich indicates that the attenuator function is to +e used) The E-DR& command is used for ma?ing a connection in data +et*een the devices and the route) The main parameters reIuired are: !,DRI: R'r4443 D!5'dev444

:hen all the devices have +een connected to the route, the- should +e ta?en into service using the E-DA& command) This command changes the state of the devices from a prepost service to service) #inall-, the devices can +e de+loc?ed using the BLODE command) This ena+les the s-stem to use the devices in real traffic) :hen the data has +een defined, and also during the definition, the data loaded can +e printed +- the use of print commands) The follo*ing commands are used most commonl-: E-DEP pr*'ts de)*.e data E-DRP pr*'ts RP,EM de)*.e data STRSP pr*'ts a R/0te State S0r)e1 STRDP pr*'ts a De)*.e State S0r)e1 E-ROP pr*'ts r/0te para2eters The average Iuotient is calculated for the devices in the same route, and the value of each device in the route is compared *ith this average Iuotient) 1f the Iuotient of an- of the devices deviates more than a limit set +- command, an alarm is raised: SE1C8RE F8A$1T5 S84ER91S10&) The involved devices either can +e mar?ed as suspected of +eing fault, or automaticall- +loc?ed) 1ndividual deviceMs Iuotient I L I F8A$C&T<."B %evice groupMs Iuotient F L F RF8A$C&T<RSE1CC&T F80S or F80, 1// - =I<F>Q1// =S>) T*o limits can +e set +- command: 0ne limit that causes a *arning that the device is suspected of +eing fault- =F80S> 0ne limit that indicates that a fault situation exists and that the device should +e +loc?ed =F80,>

:hen the supervision function is started for the first time, that is, after the exchange has +een initiall- loaded, the minimum duration for a normal call is specified +- the SE3AC command) The command can also +e used for changing the minimum duration time, if the average conversation time in the exchange is significantl- different =can +e detected using the Traffic Recording function>) 1f the supervision should +e initiated for a ne* defined route in the exchange, the same command is used for initiating the supervision data) The supervision data specified for a route can +e printed using the SE3AP command) S!6AC:R'+TI73 ACL'A/3 6%OS'/73 6%O+'873 RCO#TIM!'.7* 1n the example a+ove, the alarm class for the route ,T1/ is changed to A3) The limit value for suspecting a device of +eing fault- and the limit value for +loc?ing a device is set to 3/S and B/S respectivel-) The conversation limit value for normal calls for route ,T1/ is set at ./ seconds) 1f no seiJures are registered during the period, an alarm is generated, SE1C8RE S84ER91S10&) The command used for initiating and changing the data related to the function is SETAC) :ith SETAP the initialiJed data can +e printed) S!TAC:PL'93ACL'A.* The supervision time is set up or changed to 3. hours =eight period lengths at four hours per period length> and the alarm class to A.)

SiJe Alteration is the name of the function used for changing the memor- siJe in the %ata Store of the Central 4rocessor =C4>) 1n the %ata Store, the data related to all +loc?s is stored) The siJe of the data, that is, the num+er of data individuals in a data file, is managed +- the SiJe Alteration function) The SAE num+er is used as a parameter in all siJe alteration commands) There are t*o different t-pes of siJe alterations in the AEE: Lo:al Si;e Alteration !vents The local SAE onl- affects one +loc? in the exchange) An example is the num+er of devices inside one +loc?) <lo=al Si;e Alteration !vents The glo+al SAE affects files in more than one +loc?) An example is the num+er of routes in the exchange) Several +loc?s in the s-stem store information a+out each route and all these +loc?s reIuire the same file siJe =for example, +loc?s for statistics and supervision>) 2lo+al Event for A4T: SAE /-.!! SAE ;."-;!! SAE !//-1G!! 2lo+al Event for A4C: SAE 3//-;.;

SAE 1D//-1!!! $ocal Event for A4T: SAE "//-G!! $ocal Event for A4C: SAE D//-D!!

File Size Relationship

#um=er of Individuals &#I> The file siJe of a SiJe Alteration Event #um=er of Individuals !? ansion Si;e &#I!> The file siJe +- *hich the &um+er of 1ndividuals for the SiJe Alteration Event *ill +e increased +- the function at a logical file siJe increase) #um=er of Individuals Reserved &#IR> The file siJe of a SiJe Alteration Event that is reserved for logical file siJe increase #um=er of Individuals %sed &#I%> The num+er of individuals in a SAE that is +eing used +- the file o*ner program A measure of the current utiliJation of the SiJe Alteration Event Ph@si:al Data $ile Si;e &#RR> The ph-sical data file siJe is the num+er of records of a data file that is ph-sicallallocated in data store)

SAE Control Type

The SAE Control T-pe is an attri+ute associated *ith each siJe alteration event) The actual SAE Control T-pe can +e chec?ed *ith SAAE4 command, C&TRT54 value) The possi+le C&TRT54 attri+utes are : C0&S1 Soft*are #ile Congestion Supervision C0&S. Congestion Event Control (A&8A$ (anual Control 4R02RA( 4rogram Control THRESH1 Threshold Control defined +- the s-stem THRESH. Threshold Control defined +- the application +loc? The Manual Control &MA#%AL> siJe alteration of the SAE can onl- +e controlled manuall- +- commands SAA11 and SAA%1) This SAE Control T-pe is the default) The Threshold Control is another control t-pe4 The Audit function, Supervision of 8tiliJation in #iles and (emories, supervises the SiJe Alteration Event) T*o options are possi+le: THR!SH- and THR!SH. The Software $ile Congestion Su ervision3 CO#S- is a SAE t-pe controlled +- the application +loc? reporting soft*are file congestion) This SAE Control T-pe is defined +- the s-stem) The Congestion !vent Control3 CO#S. is a SA! that is encountered *hen an attempt to seiJe a data file record fails +ecause there are no idle records) There follo*ing are commands related to the SiJe Alteration function: SAAEP The command is used to print SAE file siJe information)

SAA&& The command is used for increasing the file siJe in a SiJe Alteration Event SAAD& 8sed for decreasing the file siJes in one SiJe Alteration Event SAAEP 8sed *hen printing the num+er of individuals currentl- defined for the SiJe Alteration Event) SAACP The command is used to print the SAE 4articipant and Su+scri+er +loc?s for SiJe Alteration Events) The Automatic SiJe Alteration State can +e set Active or 4assive +- command SAOCS) 1f the state is set to 4assive application programs siJe alteration reIuests are reHected) 1f the state is set to Active then siJe alteration events reIuested from the application +loc?s are allo*ed) The implementation of automatic siJe alteration includes t*o separate SAE attri+utes, one expressing the siJe of an expansion, &1E, and another the siJe of the reserved area, &1R) :hen congestion in a file is reported to A4C, the logical siJe is increased +- one &1E step) The &um+er of 1ndividuals Expansion SiJe =&1E> for a SiJe Alteration Event is set +- command SA!SS) An alarm S1CE A$TERAT10& 0# %ATA #1$ES S1CE CHA&2E REF81RE% informs the net*or? operator if a SAE is registered in the SiJe Alteration Action $ist) All the SAEMs that are registered in the list are siJe altered *ith a single (($ command, SAALI) SAACP The command is used to print the SAE 4articipant and Su+scri+er +loc?s for SiJe Alteration Events) SAAL& The command is used to order the execution of the automatic siJe alteration reIuests for the SiJe Alteration Events that are registered in the SiJe Alteration Action $ist i)e) data+ase ta+le SAACT10&S) SADB& The command is used to order the +uilding of the SAE data+ase) SAESS This command is used to set the &um+er of 1ndividual Expansion SiJe =&1E> for Congestion Event Controlled SiJe Alteration Events) SAFT& This command is used to order a test of the SAE #aults stored in the SiJe Alteration of %ata #iles %ata+ase ta+le SAE#A8$TS) 1f a #ault has +een rectified then it *ill +e removed from the ta+le) SAOCP The command is used to print the Automatic SiJe Alteration State and the SiJe Alteration Audit Time) SAOCS

The command is used to set the Automatic SiJe Alteration State to ACT19E or 4ASS19E and the SiJe Alteration Audit Time =SAAT>)


The follo*ing command seIuence is used to define the SSG signaling net*or?: C7OPI:OWNSP=ownsp; This command defines the exchange7s o*n signaling point identit-) The AEE can have several 0:&S4s) C7PNC:OWNSP=ownsp,SPID=spid; This is used to give the 0:&S4 a name to more easil- identif- the s*itch in printouts and alarms) C7SPI:SP=sp; This command defines the other node7s signaling point identities) C7PNC:SP=sp,SPID=spid; This is used to give the S4 a name to more easil- identif- the s*itch in printouts and alarms) C7SPP:SP=ALL; This is done to chec? all the S4s defined in the AEE) After that the routing and lin? sets must +e defined according to the procedures descri+ed in 041 CCITT7 Multiple Point Code, Routing, C !nge) C7LDI:LS=ls; This command defines the lin? set name) C7S"C:LS=ls,L#A=l$!,ACL=!%l,DMI=d&i; $in? set supervision) $9A is the level of alarm, the num+er of lin?s that must *or? on the lin? set in order for it to +e considered *or?ing) AC$ is the alarm class and the alarm *ill +e issued after the num+er of minutes stated in the %(1 parameter =dela- in minutes>) C7LDP:LS=!ll; To chec? the defined lin? sets, use command CG$%4) C7RSI:D'ST=dest,PRIO=p(io,LS=ls; The (T4 routing data is set *ith command CGRS1) %EST is the destination name and 4R10 is the priorit- of the $S to the destination) C7R"C:D'ST=dest,ACL=!%l,DMI=d&i; Also the routing can +e supervised) An alarm *ith the alarm class stated in AC$ *ill +e issued after %(1 minutes of unavaila+ilit- to a destination) C7RSP:D'ST=!ll; CGRS4 is used to print the (T4 routing data) &o* the signaling lin? can +e defined) ,efore it can +e defined the semi-permanent lin? must +e defined) 8se 041s CC1TTG Signaling Terminal, Connect, CC1TTG Signaling

$in?, %efine, Semipermanent Connection, Reserve and Semipermanent Connection, Activate) )LODI:D'#=C7ST*+,-; )LODI:D'#="PDN.,/0; %evices to +e used in semipermanent connections must +e manuall- +loc?ed) '1SPI:NAM'=n!&e; The procedure to initiate the semipermanent connection is started *ith this command) '1SSI:D'#/=C7ST*+,-; '1SSI:D'#*="PDN.,/0; %E91 is the first device in the semipermanent connection) '1SP'; This command ends the procedure) The semipermanent connection is no* reserved) '1SCI:NAM'=n!&e,D'#="PDN.,*+; To activate the connection the command EESC1 is used) The command EESC4 can +e used to chec? the connection) C7STI:ST=st,IT2P'=it3pe; This command defines the signaling terminal and the 1nterface t-pe +et*een signaling terminal and signaling data lin?) C7SLI:LS=ls,SLC=sl%,ST=st; This command defines the signaling lin?) S$C is the signaling lin? code that must +e uniIue *ithin a lin? set) #inall- the signaling lin? and routing must +e activated as instructed in 041 CCITT7 Mess!ge Routing, A%ti$!te) C7LAI:LS=ls,SLC=sl%; This is done to activate the signaling lin?) C7S"I:LS=ls; This is done to initiate supervision of the lin? set) C7RAI:D'ST=dest; To activate the destination routing do the command a+ove) C7R"I:D'ST=dest; #inall- activate the supervision of the (T4 routing) Chec? that the signaling lin? is active *ith command CG$T4)




There is a particular need for high capacit- lin? sets +et*een Signaling Transfer 4oint =ST4> nodes, and +et*een ST4s and centraliJed data+ases such as the Service Control 4oints =SC4s> and the Home $ocation Registers =H$Rs>) The HS$ function supports a migration path from the current signaling net*or? *ith onl- narro*-+and signaling to a ne* signaling net*or? +ased on parts implemented in the narro*+and technolog- and on parts implemented in the ne* HS$ technolog-) :ith the ne* techniIues currentl- availa+le, for example, the As-nchronous Transfer (ode =AT(> standards *ithin the +earer la-ers, the throughput per signaling lin? is expected to increase from the current capacit- of B; ?+ps to . (+ps

HS- Protoco" St#c.

The high-speed lin? replaces the (T4 la-ers 1 and . *ith an AT( +ased) SSC# is an interface la-er for mapping (T43 primitives and states onto the ones used +SSC04) SSC04 contains most of the ne* la-er . functionalit- li?e error recover- and flo* control) SSC04 is run on top of the AT( adaptation la-er AA$") AA$" and AT( provide a channel for transmitting and receiving the 4%8s) The AT( cells are mapped on to the . (+ps =for the Tapanese (ar?et the UTapanese T1V of 1)" (+<s> +it stream) The transmission net*or? +et*een t*o nodes has to support +it integrit- and timeslot integrit- for the full . (+<s +and*idth)

The HS$ signaling terminals are initiated +- the CGST1 command) The interface t-pe, reIuired for HS$, is 1.) This is the interface +et*een the signaling terminal and the signaling data lin?) Each high-speed signaling terminal can handle one HS$) The device t-pe is CGSTH) CASTI:ST'CASTH"//3 IT2P!'-.* The signaling lin?s are defined +- the CGS$1 command) 1n this command the lin? set =$S>, signaling lin? code =S$C>, lin? t-pe and signaling terminal identit- =ST> are given) The Signaling Terminal =ST> parameter can +e assigned a value from 1 to ;/B" in steps of 3. to specif- the device num+er) #or non-HS$ signaling lin?s, the device num+er can +e from / to B""3") CASLI:LS'.".73SLC'73 ST'CASTH"//* Signaling lin?s can +e activated and deactivated +- the CG$A1 command) CALAI:LS'.".73SLC'7* #inall-, the connection *ithin the group s*itch is defined using the standard commands EES41, EESS1, EES4E, and EESC1) 1n the EES41 command the num+er of channels in the *ide+and semi-permanent connection should +e given, *here each channel has a capacit- of B; ?+ps) The &8(CH parameter can have a value of . to 31) #or each HighSpeed Signaling lin? =HS$>, 3. high speed STs are used) The- must all +e defined in the

same E( and should +e connected to the same S&T) The ST devices, connected to the internal S&T positions / O 1B, are reserved and are not used in the *ide+and semipermanent connection) Thus, the value of &8(CH in the EES41 command must +e set to 3/ and the CH1B parameter is omitted from the t*o EESS1 commands)


SCT4 =1ET#R#C33/!> provides a relia+le, connection-oriented +earer service) The connection +et*een t*o nodes is called an SCTP asso:iation and can consist of multiple paths through an 14 net*or?) An SCT4 association is the logical relationship +et*een t*o SCT4 end points) The SCTP end oint is the logical sender<receiver of SCT4 pac?ets) 1t comprises of a set of transport addresses, *hich is a com+ination of 14 addresses and port num+ers) This is ver- similar to the signaling point code of a node +eing uniIue *ithin the signaling net*or?) (ultiple paths are +ased on the multi-homing feature, *hich allo*s each SCT4 end point to use multiple 14 addresses for each association)

(38A allo*s (T4 $3 messages to +e carried over an 14 net*or?) A part of the functionalit- of (38A is net*or? management mechanisms, compara+le to similar functions in (T4 $3) (38A messages are carried over SCT4 associations) An M/%A Asso:iation is an SCT4 Association as maintained in the (38A) The (38A associates additional =different then SCT4> states to this association to control the (38A data exchange) Redundanc- on (38A level for a connection +et*een t*o nodes can +e achieved +- specif-ing parallel SCT4 associations) (ultiple streams can +e used *ithin an association) The loadsharing mechanism +et*een streams is +ased on the Signaling $in? Selection =S$S> field, meaning that the correct order of messages can +e maintained)

NRM (WO), Normal State.

The stand +- side is *arm, *hich means that it is read- to ta?e over as ne* EE in the case of a serious fault in current EE) 4rogram Store =4S> and Reference Store =RS> in the S, side contains same information as 4S and RS in the EE side) The S, side *ill leave state &R( if the contents of 4S or RS in EE side are intentionall- changed =for example at #unction Change or loading of a program correction>) The same happens *hen SiJe Alteration is performed) 0ther C4 states are descri+ed +elo*:

S!"$MMA# " Separated and fault mar?ed, during repair chec?))) S!"$M3 $MMA# " Separated, fault mar?et and manuall- fault mar?ed S!"$M " Separated and fault mar?ed, during repair chec?))) %P"$M " 8pdating and fault mar?ed %P"$M3 $MMA# " 8pdating, fault mar?ed and manuall- fault mar?ed HA"$M " Halted and fault mar?ed, automaticall- due to a fault HA"$M3 $MMA# " Halted, fault mar?ed and manual fault mar?ed' After %4HAS, RE(C1)))
The (A8 function is located in R4H(1 +oard in +oth C4 sides) :hen the s-stem has normal state and that is *hen the C4-A is EE and the C4-, is S,, the (A8 state is &R(, other*ise the (A8 is AA() The printout +elo* sho*s the (A8 state AA( although there is not an- fault)

1n each C4 side there is also a Regional 4rocessor Handler =R4H> state, indicating ho* this C4 side has contact *ith R4H) 1n normal C4 state the C4-A controls +oth R4Hs)

R!(t#rti$0 th! CP
The first thing to learn is ho* to restart the C4 in case of faults in the C4 that the s-stem cannot solve itself) Restarting the C4:

The small restart *ill not +rea? ongoing calls +ut calls in setup mode *ill +e cleared) The large restart *ill clear all calls) Semi-permanent connections *ill survive) The restart *ith reload *ill ta?e the soft*are dump from the 1<0 s-stem hard dis? and load it into the memor- of the C4) 1t is al*a-s RE$#S:/ that is used as +ac?up file) Some application s-stems reIuire an explanation to +e stated *ith the command) The +ac?up files are stored on hard dis? as alread- mentioned, and the files are named RE$#S:n, *here n is the num+er of the defined reload file in an un+ro?en seIuence starting *ith RE$#S:/) The availa+le +ac?up files can +e printed *ith command S2+$P:$IL!')

CP F#u"t H#$,"i$0

:hen a fault occurs there might +e a need for repair) To chec? if there is a C4 fault loo? for the C4 #A8$T alarm in the alarm list) Also chec? the C4 status *ith the DP)SP command)

S, can either +e A or ,) &ormal parallel operation is al*a-s onl- *hen , is S, and AEE) The S,STATE for an A4C .1. 3E can have the follo*ing values:

1f the C4 status is not normal, there might +e a need for a C4 repair)

That is done +- issuing a repair procedure *ith command R!PCI*) The command initiates diagnosis of faults in C4) The diagnosis is made +- anal-sis of stored fault data) The command results in a printout C4 %1A2&0S1S that contains lists of suspected +oards) 0ne +oard list is printed for each fault)

1n this example, the fault t-pe is permanent *hich means that a +oard must +e replaced) The +oard that is indicated as most pro+a+l- fault- is the (A8 in magaJine C48-,) As can +e seen, the 40:C in C48-A is also suspected, and that has alread- +een replaced the Bth of &ovem+er, .//. for a permanent fault t-pe reason) To repair the +oard, give command R!MCI:MA<'CP%+3 PC+'MA%* =the indicated +oard from printout C4 %1A2&0S1S>) Replace the +oard, and give command R!CCI* to chec? if the ne* +oard is *or?ing) 1f not, replace the next +oard in the list)

:hen a restart has occurred in the s-stem, either commandinitiated or automaticallinitiated, the alarm C4 #A8$T *ill +e issued) To chec? the cause for the restart, give command S2RIP: S%R5!2*)

This s*itch has +een restarted three times) The first restart =E9E&T 1> *as caused +- an application error =A44$ERR>) The side *as the A-side, *hich *as the executive C4 side at the moment of the restart) The A4C *as in parallel state and the date *as the .Dth of &ovem+er .//.) This restart is not active, *hich means that the fault has +een anal-Jed and ta?en care of) The second restart =E9E&T .> *as caused +- a forlopp release) This could pro+a+l- +e caused +- hanging soft*are in call setups) To release the soft*are the C4 has restarted itself) This restart is not either active)

The last restart =E9E&T 3> *as a command-ordered large restart) This restart is still active) :hen it has +een properl- logged and recorded, it can +e deactivated *ith command S5RAE:E9E&T 3')


A +ac?up file is a composite file *ith six su+ files named R/-")

The manual +ac?up of C4 ma- +e done to*ards: (ain Store and Hard %is? 0nl- Hard %is? (anual +ac?up of the C4 must al*a-s +e done *hen a siJe alteration, functional change or a program correction in the C4 has +een performed) The command S2+%P dumps the C4 +ac?up to data dis? and to primar- memor- if the +ac?up in main store function is active) Command e?am le: <SYBUP:FILE=RELFSW3; Here the C4 +ac?up is stored on file RE$#S:3 on data dis?) The manual C4 +ac?up ma- +e done to*ards an- of the files on hard dis?, except file RE$#S:/ or files in the second file range, S#R =RE$#S:1//-1.G>)

#ile RE$#S:/ is the default reload file and must therefore al*a-s +e intact) 1f a +ac?up is done to*ards a file that contains a C4 +ac?up, the old +ac?up is over*ritten) The automatic C4 +ac?ups are output to (ain Store and Hard %is? 0nl- Hard %is? :hether the C4 primar- memor- is updated or not depends on *hether the +ac?up in main store function is activated =command S2)MS45 S2+MS: S-stem #unctions, ,ac?up (ain Store ,ac?up Cop- Extent, Set Charging information, i)e) account data, changes all the time) This charging data is dumped in small =a:Bu ) &ote that charging data of t-pe Toll Tic?eting, Call Specification or 1mmediate Call 1temiJation is &0T part of the small C4 +ac?up) %ata that are normall- changed +- command and *hich change onl- occasionall- is dumped at large =a:Bu s) These data are changed, for example, *hen an operator changes an alarm threshold) A customer using a su+scri+er service, e)g) ordering a *a?eup call, can also do a change of this ?ind) :hen ma?ing these t-pes of changes, the values of the so-called reload mar?ed varia+les are altered) These reload mar?ed varia+les are dumped at a large automatic dump) &o*ada-s the large dump as *ell as the small dump is normall- performed once a daand these are done to*ards RE$#S:/)

APZ ! &'()' $ACKUP %ILE

A s-stem +ac?up cop- is provided as securit- for use in the case of a serious s-stem error) The s-stem +ac?up cop- is a cop- of the contents of the central processorMs stores) The s-stem +ac?up cop- is located on a C4 file and on a dedicated area in the main store, *hich acts as a fast cache for the external medium) The use of +ac?up in (ain Store =,8A> is mandator- in A4C .1. ;/) :hen the s-stem is first +ac?ed up using the command S2+%P the s-stem is stored in the +ac?up area of the primar- memor-) As part of the +ac? up function the dump is then transferred from the +ac? up area to the A42;/) The automatic dumping goes via the S,side to the A42 ;/) The loading format on an external medium is implemented on a volume, *ith one or several files, each consisting of a file *ith six su+-files) The su+-files are denominated ,81&#0, S%%, $%%1, $%%., 4S, and RS) Su+-file ,81&#0 contains all information a+out the S,C and the other su+-files) The small data dump is the result of an automatic output of su+-file S%%) The large data dump is the result of an automatic output of su+files S%% and $%%1) Su+-file 4S contains the program store) Su+-file RS contains the reference store) RS is added in the dump since +loc? $A, is using it to ma?e the memor- la-out at +ooting) 0utput of a small data dump implies that su+-file S%% is output) 0utput of a large data dump implies that su+-files S%% and $%%1 are output) 1n other *ords, at a large data dump a small data dump is al*a-s output first) The existing $%%1 is moved to $%%.) %uring automatic output of small or large data dump, su+-file ,81&#0 is updated) The RE$#S:x su+-files structure is sho*n +elo*:

The s-stem +ac?up cop- in (ain Store =,(S> is placed in +ac?up area =,8A>) ,8A is located in the end of the %ata Store =%S> and consists of the follo*ing four memor- area: The Small %ata %ump =S%%> area The $arge %ata %ump =$%%> area The 4rogram Store =4S> area The Reference Store =RS> area Several operations in C4 such as reload, siJe alteration and function change affect the validit- of the dump in ,8A) Therefore, the s-stem invalidates the ,8A and changes its state in order to prohi+it or allo* the loading from ,8A during a restart)


The automatic C4 +ac?up is activated and performed at times specified +- the commands: S2+TS: S-stem #unctions, ,ac?up 1nformation %umptimes, Set S2+%I: S-stem #unctions, ,ac?up 1nformation 0utput, 1nitiate The automatic dumping function has to +e activated +- command S5,81 and deactivated +- S5,8E) S2+%!: S-stem #unctions, ,ac?up 1nformation %ump, End


The C4 +ac?up files on hard dis? are divided in t*o ranges, the first and second file range) #irst file range, ##R, includes the files RE$#S:/ - RE$#S:!! Second file range, S#R, includes the files RE$#S:1// - RE$#S:1.G 8suall- a+out three files =i)e) C4 +ac?ups> are ?ept in each file range) (ore files can +e ?ept if needed, the onl- limitation is the space left on partition $:W) The reason for ?eeping t*o file ranges is securit-) The second file range contains older version of the C4 +ac?up *hile the first file range contains ne*er) The reload function in the C4 ma- select +ac?up files from the second file range if +ac?up files reloaded from the first file range prove to +e corrupt)

The selection of *hich file=s> *ill +e reloaded at an automatic reload is descri+ed +elo* in the next section) A manuall- initiated dump creates a ne* +ac?up generation) This dump *ill over*rite one of the +ac?up files, RE$#S:1 or RE$#S:., depending on the parameter value used *hen ordering the dump) &ormall- the manual dump is made on the oldest +ac?up file, i)e) RE$#S:.) &ote that a manual +ac?up cannot +e made to*ards the second file range) :ith commands S5T8C' and S5&1C' the file names can +e rotated and changed so that, for instance, the latest manual dump file *ill +e renamed RE$#S:/ and +ecome the automatic +ac?up file) :e can also rename the file names +- using the A42;/ command: cpfrename relfsw2 relfsw0 This example could have +een *here an older generation has +een loaded into RE$#S:. from a %AT drive, +ut is reIuired to +e in RE$#S:/) &ote that the commands S5T8C and S5&1C are part of the s-stem +ac?up functions and can onl- +e used *ith the files *ith names RE$#S:n) To cop- ##R files to S#R files use command S5S#T' To see the existing +ac?up files *e can use the command: <SYBFP:FILE; :ith this the existing RE$#S:n files in +oth ##R and S#R on the hard dis? are printed) The printout actuall- prints the information from su+file R/ or S%% in each file)

Ho* does the ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le loo? li?e in exchange AX

Each column is descri+ed +elo*: ,-&8(,ER This column contains t*o items: the origin and the ,-num+er) 0rigin, *hich is the digit to the left, is used for dividing the *hole ,-num+er anal-sis into different parts =different +ranches in the tree>) The origin is either affected +- the preanal-sis or +- the su+scri+er categor- U0,AV =set +- command S8SCC>) #or incoming routes, the command EER,C:R )))),,0 xx' can +e used) The ,-num+ers are then listed in numerical order) The num+er of digits included for each group of num+ers depends on ho* man- digits the administration *ants to anal-Je) (1SCE$$ This column contains various t-pes of parameters such as destination codes, num+er modifications and traffic destination codes) 1f more than one area code is defined in the exchange, the column indicates the area code tied to the num+er series) ,means of various parameters, the ta+le can order the register to reIuest information from the incoming side of the call) Examples are A-su+scri+er class, A-num+er and satellite information) #<& This column is used for ma?ing Humps in the anal-sis ta+le) T*o parameters can +e used here: U#V for first and U&V for next) #irst means that the anal-sis is started from the first digit in the origin stated after the parameter) &ext means that the anal-sis is continued *ith the next digit in the stated origin) R08TE This column contains references to routing cases, RC, and terminating traffic, TE) CHAR2E The column gives references to charging cases) $, num+er length This column indicates the length of the ,-num+er) 1f the length is un?no*n, the minimum and maximum values of the num+er length is specified =min-max, for example, !-1">) A, accounting case #or references to interconnect charging cases


A su+scri+er in the exchange A *ants to call a su+scri+er in exchange , *ith num+er 3.1/B!) The su+scri+er dials the digit U3V) The digit is received and for*arded in the soft*are to the register in the Traffic Control Su+s-stem =TCS>) The digit U3V is stored in the register and is then sent to function +loc? %A *here the ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le is situated) :hat happens nextX The ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le has different +ranches, indicated +- 0rigin for ,-num+er Anal-sis =0,A>) The default +ranch is /, +ut 0,A can have other values as a result of the pre-,-num+er anal-sis) The information a+out the num+er length is stored in the register to indicate the expected num+er of digits)

The information indicating the charging case is immediatel- sent on to the charging su+s-stem CHS for the charging anal-sis) #igure G-B sho*s ho* digit 3 is anal-Jed in the s-stem)

The digit is sent, as usual, to the register for storage and is then sent to +loc? %A for ,num+er anal-sis) 1n this case, digit . indicates to *hich exchange the call is directed) ,loo?ing at line /-3. in the ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le *e can find a Routing Case for example, RC 13, under the heading R08TE) The anal-sis result sent +ac? to the register is a routing case) The register *ill immediatel- send the routing case to +loc? RA for route anal-sis) The result from the

route anal-sis is, among other things, the identit- of the outgoing route and the sending program)

As *ill +e seen from the ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le, no more anal-sis results can +e o+tained =no more digits in this part of the anal-sis, since /-3. is follo*ed +- /-B in the ta+le>) The %A +loc? *ill indicate this to the register +- entering Uend of anal-sisV as the last anal-sis result) This implies that the remaining four digits dialed +- the su+scri+er *ill not +e anal-Jed) The- *ill, ho*ever, +e stored in the register) The next action to +e ta?en +- the register is determined +- the data in the sending program) At this point, the follo*ing information is stored inside the register: num+er length: B digits tariff class identit- of outgoing route sending program ,-num+er digits: 3 and .

A* I*TER*A- CA-This case stud- descri+es an internal call inside exchange A in a simple fixed net*or?) :e ta?e this example from the fixed net*or?, +ecause this is at this stage easier to understand than the mo+ile net*or?) A su+scri+er lifts the receiver and dials the num+er U1V) As *ill +e seen from the net*or? data, this must +e an internal call =1.///- 1./!! defined as internal num+ers>) The ,&um+er Anal-sis ta+le sho*s that the num+er length " can +e found under the heading U$V in the ta+le =loo? at line /-1>) Also charging case ; is indicated under the heading UCHAR2EV as all internal calls have this charging case) The su+scri+er then dials digit U.V) 1n this case, the ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le delivers no result at all as nothing is indicated on the line /-1. in the ta+le) The third digit dialed +- the su+scri+er is the digit U/V) 1n this case, the parameter UTEV is indicated under the heading R08TE) That parameter is used for indicating a terminating call)


Su+scri+er services often use procedures that the su+scri+ers have to dial in order to activate, deactivate and use the service) Examples of su+scri+er procedures are activation of call transfer =Q.1Q ,-&o Y> and deactivation of donMt distur+ =Y.BY>) These digits and codes =Q and Y> are dialed +- the su+scri+er and anal-Jed as ordinardigits) The t*o codes Q and Y are represented in the anal-sis ta+le as follo*s: Q Y11 Y Y1. This means that the digits Q"1Y *ill +e *ritten in the anal-sis ta+le as Y11"1Y1.) Another parameter *hich is rather common is the U(V parameter that can +e found under the column (1SCE$$) The ( parameter is used for modif-ing the ,-num+er and it maconsist of one or t*o su+-parameters) The follo*ing t*o examples illustrate the use of the parameter: (3 Three digits are deleted from the ,-num+er) Can +e used for deleting the trun? prefix as the deletion is made from the first digit dialed +- the su+scri+er) (3-/;" Three digits are deleted from the ,-num+er and the digits U/;"V are added in front of the num+er instead) 1f (/-/;" is used instead, no deletion is made) Here are some more parameters that have not +een mentioned +efore) #or more information, please the studthe Command %escription for command ) A N B S I %T, dialing tone This parameter can +e used if a second dialing tone is *anted) 1n some countries, a second dialing tone is given after, for example, the countr- code) &E, num+er end #or su+scri+er procedures, the Y +utton on the telephone is used for indicating the end of the procedure) 1n the ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le, the parameter &E is used for indicating that the complete num+er has +een received) T&, ta+le test num+ers This parameter is descri+ed in more detail in the UTest of not Activated %ataV on page !) TR%, traffic destination code This parameter is used for statistics on destination =traffic destination recording>)

:hen introducing changes in the ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le, an operating and a nonoperating area have to +e used) The principle is similar to the 04 and &04 areas used for routing cases and charging cases) Ho*ever, the handling of the 04 and &04 areas differs in some respect) :hen a routing case *as specified in the &04 area, it *as handled as one unit in the commands) 0ne RC could +e cleared in the &04 area, one RC at a time could +e activated and one RC could +e deactivated) The same thing applied to charging cases and tariff classes) :hen *or?ing *ith the ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le, the *hole ta+le has to +e seen as one unit) This means that the *hole ta+le is activated and deactivated) #igure G-D sho*s the principle)

The commands are descri+ed +riefl- in the text that follo*s: ANBZI The command is used for clearing the &04 area) &ote that the *hole area is cleared) ANBCI The command copies the entire ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le from the 04 area into the &04 area) This means that the operator can UeditV the existing ta+le in the &04 area +- means of commands) ANBSI This command is used for introducing ne* data into the &04 area of the ta+le) ANBSE The command is used for for deleting data from the &04 area) ANBAI The command activates the *hole &04 area and ma?es it operating) The old data, previousl- in the 04 area, is no* in the &04 area and it is *riting protected for .; hours) ANBAR 1f the data is fault-, a single command needs to +e entered to return to the old anal-sis ta+le) After a change *ith A&,S1 and<or A&,SE, the ta+le can +e activated again *ith A&,A1) ANBLI The command can +e used for removing the *rite protection on the &04 area) The command should not +e used in normal cases as the U+ac?-upV of the anal-sis ta+le might +e destro-ed) ANBSP The command prints the operating or the non-operating areas of the ta+le) #or a real exchange, the ta+le is ver- large =could +e more than ." pages>) 4arameters ma- then +e used to print parts of the ta+le)

Some examples: A ' N prints the *hole ta+le A prints N origin Jero A prints N all ,-num+er series *ith routing cases in origin ./ A ' N prints B S P : = all B ,-num+er series *ith charging cases in all origins) prints all num+er series in all origin *hich terminate in the exchange) ANBSP:B=ALL,TE; ' prints the differences +et*een the operating area and the non-operating area) ANBSP:B=ALL,COMP The command searches for the specified conditions and onl- prints the parts that meet all reIuirements) The search time ma- +e Iuite long and the text U:A1TV is printed *hile the program is searching =done on a lo*er priorit- level than the traffic handling>) &ote also that the parameter &04 must +e added if the non-operating area is to +e printed ='>) A N B S P :


A*A-YSES I* GE*ERAThe input to the anal-sis ta+les is mainl- of three t-pes: External data such as ,-num+er digits and A-num+er digits 1nternal data such as su+scri+er categories and route data Results from other anal-sis ta+les, for example, routing cases #igure G-! sho*s the general principles of the anal-ses made inside the AEE s-stem)


The route anal-sis in the AEE s-stem is implemented in the C4 soft*are in a RA function +loc?, Route Anal-sis) The RE +loc?, Register, inter*or?s *ith +loc? RA as descri+ed +elo*)

The different steps sho*ed in the figure are +riefl- explained +elo* =num+ers refer to the num+ers in the figure>: 1) The ,-num+er is sent to the register from other +loc?s in the s-stem) .) The digits are sent for anal-sis in +loc? %A, digit anal-sis, 3) 1n some cases, the result of the ,-num+er anal-sis ta+le is a routing case, RC) The RC num+er is sent +ac? to the register that stores the information in the register record reserved for the call) ;) The routing case is sent to +loc? RA *here in the route anal-sis ta+le *ill +e indicated the route to +e used for the call) ") The identit- of the route indicated in the anal-sis is sent +ac? to the register) The route anal-sis inside the +loc? RA is in the form of a ta+le that can +e printed +means of the command A c N om R S P m a n d .

For a detailed description, see the printout description for the printout ;#3<8I"1 CA'2 *A8A=. > #C, routing case 8his column is used for the num-er of the routing cases. 8he #C num-er (ill -e the input position to the ta-le. > CC?, compati-ility check If @2' is stated, the compati-ility -et(een the selected route and the reAuested service is compared )regarding signaling and -earer demands,.

> +#, -ranching 8he routing cases can give different results depending on different input parameters )for eBample, su-scri-er class,. #outing <nder this heading, the different routing alternatives are listed. If an #C has several ;lines=, this means that there are more than one alternative for that #outing Case. 2ach #C can have up to .: ;routing programs= denoted /!$ to /.:. Cithin each routing program, up to D alternatives can -e specified. 8he alternatives are indicated -y $ to D )/!$E$, /!$E. .... /!$ED,. 8he ;#E...= parameter indicates the route name for the alternative. 8he route names specified (ith 2X#3I command should -e used. S4, sending program This information is used to indicate *hen an outgoing circuit is to +e seiJed) The parameter is descri+ed in detail in the next chapter) The other columns are used for special cases and for international exchanges =for example, handling of echo suppressors>)

The Sending Program

The column mar?ed US4V in the printout indicates *hen different actions should +e ta?en for seiJure of an outgoing circuit and for digit transmission) The sending program consists of 3 parts *hose meanings are explained:

As can +e seen in the sending program, the digits sent on the outgoing side are determined +- the exchange at the incoming side) As the register controls the call setup, the events are related to the num+er of digits that is received +- the register) 1f the sending program in #igure G-1.) is used =S4 ""3>, the seiJure of an outgoing circuit is initiated *hen the register has received the "th digit of the ,-num+er) The seiJure signal to the other exchange is also sent after the "th digit and the third digit is transmitted as the first) 1f 6(7 is used =in for example S4 ((3>, the 6(7 means that the seiJure ta?es place *hen the complete ,-num+er has +een received)


End-of-selection in telephon- indicates that the ,-su+scri+er has +een identified and that the selection of a path has +een finished) The purpose of the End-of-Selection anal-sis ta+le is to specif- the actions to +e ta?en in case of congestion, technical faults and other events during the call) The anal-sis ta+le is also used for redirecting calls to announcing machines or su+scri+er services)

/<#/3'2 3F 2"*-3F-'262C8I3" A"A6@'I' At the 2nd-of-selection in a call setup the selection of the +num-er is completed and the ringing signal is sent to the +su-scri-er. ?o(ever, the setup of a call may -e affected -y several events. For eBampleF > 8echnical faults in some part of the net(ork > Congestion in some part of the net(ork > 8he +-su-scri-er has services activated that affect the call > 8he +-su-scri-er is -usy. Chat should -e done if an a-normal situation like these mentioned are detectedG 8he ans(er can -e found in the function called ;endof- selection analysis=. +asically, there are t(o (ays of handling errors in the systemF > 8ones are sent to the su-scri-er )for eBample, -usy tone or congestion tone, > Announcements from announcing machines are sent to the su-scri-ers.
The net*or? operator sets up the reIuired actions) The End-ofselection function must +e flexi+le in order to permit changes) The solution is a ta+le that decides on the action to +e ta?en in each case) The ta+le can +e modified +- means of commands) The endofselection anal-sis is not onl- used for fault situations, +ut also for normal situations =+ussu+scri+er, no repl->) The end-of-selection anal-sis can also +e used for advanced routing programs in cooperation *ith the route anal-sis) 1t is possi+le to have dela-ed seiJure in routes or to +loc? routes for traffic *ithout priorit-) #or 1S%& su+scri+ers, a cause code can +e generated) The cause code is sent +ac? to the calling terminal and can +e translated to a text string or message on the computer screen =for example UConnection failed due to errors in the called $A&V>) 0n completion of su+scri+er procedures for activating and deactivating services, the end-of-selection anal-sis function is also used for redirecting the su+scri+er to an announcing machine indicating that the service is activated < deactivated)

E$,-o%-S!"!ctio$ Co,!(

1n order to identif- all occurrences that are detected in the s-stem, these are given uniIue num+ers, so-called Uend-of-selection codesV =E0S codes>) :hen a function detects an a+normal event, for example, congestion or technical fault, an end-of-selection code is generated and sent in a signal to +loc? RE, register, since this +loc? is responsi+le for all actions ta?en during call esta+lishment) The register for*ards the E0S code in another signal to +loc? RA, route anal-sis, *hich contains the end-of-selection anal-sis ta+le)

Since each occurrence defined in the s-stem has a uniIue num+er, man- E0S codes are defined in the s-stem toda-) 1n total, more than ./// codes have +een defined) The ,module and specific documents in Alex contain information a+out the meaning of the E0S codes and the +loc? that generates them)

The end-of-selection anal-sis function is divided into an operating and a non-operating area) The principle is the same as for the ,num+er anal-sis or route anal-sis) The commands for changing and inserting data in the end-of-selection anal-sis ta+le are: ANESI 1t specifies ne* data for the specified ES code) %ata can +e over*ritten if something is alread- specified ANESE Removes data from the ta+le for the specified ES code ANESP 4rints the *hole or part of the ta+le ANEPI 1nitiates a procedure =mandator- if +ranching is used> ANEPE

Terminates a procedure ANEAI Activates the data in the &04 area ANEAR 1t returns to old data for a changed E0S) 4lease note that due to the .;-hour protection time, the command onl- *or?s *ithin .; hours) After this time, the data in the &04 area is cleared)

The Extended S*itching Su+s-stem, ESS, is the su+s-stem that contains functions for announcements and multi-part- calls) 1t can also handle mass distri+ution of announcements to thousands of su+scri+ers) The limited information that can +e transmitted +- tones is not enough for a modern net*or? *ith a vast num+er of services, services that gives income to the net*or? operator) The extended s*itching su+s-stem =ESS> consists of four functional units) (ulti Tunctor =(T> (ass Announcement =(A> ,roadcast =,C> Announcement S-stem =A&S>

Multi un!tor "M #

This function is primaril- used +- functions that need more than t*o parties in one and the same call) There are some su+scri+er services and other similar services that have this reIuirement) Here are some examples of such services: Call :aiting Conference Call Three part- call The +roadcast and mass announcement functions interact and reIuire each other in order to have a complete function) The main purpose is, as the name indicates, to distri+ute messages to a large num+er of su+scri+ers) :ith this function, the reIuired num+er of announcing machines in the exchange can +e reduced) The announcements can originate from an announcing machine or from an incoming trun? line from another exchange =a centraliJed announcing machine in one exchange distri+utes the same message to a large num+er of exchanges>) An example of an application could +e that a T9 program gives a telephone num+er to a set of Iuestions that should +e ans*ered +- the competitors) This *ill in most cases cause thousands of su+scri+ers calling the same message) :ithout the +roadcast and mass announcement functions, the amount of hard*are reIuired for this t-pe of service *ould +e enormous) The M!ss announcement function contains functions for mass distri+ution of announcements and messages, +- allo*ing several listeners to each announcement or message) The function al*a-s *or?s together *ith the +roadcast function)

)(o!d%!st is introduced as a mechanism for point to multi point connections that can +e used +- other functions that are reIuiring this s-stem capa+ilit-) The purpose of the function is to distri+ute information from an information source to several listeners or speech from ordinar- participants in a conference call to participants *ho are listeners onl-)

An announcement machine is used for providing the customer *ith digital announcement services) These services are +ased on a phrase concept *here different t-pes of phrases are used for composing announcements) A phrase is a period of speech data, ranging from a single tone or *ord to a seIuence of sentences) 1n net*or?s toda- there is a demand for more complex digital announcement services from announcement machines) (essages a+out changes in the net*or?, information a+out the *eather, ne*s, stoc? mar?et information and su+scri+er services are examples of announcement services) The Announcement Service Terminal =AST> product range offers high Iualit- speech and tone announcement services that meet the modern net*or? reIuirements) AST is an Announcement Service Terminal that is a+le to handle +oth fixed and changea+le phrases) :ith AST it is possi+le to perform interactive services +- means of guidance of spo?en messages and detection of %T(# tones) The Announcement S-stem Set of 4arts =A&S> contains soft*are and hard*are that provide the functions of the different AST products)

Ex!hange $ata
The connection of the AST includes the follo*ing: %efinition of the AST hard*are eIuipment as an Extension (odule =E(> %efinition of S&T data, that is, connection to the 2S and supervision information)

Route data: The main route, listening routes and recording routes Administration of the main route Administration of announcement data Connection of devices) Connection to the main route and to the S&T ,loc?ing supervision Exchange data for Access to AST) 4hrase specification

8he *ata 8ranscript commands are divided into different sessions and this is a partial eBampleF


Charging is a ?e- function, since it is the means of translating net*or? traffic into revenue =from the net*or? operators7 perspective> and costs =from the su+scri+ers7 point of vie*>) 1t is of maHor importance that charging is performed accuratel- for +oth the telephone administrations and the su+scri+ers for statistical and +illing purposes) 1naccurate charging can even lead to legal conseIuences) Charging must +e accurate in t*o *a-s: Accurac- in time measurements All measurements and internal calculations must +e accurate to 1/ ms) The inaccuracmust al*a-s +e +eneficial to the su+scri+er and not to the administration) 0vercharging is the situation in *hich the inaccurac- is +eneficial to the telephone administration) Accurac- in output #or the output, a maximum 1 out of 1 million call records ma- +e lost) This al*a-s leads to undercharging *hen charging data is lost)

A mo+ile call is divided into different call components, *hich are charged separatel-: (o+ile 0riginating Call Component The calling su+scri+er is charged for the call component from the (S to the 2(SC of the Home 4$(& of the called su+scri+er) (o+ile Terminating Call Component The called su+scri+er can +e charged for the terminating call component, *hich is that part of the call from the serving (SC of the called su+scri+er to the mo+ile station) Roaming Call #or*arding Call Component The Roaming Call #or*arding Call Component occurs al*a-s and is that part of the call from the 2(SC of the Home 4$(& of the calling su+scri+er to the serving (SC) This leg is associated to the ,-su+scri+er *hen the ,-su+scri+er is not in his Home 4$(&) #or*arded Call Component 1f the ,-su+scri+er has redirected his call to a C-num+er, he has to pa- for the for*arded call)

The collection of charging data starts *ith the anal-sis of the t-pe of traffic activit-) The charging anal-sis anal-Jes *hether charging is reIuired for this t-pe of activit-) 1f it is reIuired, the charging related data is collected in Call %etail Records =C%Rs>) The unnecessar- fields are filtered out and for*arded via +uffer to the A42;/ =for toll tic?ets> and directl- to A42;/ =for 1mmediate Call 1temiJation>)

Charging anal-sis and data collection are performed in different nodes ==2>(SCs, SS4, SC4>, and are dependent on the call component and the traffic activit-) The output function Common Charging 0utput =CC0> is the same on ever- node) C%Rs are output in AS&)1 =A+stract S-ntax &otation 0ne> format)


The (SC architecture is +ased on the Application (odularit- =A(> concept) 0ne of the features of the A( concept related to charging is that the charging functions are distri+uted across different s-stem components: S-stem (odules =S(s>) ,- distri+uting functionalit- in this *a- an individual application s-stem can +e made up of a num+er of modules, each of *hich produces charging event information) The generic charging services are implemented in the Resource (odule 4latform =R(4> and is accessed +- users *ho reIuire its services ) The anal-sis of the charging information has traditionall- +een handled +- a complex of +loc?s located in the Existing Source S-stem =ESS>) The charging formatting and output functions are located in a support Application (odule called, #ormatting and 0utput A( =#0A(>, for example the Toll Tic?eting function)

$istri%ution o& !harging &un!tions

The functionalit- of each application can +e distri+uted into a num+er of different s-stem components =see figure +elo*>)

Traffi: Handling AMs Applications are divided into a num+er of A(s) A(s that are involved in the +asic traffic handling of a call or service are referred to as Traffic Handling A(s) 1n Traffic Handling A(s, charging events are generated as a result of, for example, a call setup or invo?ing a Supplementar- Service) The Traffic Handling A(s contain the logic for controlling calls and services and ?no* therefore if a chargea+le event has occurred) #or an individual call or service, several A(s can +e involved in creating charging event information) !?isting Sour:e S@stem ESS can not +e referred to as an Application (odule) Ho*ever, the ESS acts as traffic A( in the +asic traffic handling for a call or service) Therefore, the ESS is also responsi+le for producing charging information *hich applies to a call as *ell as non call related chargea+le activities) The su+s-stem handling the charging functions in the ESS is called the Charging Su+s-stem =CHS>) Resour:e Module Platform The R(4 acts as a coordinator of common resources) 1n the case of charging, several A(s are involved in producing chargea+le events for an individual call) The R(4 contains a charging service that is used for coordinating and collecting charging data for individual applications) The charging service allo*s charging for a call or service to +e dealt *ith in a unified *a- irrespective of the architecture chosen for the traffic handling A(s) The su+s-stem for the charging services is called the Charging Services Su+s-stem =CHSS>) $ormatting and Out ut AM The R(4 stores ra* charging data) The #0A( +loc?s are responsi+le for formatting the ra* charging data, *hich is then output to the administration in accordance *ith their reIuirements) O eration and Maintenan:e AMs Application specific 0peration and (aintenance A(s are introduced and control the 0O( reIuirements for each individual application) An- charging specific 0O( commands are handled +- the application 0O( A( to *hich the command +elongs)


The Charging Anal-sis is performed during different time phases) 4rimar- Charging Anal-sis #inal charging Anal-sis Re-Charging Anal-sis The first phase is performed during the call-setup *hen enough information is ?no*n a+out the destination of the call to specif- a charging case) The charging case reflects the destination of the call and is o+tained from the ,-num+er anal-sis) %uring the 4rimarCharging anal-sis the Traffic Activit- %ependent Charging Anal-sis and the =,asic> Charging Anal-sis are performed) The second phase is performed *hen the ,-su+scri+er has +een identified at the End-0fSelection and all necessar- input data for the Charging Anal-sis has +een received) The #inal Charging anal-sis is performed to determine if and ho* the call should +e charged) 1t also consists of the Traffic Activit- Charging Anal-sis and the =,asic> Charging Anal-sis) The Re-Charging Anal-sis is used for determining a ne* tariff class if some values of the charging anal-sis input parameters =for example, change in num+er of the assigned traffic channels> changes the final charging anal-sis) The Re-Charging Anal-sis is similar to the #inal Charging Anal-sis)

Tr#%%ic Acti'it1 D!p!$,!$t Ch#r0i$0 A$#"1(i(

The Traffic Activit- %ependent Charging Anal-sis is used for anal-Jing the characteristics of a call3 su lementar@ servi:e3 or short message servi:e) 1t distinguishes +et*een different t-pes of calls =normal call, emergenc- call, supplementar- service, etc>) 1n the case of a supplementar- service, it also distinguishes +et*een different actions *ithin the service =activation, deactivation, and so on)>)

2B#(ic3 Ch#r0i$0 A$#"1(i(

The ,asic Charging Anal-sis is used to for anal-Jing the characteristics of the Asu+scri+er and the origin of a call, supplementar- service, or S(S to determine *hich charging program should +e used The Charging Anal-sis determines the appropriate Charging 4rogram) A Charging 4rogram identifies the su+scri+er to +e charged, *hether or not a Toll Tic?et C%R should +e output, and other functions)

Op!r#tio$ #$, M#i$t!$#$c!

The Charging Anal-sis consists of an operating area and a non operating area) The data in the operating area is used for the ongoing calls, Supplementar- Services and Short (essages) The non-operating area is used for ne* definitions and modifications of data) %ata can +e transferred +et*een the areas) :hen activating data defined in the nonoperating area, there *ill +e a s*itch of data if the activated CC alread- had data active in the operating area) At the same time, .;-hour time supervision is started) This precaution prevents the user from deleting an- data, in case the ne* data contains errors) 1f that happen the user can s*itch +ac? the old data)

Commands &or Charging Analysis

- CHAC1, Charging Administration of Charging Anal-sis, %ata Ceroing, 1nitiate - CHA41, Charging Administration of Charging Anal-sis, %ata 4rocedure, 1nitiate - CHAS1, Charging Administration of Charging Anal-sis, %ata Specification, 1nitiate - CHA,1, Charging Administration of Charging Anal-sis, %ata ,ranching, 1nitiate - CHA4E, Charging Administration of Charging Anal-sis, %ata 4rocedure, End - CHAA1, Charging Administration of Charging Anal-sis, %ata Activation, 1nitiate

- CHAAR, Charging Administration of Charging Anal-sis, %ata Activation, Reset - CHASE, Charging Administration of Charging Anal-sis, %ata Specification, End - CHAS4, Charging Administration of Charging Anal-sis, %ata Specification, 4rint The traffic case provides charging case 1 in the node *here charging is performed +means of Toll Tic?eting) The Asu+scri+er is to +e charged) Tariffs related to the tariff class 3 are applied) CHASI:CC'-3 CD'.3 AP3 TT3 TC'/* 0+serve that *hen the charging cases are loaded into the node, commands CHAC1 and CHAA1 must +e specified according to the example: CHACI:CC'-(.* CHASI:CC'-3CD'/3TC'/3AP3TT3OTI'.* CHAPI:CC'.* CHA+I:+C'CO"7("0* CHASI:CD'/3 TC'-3 AP3 TT3 OTI'.* CHA+I:+C'CO"-(("/("1("8("9(("-.* CHASI:CD'/3 TC'/3 AP3 TT3 OTI'.* CHAP!* CHAAI:CC'-(.*

A$#"1(i( T#4"!(
The supplementar- service Advice of Charge =AoC> provides the mo+ile station *ith necessar- information to calculate the estimation of the charge for a call) The charging information for calls consists of Charge Advice 1nformation =CA1> elements) The (S<8E uses the CA1 elements to calculate the AoC value for the relevant call) The information is sent to the (S<8E from the (SC) 1n order to ma?e possi+le to use Advice of Charge functionalit- for a su+scri+er, the Tariff =T> and the Tariff Class =TC> must +e specified) Although the anal-sis of the AoC feature is out of the scope of this chapter, it is mentioned here in order to ma?e it possi+le to present the commands related to Tariff, Tariff Class and S*itching Class specification) The Tariff according to *hich a call is charged, depends on the settings that the net*or? administration uses) #or example, an administration ma- *ant to charge a call during *or?ing hours differentl- from a call during evenings or *ee?ends) The Tariff Class and S*itching Class ta+les point out at *hich times the tariffs +ecome active)

Commands &or Tari&& 'andling

Tariff :lass definition4 %efines *hat tariffs to use on different da- categories, and *hat s*itching class to use *hen s*itching +et*een them) 1ncludes the follo*ing commands: CHCC1:))) ' Clears Tariff Class data &04) CHC41:))) ' 1nitiation of procedure to define Tariff Class) CHCS1:))) ' Specifies Tariff Class data for %a- Categories) CHC4E:))) ' Ends procedure started *ith CHC41) CHCA1:))) ' Activates Tariff Classes in &04) Tariff definition4 Specifies data for Tariffs, num+er of start pulses, and time +et*een pulses) 1ncludes the follo*ing commands: CHTC1:))) ' Clears Tariff data in the &04) CHTS1:))) ' Specifies Tariff data) CHRA1:))) ' Activates Tariffs in &04) Swit:hing Class definition4 %efines *hat time to s*itch tariffs on a certain da- categor-) 1ncludes the follo*ing commands: CHSC1:))) ' Clearing S*itching Class data from &04) CHS41:))) ' 1nitiating procedure for S*itching Class definition CHSS1:))) ' Specif-ing S*itching Class data) CHS4E:))) ' End procedure started *ith CHS41) CHSA1:))) ' Activates S*itching Class from &04) Da@ Categor@ definition4 Specifies *hat da- categor- the da-s of the *ee? should +e) 1ncludes the follo*ing commands: CACAS:))) ' %efinition of da- categor-

Toll Ti!(eting
Toll Tic?eting is a charging output function, *hich ena+les the collecting of data for chargea+le traffic activities) The data can +e output in a form of call data records to the output media) The output is performed if it is specified in the Charging Anal-sis) %ata is collected for all chargea+le traffic activities that according to the Charging Anal-sis shall +e charged +- the Toll Tic?eting) The 0utput of the collected data is initiated *hen the chargea+le traffic activit- is ended =for example, call disconnected> or *hen the limit for partial output has +een reached) The limit for partial output can +e the call duration, s-stem time limit or real time charging events) The creation of a call data record is initiated +- the Toll Tic?eting function and the created call data record is stored to an output +uffer) As soon as the output +uffer is full, or at pre-defined intervals, the contents of the output +uffer are transferred to an output medium)

)mmediate Call )temization

1mmediate Call 1temiJation =1C1> is a charging output function, *hich ena+les the output of a call data record for a su+scri+er immediatel- after the chargea+le traffic activit- is ended or after the partial output) The initiation of the function for a particular chargea+le traffic activit- depends on: Su+scri+er Categor Charging Anal-sis) 1mmediate Call 1temiJation can +e performed for +oth the A- and the ,-su+scri+er provided that the su+scri+er categor- is availa+le) %ata is collected for all chargea+le traffic activities that according to the Charging Anal-sis shall +e charged +- the 1mmediate Call 1temiJation) The 0utput of the collected data is initiated *hen the chargea+le traffic activit- is ended =for example call disconnected> or *hen the limit for partial output is reached) The limit for partial output can +e call duration, s-stem limit or real time charging events) The creation of a call data record is initiated +- the 1mmediate Call 1temiJation function) The created call data record is stored to an output +uffer and the contents of the +uffer are transferred immediatel- to an output medium)


Ensure the C4-A4 interface is in state 04E& and set the charging output dela- time 08T4 mmmss: @CH044' @CH041' @CH0EC:08T4 ///1"'

Ch#$0! th! Ch#r0i$0 Output I$t!r%#c! TO AP

The charging output interface from C4 should +e changed to A4: @CH014' @CH01C:1&TER# A4'

Ch!c. Output -i)it D#t#

The parameter limit is normall- ,A&S =Call data is output for calls that reach ,-ans*er>) @CH0$4' @CH0$C:$1(1T ,A&S'

SAE566 o% B"oc. CHOP

The call data file SAE"// in +loc? CH04 is used to +uffer charging data, it7s traffic sensitive, the num+er of individuals for +loc? CH04 can compare to +loc? CH0# *ith similar traffic load) @SAAE4:SAE "//, ,$0CA CH04' @SAA11:SAE "//,,$0CA CH04, &1 ni' &ote: #or the SAE"// of +loc? CH0#, since it7s useless for A4 interface, decrease the num+er of individuals to one: @SAAE4:SAE "//,,$0CA CH0#' @SAA%1:SAE "//,,$0CA CH0#,&1 1'

CP SAE Ch!c.
Chec? the SAE "// of +loc? CH04: SAAE4:SAE "//,,$0CA CH04' S1CE A$TERAT10& 0# %ATA #1$ES 1&#0R(AT10& SAE ,$0CA C&TRT54 &1 &18 &1E &1R "// CH04 (A&8A$ ./// 3 E&% 1n the live site, the &18 value should var-, it means the charging information is output to the message store of A4)