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Chapter 11: Applications and Processing of Metal Alloys


ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
How are metal alloys ____________ and what are their common applications ? What are some of the common ____________ techniques for _________? What heat treatment procedures are used to improve the mechanical properties of both __________________ alloys?

Chapter 11 - 1

Classification of Metal Alloys


Metal Alloys Ferrous Steels _______ <1.4wt%C _________ Cast Irons __________ 3-4.5 wt%C ___________ Nonferrous
Adapted from Fig. 11.1, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

T(C)
1600

microstructure: ferrite, graphite/cementite


L

1400 1200 1000

!
L+Fe3C

! austenite

!+L

1148C 4.30

Eutectic:

"800 ferrite

727C

!+Fe3C "+Fe3C
3 4 5 6 6.7

600 400

0.76

Eutectoid:
1 2

Fe3C cementite

Adapted from Fig. 9.24, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 9.24 adapted from Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-in-Chief), ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.)

0 (Fe)

low carbon Med carbon <0.25 wt% C 0.25-0.6 wt% C


Name plain HSLA plain

Cr,V Additions none none Ni, Mo Example 1010 4310 1040 Hardenability 0 + + TS 0 + EL + + 0
Uses auto struc. sheet bridges towers press. vessels

Based on data provided in Tables 11.1(b), 11.2(b), 11.3, and 11.4, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility

! +! "!

Co , wt% C

Chapter 11 - 2

Steels
Low Alloy high carbon 0.6-1.4 wt% C
tool Cr, V, Mo, W 4190 +++ ++ -drills saws dies

High Alloy

heat plain treatable Cr, Ni none Mo 43 40 1095 ++ ++ ++ + pistons gears wear applic. wear applic.

stainless Cr, Ni, Mo 304, 409 varies varies ++


high T applic. turbines furnaces Very corros. resistant
Chapter 11 - 3

crank shafts bolts hammers blades

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Refinement of Steel from Ore


Iron Ore ________ _____________ BLAST FURNACE heat generation C + O2 $! CO2 reduction of iron ore to metal CO2 + C $!2CO $! _______________________ purification CaCO3 $!CaO+CO2 CaO + SiO2 + Al2O3 $!slag

gas refractory vessel layers of ______ and __________ air slag Molten iron

Chapter 11 - 4

Ferrous Alloys
Iron-based alloys
Steels Cast Irons Nomenclature for steels (AISI/SAE) 10xx ____________________ 11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability) 15xx Mn (1.00 - 1.65%) 40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%) 43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.40 - 0.90%), Mo (0.20 - 0.30%) 44xx Mo (0.5%) where xx is wt% C x 100 example: 1060 steel plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C ____________________ >11% Cr
Chapter 11 - 5

Cast Irons
! Ferrous alloys with > ____________ ! more _________________________ ! Low melting relatively easy to cast ! Generally brittle ! Cementite decomposes to _____ + ________ Fe3C ! 3 Fe (") + C (__________) ! generally a slow process
Chapter 11 - 6

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Fe-C True Equilibrium Diagram


T(C)
1600

Graphite formation promoted by ! __________ ! __________ " + !%

1400 1200 1000

L !! Austenite !!+L
1153C 4.2 wt% C

Liquid + Graphite

! + Graphite
800 600
0.65

740C

Adapted from Fig. 11.2, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. [Fig. 11.2 adapted from Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.in-Chief), ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.]

" + Graphite
0 1 2 3 4

400
(Fe)

C, wt% C

90

100

Chapter 11 - 7

Types of Cast Iron


______ iron Callister & Rethwisch 8e. ! _________________ ! weak & brittle in tension ! stronger in compression ! excellent _________ dampening ! wear resistant ________ iron ! add Mg and/or Ce ! graphite as ________ not flakes ! matrix often pearlite stronger but less ductile
Chapter 11 - 8 Adapted from Fig. 11.3(a) & (b),

Types of Cast Iron (cont.)


White iron
! < 1 wt% Si ! pearlite + ________ ! very hard and _______
Adapted from Fig. 11.3(c) & (d), Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

__________ iron
! heat treat white iron at 800-900C ! graphite in __________ ! reasonably strong and ductile

Chapter 11 - 9

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Types of Cast Iron (cont.)


Compacted _________ iron
! relatively high _________________ ! good resistance to thermal shock ! lower oxidation at elevated temperatures

Adapted from Fig. 11.3(e), Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter 11 - 10

Production of Cast Irons

Adapted from Fig.11.5, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter 11 - 11

Limitations of Ferrous Alloys


1)! Relatively high densities 2)! Relatively low electrical conductivities 3)! Generally poor corrosion resistance

Chapter 11 - 12

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Nonferrous Alloys
Cu Alloys Al Alloys
-low &: 2.7 g/cm3 Brass: Zn is subst. impurity (costume jewelry, coins, -Cu, Mg, Si, Mn, Zn additions corrosion resistant) -solid sol. or precip. Bronze : Sn, Al, Si, Ni are strengthened (struct. subst. impurities aircraft parts (bushings, landing & packaging) gear) NonFerrous Mg Alloys Cu-Be : % 1.7g/cm3 -very low &: Alloys precip. hardened -ignites easily for strength -aircraft, missiles

Ti Alloys

-relatively low &: 4.5 g/cm3

-high melting Ts vs 7.9 for steel Noble metals -Nb, Mo, W, Ta -reactive at high Ts -Ag, Au, Pt -oxid./corr. resistant -space applic.
Based on discussion and data provided in Section 11.3, Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

Refractory metals

Chapter 11 - 13

Metal Fabrication
! How do we fabricate metals?
! ___________ - hammer (forged) ! Cast molten metal into mold

! ___________________
! Rough stock formed to final shape

Hot working

vs.

Cold working
Deformation below ________________ temperature Strain hardening occurs Small ______________
Chapter 11 - 14

Deformation ____________ high enough for ________________ Large ______________

Metal Fabrication Methods (i)


FORMING
force

CASTING

MISCELLANEOUS
(I-beams, rails, sheet & plate)
roll Ad

Forging (__________________) Rolling (________________)


(wrenches, crankshafts)
die A o blank

A d often at

elev. T

Ao roll

Drawing
die Ao die

force

__________
(rods, tubing)
Ao tensile force force
container

(rods, wire, tubing)


Ad

Adapted from Fig. 11.8, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

die holder
extrusion

ram

billet

Ad

die must be well lubricated & clean

die ductile metals, e.g. Cu, Al (hot) Chapter 11 container

15

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Metal Fabrication Methods (ii)


FORMING CASTING MISCELLANEOUS

! Casting- mold is filled with molten metal ! __________________________, perhaps alloying elements added, then _______ in a mold ! ____________________________ ! gives good production of shapes ! weaker products, internal defects ! ____________________________

Chapter 11 - 16

Metal Fabrication Methods (iii)


FORMING
________ Casting
(large parts, e.g., auto engine blocks)
Sand Sand

CASTING

MISCELLANEOUS

! What material will withstand T >1600C and is ____________ and easy to mold? ! Answer: ________!!! ! To create mold, pack _____ around form (pattern) of desired shape

molten metal

Chapter 11 - 17

Metal Fabrication Methods (iv)


FORMING CASTING MISCELLANEOUS

_____________________
(low volume, complex shapes e.g., jewelry, turbine blades) ! Stage I _____ formed by pouring ____________ around wax pattern. Plaster allowed to harden. Stage II Wax is melted and then poured from moldhollow mold cavity remains. Stage III ___________________ into mold and allowed to solidify.
wax

II

III
Chapter 11 - 18

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Metal Fabrication Methods (v)


FORMING
Die Casting
-- high ____________ -- for alloys having ____ melting temperatures

CASTING

MISCELLANEOUS
Continuous Casting
-- _________ shapes (e.g., rectangular slabs, cylinders)
molten solidified

Chapter 11 - 19

Metal Fabrication Methods (vi)


FORMING
_______________
(metals w/low ductilities)
pressure

CASTING

MISCELLANEOUS

_____________
(when fabrication of one large part is impractical)
filler metal (melted) base metal (melted) fused base metal unaffected piece 1 heat-affected zone unaffected Adapted from Fig. piece 2 11.9, Callister 7e.
(Fig. 11.9 from Iron Castings

heat

area contact
densify point contact at low T densification by diffusion at higher T

Heat-affected _______:Handbook, C.F.

Walton and T.J. (region in which the Opar (Ed.), 1981.) microstructure has been changed). Chapter 11 - 20

Thermal Processing of Metals


Annealing: Heat to Tanneal, then cool slowly.
S ! tress Relief: Reduce __________ (steels):
Make very soft steels for good machining. Heat just below Teutectoid & hold for 15-25 h. stresses resulting from: - plastic deformation - ___________ cooling - phase transform.

Types of Annealing
_ ! ______________:
Negate effects of cold working by (recovery/ recrystallization)

Full Anneal (steels):


Make soft steels for good forming. Heat % then furnace-cool to get !, to obtain coarse pearlite.

_ ! ________(steels): Deform

steel with large grains. Then heat treat to allow _______________ and formation of smaller grains.
Chapter 11 - 21

Based on discussion in Section 11.7, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

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Heat Treatment Temperature-Time Paths


a)! _____________ b)! _____________ c)! Tempering (Tempered Martensite)
A P

A
0%

B
10
50 %

0%

Fig. 10.25, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

b)

a) c)
Chapter 11 - 22

Hardenability -- Steels
__________ measure of the ability to form martensite Jominy end quench test used to measure ____________.
specimen (heated to ! phase field) 24C water flat ground Rockwell C hardness tests
Adapted from Fig. 11.11, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.11 adapted from A.G. Guy, Essentials of Materials Science, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1978.)

Plot __________ versus distance from the quenched end.


Hardness, HRC

Adapted from Fig. 11.12, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Distance from quenched end


Chapter 11 - 23

Reason Why Hardness Changes with Distance


The cooling rate _________ with distance from quenched end.
Hardness, HRC

60 40 20 0 1 2 3 distance from quenched end (in)

T(C)
600
A $ P

0% 100%
Adapted from Fig. 11.13, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.13 adapted from H. Boyer (Ed.) Atlas of Isothermal Transformation and Cooling Transformation Diagrams, American Society for Metals, 1977, p. 376.)

400 200 M(start) A$M

te ar rli Pe lite ea + ar P ite Pe Fine ens t ar ite M ens t ar M

0 M(finish)

0.1

10

100

Time (s)

1000

lite
Chapter 11 - 24

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Hardenability vs Alloy Composition


Hardness, HRC

_____________ curves for 60 five alloys each with, C = ______________


40
Adapted from Fig. 11.14, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.14 adapted from figure furnished courtesy Republic Steel Corporation.)

100

10

2 Cooling rate (C/s)


100 80 %M

4340

4140 8640 5140


4 10 0

50

20

0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance from quenched end (mm)

"Alloy Steels"
(4140, 4340, 5140, 8640) -- contain Ni, Cr, Mo (0.2 to 2 wt%) -- these ___________ shift the "nose" to longer times (from A to B) -- martensite is easier to form

T(C)

800 600 400 200 0 -1 10 10 10


3

TE A B M(start) M(90%)
5 10 Time (s)
Chapter 11 - 25

Influences of Quenching Medium & Specimen Geometry


Effect of quenching medium:
Medium air oil water Severity of Quench ________ ________ ________ Hardness ________ ________ ________

Effect of specimen geometry:


When surface area-to-volume ratio increases: -- cooling rate throughout interior increases -- hardness throughout interior increases
Position center surface Cooling rate low high Hardness low high

Chapter 11 - 26

Precipitation Hardening
Particles impede ___________ motion. 700 Ex: Al-Cu system T(C) Procedure: 600 "+L
L '+L --Pt A: _______________ A 500 (get " solid solution) '! " + ' ! --Pt B: _______ to room temp. 400 C (retain " solid solution) --Pt C: ________ to nucleate 300 small ' __________ within (Al) 0 B 10 20 30 40 50 wt% Cu composition range " phase.
available for precipitation hardening
Adapted from Fig. 11.24, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.24 adapted from J.L. Murray, International Metals Review 30, p.5, 1985.)

"!

CuAl2

! Other alloys that precipitation harden: Temp.


Cu-Be Cu-Sn Mg-Al

Pt A (soln heat treat)

Pt C (precipitate ') Time


Chapter 11 - 27

Adapted from Fig. 11.22, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Pt B

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2014 Al Alloy:

Influence of Precipitation Heat Treatment on TS, %EL


________ on %EL curves.

________ on TS curves. __________ T accelerates process.

no so n-eq lid uil so . lut ion ma pre ny s cip ma ita ll ag tes ed few p e ov recip r lar era ita ge ge tes d %EL (2 in sample)

tensile strength (MPa)

30 20 10 0! 149 ! C!

400 300 200 100

204C

149C

204C!

1min 1h 1day 1mo 1yr precipitation heat treat time

1min 1h 1day 1mo 1yr precipitation heat treat time


Chapter 11 - 28

Adapted from Fig. 11.27, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.27 adapted from Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker (Managing Ed.), American Society for Metals, 1979. p. 41.)

Summary
Ferrous alloys: steels and cast irons Non-ferrous alloys: -- Cu, Al, Ti, and Mg alloys; refractory alloys; and noble metals. Metal fabrication techniques: -- forming, casting, miscellaneous. Hardenability of metals -- measure of ability of a steel to be heat treated. -- increases with alloy content. Precipitation hardening --hardening, strengthening due to formation of precipitate particles. --Al, Mg alloys precipitation hardenable.

Chapter 11 - 29

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