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2008 AGI-Information Management Consultants May be used for personal purporses only or by libraries associated to dandelon.com network.

Rolf Isermann

Mechatronic Systems
Fundamentals
With 357 Figures

fyj Springer

Contents

List of Symbols 1 Integrated Mechanical Electronic Systems 1.1 1.2

xix 1

1.3

1.4 1.5

From Mechanical to Mechatronic Systems 1 Mechanical Systems 6 1.2.1 Mechanical Systems in Mechanical Engineering . . . 8 1.2.2 Mechanical Systems in Precision Mechanic Devices 9 1.2.3 Micromechanics 9 1.2.4 Mechanical Systems in Apparatus (Process Engineering) 10 1.2.5 Confinement of Mechatronic Systems 10 Functions of Mechatronic Systems 11 1.3.1 Design 11 1.3.2 Distribution of Mechanical and Electronic Functions 12 1.3.3 Operating Properties 13 1.3.4 New Functions 13 1.3.5 Other Developments 14 Integration Forms of Processes and Electronics 14 Ways of Information Processing 18 1.5.1 Multi-level Control Systems 18 1.5.2 Special Signal Preprocessing 19 1.5.3 Information Gaining 19

Contents

1.6 1.7 2

1.5.4 Model-based Methods of Control 1.5.5 Supervision and Fault Diagnosis 1.5.6 Intelligent Systems Design Procedures for Mechatronic Systems Contents of this Book

20 21 22 24 29

Fundamentals of Theoretical Modeling of Technical Processes 2.1 2.2 Theoretical and Experimental Modeling Classification of Process Elements 2.2.1 Forms of Matter 2.2.2 Main Flows and Side Flows 2.2.3 Process Elements with Lumped Parameters 2.2.4 Process Elements with Distributed Parameters . . . . Fundamental Equations of Process Elements with Energy and Matter Flows 2.3.1 Balance Equations 2.3.2 Constitutive Equations 2.3.3 Phenomenological Equations Energy Balance Equations for Lumped Parameter Processes 2.4.1 Energy Balance for Mechanical Systems 2.4.2 Energy Balance for Thermal Systems (Rigid Bodies, Fluids) 2.4.3 Energy Balance for Gases and Steam 2.4.4 Energy Balance for Electrical Systems 2.4.5 Common Properties of Balance Equations Connection of Process Elements 2.5.1 Node Equation and Mesh Equation 2.5.2 Causality of Process Elements Analogies between Mechanical and Electrical Systems . . . . Summary Problems

33 34 37 37 38 40 46 46 47 51 68 71 71 77 79 83 85 88 88 91 94 97 99

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6 2.7 2.8 3

Fundamental Equations of the Dynamics of Mechanical Systems with Mobile Masses 3.1 Newton's Laws of Kinetics 3.1.1 Translational Motion 3.1.2 Rotational Motion Principles of Mechanics 3.2.1 d'Alembert's Principle 3.2.2 Lagrange's Equations

101 102 102 103 106 106 109

3.2

Contents

xi

3.3

Problems

114 115 116 118 121 121 122 124 124 125 128 128 133 134 134 140

Mechanical Elements 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Bars Springs Dampers 4.3.1 Dampers with Dry and Viscous Friction 4.3.2 Spring-damper Systems Bearings 4.4.1 Sliding Bearings 4.4.2 Roller Bearings One-mass Oscillator (Spring-mass-damper Systems) . . . . 4.5.1 Longitudinal Oscillators 4.5.2 Torsional Oscillators Multi-mass Oscillators 4.6.1 Two-mass Torsional Oscillator with One Spring . 4.6.2 Two-mass Torsional Oscillator with Two Springs 4.6.3 Two-mass Torsional Oscillator with Gear and One Spring 4.6.4 Power Transmissions 4.6.5 Belt Drives 4.6.6 Absorbers and Dampers Mechanical Systems with Friction Mechanical Systems with Backlash Problems

4.7 4.8 4.9

142 146 151 158 159 162 164 167

Electrical Drives 5.1 5.2

5.3

Types of Electrical Drives 167 Electromagnets 170 5.2.1 Types of Electromagnets 170 5.2.2 The Magnetic Field 171 5.2.3 Static Behavior of Simple Magnetic Circuits . 173 5.2.4 Dynamic Behavior of Simple Magnetic Circuits 175 5.2.5 Static Behavior of Electromagnets 177 5.2.6 Dynamic Behavior of Electromagnets and Position Control 181 Direct Current Motors 184 5.3.1 Induced Voltage 186 5.3.2 Torque Generation 187 5.3.3 Dynamic Behavior 188

xii

Contents

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7 5.8

Static Behavior 192 Speed and Position Control 194 Brushless DC Motors (Electronic Commutation) 196 5.3.7 Special Types of DC Motors 200 Alternating Current Motors (AC) 205 5.4.1 Induction Motors 205 5.4.2 Synchronous Motors 215 Single-phase Motors 221 5.5.1 Commutator Motors (Universal Motors) 221 5.5.2 Squirrel-cage Motors 222 Power Electronics 225 5.6.1 Power Component Parts 225 5.6.2 Power Circuits 226 Internally or Externally Commutated Electromotors . . 234 Problems 235 241

5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6

Machines and Drivetrains 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Coupling of Machine Components to Complete Machines Characteristics and Stability of Machines Static Behavior of Power-generating and Powerconsuming Machines Dynamic Model of a Combustion Engine Test Stand Dynamic Behavior of a Machine Tool Feed Drive . . . 6.5.1 A Feed Drive and its Components 6.5.2 Identification of the Feed Drive Control System Dynamic Model of an AC Motor and Centrifugal Pump System 6.6.1 Theoretical Model of Centrifugal Pumps . . . . 6.6.2 Overall Model of the Pumping Plant and Identification Dynamic Model of an Automobile Drivetrain 6.7.1 Components of an Automotive Drivetrain . . . 6.7.2 Drivetrain Model with Driveshaft Elasticity . . Dependency of System Behavior on the Operating Point 6.8.1 Storage with and without Feedback 6.8.2 Tuning of Controller Parameters Advanced Control of Mechanical Systems 6.9.1 Lower Level Feedback Control

243 248 257 262 268 268 270 273 273 274 278 279 280 283 283 286 286 287

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9

Contents

xiii

6.10

6.9.2 Higher Level Feedback Control 6.9.3 Adaptive Control 6.9.4 Fuzzy Control Problems

289 290 290 291 293 293 293 294 295 298 299 299 299 300 303 303 303 304 306 308 308 309 323 325 327 331 333

Identification of Dynamic Systems 7.1 Identification Methods 7.1.1 General Procedure 7.1.2 Classification of Identification Methods 7.1.3 Identification Methods 7.1.4 Test Signals 7.1.5 Closed-loop Identification 7.1.6 Type of Application Parameter Estimation for Discrete Time Signals 7.2.1 Method of Least Squares (LS) 7.2.2 Recursive Method of Least Squares (RLS) . . . 7.2.3 Modifications of the Least Squares Method .. Parameter Estimation for Continuous Time Signals . . 7.3.1 Method of Least Squares Time-varying Systems Non-linear Processes 7.5.1 Parameter Estimation with Classical Non-linear Models 7.5.2 Artificial Neural Networks 7.5.3 Fuzzy-logic Models 7.5.4 Grid-based Look-up Tables for Static Systems 7.5.5 Parameter Estimation for Non-continuously Differentiable Non-linear Processes (Friction and Backlash) Problems

7.2

7.3 7.4 7.5

7.6

Models of Oscillations and their Identification 8.1

8.2

Harmonic Oscillations 333 8.1.1 Single Oscillations 334 8.1.2 Superposition 334 8.1.3 Amplitude Modulation 334 8.1.4 Frequency and Phase Modulation 335 8.1.5 Beating (Libration) 337 8.1.6 Superposition and Non-linear Characteristics . 338 Identification of Harmonic Oscillations 339 8.2.1 Bandpass Filtering 339

xiv

Contents

8.3 9

Fourier Analysis Correlation Functions Fourier Transformation Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) Maximum-entropy Spectral Estimation Speed Signal Analysis of Combustion Engines Problems

8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 8.2.7

340 340 341 343 347 353 357 359 360 360 362 363 364 368 370 372 372 373 373 376 377 378 381 383 384 387 387 389 392 392 393 404 406 407 408 429 439 439

Sensors 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 Measuring System Classification of Sensors Sensor Properties Signal Types, Transducers, Measuring Amplifiers . . . Displacement Measurement Velocity Measurement Acceleration Measurement Vibration and Oscillation Measurement Force and Pressure Measurement Torque Measurement Temperature Measurement Analog-to-Digital Conversion Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Integrated and Intelligent Sensors Problems

10

Actuators 10.1 10.2 Basic Structures of Actuators General Survey of Actuators 10.2.1 Types of Auxiliary Energy 10.2.2 Actuator Behavior and Control 10.2.3 Requirements for Actuators and Servo-drives . Electromechanical Actuator Drives 10.3.1 Electrical Motors 10.3.2 Electromagnets Hydraulic Actuators 10.4.1 Hydraulic Actuation Systems 10.4.2 Hydraulic Components and their Models . . . . 10.4.3 Models of an Hydraulic Servo-axis: An Example Pneumatic Actuators 10.5.1 Pneumatic Actuating Systems

10.3 10.4

10.5

Contents

xv

10.5.2 Pneumatic Components and their Models . . . . 10.5.3 Model-based Control of a Pneumatic Servoaxis 10.5.4 Models of a Pneumatic Valve 10.6 Unconventional Actuators 10.6.1 Thermo-bimetals 10.6.2 Shaped Memory Alloys 10.6.3 Thermal Expansion Elements 10.6.4 Electrochemical Actuators 10.6.5 Electro-rheological and Magneto-rheological Fluids 10.6.6 Piezoelectric Actuators 10.6.7 Electrostrictive and Magnetostrictive Actuators 10.6.8 Micro-actuators 10.7 Comparison of Application Areas 10.8 Actuators as System Components 10.8.1 Ports 10.8.2 Integration of Actuator and Process 10.8.3 Implemented Functionality 10.9 Fault-tolerant Components 10.9.1 Fault-tolerance for Components 10.9.2 Fault-tolerance for Control Systems 10.9.3 Fault Detection for Sensors, Actuators and Mechatronic Servo-systems 10.9.4 Fault-tolerant Components for Mechatronic Systems 10.9.5 Fault-tolerant Sensors 10.9.6 Fault-tolerant Actuators 10.10 Problems 11 Microcomputers 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Microcomputer Structure Standard Processors 11.2.1 Standard Processor Architecture 11.2.2 Software for Standard Processors Memory Interfaces to the Process (Peripherals) 11.4.1 Analog Inputs 11.4.2 Digital and Binary Inputs 11.4.3 Analog Outputs 11.4.4 Digital and Binary Outputs Microcontrollers

442 452 456 457 458 459 462 463 463 465 469 470 471 474 475 475 475 476 476 480 480 481 481 484 485 487 489 490 492 495 497 501 502 504 504 505 506

11.5

xvi

Contents

11.6 11.7 11.8

11.5.1 Architecture of Microcontrollers 11.5.2 Software for Microcontrollers Signal Processors Application-specific Processors (ASICS) Field Bus Systems 11.8.1 Net Topologies 11.8.2 Basic Bus Functions 11.8.3 OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model 11.8.4 Profibus 11.8.5 CAN Bus

507 510 510 512 514 515 517 517 519 523 527 527 527 529 535 538 538 543 549 551 554 559 560 560 562 564 567 568 569 569 571

12

Examples for the Design of Mechatronic Systems: Modeling, Control and Diagnosis 12.1 Electromagnetic Actuator: Non-linear Control and Fault Detection 12.1.1 Model-based Compensation of Non-linearities . 12.1.2 Electromagnetic Actuator Electrical Throttle Valve for SI Engines: Modeling and Fault Diagnosis Semi-active Vehicle Suspensions 12.3.1 Passive Vehicle Suspensions 12.3.2 Semi-active Suspensions 12.3.3 Dynamic Models of a Quarter-car 12.3.4 Identification of a Quarter-car Model 12.3.5 Suspension Control 12.3.6 Simulations of a Semi-active Two-chamber Air Spring Electromechanical Disc Brake (EMB) 12.4.1 Introduction 12.4.2 Wheel Module 12.4.3 Brake Model 12.4.4 Simplified Brake Model 12.4.5 Simulation and Measurement Control Prototyping and Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation 12.5.1 Simulation Methods 12.5.2 Rapid Control Prototyping for Engine Control 12.5.3 Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation for Diesel Engines Industrial Robot 12.6.1 Modeling

12.2 12.3

12.4

12.5

12.6

572 577 578

Contents

xvii

12.6.2 Control 12.6.3 System Structure Outlook References Index

583 585 587 589 617

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