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Tankers

Narrated by: RS Trijana Kartoatmodjo Universitas Trisakti Departemen Teknik Perminyakan


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Tankers
Oil tankers, also known as petroleum tankers, are ships designed for the bulk transport of oil. There are two basic types of oil tanker:
the crude tanker and the product tanker

Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude oil from its point of extraction to refineries.

Major oil trade movements 2012


Trade flows worldwide (million tonnes)

BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 BP 2013

Tankers
Product tankers, generally much smaller, are designed to move petrochemicals from refineries to points near consuming markets Crude oil tankers are used to transport crude oil from fields in the Middle East, North Sea, Africa, and Latin America to refineries around the world. Oil tankers are often classified by their size as well as their occupation. Tanker sizes are expressed in terms of deadw eight (dw t ) or cargo tons. The smallest tankers are General P urpose which range from 10 to 25,000 tons.

Tankers Types and Capacity


The Large Range and Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC ) are employed in international crude oil trade. As of 2006:

The world tanker fleet had 4,186 vessels with a carrying capacity of 358.8 Mdwt. 84% of the tanker fleet were owned by independent tanker companies. The average age of the fleet was 11.9 years. 68% of the vessels are double hull ships.

Tankers move approximately 2 billion tons of oil every year. Second only to pipelines in terms of efficiency, the cost of tanker transport amounts to only two or three U.S. cents per gallon.

Tankers Architecture

Oil tankers generally have from 8 to 12 tanks. Each tank is split into two or three independent compartments by fore-and-aft bulkheads. The tanks are numbered with tank one being the forward most. Individual compartments are referred to by the tank number, such as "one port", "three starboard", or "six centre."

Tankers Architecture
A cofferdam is a small space left open between two bulkheads, to give protection from heat, fire, or collision.
Tankers generally have cofferdams forward and aft of the cargo tanks, and sometimes between individual tanks.

A pump-room houses all the pumps connected to a tanker's cargo lines. Some larger tankers have two pump-rooms. A pump-room generally spans the total breadth of the ship.

Tankers Architecture

Tanker vs Building

Monas (Jakarta) 137 meter

Tanker Bergesen

Tankers Architecture

Tankers Architecture (Hull Design)

Tankers Architecture (Hull Design)


A major component of tanker architecture is the design of the hull or outer structure. A tanker with a single outer shell between the product and the ocean is said to be singlehulled. Most newer tankers are double-hulled, with an extra space between the hull and the storage tanks.

Tankers Architecture (Hull Design)


Hybrid designs such as double-bottom and double-sided combine aspects of single and double-hull designs. All single-hulled tankers around the world will be phased out by 2026, in accordance with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973.

Tankers: Architecture (Hull Design)


In 1998, the Marine Board of the National Academy of Science conducted a survey of industry experts regarding the pros and cons of double-hull design. Some of the advantages of the doublehull design that were mentioned include:
ease of ballasting in emergency situations, reduced practice of saltwater ballasting in cargo tanks decreases corrosion,

Tankers: Architecture (Hull Design)


increased environmental protection, cargo discharge is quicker, more complete and easier, tank washing is more efficient, and better protection in low-impact collisions and grounding.

Tankers: Architecture (Hull Design)


The same report lists the following as some drawbacks to the double-hull design:
more expensive to build, more expensive in canal and port expenses, ballast tank ventilation difficult, ballast tanks need continual monitoring and maintenance, increased transverse free surface, more surfaces to maintain,

Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO)

Floating storage and offloading units or FSOs are used worldwide by the offshore oil industry to receive oil from nearby platforms and store it until it can be offloaded onto oil tankers. A similar system, the Floating production storage and offloading unit, or FPSO, has the ability to process the product while it is onboard. These floating units reduce oil production costs and offer, mobility, large storage capacity, and production versatility. FPSO and FSOs are often created out of old, strippeddown oil tankers, but can be made from new-built hulls.

Floating, production, storage and Offloading (FPSO)

Shell Espaa first used a tanker as an FPSO was in August 1977. An example of a FSO that used to be an oil tanker is the Knock Nevis. These units are usually moored to the seabed through a spread mooring system. A turret-style mooring system can be used in areas prone to severe weather. This turret system lets the unit rotate to minimize the effects of sea-swell and wind.

turret

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Flexible turret hose

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Turrets

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Turret

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Turret

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Tankers Floating, production, storage and Offloading (FPSO)

FPSO, THE ARCHITECTURE

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OFFSHORE FACILITIES
Capture vessel Shuttle tanker Offloading line

Quick disconnect Flexible Jumper

Subsea containtment assembly

Umbilical

Manifold Flexible Jumper

Flying loads

Dispersant Fluid system

BOP
Umbilical Acumulator unit

Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System (FPSO)

FPSO

LNG Tankers

Tankers equipped with pressurized, refrigerated, and insulated tanks are used to transport natural gas liquids and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Natural gas is liquefied at the destination point and transported by special LNG cryogenic tankers to its destination. At the delivery point the LNG is re-gasified and charged into a gas pipeline system.

LNG Tankers
In order to liquefy the gas its temperature is lowered to -259F (-162C). Natural gas is kept in refrigerated and insulated tanks to maintain in its liquefied state during transport.

Valdez