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When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on.

-Thomas Jefferson

warming up is performing the exercise that you are going to do with lighter weight then usuall, and stretching is well just stretching the muscle that is going to be worked, to loosen it up a little

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Warm-up Stretching
Warm-up stretches should be dynamic and involve movements that mimic the exercise you are about to perform. Before you perform pre-game stretches, it is vital to make sure you warm up your muscles with a slow jog or other light activity. Stretching cold muscles can lead to tears and decreased flexibility and performance.

Pre-game Upper-body Stretches


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our pre-game stretches should cover both your upper- and lower-body muscles. !or your upper body, try arm circles to open up your shoulder muscles and get blood flowing to your arms. "o perform the stretch, stand with your feet shoulder width apart and circle your arms forward for #$ seconds and then repeat with your arms circling backward. "runk rotation stretches will also help prepare your body for the twisting and turning re%uired to maneuver through the court and to throw the ball across the body. Stretch your arms out in front of you and swing them from side to side for #$ seconds, twisting your torso as you move.
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Pre-game Lower-body Stretches


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ou will be running in different directions during netball, so it+s important to include a stretch that will help prepare your legs for these movements. !orward leg swings involve swinging each of your legs back and forth. &lso include side-to-side swings, which involve you swinging each of your legs from side to side in front of your body. ,urdle stepovers are also effective for stretching your hip

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

muscles. Stand and bring your knee up to hip level, then rotate it out to the side and step down. -epeat all moves for #$ seconds per leg.

Cool-down Stretching
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.ool-down stretching serves a different function than warm-up stretching. "his particular type of stretching is static and involves lengthening your muscle without movement. "he purpose of this type of stretching is to relax and lengthen the muscle to increase flexibility and to reduce risk of injuries. Because the muscle lengthens, it also weakens and has a reduced ability to produce power and force, which is why it should not be performed prior to your exercise or sport.

Post-game Lower-body Stretches


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/ost lower-body netball in uries are occur in the lower body. !or this reason, it+s crucial to stretch all of the major lower-body muscles. "o stretch your %uadriceps, bend your knee and bring your leg back so that you can hold your foot. ou should feel a stretch in the front of your thigh. "o target your hamstrings, stretch out one of your legs in front of you, keeping your knee straight, and lean forward until you feel the stretch in the front of your legs. "o stretch your hip flexors, kneel on one leg on the ground with your other leg bent in front of you. 0ean forward until you feel a stretch in the front of your hip. ,old each stretch for #$ seconds per side.

Post-game Upper-body Stretches


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While fewer injuries occur in the upper body during netball, your arms, shoulders and back can still be sore after the constant ball-throwing that happens during the game. "o stretch your upper trape1ius, place your hands behind you, with one grasping the other. 2ull one arm down while slowly tipping your head toward the shoulder of that arm. "o focus on your lower traps, stand facing a wall and bend at the waist. 3se the wall to support you and press your chest down until you feel the stretch in your mid-back. "o stretch your shoulders, clasp your hands behind you. Stretch your arms as you turn your elbows toward each other.
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Netball Warm Up

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

Warming up doesn't need to be hard or a hassle. But you need to warm up before a game of Netball. If you don't you could end up injuring yourself.
To start off, go for a light jog around the court. Now, for the stretches. Start from your toes to your head. Draw circles clock wise and anti clockwise with your toes. Do this ! times. "oint your toes out straight for # seconds and then heel the air with your heel for # seconds. Do this three times on each foot. $al%e muscles. "osition one foot out in front of you. The other foot behind you, press your front foot forward into the ground to stretch your cal%e. &ou know you are doing it right when you can feel pressure on your cal%es. Don't stretch too hard or you could injure yourself. Swap o%er to the other foot and stretch the other cal%e. Stretching each cal%e for () seconds. *am string+thigh muscles. ,et your balance by holding on to something steady, bring on leg up behind you so you are holding your foot up to your bottom. *olding for () seconds. &ou will feel the pressure in your thigh muscles. Do the other leg. Sitting on the ground, stretch your legs out. so you make a -.- with your legs. /each out to your toes, on each leg. &ou can feel pressure on your ham string muscles under you leg. Do this for () second on each leg. 0lternati%ely you can sit legs out in front of you and reach out to your toes. Standing, with legs apart. 1ending sideways with your arms up stretching your inside legs. $ount to () and bend the opposite side. Shake out your legs and feet. Ne2t the upper half of the body. Stretch your arms up to the sky, for # seconds. "ull one arm across your chest and hold your elbow, stretching your shoulder muscles. $ount to () and stretch the other arm. *old your wrist, up in the air pull slightly the opposite way. Doing this for # seconds, repeat with the other arm. /oll your shoulders in round circles clockwise and anti clockwise. () circles for each shoulder. 1end your head forward, looking down at your toes. 3ook up at the sky doing this for () seconds each time. Now shake your arms and legs out. 4ump up and down a few times. &ou should be ready for some warm up drills now.

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

5f you don't like jogging around the court and want something different. Start from one end of the court, and run to the first line. /un back and run to the line further from the first one.

&ou can see on the picture starting from point 0 run to point 1. /un to point $, run to point D,run to point 6, ne2t to point 6, continue to point 7 and finally to point ,. This should be run at a comfortable speed.

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

Now, 8uick stepping side shuffling. Side shuffle around the half circles, then continue along the straight lines, in any direction finish off side stepping along the opposite half circle. Now 8uick sprint to the end of the court.

1.Jog:
Take a warm-up jog! Not too far or strenuous, 3-5 laps aroun the net!allcourt. "ogging awakens the !o # an stea il# raises the heart rate prepping the !o # for $igorous e%ercise. "ogging also helps the !o # to !ecome more lim!er an increases the effecti$eness of stretching. &a$e a think which is easier'. !en ing fro(en or room temperature ough)

2.Stretch:
Stretching is $ital to performance an in ury pre!ention. Stretching properl# helps to pre$ent tearing #our muscles, while increasing #our range of mo$ement. *or net!all there are a few ke# muscle groups. Legs+ ,unning aroun is a major aspect of net!all. -t is crucial that #our legs are properl# stretche . Toe Touches+
"rom a standing position# bend at the waist and reach down towards toes. $old for %& seconds. Spread legs while standing# slightly farther than shoulder width# and spend %& seconds reaching to your left toes# then swap sides and spend %& more seconds reaching to your right toes. 'fter these sets# drop hands straight down and reach back as far as possible. $old for %& seconds. While seated place legs together and reach to grab toes. Pull up on toes if possible for 1& seconds# and thenlay flat for 1& seconds. (ry to not let legs bend. Hurdler Stretch+ (ake right leg and tuck it behind you and reach for your toe in front for 1& seconds# and then reach back for 1& seconds. Switch and repeat with left leg.

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

The Pretzel )Stretches both leg and back* While sitting# lea!e left leg e+tended and cross right leg o!er top# while keeping knee up. (ake left arm and cross body effecti!ely turning your body to the right side hold for 1& seconds and then repeat on other side. "rog Squat+ S,uat down to the balls of your feet with legs spread apart. Place arms ust in front of you on the ground. Lean slightly forward with your elbows to the inside of your knees and hold for %& seconds. (his will stretch out your groin area. Calf Stretches+ Can either place toes on a wall or fence at an upward angle for %& seconds for each calf separately# or find a small ledge and drop your heel for %&seconds each. 'fter completion# point each toe for --1& seconds. Upper .ody and Arms.

Net!all has a high degree of arm in$ol$ement an nee e mo!ilit#, making it necessar# to stretch #our arms properl#.
"rom a standing position# lean to your left side while e+tending your right arm# and hold for %& seconds. 'fter %& seconds switch and repeat with your right side. While lying on the ground# curl knees into chest and hold for 1& seconds. (o stretch arms take left arm and drop it behind your head and use right arm to gently pull on left elbow for 1- seconds. /epeat the same process with your right arm. (ake left arm in front of body and cross it across your chest. Use right arm to pull left in at the elbow. $old for 1& seconds. 0uplicate process with your right arm. 1nterwea!e fingers and e+tend arms while keeping palms facing outwards for 1& seconds. Let your head hang and slowly mo!e it side to side for 1- seconds.

3. Get moving again!:


.nce stretche out #ou shoul feel more lim!er, an it is important to maintain this feeling !# sta#ing acti$e an keeping muscles warm.

0o %- star umps to help keep muscles warm.

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

"ace one of the sidelines and do side shuffle to the half court line while wa!ing arms. (his drill keeps you warm while practicing defensi!e maneu!ers.

4. Get the team involved!


Net!all is a team sport after all. Team interaction is necessar# for proper function.

$a!e the team members practice passing around a ball# while calling out the name of whom they are passing to. "irst begin with a standard bounce pass# and then mo!e to chest passes. 2o!e back to bounce passes using only a single arm alternating which arm is in use. 'lso do this for chest passes. $a!e the 3oal 'ttacker)s* and the 3oal Scorer)s* take warm up shots. "irst from a straight on# then mo!ing to different sides and depths. $a!e another team member simulate game play passing to the shooters while they are mo!ing around and at different angles.

5. Recollect:
Take a moment !efore the game or practice !egins to go o$er strateg# an mentall# prepare #oursel$es. ,emem!er to &a$e */N! Though the sport is competiti$e, remem!er that #ou are there for the enjo#ment of the sport, no mater the outcome!

The game The team in possession of the !all is calle the attacking team an the team tr#ing to intercept or gain control of the !all is the efen ing team. 0ach team has specialist attacking an efen ing pla#ers e$en though each pla#er !oth attacks an efen s

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

throughout the game. The major aim of the game is to score as man# goals as is possi!le from within an area calle the goal circle, which is a semi-circle, centre on the goal line an measuring 1.2 metres in ra ius. .nl# two pla#ers from each team ma# score goals, the 3S an 34. The winners of the game are the team that has score most goals within the allotte time. 4 match is i$i e into four % 55 minute 6uarters, with a three minute !reak !etween 6uarters one-two an three-four, a fi$e minute !reak at half time an upto two minutes for injuries.

Rules of play Net!all is a!out running, jumping, throwing, catching, attacking, efen ing an scoring or stopping goals !eing score . -t is a fast, game which nee s the pla#ers to ha$e e%cellent skills an goo team work. The ,ules are meant to help the pla#ers show their skills an !e a!le to compete against an opponent in a fair wa#. The two major rules are those of Contact an Obstruction an if those rules are !roken, the pla#er !reaking them is penalise with a penalt# pass orshot an must stan out of pla#, alongsi e of the pla#er taking the penalt#, until the !all has !een release . The penalt# ma# !e taken !# an# pla#er in the team not !reaking the rule an it must !e taken from where the person who !roke the rule was stan ing. Contact 7ontact is when one pla#er unfairl# impe es the pla# of an opponent !# ph#sicall# contacting them in some illegal manner. There is a list of what is not allowe in the ,ule 8ook.

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

Obstruction .!struction is a!out !eing within the istance of 9.2 metres, using arms in actions awa# from the !o # an of interfering with an opponents passing orshooting action, or their a!ilit# to release the !all. Minor rules 4ll the rest of the rules, e$en though the# make up 29: of the rule !ook are calle the minor rules !ecause the# are onl# penalise with a free pass, which means no pla#er has to stan out of pla# while the penalt# is taken, an this penalt# is taken from where the infringement occurre . The minor rules inclu e, stepping hel !all o$er-a-thir short pass just to mention a few of the more common ones. -n net!all, the !all, ha$ing !een caught or hel , must !e release within 3 secon s. This is the rule of hel !all. When the !all is thrown, it must !e caught or touche in each thir of the court !# a pla#er who is stan ing or who lan s in the correct thir . This is the o$er-a-thir rule. When a !all is thrown !etween team mates, there must !e enough room on the court, !etween the han s of the thrower an those of the recei$er for a thir pla#er to mo$e !etween. This rule is the short pass rule. *ast, precise an cle$er footwork is the !asis of the game an there are man# $ariations possi!le which are legal un er the rules. 8asicall#, the principle of the footwork rule is, that once the !all is caught, the first lan e foot ma# not !e lifte an re-groun e !efore the !all is release or the pla#er will !e consi ere to ha$e steppe . Therefore, a pla#er who catches the !all in the air ma#, lan on one foot, keep mo$ing an lan on the secon !ut must release the !all !efore the first foot is !ack on the groun . ;i$oting is possi!le, as is !oth one an two feet lan ings.

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

Starting an restarting pla#<e

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When a goal is score or at the start of a 6uarter, pla# is resume from the centre of the court using a >center pass>. These passes alternate !etween the teams, regar less of which team score the last goal. 4 centre pass is ma e !# a pla#er in the 7entre position who must ha$e one foot groun e within the centre circle. 4s the game restarts, onl# the two 7entre pla#ers are allowe in the centre thir + when the umpire !lows the whistle to restart pla#, the 3oal 4ttack, 3oal ?efence, Wing 4ttack an Wing ?efence pla#ers can mo$e into the centre thir to recei$e the pass. The centre pass must !e caught or touche in the centre thir .<52=<@9= -f the !all touches the groun outsi e the court !oun aries, then a mem!er of the team that was not the last to touch the !all !efore it went out is a!le to throw the !all !ack into the court to restart pla#. <52=<@9=

Stepping, footwork, an passing<e

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Net!all rules o not permit pla#ers to let their lan ing foot touch the groun again if it is lifte at all while in possession of the !all, so pla#ers can take 5.5 steps while hol ing the !all. ;i$oting oes not count as a step. <A= ;la#ers are entitle to !alance on the other foot if the lan ing foot is lifte . 4n infraction of this rule is usuall# calle travelling, as in the similar rule in !asket!all. 7onse6uentl#, the onl# wa# to mo$e the !all towar s the goal is to throw the !all to a team-mate. The !all can !e hel !# a pla#er for less than three secon s at an# time. <A= 4 pla#er ma# tap or eflect the !all, let it !ounce an then take possession an throw it. The pla#er cannot catch the !all with !oth han s, rop it an pick it up againB this is calle a repla#e !all. The uration !efore it is calle a rop is etermine !# the umpire. These rules, com!ine with the restrictions on where one pla#er of a particular position can mo$e, ensure that e$er#one on the team is regularl# in$ol$e in pla#.<@5=

Passing<e

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When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

4 net!all pla#er preparing to pass the !all

Net!all strateg# in$ol$es se$eral t#pes of passes, <@@=<@3= inclu ing centre passes,<@@= penalt# passes an short passes.<@3= 4 centre pass occurs after a goal has !een score , when the 7entre passes the !all. <@@= 4 short pass is a pass !etween two pla#ers on the same team, where the length of the pass is so short that a efensi$e pla#er cannot get !etween the two opposing pla#ers to intercept the !all.<@3= 4 penalt# pass is a pass where the !all is returne from the si eline into pla#. This pass occurs after a penalt# has !een calle .<@3= There are se$eral st#les of passing the !all, inclu ing one-han e shoul ere passes, two-han e passesCchest-passesD, o$erhea passes, !ounce passes, lo! passes, rop passes, !ullet passes an un erarm passes. <@1=<@5= The one-handed shoulder pass in$ol$es hol ing the !all in one han !ehin the shoul er with the el!ow !ent, an weight on the !ack foot. The passer then shifts the weight to the forwar foot, while mo$ing the !all with their han forwar an e%ten ing the el!ow, an releasing the !all as the el!ow full# e%ten s at shoul er height. <@E= The purpose of the one-han e shoul er pass is to throw the !all a long istance while throwing the !all har , fast an irect. <@A= The two-handed pass is sometimes calle a chest-pass.<@5=<@F= -t is e%ecute !# hol ing the !all at chest height with the passer ha$ing their el!ows !ent ne%t to the !o # at chest height. <@F= The passer then mo$es the !all forwar , e%ten ing their el!ows forwar while the# step forwar an release the !all. <@F= The purpose of the two-han e pass is to accuratel#

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

eli$er the !all to another pla#er who is in motion. <@A= -t is use !ecause it ensures accurac#, !oth for long an short istances.<@5= The overhead pass is e%ecute similarl# to the two-han e pass. The ifference is that it is e%ecute o$er the passerGs hea .<@5=<@F= The o$erhea pass ma# also !e e%ecute similarl# to the one-han e shoul er pass, with the ifference !eing that the mo$ements are one o$erhea , instea of at shoul er height. <@5=<@F= The bounce pass is e%ecute !# getting low to the groun , hol ing the !all with one or two han s at hip height, an stepping forwar while releasing the !all.<@2= The !all shoul !e aime low at the groun an release with a great eal of force.<@2= The purpose of the !ounce pass is to mo$e the !all aroun an opponent. <@A= -t is use when a pla#er is in a confine space, with limite passing options. <@5=

Lob pass is a power and speedy pass . Keep the ball held high, step forward and push form the waist, angling the ball up.The lob pass is e%ecute !# throwing the !all in a high arc, with the !all initiall# !eing hel !ehin the hea
an !eing release a!o$e the hea .<@F= The drop pass is similar to the lo! pass.<@2=The major ifference is with the catcher+ a lo! pass is for a catcher who is stretching to get awa# from a efen er, <@F= while a rop pass is for a catcher who will mo$e into free space to recei$e the !all. <@2= These two passes are sometimes referre to as throw-up passes. <39= The purpose of the lo! an rop passes is to get aroun a efen er an reach a teammate who is mo$ing awa# from the passer.<@E= The lo! pass is use !ecause it is $er# accurate an co$ers !oth long an short istances. <@5= The side pass is a two-han e pass. -t is use in situations re6uiring 6uick, straight throws. <@5= The bullet pass is a onehan e pass. -t is use as a short or me ium pass. The pass is fast an irect. <@5= The underarm pass is a one-han e pass. This short pass st#le is use in situations where an element of surprise is re6uire . <@5= ?ifferent positions re6uire ifferent passing skills. <35= The fake pass shoul !e mastere !# e$er# position.<3@= The centre pass shoul !e mastere !# the 7entre. <33= The 7entre shoul also master an# pass that must !e ma e on the run. <39= 8oth the 3oal 4ttack an Wing 4ttack shoul !e familiar with the long passes an the lo! an rop pass. <39= The 3oal 4ttack shoul also !e familiar with all st#les of passing.<31= The 3oal Shooter shoul know how to o penalt# passes. <35= The Wing

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

?efence shoul also !e comforta!le making lo! passes. <35= The 3oal ?efence shoul know how to make goal-line passes. <3E= The 3oal Heeper shoul !e comforta!le making penalt# passes an in!oun ing the !all. <3E=

7ontact an o!struction<e

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7ontact is onl# permitte pro$i e it oes not impe e with an opponent or the general pla# an pla#ers must !e at least 9.2 metres C3 ftD awa# from a pla#er with the !all while attempting to efen . -f impe ing contact is ma e, a penalt# is gi$en to the team of the pla#er who was contacte , an the pla#er who contacte must stan >out of pla#>, meaning the# cannot participate in pla# until the pla#er taking the penalt# has passe the !all. <3A=

Scoring goals<e

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4ttempts at scoring goals uring a junior net!all match in 4ustralia

.nl# the 3oal 4ttack an 3oal Shooter are a!le to score goals irectl#, <3F= an this ma# onl# !e one from the insi e of the semicircle. The jo! of the 3oal ?efence an 3oal Heeper is to !lock the 3oal 4ttack an 3oal Shooter from shootingB howe$er, the# must !e three feet or more awa# from the lan ing foot of the shooter, otherwise it is calle an o!struction. -n this penalt# situation, the 3oal Heeper or 3oal ?efence must stan !# the shooterGs si e for a penalt# pass or shot, an must remain out of pla# until the !all is thrown. 4 !all that passes through the hoop, !ut has !een thrown either from outsi e the circle or !# a pla#er other than the two shooters, is eeme a >no goal>. *urthermore, a shooter C34 or 3SD

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

ma# not shoot for a goal if a >free pass> has !een awar e for an infringement such as stepping, offsi e, or using the post.<32= -f a pla#er completel# misses a shot, the pla#er ma# not catch itB if she oes, it is calle a >repla#>, an a free pass is awar e to the other team.<32= -f the !all is eflecte off the goal keeper or goal efence an goes through the goal ring. This is not a goal an pla# goes on.

Basic Footwork Drills in Netball


.y 2artyn Wood# e$ow Contributor There are strict rules regar ing a pla#erGs footwork in netball.

Good footwork is pivotal in netball. As players are not allowed to run with or dribble the ball, more emphasis is placed on footwork. Players may choose to pivot on their landing foot, moving their other foot as they wish, but they cannot move the landing foot before releasing the ball. A violation of the footwork rules results in a free pass for the opposition. Players can perform a series of drills to help improve their footwork.

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Left4/ight
"he 4left)right4 drill re%uires two players. Set up three cones about 5m apart. 2osition one player on the middle cone, and have the other stand 6m away with the ball in hand. "he player with the ball should make three passes to the receiver7s right, using the cones as a guide and then repeat the process to the receiver7s left. "he receiver should focus on landing on her outside foot and shuffle back to the middle cone after each pass. /ove the passer further back to increase the difficulty of the exercise.

1ce Cream

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson

"he 4ice cream4 drill is a straightforward exercise that focuses on balance. 'ivide the players into single-file lines positioned about 8$m apart. "he player at the front of the group without the ball runs toward the other group, catching the pass and landing on one foot before bringing the other foot to the ground. 2layers shout out 4ice4 when their landing foot touches the ground and 4cream4 when their trailing foot hits the floor. "he receiver then passes and follows the ball to the other group. .ontinue the cycle, setting a time limit for the drill.
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5utside "oot
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"he 4outside foot4 drill re%uires two ball feeders and one receiver. "he receiver alternates back and forth between the two feeders, catching the ball and then passing it diagonally to the other feeder. ;mphasi1e the importance of landing on the outside foot, so the receiver can step towards her intended target when making the next pass.

Statue of Liberty
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"he 4Statue of Liberty4 drill helps players work on their footwork and balance. <ne player stands holding the ball aloft and the other player runs, jumps and grabs the ball, landing with proper footwork and good balance. <nce comfortable, add a turn after the landing to the routine so that the player is facing her partner. =ncrease the intensity of the drill by having the 4statue4 player sprint to another position on the court and receive a pass before repeating the exercise.
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There are many different skills and tactics needed to play netball, their are three basic sections for the different skills, and the tactics you learn from experience.. The three sub sections are: asic skills, which includes !and positions,

When you reach the end of your rope, tie a knot in it and hang on. -Thomas Jefferson
catching, throwing, how to throw and catch, feet positions and basic netta and netball rules. The next sub section is middle skills, this includes all positions, stopping with the ball, three foot defence, streches, warming up, warming down and ball skills. The third sub section is called the higher skills, this includes defence, attack, shooting, keeping, how to work the court and talking to all of the players to communicate. Their are many different tactics you can use to fool your apponents mind and reactions, like falking the ball. That means that you pretend to throw the ball one way, so your opponent jumps that way trying to block the ball, and while this is happening, you would falk the ball and throw it the other way. "nother tactic for the goal circle is if you are a shooter, but you must make sure the other players in your team know what you are doing is, that lets just say W" passes you the ball, and you are too fat away to shoot you would pi#it around, put your non-grounded foot towards the goal circle and pass it back. Then taking a step back, and W" passes the ball back to you. $o you remember it like this, pass, pi#it, step, pass, step, shoot. %r you can do it again if you are still to fat away. "nd if your opponent touches your foot when you ha#e the ball and they dont see it, then they get called up for contact or obstruction with the ball. " defending tip about this is that make sure that the ball has just left the tips of their fingers before you jump. &etball rules do not permit players to let their landing foot touch the ground again if it is lifted at all while in possession of the ball, so players can take '.( steps while holding the ball. )layers are entitled to balance on the other foot if the landing foot is lifted. *onse+uently, the only way to mo#e the ball towards the goal is to throw the ball to a team-mate. The ball cannot be held by a player for more than three seconds at any time, and players may not tap the ball to themsel#es. The player cannot catch the ball, drop it and pick it up again, this is called a replayed ball. The duration before it is called a drop is determined by the umpire. These rules, combined with the restrictions on where one player of a particular position can mo#e, ensure that e#eryone on the team is regularly in#ol#ed in play.