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GEOMETRY FORMULA

Volumes a) Triangle : Area = base * height - universal Area of equilateral triangle = sqrt(3)/4 side2 b) Rectangle : length * breadth c) Square : side 2 Diagonal = side * sqrt(2) Area = product of diagonal d) e) f) g) Parallelogram : base * height Rhombus: product of diagonals Circle : Area PiR2 Circumference 2PiR Cuboid : is the rectangular solid having 6 faces with all the faces as rectangles Volumes : l*b*h Area for 4 walls : 2 (i+b)* h Total surface area of cuboid : 2 (lb + bh + lh) Body diagonals of cuboid : sqrt(l2+b2+h2) h) Cube Volume = a3 Total surface area of Cube 6 * a2 i) Cylinder Volume Pi R2H Curved surface= 2PiRH Total surface = 2PiR(R+H) j) Cone Volume = 1/3 PiR2h Curved surface area = PiRL where L=Sqrt (R2+H2) Total surface area : PiR(R+L) k) Sphere Volume : 4/3 PiR3 Surface : 4 Pi R2

Triangle

a) Sum of angles is 180 b) Exterior angle is equal to sum of interior angle non adjacent to it i.e. angles other than the complementary angle of the exterior angle c) Sum of any two sides is more than the third side d) Equilateral triangle is the triangle with all the sides as same Area = 3/4side2 Height 3/2side Perimeter = 3Side e) Right angle triangle 45 -90-45 triangle Hypotenuse = 2 * Side 30-60-90 triangle 30 side = hypotenuse 60 side = (3/2) hypotenuse f) If the angles of two triangles are same then they are similar then all the attributes that they have will have same proportion heights, sides etc.

Rectangle a) Diagonals are equal and bisect each other b) Diagonal = (a2+b2) c) Of all the given rectangles of same area or perimeter square will have the maximum area Parallelogram a) Diagonals bisect each other b) Opposite angles are same c) Each diagonal divides the parallelogram in triangles of same area Trapezium a) Only one pair of opposite side are parallel to each other b) Area = * (sum of parallel sides) * height c) Isosceles trapezium is the one that is inscribed in a circle. The oblique sides are equal. The opposite angles made by oblique sides with the parallel side are equal. Circle a) Tangents drawn from an external side are equal

CUBOID: Let length=l, breadth=b and height=h units. Then, Volume=(l*b*h) cubic units
Surface area=2(lb+bh+hl) squints Length of longest diagonal = (l + b +h).

CUBE: let each edge of a cube be of length a. Then,

Volume =a*a*a cubic units Surface area =6(a*a) squints Length of longest diagonal =3 a.

CYLINDER: let radius of base= r &height =h Then,

Volume = r2 h Surface = 2rh

CONE: Let radius of base=r & height = h. Then,


Slant height, l =

[(h 2)+(r 2)]

Volume = 1/3 r 2h Curved Surface area = 2rl sq. units

SRHERE: Let the radius of the sphere be r. Then,

Volume = 4/3 r3 Surface area = 4r2

Prisms

Volume = Base area X Height Surface = 2b + Ph (b is the area of the base P is the perimeter of the base) Pyramid V = 1/3 bh

b is the area of the base Surface Area: Add the area of the base to the sum of the areas of all of the triangular faces. The areas of the triangular faces will have different formulas for different shaped bases. HEXAGON
Area of the Regular Hexagon is = 3 3 (side)

Trapezeum

Length of Arc ABC = 2r & 360 Where B is the angle made at the center. Area of the Sector AOC = r & 360 Where B is the angle made at the center.

a + c = b + d = 180 Area of the Cyclic Quadrilateral = ( s - a) ( s b) ( s c) ( s d) Where a, b, c and d are the lengths of the Cyclic Quadrilateral

Length of Direct common tangent

Length of Direct common tangent = d - (r1 r2) Where r1 and r2 is radius of the circles. . d is the distance between the centers.

Length of Transverse common tangent


Length of Transverse common tangent = d - (r1 r2) Where r1 and r2 is radius of the circles. . d is the distance between the centers.

(AB) = DB x CB

Length of common chord: Where o and p are center of the circles. .r1 and r2 are radius of the circles with center o and p respectively. Area of the triangle opa is given by => S ( s - a) ( s b) ( s c) = x h x d In the above equation we know S, a, b, c, and d , so we can find out h. Length of common chord is given by 2h

Length of body diagonal or longest diagonal of a cuboid = ( l + h + b ) Length of body diagonal or longest diagonal of a cube = 3 (side)

SOME USEFUL INFORMATION ABOUT GEOMETRY - If perimeters of a square and parallelogram are equal, then area of a square is always greater than area of a parallelogram. - Similarly, if perimeters of a square and circle are same, then area of a circle is greater than area of a square. For any regular polygon, the sum of the exterior angles is equal to 360 degrees, hence measure of any external angle is equal to 360/n (where n is the number of sides) For any regular polygon, the sum of interior angles =(n-2)*180 degrees So measure of one angle is (n-2)/n *180 If any parallelogram can be inscribed in a circle, it must be a rectangle. If a trapezium can be inscribed in a circle it must be an isosceles trapezium (i.e. oblique sides equal). 52. For an isosceles trapezium, sum of a pair of opposite sides is equal in length to the sum of the other pair of opposite sides (i.e. AB+CD = AD+BC, taken in order) 53. For any quadrilateral whose diagonals intersect at right angles, the area of the quadrilateral is : 0.5*d1*d2, where d1, d2 are the length of the diagonals. For a cyclic quadrilateral, area = ((s-a) * (s-b) * (s-c) * (s-d)),

where s=(a + b + c + d)/2 Further, for a cyclic quadrilateral, the measure of an external angle is equal to the measure of the interior opposite angle. Area of a Rhombus = Product of Diagonals/2 54. Given the coordinates (a, b); (c, d); (e, f); (g, h) of a parallelogram , the coordinates of the meeting point of the diagonals can be found out by solving for [(a + e)/2, (b + f)/2] = [(c + g)/2, (d + h)/2] 55. Area of a triangle 1/2*base*altitude 1/2*a*b*sin C (or) 1/2*b*c*sin A (or) 1/2*c*a*sin B root(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c)) where s=(a+b+c)/2 a*b*c/(4*R) where R is the circumradius of the triangle r*s ,where r is the inradius of the triangle
Equilateral Triangle Height = 3/2 ( side) Area = 3/4 ( side ) R = 2/3 Height . r = 1/3 Height

56. In any triangle a=b*cos C + c*cos B b=c*cos A + a*cos C c=a*cos B + b*cos A a/sin A=b/sin B=c/sin C=2R, where R is the circumradius cos C = (a 2 + b2 - c2)/2ab sin 2A = 2 sin A * cos A cos 2A = cos2 A - sin2A 57. The ratio of the radii of the circumcircle and incircle of an equilateral triangle is 2:1

58. Appollonius Theorem In a triangle ABC, if AD is the median to side BC, then AB2 + AC2 = 2(AD2 + BD2) or 2(AD2 + DC2)

59. Isosceles Triangle Area = b/4 (4 a - b) In an isosceles triangle, the perpendicular from the vertex to the base or the angular bisector from vertex to base bisects the base. In any triangle the angular bisector of an angle bisects the base in the ratio of the other two sides. 60. The quadrilateral formed by joining the angular bisectors of another quadrilateral is always a rectangle. 61. Let W be any point inside a rectangle ABCD, then, WD2 + WB2 = WC2 + WA2 62. Let a be the side of an equilateral triangle, then, if three circles are drawn inside this triangle such that they touch each other, then each circles radius is given by a/(2( 3 +1)). 63. Distance between a point (x1, y1) and a line represented by the equation ax + by + c=0 is given by |ax1+by1+c|/Sq(a2+b2) Distance between 2 points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is given by Sq((x1-x2)2+ (y1-y2)2)

64. Where a rectangle is inscribed in an isosceles right angled triangle, then, the length of the rectangle is twice its breadth and the ratio of area of rectangle to area of triangle is 1:2.

Co-Ordinate Geometry
A ( X, Y) and B ( X2, Y2 ) are 2 points Distance between AB = (Y2 Y ) + (X2 - X ) Slope of Line AB, m = (Y2 Y) (X2 - X) Equation of the straight line passing through A ( X, Y) and B ( X2, Y2 ) is given by

(Y Y ) = m (X - X ) where m = Y2 Y X2 - X In Equation of the straight line y . m is the slope of the line . c is the Y intercept .

=mx+c

a is x intercept. b is y intercept If two lines are parallel then the slopes are equal. M1 = M 2 Where M1 and M 2 are slopes of the lines. If two lines are perpendicular then the product of the slopes is -1. M 1 x M 2 = -1. Where M1 and M 2 are slopes of the lines Equations of straight line parallel to a x + b y + c 1 = 0 is a x + b y + c 2 = 0 Equations of straight line perpendicular to a x + b y + c 1 = 0 is b x - a y + c 2= 0 Perpendicular distance between two parallel lines a x + b y + c 1 = 0 is a x + b y + c 2 = 0 is = c 1 - c 2 a + b

Arithmetic Progression.
. a , a +d, a+2d, a+3d, a+4d,.. a is the first term of the series. . d is the common difference. Nth term of the series is given by tn = a + ( n-1) d. Sum of N terms is given by Sn = n/2 [ 2a + ( n 1) d] Sn = n/2 [ L + D ] L is the first term D is the last term

Geometric Progression
. a, ar, ar, ar, . Sum of N terms is given by Sn = a (r - 1)/ ( r 1) Sum of infinite terms is given by S = a/ ( 1 r) Where r is less than 1 Sum of infinite terms is given by S = a/( r - 1) Where r is greater than 1

Speed and Distance:


If a person is traveling from A to B with a km/ hr, and in return from B to A with b km/hr his average speed is given by = 2 x a x b / (a+b)

km/hr

If the distance traveled is same with two different speeds then average speed is given by = 2 x a x b / (a+b)km/ hr If the time taken is same with different speeds then average speed is given by = (a + b)/ 2 km/ hr. a km/ hr and b km/hr are different speeds. Trains If speed of the train is A km/hr, length of the train is B km. Then time taken to cross a pole in hrs = B/ A km/hr If speed of the train is A km/hr, length of the train is B km. Then time taken to cross a platform of length C km in hrs = (B +C) km / A km/ hr. Two trains A and B are traveling with a km/hr and b km/hr respectively. Lengths of the train A and B are X km and Y km respectively. Time taken to cross the slower train by faster train = (X +Y) km / (a+b) km/hr. (If they are traveling in opposite direction) Time taken to cross the slower train by faster train (If they are traveling in same direction, Starting point of the faster train is at the end of the slower train) = (X +Y) km / a - b km/hr. Time taken to cross the slower train by faster train (If they are traveling in same direction, Starting point of the faster train and slower train are on the same line)

= (Length of the faster train) km / a - b km/hr. A person is roving the boat at speed of a km/hr. length of the river he has to cross the river is x km. Water flows in the river at b km/hr. Then time taken to cross the river (With the current) = x km / (a + b) km /hr Then time taken to cross the river (Against the current) = x km/ (a - b) km /hr

Simple Interest
Simple Interest = P x N x R / 100 P = Principal N = Number of Years R = Rate of Interest Compound Interest = P P = Principal n = Number of Years R = Rate of Interest

( 1 + R / 100 ) -- P

Interest Compounded Half yearly P

( 1 + (R/2) / 100 ) - P

Rate of Interest for Installment Interest = 24 x I x 100 / N ( F + L) I = Installment Charge N = Number of Installments F = Principal left after first Installment L = Principal left after last Installment

Mixtures :

1. when you mix different quantities (say n1 and n2) of A and B, with different strengths or values v1 and v2 then their mean value vm after mixing will be: Vm*(n1 + n2) = (v1.n1 + v2.n2) you can use this to find the final price of say two types of rice being mixed or final strength of acids of different concentration being mixed etc.... the ratio in which they have to be mixed in order to get a mean value of vm can be given as: n1/n2 = (v2 - vm)/(vm - v1)

When three different ingredients are mixed then the ratio in which they have to be mixed in order to get a final strength of vm is: n1 : n2 : n3 = (v2 - vm)(v3 - vm) : (vm - v1)(v3 - vm) : (vm - v2)(vm - v1) 2. If from a vessel containing M units of mixtures of A & B, x units of the mixture is taken out & replaced by an equal amount of B only .And If this process of taking out & replacement by B is repeated n times , then after n operations, Amount of A left/ Amount of A originally present = (1-x/M) n 3. If the vessel contains M units of A only and from this x units of A is taken out and replaced by x units of B. if this process is repeated n times, then: Amount of A left = M [(1 - x/M)n] This formula can be applied to problem involving dilution of milk with water, etc...

EXPLAINATION TO THE ABOVE FORMULA

when you mix different quantities (say n1 and n2) of A and B, with different strengths or values v1 and v2 then their mean value vm after mixing will be: Vm = (v1.n1 + v2.n2) / (n1 + n2) (I assume that you understood this... ) vm (n1 + n2) = v1 n1 + v2 n2 n1 (vm - v1) = n2 (v2 - vm) so, n1/n2 = (v2 - vm)/(vm - v1) ----> (1) similarly if you mix n2 and n3, then their ratio would be given by n2/n3 = (v3 - vm)/(vm - v2) ----> (2) now assume we mix n1, n2 and n3 of different ingredients of value v1, v2 and v3. the individual ratios (1) and (2) will still be the same. now combine these ratios to get n1:n2:n3 by making the denominators common

n1/n2 = (v2 - vm)(v3 - vm)/(vm - v1)(v3 - vm) and n2/n3 = (v3 - vm)(vm - v1)/(vm - v2)(vm - v1) rearrange this and you will get the formula: n1 : n2 : n3 = (v2 - vm)(v3 - vm) : (vm - v1)(v3 - vm) : (vm - v2)(vm - v1) Hope this is clear...

PROGRESSION: Sum of first n natural numbers: 1 +2 +3 + .... + n = [n(n+1)]/2 Sum of first n odd numbers: 1 + 3 + 5 + .... upto n terms = n2 Sum of first n even numbers: 2 + 4 + 6 + ... upto n terms = n(n+1) ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION nth term of an Arithmetic progression = a + (n-1)d Sum of n terms in an AP = s = n/2 [2a + (n-1)d] where, a is the first term and d is the common difference. If a, b and c are any three consecutive terms in an AP, then 2b = a + c

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION nth term of a GP is = a[r n-1] sum of n terms of a GP: s = a [(rn - 1)/(r-1)] if r > 1 s = a [(1 - rn)/(r-1)] if r < 1] sum of an infinite number of terms of a GP is s(approx.) = a/ (1-r) if r <1 If a, b and c are any three consecutive terms in a GP, then b2 = ac

HARMONIC PROGRESSION

A series of non-zero numbers is said to be harmonic progression (abbreviated H.P.) if the series obtained by taking reciprocals of the corresponding terms of the given series is an arithmetic progression. For example, the series 1 +1/4 +1/7 +1/10 +..... is an H.P. since the series obtained by taking reciprocals of its corresponding terms i.e. 1 +4 +7 +10 +... is an A.P. A general H.P. is 1/a + 1/(a + d) + 1/(a + 2d) + ... nth term of an H.P. = 1/[a +(n -1)d] Three numbers a, b, c are in H.P. if 1/a, 1/b, 1/c are in A.P. i.e. if 1/a + 1/c = 2/b i.e. if b= 2ac/(a + c) Thus the H.M. between a and b is H = 2ac/(a + c) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------If A, G, H are arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means between two distinct, positive real numbers a and b, THEN 1. G = AH i.e. A, G, H are in G.P. 2. A, G, H are in descending order of magnitude i.e. A > G > H. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Problems on trains

a km/hr = (a* (5/18)) m/s a m/s = (a* (18/5)) km/hr Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a pole or a standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train to cover l metres.

Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a stationary object of length b metres is the time taken by the train to cover (l+b) metres. Suppose 2 trains or 2 bodies are moving in the same direction at u m/s and v m/s, where u>v, then their relative speed = (u-v) m/s Suppose 2 trains or 2 bodies are moving in the opposite direction at u m/s and v m/s, where u>v, then their relative speed = (u+v) m/s If 2 trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in opposite directions at u m/s and v m/s, then the time taken by the trains to cross each other = (a+b)/(u+v) sec If 2 trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in same directions at u m/s and v m/s, then the time taken by the faster train to cross the slower train = (a+b)/(u-v) sec If 2 trains(or bodies) start at the same time from points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b sec in reaching B and A respectively, then (A's speed): (B's speed) = (root(B):root(A))

EXPLAINATION TO THE ABOVE FORMULA

EXP 1: It is Speed of train A: Speed of train B = sqrt(b) : sqrt(a)

EXP2: If 2 trains (or bodies) start at the same time from points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b sec in reaching B and A respectively, then

(A's speed) : (B's speed) = (root(b) : root(a)) where a and b number of seconds. FORMULA FOR FINDING THE UNIQUE DIVISORS AND THEIR SUMS

This one is a nice formula for finding the number of unique divisors for any number and also the sum of those divisors.... such questions are there in powerprep and so you might also get it in your real GRE. If N is a number such that N = (am) (b n) (cp).... where, a, b, c, ... are prime numbers, then the number of divisors of N, including N itself is equal to: (m+1) (n+1) (p+1).... and the sum of the divisors of N is given by: S = [(a^m+1) - 1]/[a - 1] * [(b^n+1) - 1]/[b - 1] * [(c^p+1) - 1]/[c- 1]..... Example: for say N = 90, on factorizing you get 90 = 3*3*5*2= (3^2)*(5^1)*(2^1) then the number of divisors of 90 are (2+1)(1+1)(1+1) = 12 the 12 divisors are 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, 18, 30, 45, 90 And the sum of the divisors would be [(3^3) - 1]/[3 - 1] * [(5^2) - 1]/[5 - 1] * [(2^2) - 1]/[2 - 1] = (26/2) (24/4) (3/1) = 234 Though this method looks more complicated than listing the factors and adding them, once you get used to this formula, it saves lot of time..

LINE FORMULAE

Let the coordinates of P1 be (x1,y1) and of P2 be (x2,y2) - The distance from P1 to P2 is:

d = sqrt[(x1-x2)**2+ (y1-y2)**2]

- The coordinates of the point dividing the line segment P1P2 in the ratio r/s are:

([r x2+s x1]/[r+s], [r y2+s y1]/[r+s])

- As a special case, when r = s, the midpoint of the line segment has coordinates:

([x2+x1]/2,[y2+y1]/2)

- The slope m of a non-vertical line passing through the points P1 and P2:

slope = m = (y2 -y1)/(x2 -x1)


Two (non-vertical) lines are parallel if their slopes are equal. Two (non-vertical) lines are perpendicular if the product of their slopes = -1. Slope of a perpendicular line is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line.

FORMULAE FOR POPULATION RELATED QUESTIONS The population of a town decreases by 'x%' during the first year, decreases by 'y%' during the second year and again decreases by 'z%' during the third year. If the present population of the town is 'P', then the population of the town three years ago was:: P*100*100*100 -----------------------

(100-x)(100-y)(100-z).

The population of a town is 'P'.It decreases by 'x%' during the first year, decreases by 'y%' during the second year and again deceases by 'z%' during the third year. The population after 3 years will be: P*(100-x)(100-y)(100-z) -------------------------100*100*100. If 'X' litres of oil was poured into a tank and it was still 'x%' empty, then the quantity of oil that must be poured into the tank in order to fill it to the brim is: X*x ------- litres. 100 - x If 'X' liters of oil was poured into a tank and it was still 'x%' empty, then the capacity of the tank is: X*100 ---------- litres. 100 - x A candidate scoring x% in an examination fails by "a" marks, while another candidate who scores y% marks gets "b" marks more than the minimum required pass marks. Then the maximum marks for that exam = 100(a+b) ---------y-x . The pass marks in an examination is x%. If a candidate who secures y marks fails by z marks, then the maximum marks is given by 100(y+z)

----------x.

Permutations And Combinations

1. If one operation can be performed in m ways and another operation in n ways, then the two operations in succesion can be done in m*n ways 2. The linear permutation of n distinct objects (that is, the number of ways in which these n objects can be arranged is n! and the circular permutation of n distinct objects is (n-1)! But if the clockwise and anticlockwise directions are indistinguishable then the circular permutations of n different things taken at a time is (n-1)!/2 3. But out of these n objects, if there are n1 objects of a certain type, n2 of another type and n3 of another, and so on, Then the number of arrangements (linear permutations) possible is n!/n1!n2!...nz! 4. The total number of ways of arranging r things from n things is given by nPr = n!/(n-r)! 5. The number of ways to select r things out of n things is given by nCr = n!/(r!*(n-r)!) 6. nPr = r! * nCr Suppose you have a name with n letters, and there are k1 of one letter, k2 of another letter, and so on, up to kz. For example, in ELLEN, n = 5, k1 = 2 [two E's], k2 = 2 [two L's], k3 = 1 [one N]). Then the number of rearrangements is n!/k1!k2!...kz!

Numbers And Percentages

COUNTING SUM OF FIRST n NATURAL NUMBERS = n(n+1)/2 Sum of first n ODD integers = n*n Sum of first n EVEN integers = n(n+1) Sum of the squares of the first n integers = n(n+1)(2n+1)/6 Sum of the cubes of first n integers =(n(n+1)/2)^2 IF n is even, then No. of odd no.s from 1 to n is n/2 No. of even no.s from 1 to n is n/2

If n is odd then, No. of odd no.s from 1 to n is (n+1)/2 No. of even no.s from 1 to n is (n-1)/2 POWERS AND INDICES To find the unit digit of p^n If there is an odd no. in the unit place of p eg 741,843 etc Multiply the unit digit by itself until u get 1. Example: If u need to find the unit digit of (743)^38: Multiply 3 four times to get 81. (743)^38=(743)^36 X (743)^2 36 is a multiple of 4, and 3 when multiplied 4 times gives 1 in the unit digit.Therefore, when multiplied 9 x 4 times, it will still give 1 in the unit digit. the unit digit of (743)^38, hence will be 1 x 9 =9

In short (..1)^n =(..1) (.3)^4n=(..1) (.7)^4n=(..1) (.9)^2n=(.1) If the unit digit of p is even and u need to find the unit digit of (p)^n Multiply the unit digit of p by itself until a 6 is in the unit place (2)^4n=(.6) (.4)^2n=(.6) (.6)^n=(.6) (.8)^4n=(.6) For numbers ending with 1,5,6, after any times of multiplication, you get only 1, 5, 6 respectively.

Number of numbers divisible by a certain integer: How many numbers upto 100 are divisible by 6?

Soln: Divide 100 by 6, the resulting quotient is the required answer Here, 100/6 = 16x6+4 16 is the quotient and 6 is the remainder. Therefore, there are 16 numbers within 100 which are divisible by 6. PERCENTAGES

If the value of a number is first increased by x% and later decreased by x%, the net change is always A DECREASE= (x^2)/100 if the value of a number is first increased by x% and then decreased by y%, then there is (x-y-(xy/100))% increase if positive , and decrease if negative If the order of increase or decrease is changed, THE RESULT IS UNAFFECTED

If the value is increased successively by x% and y%,then final increase is given by x+y+(xy/100) %

Conversions
1 mile = 1609 meters 1 mile = 5280 feet. 1mile = 8 furlong 1 furlong = 220 feet 1 km/hr = (5 / 18 ) m/s
Percentages

1. If the commodity price increases by x% then the consumption has to be reduced by x/(100+x) to maintain the amount spent 2. If the commodity price decreases by x% then the consumption has to be increased by x/(100-x) to maintain the amount spent 3. if as income is x% more than b on bs income then bs income is x/(100+x)% less than a on as income 4. if as income is x% less than b on bs income then bs income is x/(100 -x)% more than a on as income 5. When it is stated that a is x% more than b then it means on the base of b. thus a = b+x%b

Simple & compound interest

1. Simple interest = PNR/100 where p = principal; N=period (years) and R = rate Amount = P+I 2. compound interest = A = P (1+R/100)^N This in compound interest the formula will give the final amount. Principal will have to be deducted from it to get the interest portion. In case the interest is half yearly then rate should be halfed and period should be doubled. Similarly for quarterly. Then the interest rate for different years is different then P (1+R1/100) (1+R2/100) (1+R3/100) 3. population. The formula for compound interest can also be used for populations. But where the populations is decreasing then the sign will change to - instead of + Averages

1. Mode is the number that occurs most no of times in given sample

2. Median is the middle number of the given sample. Where the number of items in given sample is odd then (n+1)/2th number and if the number is even it is simple average between n/2 and n+2/2th numbers 3. Arithmetic mean : it is sum of all numbers / no of numbers 4. weighted average mean: it is sum of product of numbers and their respective weights / sum of weights 5. Geometric mean: between two numbers it is x = Sqrt (ab). If geometric mean of one group of numbers (a) is X and that of group (b) is Y then geometric mean of both the groups will be (X+Y)/ (a+b) 6. Harmonic mean : between two numbers = number of numbers / (sum of reciprocal of numbers) ie. 2ab/(a+b). This also gives the average speed when same length distances are covered in different speeds 7. GM^2 = AM*HM Ratio proportion and variation

1. comparing two quantities as ratios: a. both the quantities should be of same kind b. both should have the same measurement per unit c. ratio is a pure number i.e. it does not have any measurement. It just denotes how many times one quantity is of one of other 2. compounding : if two different ratios (say a:b and c:d) are expressed in different units then if we require to combine these two ratios then it will be AC:BD 3. if a/b=c/d=e/f then the ratio is equal to a+c+e / b+d+f Mixtures and allegation

1. Alligation rule Quantity of cheap = Price of dear average price Quantity of dear Average price price of cheap

2. if a vessel contains a litres of liquid A and if b litres are withdrawn and replaced by liquid B then if b litres of the mixture is again withdrawn and replaced by liquid B. the operation is repeated n number of times then Liquid a left in vessel = ((a-b)/a)^n Initial liquid in vessel

Profit or loss

If the a and b are two successive discounts that have been given then effective discount rate will (a+b-(ab/100))

Time speed and distance

Km/hr * (5/18) = m/s Km = 5/8 mile 1. while traveling if a person changes his speed in m:n ratio then the time taken will also change in n:m ratio 2. if the A to B is traveled in T1 time and a speed and B to A if T2 time and b speed then the average speed is give by (2ab) / (a+b) . Harmonic mean Distance is given by (T1+T2) (2ab/(a+b)) Or (T1-T2) (2ab/(a-b)) Or (a-b) (T1T2 / (T1+T2)) 3. if two persons start towards each other from different points and arrive at two points in a hrs and b hrs respectively after having met then ratio of their speed is given by SQRT (b) / SQRT (a) = as speed / bs speed Work

1. if A can do a work in x days then 1/xth work is done in one day 2. if A is X times better workman than B then A will take 1/xth time of that taken by B 3. if A and B do work in X and Y days then they will complete the same work in XY / (X+Y) days and in one day (X+Y)/ XY days work will be done 4. if A and B can do a piece of work in X days and if A alone will be able to complete the work in a days more than X and b can in b days more than X then X 2 = ab 5. if a pipe can fill a vessel in x hrs then 1/xth part of the vessel is filled in one hour 6. if A pipe is X times bigger than B then A will take 1/X times lesser time than B 7. if A and B fill the pipe in m and n hours respectively then both will fill the pipe in MN / (m+n) hours and (m+n) / mn th part of vessel will be filled in one hour 8. if one inlet pipe fills the vessels in M hrs and other pipe empties the vessel in N hrs then the vessel will be filled in MN / (N-M) hrs. and (N-M)/MN the part will be filled 9. if an inlet pipes taken X minutes to fill the cistern and has taken a minutes longer then the leak will empty the cistern in a*(1+a/x) minutes 10. A and B can fill the cistern in X hrs and A alone will fill the same in a minutes more than X and b can fill it in b minuted more than X then X= sqrt (ab) Clocks and Calendars

a) A dial of the clock is divided into 60 parts each called minute spaces b) The hour hand goes 5 minute spaces in one hour and minutes hand goes 60 minute spaces in one hour. Thus the minute hand gains 55 minute spaces over the hour hand in one hour c) When two hands are in 90 degree they are 15 minute spaces apart. This occurs twice in an hour.

d) When the two hands are in opposite directions they are 30 minute hands apart this occurs once in an hour e) Two hands are in straight line when they coincide or are in opposite directions f) The angle between the two hands = 6(x-11/12m) X= hour hand convert into minute spaces i.e.* 5 of the earlier clock M = the later part of the time i.e. minutes g) The years that are divisible by 400 are the only ones that are leap year. When mentioned RST then S will be the top vertices

Numbers a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) ODD +/- ODD = EVEN ODD +/- EVEN = ODD EVEN +/- EVEN = EVEN ODD * ODD = ODD ODD * EVEN = EVEN EVEN * EVEN = EVEN HCF of two numbers is the number that divides both the numbers exactly LCM of two numbers is the number that is divided by both the numbers exactly HCF*LCM= product of both the numbers HCF of fraction is HCF of the numerators / LCM of denominators LCF of fractions is LCM of numerators and HCF of denominators if three numbers a,b,c are divided by N in such manner that r is the remainder each time then smallest value of N is LCM of (a,b,c)+r m) if three numbers a,b,c divide N is such manner that remainders are p,q,r then if (a-p) = (b-q) = (c-r) then the smallest value of N is LCM of (a,b,c) (a-p) Indices

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Am * An=A(m+n) Am / An=A(m-n) (Am)n=A(m*n) Nth root of A = A1/n 1/A = A-n AnBn=(AB)n (A+B)2=A2+B2+2ab (A-B)2=A2+B22ab (A+B)2-(A-B)2=4AB (A+B)2+ (A-B)2=2(A+B)2

Inequalities

a) If a>b then a+m>b+m b) If a>b then am>bm for m>0 and am<bm for m<0. whenever inequality is multiplied by a negative quantity then the sign reverses

c) If a>b then 1/a<1/b Logarithms

a) Log

A = logm A/logmn

Progressions a) Arithematic progressions Sum = (n/2)*[2A+(n-1)d] = (n/2) * (a+l) Nth Term = A+(N-1)D N = number of terms D is the common differences A is the first term L is the last term b) Geometric progression Arn-1=Nth Term Sum = A(1-rn)/(1-r) Geometric mean = (ab)1/2 c) Harmonic mean = it is the arithmetic mean of reciprocals of numbers Sum and nth number of harmonic mean is reciprocal of arithmetic mean Harmonic mean of two numbers is 2ab/(a+b)

Permutation and combination a) Fundamental principal of addition: if one thing can be done m number of ways and other thing can be done in n number of ways independent of other. Then either of them can be done in (m+n) ways b) Fundamental principal of multiplication: if one thing can be done m number of ways and other thing can be done in n number of ways independent of other. Then either of them can be done in (m*n) ways c) Permutation : permutation of n objects taken r at a time is the arrangement in a straight line of r objects taken at a time denoted by N!/(N-R)! d) The number of permutation of n objects taken all at a time = n! e) The number of permutations of n objects taken all at a time when p of them are like, q are like = n!/p!q! f) Combination is the selection of r objects in n objects. Denoted as N!/(n-r)!r! g) Number of permutations of n objects taken all at a time in circle (n-1)! h) When the repetition of allowed then permutation nr

Some points that can be helpful 1. 2. 3. 4. 2N-1 or 2m+1 is always odd If N is an integer then N is always an integer N^3-n = N(n-1)(n+1) Think negative also as the maximum traps are account of positive to negative changes best input nos 2-,2,3,-2,0.5,-0.5 5. Distance between two points on coordinate is given by the formula ((A-x)^2+(BY)^2)) where x.y and a,b are the pair of coordinates 6.