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Hopscotch

Hopscotch is a simple children's game which can be played with several players
or alone. Hopscotch is often played on playgrounds by children. Hopscotch was
invented by the Romans, probably in Britain during the early Empire. It was
initially designed as a training regimen for Roman foot soldiers that ran the course
in full armor and field packs, as it was thought this would improve their footwork.
The word "hopscotch" is a compound of "hop" (short jump) and "scotch" (scratched
line). Called "scotch-hoppers", the term dates back at least to 1677. However, "hop"
and "skoč" also mean "jump" in Czech. But the game itself is called panák (figure)
in Czech.
Hopscotch Courts, c. 1900.[1]

English English (simple) American

To play hopscotch, a course is first laid out. Traditionally, children have drawn
the course in the dirt of a playground whenever needed, although it was often
chalked on pavement when dirt was unavailable. Designs vary, but the course is
usually composed of a series of linear squares interspersed with blocks of two
lateral squares. Traditionally the course ends with a "safe" or "home" base in which
the player may turn before completing the reverse trip. The home base may be a
square, a rectangle, or a semicircle. The squares are then numbered in the sequence
in which they are to be hopped.
The first player tosses the marker (typically a stone, coin or bean bag) into the
first square. The marker must land completely within the designated square and
without touching a line or bouncing out. The player then hops through the course,
skipping the square with the marker in it. Single squares must be hopped on one
foot. For the first single square, either foot may be used. Side by side squares are
straddled, with the left foot landing in the left square, and the right foot landing in
the right square. Optional squares marked "Safe", "Home", or "Rest" is neutral
squares, and may be hopped through in any manner without penalty. Upon
successfully completing the sequence, the player continues the turn by tossing the
marker into square number two, and repeating the pattern.
If while hopping through the court in either direction the player steps on a line,
misses a square, or loses balance, the turn ends. Players begin their turns where they
last left off. The first player to complete one course for every numbered square on
the court wins the game. Although the marker is most often picked up during the
game, historically, in the boy's game, the marker was kicked sequentially back
through the course on the return trip and then kicked out.

Congkak
Congkak (Malay pronunciation: [tʃoŋkaʔ]) is a mancala game played in the island
of Borneo, Singapore, and Peninsular Malaysia. Minor variants are known as
Tchonka, Naranj, Dakon or Sungka and are played in Indonesia (mostly Java), Sri
Lanka, the Maldives, southern Thailand, the Philippines and the Marianas. In
Indonesia, it is called "Congklak" meaning cowry shells, which are often used as
pieces. On the island of Java, it is called "Dakon" and little red seeds are used as
pieces. In the Philippines it is called "Sungka" and shells are used as pieces.
Congkak is believed to originate from the word ‘congak’ which in old Malay
Language means count. It is believed that the game originated in Malacca
Kingdom where it became very popular and spread to the South East Asia region.
This spread was due to the many travellers who visited the kingdom because it was
a trading city. In the early days, it was thought that this game was for the king and
family and palace residents, however later it spread to the general population of the
kingdom. As the congkak board is shaped like a boat it is believed that it is based on
the legend of a fisherman unable to go to the sea during rainy season who lost his
income during this time. To prevent boredom he created this game which is similar
to his boat. However, on the island of Java, the board always has a dragon head at
each end and the sides of the board (which is made of wood) are carved to look like
reptile scales. The congkak board has fourteen holes in two sets of seven, plus an
additional store for each player. Each player controls the seven holes on their side
of the board, and their score is the number of seeds in their left-hand store. The
pieces are 98 undifferentiated seeds.
Players take turns moving the seeds except in the first move which is performed
simultaneously. On a turn, a player chooses one of the seven holes under their
control. The player removes all seeds from this hole, and distributes them in each
hole clockwise from this hole, in a process called sowing. Sowing skips an
opponent's store, but does not skip a player's own store. If the last seed falls into an
occupied hole, all the seeds are removed from that hole, and are sown starting from
that hole. The process continues until the last seed falls into a player's store, or an
empty hole. If the last seed sown falls into a player's own store, they immediately
earn another turn, which can begin at any of the seven holes under their control.