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FOUNDATIONFOUNDATION ENGINEERINGENGINEERING ExcavationsExcavations ,, RetaininRetainin gg structuresstructures Budapest

FOUNDATIONFOUNDATION ENGINEERINGENGINEERING

ExcavationsExcavations,, RetaininRetainingg structuresstructures

Budapest 3 November 2011

Foundation Engineering

1. Excavations

Foundation Engineering 1. Excavations The foundation level is under the ground , so its building requires

The foundation level is under the ground, so its building requires excavation.

Determinants of the value of the excavation:

Geometry of the building;

Transportation requirments;

Dewatering requirments

Determinants of the type of the retaining structures:

Size of the site;

Type of the soil;

Groundwater;

Time;

Neighbour structures;

Size of the building;

Available facilities (technology).

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 1.1. Types of retainings  sloped (soil, torkret concrete);  braced (wood, reinforced

1.1. Types of retainings

sloped (soil, torkret concrete); braced (wood, reinforced concrete, steel, plastic); sheet piling (wood, steel, reinforced concrete); diaphragma walls; bored pile walls; freezing or chemical methods;

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 2. Sloped open cut method If c=0, b<F stairs building ditch Most simple way

2. Sloped open cut method

If c=0, b<F stairs building ditch
If c=0, b<F
stairs
building
ditch

Most simple way to make excavation, but it needs big free place and it requires rather big volume earthworks.

Under 6 m it requires slope stability calculations.

Excavated soil deponation must be out of slipsurface.

Under groundwater only in cohesive soils or dewatering is also neccesary. Dewatering of rainfalls is required.

Dynamic effects reduces slopestability.

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 3. Braced excavation method B race d – trans f er t h e

3. Braced excavation method

Braced –transfer the earthload to the oppposite earthwall Walls Wales Struts

The height of vertical earthwall without retaining:

m

n

,

c- cohesion;

  - friction angle;

  - density of the soil;

n- safety factor(n=2).

m n   ,  c- cohesion;   - friction angle;   -

o

4

c

tg45

o

/ 2

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 3. 1. Braced with standing walls If the vertical eartwall is st able to

3. 1. Braced with standing walls

If the vertical eartwall is stable to excavation level.

Procedure:

1. Excavate the soil to foundation level.

2. Install walls into the excavation. (not continous)

3. Install wales.

4. Install struts.

the soil to foundation level. 2. Install walls into the excavation. (not continous) 3. Install wales.

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 3. 2. Braced excavation with repressing If the excavation is deeper than the stable

3. 2. Braced excavation with repressing

If the excavation is deeper than the stable vertical earthwall H>m

Procedure:

o

1. Excavate the soil to first stage (m o ).

2. Install walls, wales and struts temporary.

3. Excavate the soil to the next stage.

4. Relase struts and push walls down and install wales and struts.

5. Repeat 3 and 4 till the designed depth.

stage. 4. Relase struts and push walls down and install wales and struts. 5. Repeat 3

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 3. 3. Braced excavation with lateral walls The stable earthwall is very small, in

3. 3. Braced excavation with lateral walls

The stable earthwall is very small, in case of non-cohesive soils.

Procedure 1.Excavate the soil to m o , 2.Install the walls, wales and struts temporary. 3.Excavate the soil to the next stage. 4.Rebuild wales and struts. 5.Repeat procedure 3 and 4 till the designed depth.

3.Excavate the soil to the next stage. 4.Rebuild wales and struts. 5.Repeat procedure 3 and 4

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 3. 4. Table braced system

3. 4. Table braced system

Foundation Engineering 3. 4. Table braced system

Foundation Engineering

3. 5. Braced system

Foundation Engineering 3. 5. Braced system
Foundation Engineering 3. 5. Braced system

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 3. 5. Braced system Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

3. 5. Braced system

Foundation Engineering 3. 5. Braced system Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation
Foundation Engineering 3. 5. Braced system Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 3. 6. Design braced excavation The structure elemenets of braced excavation are compressed or

3. 6. Design braced excavation

The structure elemenets of braced excavation are compressed or bended.

Input:

Depth of excavation (H) Space between wales (t); Space between struts (y).

Output:

Thickness of walls (v); Cross-section of wales (a b ); Cross-section of struts (A).

Foundation Engineering

4. Soldier pile method

Foundation Engineering 4. Soldier pile method Mostly 6 m deeper or 3-4 m wider excavations.

Mostly 6 m deeper or 3-4 m wider excavations.

Foundation Engineering 4. Soldier pile method Mostly 6 m deeper or 3-4 m wider excavations.
Foundation Engineering 4. Soldier pile method Mostly 6 m deeper or 3-4 m wider excavations.

Foundation Engineering

4. Soldier pile method

Foundation Engineering 4. Soldier pile method Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation
Foundation Engineering 4. Soldier pile method Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation
Foundation Engineering 4. Soldier pile method Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 4. Design soldier pile method Design: - Cross-section of Soldier pile - Dep th

4. Design soldier pile method

Design:

- Cross-section of Soldier pile

- Depth of embedment

- Thickness of lagging

- Parameters of anchors (if it is necessary)

Loads Moment Shear
Loads
Moment Shear

Foundation Engineering

5. Sheet-pile walls

Foundation Engineering 5. Sheet-pile walls Sturctural types of sheet-pile walls: - embeded - anchored in one

Sturctural types of sheet-pile walls:

- embeded

- anchored in one level, without embeding

- anchored and embeded

- struted (braced)

Design:

- Death of embeding

- M max cross-section of sheet

- Load of anchors parameteres of anchors

Design: - Death of embeding - M m a x  cross-section of sheet - Load

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 5. Sheet-pile walls Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

5. Sheet-pile walls

Foundation Engineering 5. Sheet-pile walls Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation
Foundation Engineering 5. Sheet-pile walls Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 5.1. Design sheet-pile walls E m b e d e d A nc hored

5.1. Design sheet-pile walls

Embeded

Foundation Engineering 5.1. Design sheet-pile walls E m b e d e d A nc hored

Anchored in one level, without embeding

Foundation Engineering 5.1. Design sheet-pile walls E m b e d e d A nc hored

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 5.1. Design sheet-pile walls Anchored and embeded

5.1. Design sheet-pile walls

Anchored and embeded

Foundation Engineering 5.1. Design sheet-pile walls Anchored and embeded

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 5.1. Design sheet-pile walls Struted (braced)

5.1. Design sheet-pile walls

Struted (braced)

Foundation Engineering 5.1. Design sheet-pile walls Struted (braced)

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 5.2. Types of sheet-pile walls Strate sheets Half wave sheets Total wave sheets

5.2. Types of sheet-pile walls

Strate sheets Half wave sheets Total wave sheets
Strate sheets
Half wave sheets
Total wave sheets

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering
Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering
Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering

6. Diaphragma walls

Foundation Engineering 6. Diaphragma walls Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation
Foundation Engineering 6. Diaphragma walls Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

Chang-Yu Ou:Deep excavation

Foundation Engineering

6. Diaphragma walls

Foundation Engineering 6. Diaphragma walls
Foundation Engineering 6. Diaphragma walls
Foundation Engineering 6. Diaphragma walls

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 7. Freezing and injection

7. Freezing and injection

Foundation Engineering 7. Freezing and injection

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 7. Freezing and injection Gravely soils under groundwate r and waterproof layer is missing

7. Freezing and injection

Gravely soils under groundwater and waterproof layer is missing or in very deep.

Advantages:

- Absolute waterproof

- Other retaining structures are not neccesary

- In any kind of soil (except injection clay)

Disadvanteges:

- Difficult technical facilities

- Expensive

- Long time defrost in case of freezing

Foundation Engineering

8. Shotcrete method

Foundation Engineering 8. Shotcrete method Excavation Nailing Reinforcement, shotcrete Excavation A pplication field:
Excavation Nailing Reinforcement, shotcrete Excavation
Excavation
Nailing
Reinforcement, shotcrete
Excavation

Application field:

Temporary or permanent retaining structure

Retaininig wall

Stabilization of tunnel gates

Stabilization of slopes

Repair retaining structures

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 8. Shotcrete method  Thickness of shotcrete (12-25 cm),  Reinforcment: o Netting, o

8. Shotcrete method

Thickness of shotcrete (12-25 cm),

Reinforcment:

o

Netting,

o

Reinforcing steel (1-2 layers),

o

Hajbeton (steel, PE),

Nails:

o

Steel tube,

o

Steel bar,

o

Steel nail,

Instalation of nails:

o

Hit,

o

Screwed-injected,

o

Jeted

o

Screwed

bar, o Steel nail,  Instalation of nails : o Hit, o Screwed-injected, o Jeted o

Foundation Engineering

8. Shotcrete method

Application field:

Cohesive soils,

Gravely soils,

Can not used:

Soft cohesive soils,

Organic soils, turf,

Loose gravely soils

Filling (rocks, ash)

Advanteges

Cheap

Simple facilities

Variable form

Elastic structure

Disadvanteges:

 Variable form  Elastic structure Disadvanteges:  Soil should be stable in min. 1.0 m

Soil should be stable in min. 1.0 m

Can not install in case of groundwater flowing

Demages of public utilities

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 8. Design shotcrete excavation Procedure of designig: 1. Sit e v is it 2.Geometry

8. Design shotcrete excavation

Procedure of designig:

1.Site visit 2.Geometry of excavation 3.Stability analysis

Procedure of designig: 1. Sit e v is it 2.Geometry of excavation 3.Stability analysis Sloping Ultimate
Procedure of designig: 1. Sit e v is it 2.Geometry of excavation 3.Stability analysis Sloping Ultimate

Sloping

Ultimate

bearing

capacity

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 8. Design shotcrete excavation Compound failure Deep failure Outpulling Nail breakage Shotcrete

8. Design shotcrete excavation

Foundation Engineering 8. Design shotcrete excavation Compound failure Deep failure Outpulling Nail breakage Shotcrete
Foundation Engineering 8. Design shotcrete excavation Compound failure Deep failure Outpulling Nail breakage Shotcrete
Foundation Engineering 8. Design shotcrete excavation Compound failure Deep failure Outpulling Nail breakage Shotcrete
Foundation Engineering 8. Design shotcrete excavation Compound failure Deep failure Outpulling Nail breakage Shotcrete
Foundation Engineering 8. Design shotcrete excavation Compound failure Deep failure Outpulling Nail breakage Shotcrete

Compound

failure

Deep failure

Outpulling

Nail breakage

Shotcrete

breakage

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 8. Shotcrete method

8. Shotcrete method

Foundation Engineering 8. Shotcrete method
Foundation Engineering 8. Shotcrete method

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 8. Shotcrete qualification  Order of nailing  O utpu ll test  Measure

8. Shotcrete qualification

Order of nailing

Outpull test

Measure movments

Inclinometer

Install points

Shortcrete

Thickness

Strenght

O utpu ll test  Measure movments  Inclinometer  Install points  Shortcrete  Thickness

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering 8. Geometry of Shotcrete excavation Inclination of the wall: 1:8-1:10 Típus L /H D

8. Geometry of Shotcrete excavation

Inclination of the wall: 1:8-1:10

Típus

L/H

DL/S

d

2 /S

Screwed-injected nails in gravely soils

0,5-

0,5-0,6

(4-8)10 -4

0,8

Hit nail in gravely soil

0,5-

0 6-1 1

(13-

0,6

,

,

19)10 -4

Mantle rock, marl

0,5-1

0,15-

(1-2,5)10 -

 

0,2

 

4

L: length of nails, H: depth of excavation, D: dimeter of injection, d: diameter of nails, S: area for a nail

length of nails, H: depth of excavation, D: dimeter of injection , d: di ame t
length of nails, H: depth of excavation, D: dimeter of injection , d: di ame t

Foundation Engineering

Foundation Engineering Thank You for your attention!

Thank You for your attention!