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By JAIKRISHNA . V Edited By Sarath S Nair www.technologyfuturae.



Principle of Operation
Mathematical Model of Synchronous Reluctance Motor Advantages and Disadvantages Comparison with other motors Summary References

Synchronous reluctance motor is a true ac motor Synchronous reluctance motors were developed to

provide an efficient constant speed machine.

There are no brushes, slip rings etc.
Its principle is almost similar to salient pole

synchronous motor.


In principle, the Synchronous Reluctance Motor is similar

to the traditional salient pole synchronous motor but does not have an excitation winding in its rotor. The rotor is constructed with salient poles The SynRM includes a squirrel cage on the rotor to provide the starting torque for line-start. The squirrel cage was also needed as a damper winding in order to maintain synchronism under sudden load torques When 3 phase supply is given to the stator, a rotating flux is produced. Initially emf is induced in damper winding and the motor starts like an induction machine. As it approaches synchronous speed the reluctance torque takes over and the motor locks into synchronous speed.


d-q equation of synchronous reluctance motor


In synchronous reluctance motor, the excitation

winding does not exist. The basis for the d q equations for a synchronous reluctance machine can be obtained from parks equation vd = rs ids + dds/dt wr qs

vq = rs iqs + dqs/dt + wr ds
ds = Lls ids + Lmd ids = Lds ids qs = Lls iqswww.technologyfuturae.com + Lmq iqs = Lqs iqs



where Lls - stator leakage inductance Lmd direct axis magnetizing inductance Lmq quadrature axis magnetizing inductance

Te = (3/2)*(P/2)*(ds iqs - qs ids)




The variable in equation (1) will become constant in

steady state .ie., d/dt terms can be eliminated Ids = we Lqs Vqs + rs Vds rs + we Lds Lqs (5) Iqs = -we Lds Vds + rs Vqs rs + we Lds Lqs Neglecting stator resistance we get Ids = Vqs , Iqs = - Vds (6) we Lds we Lqs

Single phasor equation from a steady state version of equation (1) can be obtained by multiplying first line of(1) ie. vds by j and adding to the second line ie. vqs vqs jvds = rs(Iqs jIds) + we(ds + jqs) (7) or using (2) and (7) vqs - jvds = rs(Iqs jIds) + we(Lds Ids + jLqs Iqs) (8) It can be changed to Vqs jVds = rs(Iqs jIds) + jwe Lds(-jIds) + jwe Lqs Iqs (9) In phasor notation (10)

Except frequencies near zero, in all frequencies neglecting stator resistance (12)

Substituting Vds and Vqs obtained from phasor diagram we get


The torque varies as square of volt per Hertz and as the sine of twice of the angle . When the volt/Hertz is fixed, the maximum torque is clearly reached when =45. Therefore Maximum torque (14)


If ds and qs is directly substituted into the torque equation Te can also be written in terms of stator d-q current as: (15) Substitute the value of Ids and Iqs (16)


Electromagnetic torque can be expressed in terms of stator current amplitude and mmf angle as



Freedom from permanent magnets A wide speed range at constant power Synchronous operation leading to high efficiency

Ability to maintain full torque at zero speed


In small motors the torque/ampere and the torque/ volume are lower than in PM motors

The air gap is small when compared to induction




Induction motor

Rotor losses lower than those of the induction

High power factor and higher continous torque rating
The full load efficiency at rated speed and the speed

range at constant power, also exceed the values

obtainable with induction motors.


Switched reluctance motors

does not suffer from high torque ripple. Power density lower than Switched reluctance motor


Principle of operation of synchronous reluctance

motor are discussed.

The mathematical model of Synchronous reluctance

motor was also discussed.

Comparisons with different motors has been done


[1] Srge Edward Lyshevski, Alexander Nazarov, Ahmed El- Antably, Charles Yokomoto, A.S.C. Sinha, Maher Rizkalla and Mohamed El Sharkawy, Design and Optimization, Steady-State and Dynamic Analysis of Synchronous Reluctance Motors Controlled by Voltage-Fed Converters With Nonlinear Controllers, IEEE Trans. Industry Applications, Sept.1999.

[2] Peyman Niazi, Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor Design And Performance Improvement, Texas A&M University [3] R. E. Betz, R. Lagerquist, M. Jovanovic, T. J. E. Miller and R. H. Middleton, Control of synchronous reluctance machines, IEEE Trans. Industry Applications, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 11 10-1 122, 1993.

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