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WIRELESS DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM USING IGBT Abstract:

In this modern world, the power saving system is help to us many purposes. Here we are using an electronic D.C motor speed regulator by using remote control. This regulator is used to maintain the set speed of the motor constant. The speed variation due to over load, line voltage fluctuations, over voltage, surge problems etc. Can be controlled and the speed is maintained constant by using this WIRELESS DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL. This unit can be used upto 1 H.P. D.C. motor EXISTING SYSTEM: The title of our project is High-performance low-cost low-loss wireless DC motor speed control unit. Nowadays, there are lots of good-quality motor speed controls on the market. However, their costs are relatively high. A speed control with both low cost and good performance will be highly marketable, especially for small mobility applications. On the other hand, the wireless connectivity has a nature of low cost and less environmental limitations. Combining these ideas together, we came up with this project. PROPOSED SYSTEM: The wireless remote controller is simple: start, stop, accelerate and decelerate. The source of the speed control is a 12 V battery and control currents over a range of 0 to 50 A. The controller has a high efficiency for motor loads in the range of 50 to 150 W. It should deliver the nominal power continuously and be able to tolerate slight overloading for a short period of time. For strong overloading, it should protect the motor from being damaged for a few seconds, then shut down the motor and request a reset from the user simultaneously.

WIRELESS DC MOTOR

Receiver

RF ID RECEIVER

PWM

IGBT

Dc motor

Thyristor logic

Transmitter

RF ID TRANSMITTER

Block diagram description:

Rf module: An RF module (radio frequency module) is a (usually) small electronic circuit used to transmit and/or receive radio signals on one of a number of carrier frequencies. RF modules are widely used in electronic design owing to the difficulty of designing radio circuitry. Good electronic radio design is notoriously complex because of the sensitivity of radio circuits and the accuracy of components and layouts required achieving operation on a specific frequency. Design engineers will design a circuit for an application which requires radio communication and then "drop in" a radio module rather than attempt a discrete design, saving time and money on development. IGBT: The insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power

semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch and in newer devices is noted for combining high efficiency and fast switching. It switches electric power in many modern appliances:Variable-Frequency Drives (VFDs), electric cars, trains, variable speed refrigerators, air-conditioners and even stereo systems with switching amplifiers. Since it is designed to turn on and off rapidly, amplifiers that use it often synthesize complex waveforms with pulse width modulation and low-pass filters. In switching applications modern devices boast pulse repetition rates well into the ultrasonic rangefrequencies which are at least ten times the highest audio frequency handled by the device when used as an analog audio amplifier.

Thyristor: The thyristor is a four-layered, three terminal semiconductor devices, with each layer consisting of alternately N-type or P-type material, for example P-N-PN. The main terminals, labeled anode and cathode, are across all four layers. The control terminal, called the gate, is attached to p-type material near the cathode. (A variant called an SCSSilicon Controlled Switchbrings all four layers out to terminals.) The operation of a thyristor can be understood in terms of a pair of tightly coupled bipolar junction transistors, arranged to cause a self-latching action PULSE-WIDTH MODULATION Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique that conforms the width of the pulse, formally the pulse duration, based on modulator signal information. Although this modulation technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is to allow the control of the power supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors. The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch between supply and load on and off at a fast pace. The longer the switch is on compared to the off periods, the higher the power supplied to the load is. The PWM switching frequency has to be much faster than what would affect the load, which is to say the device that uses the power. Typically switchings have to be done several times a minute in an electric stove, 120 Hz in a lamp dimmer, from few kilohertz (kHz) to tens of kHz for a motor drive and well into the tens or hundreds of kHz in audio amplifiers and computer power supplies. DC MOTOR A DC motor is a mechanically commutated electric motor powered from direct current (DC). The stator is stationary in space by definition and therefore the current in the rotor is switched by the commentator to also be stationary in space. This is how the relative angle between the stator and rotor magnetic flux is maintained near 90 degrees, which generates the maximum torque.

DC motors have a rotating armature winding (winding in which a voltage is induced) but non-rotating armature magnetic field and a static field winding (winding that produce the main magnetic flux) or permanent magnet. Different connections of the field and armature winding provide different inherent speed/torque regulation characteristics. The speed of a DC motor can be controlled by changing the voltage applied to the armature or by changing the field current. The introduction of variable resistance in the armature circuit or field circuit allowed speed control. Modern DC motors are often controlled by power electronics systems called DC drives. The introduction of DC motors to run machinery eliminated the need for local steam or internal combustion engines, and line shaft drive systems. DC motors can operate directly from rechargeable batteries, providing the motive power for the first electric vehicles. Today DC motors are still found in applications as small as toys and disk drives, or in large sizes to operate steel rolling mills and paper machines. Advantages:

Time consumption High accuracy High switching speed

Applications:

Industrial use Agricultural motor on/off