Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 132

Routing in MSS

Routing in MSS

Content
1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 4 4.1 4.2 5 5.1 5.2 6 6.1 6.2 7 8 9 9.1 Objectives MSS Server Concept Control Plane Routing The Routing Concept Dialing Pre-analysis Origin Analysis End of Selection Analysis Digit Analysis Area Service Analysis Bearer Capability Analysis Call Barring Analysis Priority Analysis Function Analysis Attribute Analysis AIF Attribute Analysis Summary User Plane Routing User Plane Analysis User Plane Topology Database Relationship between User Plane and Control Plane Routing RANAP Signaling BICC and SIP Signaling MGW Selection MGW Selection Basic Functionality Weight-based MGW selection Appendix A: The BCIE Appendix B: Attributes Exercises Objectives 3 4 7 9 14 28 33 38 59 64 67 72 74 76 82 82 85 86 95 105 106 107 109 110 112 115 116 117 117

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

The routing concept Routing analyses Routing definitions Call Example Exercises

118 119 124 127

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Objectives

On completion of this module, you should be able to: Draw the routing hierarchy in MSS concept and compare route concept in ATM, IP and TDM transport alternatives MGW routing data creation in MSS Integrate BICC routing data configuration towards a MSS Integrate BICC and ISUP routing data configuration

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

MSS Server Concept

MSC Server (MSS) can be deployed in an operator's 2G network by integrating the MSS functionality into an existing MSCi, or as a standalone network element. The MSC functionality is split into two distinct logical entities. The MSS handles call control and controls Multimedia Gateways (MGW). The MGW, on the other hand, handles user plane traffic. The following figure illustrates the network architecture. Separating the control plane from the user plane makes it easier for the operator to configure the network in one MSC server area. The MSS handles the following types of resources: Time Division Multiplex (TDM) resources. There are two types of TDMs, which is Local TDMs connected to the MSS, and Quasi TDMs connected to the MGW. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) resources Internet Protocol (IP) resources

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Routing Connections in MSS Concept

HLR
MAP BICC / SIP ATM / IP

Services

CAP

MSS
H.248 SIGTRAN Mc BSSAP A RANAP AAL5/ATM TDM

Nc H.248

GCS
SIGTRAN Mc

BSC

AAL2 / AAL5 ATM RTP IP Nb

SS7 TDM

PSTN

MGW
Iu-CS

MGW

RNC

AAL2 ATM

Fig. 1 Routing connections in Rel.4

Routing in Rel99 & Rel4


User Plane & Control Plane Routing is Separate. Resources Handled by MSS TDM ATM MSCi - M11 IP A TDM based
Backbone & PSTN A' H.248/Megaco Sigtran Packet based Backbone (IP/ATM) & TDM based PSTN Rel 4
control control plane plane user user lane lane

MSS M12

Iu-CS Rel99

A & Iu-CS

Fig. 2 MSS Routing in Rel99 & Rel4

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Control Plane Routing

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

In UMTS Rel4, the control plane and user plane routing functions have been separated. The control plane routing closely corresponds to the current routing and analysis functions. A new attribute (BNC characteristic) is introduced which can be used to affect the control plane analysis with the help of routing, charging and EOS attribute analyses, and extended pre-analysis. A new result parameter in the control plane routing, User Plane Destination Reference (UPDR) is added to provide input to the user plane routing functions and analyses. UPDR is defined on the circuit group or route level. This functionality is common both to the MSC and the MSC Server and applies to 2G and 3G networks. It is implemented according to Release 4 specifications. The functionality is as follows: Support for the existing call control functionality Provision of the necessary information for user plane control Inter-working with new call control signaling such as SIP and BICC The analysis services of the MSC/MSS are offered by the programs of the central memory (CM) and the call control, and they are used by the call control program blocks. The exchange may execute the following analyses: Internal call control analyses: origin analysis, priority analysis, dialing preanalysis, extended pre-analysis, bearer capability analyses (GSM and ISDN), end-of-selection analysis, function analysis, charging attribute analysis, routing attribute analysis, end-of-selection attribute analysis, and AIF attribute analysis. Routing and charging analysis in the CM Charging modification analysis in the CM (Optional) Call barring analysis in the CM

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.1

The Routing Concept

The routing concept is illustrated in Figure 3. It basically consists of four parts: Obtain information about a call Perform various analyses Obtain destination Route out the call

Routing Concept
1 Obtain information about a call 2. Perform various analyses 3. Obtain destination 4. Route out the call

Characteristics of Incoming Circuit Group

Characteristics of Subscriber A

Analysis

Outgoing speech route

Hunting

Outgoing circuit

Dialled Digits

Special Handling

Fig. 3 Routing Concepts

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Based on the origin of the call, it can be categorized into one of the two groups: 1. Mobile Originating Call (MOC); the call has originated from a cell under the current MSS/MSC. 2. Trunk Originating Call (TOC); the call has been routed to the current MSS/MSC from the PSTN, another MSS/MSC or a PABX connected to the current MSS/MSC. In order to select the proper destination for the call, several different analyses are performed in the MSS/MSC. However, it should be noted that not all calls have to undergo all the analyses. Depending on the nature of the call it might undergo only some of the analyses. The explanations are based for four different types of calls: Normal calls: These are the ordinary types of call where A party desires to have a conversation with B party. Service calls, where A party dials a short code, which he knows will connect him to a certain service provider. Emergency calls, where A party dials a short code, which connects him to a certain emergency centre. Data calls, where data is being transferred between the two parties with at least one of them being a UMTS/GSM subscriber.

10

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Origin of Calls
1. Mobile originated call (MOC)
BSC/RNC MSC/MSS

MS/UE MS/UE

2. Trunk originated call (TOC)


MSC/MSS MSC/MSS PSTN

PABX

Fig. 4 Origin of calls

Four Types of Calls

1. Normal call

2. Emergency call

112 !!!

MSC

3. Service call

4. Data call

Fig. 5 Types of calls

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

11

Routing in MSS

Figure 6 shows different analyses in the MSC and gives the order in which the analyses are performed. Some of the analyses are compulsory, see figure 7, which means that without these analyses all calls are dropped. In this module, the main focus lies on the functions of the following compulsory analyses: Bearer Capability Analysis (optional) Dialing Pre-analysis Origin Analysis Digit Analysis End-Of-Selection Analysis. The other analyses in figure 6 are utilized according to the user networks.

Control Plane Routing


Common to 2G & 3G Control Plane Analysis Internal Call Control Analysis Routing & Charging Analysis in CM Charging Modification Analysis ( Optional) in CM Call Baring Analysis in CM

BEARER CAPABILITY ANALYSIS

DIALLING PREANALYSIS

AIF ANALYSIS

ORIGIN ANALYSIS *3

REASON CODE (CD_T), OR FACILITY CODE

FUNCTION ANALYSIS *2

ROUTING & CHARGING ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS

DIGIT ANALYSIS CM

REASON CODE (CD_T)

EOS ANALYSIS *1

EOS ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS

CALL BARRING ANALYSIS

CHARGING MODIFICATION ANALYSIS *4

*1 *2 *3 *4

can be executed in several different call phases can be executed only in speech state is executed only in Mobile Originated Calls is executed in MOC and MTC in the call setup

Fig. 6 Routing Analyses

12

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Basic Analyses for Routing

Origin analysis

Service/ Emergency call

Area service analysis

Destination
Dialing Preanalysis Normal call Normal call Digit analysis

Tree selection

EOS analysis

Fig. 7 Execution Orders of Analyses

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

13

Routing in MSS

3.2

Dialing Pre-analysis

The purpose of pre-analysis is to examine the numbers being dialed in order to establish the type of call being made. For voice calls, the call can be identified as: Normal Emergency Service Normal calls can be local, national, or international. The other types of calls are local calls.

3.2.1

General view of pre-analysis

As illustrated in figure 8, the parameters used as inputs to pre-analysis are: The dialed digits Numbering Plan Indicator (NPI) Type Of Number (TON)

Dialing Pre-analysis

RESULT IDENTIFIER
ANALYSIS FILES ANALYSIS RESULT FILE

CALL CHARACTERISTICS SERVICE TYPE NBR OF REMOVED DIGITS START POINT OF REMOVAL

DIALLED DIGITS

TYPE OF NUMBER

NUMBERING PLAN

NUMBERING PLAN NUMBER CHARACTERISTIC CLIR INFO ODC

Fig. 8 Dialing Pre-analysis

14

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

The tasks of pre-analysis are to: Identify the type of call: a normal call, an emergency call, or a service call Send the dialed digits' modification instructions to call control; for example, to remove or add dialed digits Translate the nature of the address information, specified with prefixes and TON values, based on Characteristics Of Number (CON) Identify whether a call made from a mobile phone is a local call. Recognize a certain dialing pattern from a mobile phone in order to proceed to routing based on Calling Line Identity (CLI) Recognize certain prefixes carrying information about the calling subscriber, such as whether the CLI is allowed to be shown to the called party Classify dialing with Original Dialing Class (ODC) Order the execution of extended pre-analysis Example A subscriber dials the following number in Finland: 050-1234567. The information displayed in following figure is sent by the signaling interface to the MSC/MSS:

Example of Dialling Preanalysis Input and Output Parameters


Result Identifier

Dialled Digits

Continue call setup


Call Characteristic

050 1234567
Type Of Number UNKNOWN Numbering Plan
E.164 (ISDN/Telephony

Dialling Preanalysis

Normal call
Numbering Plan

E.164 (ISDN/Telephony)
Characteristic of number

National
Number of removed digit

Digit after preanalyis = 50 1234567

Fig. 9 Example of Dialing Pre-analysis Input and Output Parameters

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

15

Routing in MSS

16

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.2.2

Types of pre-analysis

Pre-analysis is divided into two types: normal pre-analysis and default pre-analysis. Both MOC and TOC require both types of pre-analysis. Number formats provide information to decide on further action.

3.2.2.1

Number formats

A telephone number is made up of five main component parts: International prefix. Also called the international access code. It varies from country to country. It is often 00 or 001 or something similar. Country code (CC). Every country in the world is assigned a number to identify it in telephone calls. For example, the USA is 1, Great Britain is 44, and Australia is 61. National Prefix. Used only when making calls inside the home country. Usually 0. National Destination Code (NDC). Also called the area code. Identifies different areas of a country or region. Subscriber Number (SN). The number of the called party. When a subscriber makes a call, there are three main ways to dial the number. 1. International call. Subscribers calling outside of their own countries use the following format:
International Prefix+CC+NDC+SN

2. National call. This is a call that is made within the home country, but outside of the callers local area. The dialed number must start with the national prefix, which is usually "0". The format looks like this:
National Prefix + NDC + SN

3. Local call. Subscribers calling within the same NDC area dial the subscriber number without any prefix, as in the following format:
SN

Methods of dialing depend on country and operator. It is not compulsory to follow these three formats. For example, Singapore and Hong Kong do not have different network destinations, and therefore no NDCs, because of the small network area. Also note that the format of the dialed number is different for the North American Numbering Plan.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

17

Routing in MSS

3.2.2.2

Normal pre-analysis

Incoming digits from a call setup are first examined for any exceptional cases, where the dialed digits do not follow the main three formats. The analysis of these digits is called normal pre-analysis. In TOC, the normal pre-analysis only needs definitions for call-forwarding (CFW) numbers. In MOC, Normal Pre-analysis handles digits as follows: Service numbers Emergency numbers (112 is NOT handled by pre-analysis) Exceptional dialing (International prefix + OWN country code or OWN country code following the + sign).
Note

The emergency number, 112, does not need pre-analysis, but still needs area service analysis.

3.2.2.3

Default pre-analysis

If the incoming digit combination is not found in the normal pre-analysis definitions, then it is searched for in the international and national prefix analyses. This part of the pre-analysis is called Default Pre-analysis. In Default Pre-analysis, the rest of the digit combinations (incoming digits without any national or international prefix) should also be handled. Default Pre-analysis is needed for both MOC and TOC. Use of Normal and Default Pre-analysis MOC Normal preanalysis Default preanalysis TOC

- service calls - CFW-numbers - emergency calls (except 112) - exceptional dialing (see above) - normal calls (handling prefixes, - handles prefixes and e.g. 0, 00 or no prefix at all) various values of TON

18

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Number Formats
International Call: International Prefix+CC+NDC+SN National Call: National Prefix + NDC + SN Local Call: SN

Fig. 10 Number format

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

19

Routing in MSS

Type of Preanalysis

MOC

TOC

Normal Normal preanalysis preanalysis Default Default preanalysis preanalysis

- service calls - emergency calls (except 112) - exceptional dialling

- CFW-numbers

- normal calls (handling prefixes, - normal calls from trunk (handles prefixes and e.g. 0, 00 or no prefix at all) various values of TON)

Fig. 11 Types of preanalysis

3.2.3

Use of pre-analysis

If normal and default pre-analysis do not have a matching entry, the system generates an alarm, see figure 12, and the call is dropped. This process is shown in figure 13.

3.2.3.1

The input of the pre-analysis

The different values of each input parameter for MOC and TOC are displayed in the following table. The Different Pre-analysis Input Parameters for MOC and TOC: Pre-analysis Input parameter 1. Dialed digits 2. TON MOC Obtained from the MS Can be only two values INT (International): if the sign + is dialed UNK (unknown): all TOC Obtained from incoming trunk signaling Varies. TON depends on incoming trunk signaling. NOE (no TON provided)

20

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

dialed numbers without the sign +

UNK (unknown number) INT (international number) NAT (national number) NET (network-specific number) SUB (subscriber number) ABB (abbreviated number) DPA (dedicated PAD access, short code) NOA (number not allowed) CAC (carrier access code included) - Does not exist - Unknown numbering plan - ISDN/Telephony numbering plan (E.164) - Data numbering plan (X.121) - Telex numbering plan (F.69) - National standard numbering plan - Private numbering plan

3. NPI

- E.164 (ISDN/Telephony)

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

21

Routing in MSS

Mismatch Dialed Digits in Pre-analysis

MOC

TOC

Normal preanalysis Default preanalysis

ALARM

Fig. 12 Mismatch Dialed Digits in Pre-analysis

Alarm 2186 - Missing Pre-analysis

MSC-CSC **

BSU-1

SWITCH

2009-1-12

15:06:27.23

ALARM BSU-1 1F109-00 IC2_SS (0102) 2186 CALL CONTROL ANALYSIS MISSING 02 0002 00 0F 55 35 85 A5 AA AA A1 D0 00 00 00

Preanalysis is missing

Fig. 13 2186 Alarm

22

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.2.3.2

Tasks performed during pre-analysis

The pre-analysis have four main tasks: 1. The TON is checked to see if it is international, national or local. For MOC, the TON comes from the MS itself. If a user dials a number that is prefixed by the + sign, the MS will remove that sign and set the parameter TON to International. In all other cases, the MS sets the TON parameter to unknown. Then the dialing pre-analysis must decide if the TON is international, national or local. This task results in items 6 (numbering plan), 7 (CON), and 9 (ODC) on the results list. 2. If the called number is an international or national call, then modification information goes to call control. If further routing does not require these prefixes, then they should be removed. This task identifies if removal or modification of the number is necessary. For example, if the called numbers include the international access code, then those digits should be taken away for further processing. This task results in items 4 (number of removed digits) and 5 (start point of removed digits) on the results list. 3. The calling subscriber may temporarily, on a call-by-call basis, allow or restrict the presentation of the CLI by dialing prefixes that are recognized by pre-analysis. This task results in items 1 (result identifier), 8 (CLIR), and 10 (ESTP). 4. Pre-analysis identifies whether the call is a service call. If so, the result will be a service index, which identifies a particular service type. The service index shows that the call is not a normal call, but needs to access some network operator-defined services. This task results in items 2 (call characteristics) and 3 (service type). Emergency calls to the international standard number 112 are not defined in the preanalysis. However, if there is another number used for this purpose, then it must be defined as a service call.

3.2.3.3

The results of the pre-analysis

The results of pre-analysis are: 1. Result Identifier. The result identifier can have one of the following values: CONTINUE CALL. STOP CALL. RE-EXECUTE PRE-ANALYSIS. The "CLIR info" parameter is used for the dialed prefix. The dialed prefix is removed and the modified called number is reanalyzed.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

23

Routing in MSS

2. Call Characteristics. The call characteristic can be one of the following values: NORMAL CALL. Call control routes the call in the normal way by using the CM digit analysis for the called number. EMERGENCY CALL. Call control routes the call to Area Service Analysis. SERVICE CALL. Call control routes the call to Area Service Analysis.

3.

4. 5.

6.

SERVICE GROUP CALL. Call control routes the call to Area Service Analysis. Service Type. When the call characteristic is anything other than a normal call, the call requires a service type. Types 1 to 23 are for service calls. 0 is reserved for emergency calls. Number of removed digits. Call control receives information about the number of digits that should be removed for further call processing. Start point of removed digits. This parameter indicates the point at which numbers should be taken away. If the parameter is not given in the preanalysis result, the removing starts from the beginning of the dialed number. Numbering Plan. The numbering plan can be one of the following values: DOES NOT EXIST UNKNOWN ISDN/TELEPHONY (E.164) DATA (X.121) TELEX (F.69) NATIONAL STANDARD

PRIVATE 7. Characteristics of Number (CON). The value of the number can be one of the following. INTERNATIONAL. When the CC is not for the callers own country. The TON can be either: UNKNOWN, with an international prefix, or INTERNATIONAL, without an international prefix. NATIONAL. CC is for the callers own country, or there is no country code. The TON can be either: UNKNOWN, with national prefix, or NATIONAL, without a national prefix.

LOCAL. When no national or international prefix is used and the TON is UNK, SUB, or ABB. 8. Adding point of calling line identity <option> The parameter indicates the point in the dialed number to which CLI is added if the call is routed on the basis of the calling number. The value can range from 1 to 16.

24

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

9. Adding info of area code <option> The parameter indicates whether the local area code is added to the dialed digits as a result of the pre-analysis. The value can be: Y Area code is added to the beginning of the dialed digits. N No area code is added to the dialed digits. The value can be Y only when call origin is MOC and characteristics of number is NAT. 10. Controlled feature <option> FEAT determines the handling of a supplementary service whose status can be changed on a per call basis. The value can be: INVCLIR Activate CLIR supplementary service and keep it active until the end of the call. SUPCLIR Suppress CLIR supplementary service and keep is suppressed until the end of the call. # The parameter has not been defined. The parameter can have values only if analysis result identifier is PREANA. 11. CCBS control <option> CCBS determines whether the supplementary service Call Completion On Subscriber Busy can be requested. The value can be: PREV CCBS prevented ENAB CCBS enabled The parameter cannot be given if analysis result identifier is STOP or PREANA, or if call characteristics is EMERG. In both cases, the value is automatically PREV. If the parameter is not given, the value found in the previous analysis result is used in the new analysis result. 12. Original Dialing Class (ODC). This parameter can be analyzed in attribute analyses, and thus it enables the classification of the call case for easier handling in attribute analyses. ODC may also be used for statistical purposes, because it is shown both in the charging record and trace report. 13. Extended pre-analysis Starting Point (ESTP). The ESTP indicates the starting point of the extended pre-analysis sub-analysis chain. This parameter is optional if you want to use pre-analysis to analyze more input parameters than you usually do.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

25

Routing in MSS

Default Pre-analysis for MOC


RWO:ORIG=MOC; MSCi MSS_226492 2009-04-17 19:45:22

DEFAULT PREANALYSIS INTERROGATION RESULTS --- DEFAULT CALL ORIGIN TON PREFIX PREANALYSIS INFORMATION --=MOBILE =UNKNOWN =0 NATIONAL 1 1 NOT SPECIFIED ISDN/TELEPHONY NOT SPECIFIED SUBSCRIBERS PIC USED ALLOWED NOT SPECIFIED NOT SPECIFIED

NUMBER CHARACTERISTIC: NBR OF REMOVED DIGITS: STP OF REMOVED DIGITS: CIC LENGTH : NUMBERING PLAN : CELL BASED AREA CODE : PICI : CACI : ESTP : ODC :

Fig. 14 Example of a MOC Default Pre-analysis

Normal Pre-analysis for MOC


RWI:ORIG=MOC,; RWI:ORIG=MOC,; MSCi MSS_226492 MSCi MSS_226492 2009-04-17 2009-04-17 DIALLING DIALLING PREANALYSIS PREANALYSIS INTERROGATION INTERROGATION RESULTS RESULTS ----- NORMAL NORMAL PREANALYSIS PREANALYSIS DATA DATA ------CALL CALL ORIGIN ORIGIN =MOBILE =MOBILE TON =UNKNOWN TON =UNKNOWN NPI =ISDN/TELEPHONY NPI =ISDN/TELEPHONY DIGITS =86 DIGITS =86 RESULT : RESULT IDENTIFIER IDENTIFIER : CONTINUE CONTINUE CALL CALL SETUP SETUP CALL CALL CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS : : NORMAL NORMAL CALL CALL SERVICE : SERVICE TYPE TYPE : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED NBR NBR OF OF REMOVED REMOVED DIGITS: DIGITS: 2 2 STP STP OF OF REMOVED REMOVED DIGITS: DIGITS: NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED CIC : CIC LENGTH LENGTH : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED NUMBER NUMBER CHARACTERISTIC: CHARACTERISTIC: NATIONAL NATIONAL NUMBERING NUMBERING PLAN PLAN CLI CLI ADDITION ADDITION POINT POINT : : ISDN/TELEPHONY ISDN/TELEPHONY : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED CELL CELL BASED BASED AREA AREA CODE CODE : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED CONTROLLED : CONTROLLED FEATURE FEATURE : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED PICI : PICI : SUBSCRIBERS SUBSCRIBERS PIC PIC USED USED CACI : CACI : ALLOWED ALLOWED EMLPP EMLPP INVOCATION INVOCATION REQ REQ : : CCBS : CCBS POSSIBLE POSSIBLE : ESTP : ESTP : ODC ODC NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED ENABLED ENABLED 19:42:42 19:42:42

NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED

Fig. 15 Example of a MOC Normal Pre-analysis

26

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Default Pre-analysis for TOC


RWO:ORIG=TOC; RWO:ORIG=TOC; MSCi MSCi MSS_226492 MSS_226492 2009-04-17 2009-04-17 19:49:18 19:49:18

DEFAULT DEFAULT PREANALYSIS PREANALYSIS INTERROGATION INTERROGATION RESULTS RESULTS ----- DEFAULT DEFAULT PREANALYSIS PREANALYSIS INFORMATION INFORMATION ----CALL CALL ORIGIN ORIGIN =TRUNK =TRUNK TON =UNKNOWN TON =UNKNOWN PREFIX =00 PREFIX =00 NUMBER NUMBER NBR NBR OF OF CHARACTERISTIC: CHARACTERISTIC: REMOVED REMOVED DIGITS: DIGITS: INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL 2 2

STP STP OF OF REMOVED REMOVED DIGITS: DIGITS: 1 1 CIC : CIC LENGTH LENGTH : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED NUMBERING : NUMBERING PLAN PLAN : ISDN/TELEPHONY ISDN/TELEPHONY CELL CELL BASED BASED AREA AREA CODE CODE : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED PICI PICI CACI CACI ESTP ESTP ODC ODC : : SUBSCRIBERS SUBSCRIBERS PIC PIC USED USED : : ALLOWED ALLOWED : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED

Fig. 16 Default Pre-analysis Examples for TOC

A TOC pre-analysis procedure is nearly the same as that of a MOC. A TOC preanalysis differs from a MOC pre-analysis in the following ways: The NPI is an input to the normal pre-analysis because, besides ISDN/TELEPHONY, it can be NON-EXISTENT, UNKNOWN, and so on. This depends on the signaling interface. A TOC cannot be an emergency or service call. A TOC cannot be a service call. The result of the pre-analysis has no provision for a service index. The TON can have values such as UNK, INT, NAT, or NN. This depends on the signaling interface.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

27

Routing in MSS

3.3

Origin Analysis

The purpose of origin analysis is to find the charging data needed in the CM digit analysis. Origin analysis applies only to MOC. As illustrated in the following figure, the parameters used as inputs to origin analysis are: MS category (calling party category) Cell tariff MS power capability (class mark)

Why is origin analysis necessary?


To make it possible to charge the MS with different ways. Examples: Free test phone Normal way ordinary subscriber Expensive priority subscriber, density area

Fig. 17 Purpose of origin analysis

28

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Origin Analysis

1. MS CATEGORY

ordinary payphone priority test

ANALYSIS FILES ANALYSIS RESULT FILE


CHARGING ORIGIN (CHORG)

2. CELL TARIFF

0..3
3. MS POWER CAPABILITY

0..254

1..5

Fig. 18 Origin Analysis

The main task of origin analysis is to produce a charging origin (CORG) parameter to identify the calling party.

3.3.1

Input

This section explains the sources of information to perform the analysis. The three input parameters for origin analysis are listed below, along with their corresponding values. These input parameters come from the MS itself. 1. Calling Party Category (CPC). Says what the category of the calling party MS is. It can have any of these values: ORDINARY PAYPHONE PRIORITY

TEST PHONE 2. Cell Tariff. Obtained from the cell data file (CDAFIL), based on the geographical location of the cell from where the call originated. The possible values are 0, 1, 2, and 3. 3. Mobile Station class mark. The MS broadcasts the MS class mark, based on its power rating. These values are shown in figure 19 and 20.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

29

Routing in MSS

3.3.2

Results

The result of an origin analysis is the CORG variable, whose value lies in the range 0...254. Figure 21 shows an origin analysis printout from the MSS. Despite the fact that an origin analysis applies only to MOCs, it is still used with all calls. In TOCs, the CORG is associated with the circuit group. Figure 22 shows a CORG value for a TOC. The CORG information is used in determining the cost for the subscriber and keeping charging records used between network operators. Charging attribute analysis can be used to change the value of the CORG.

MS Class Mark
Class Mark Value MS Class Mark Power Rating 900MHZ 000 001 010 011 100 1 2 3 4 5 8W 5W 2W 0.8W 1.8GHZ 1W 0.25 W Vehicle/ Portable Portable Handheld Handheld Handheld Nokia Category

Fig. 19 MS Class Mark Values (Power Classes)

30

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

UE Class Mark

Power Class 1 2 3 4

Nominal maximum output power 2W(+33 dBm) 0.5W(+27 dBm) 0.25W(+24 dBm) 0.13W(+21 dBm)

Tolerance +1/-3 dB +1/-3 dB +1/-3 dB 2 dB

Fig. 20 UE Class Mark (Power Classes)

Origin Analysis for MOC


< < ZRVI; ZRVI; LOADING LOADING PROGRAM PROGRAM VERSION VERSION 7.1-0 7.1-0 MSCi MSCi MSS_226492 MSS_226492 2009-04-17 2009-04-17 19:53:06 19:53:06

ORIGIN ORIGIN ANALYSIS ANALYSIS INTERROGATION INTERROGATION RESULTS RESULTS SUBSCRIBER SUBSCRIBER CATEGORY=ORDINARY CATEGORY=ORDINARY RESULT RESULT IDENTIFIER IDENTIFIER CHARGING CHARGING ORIGIN ORIGIN CELL CELL TARIFF=0 TARIFF=0 MS MS CLASSMARK=1 CLASSMARK=1

: : CONTINUE CONTINUE CALL CALL SETUP SETUP : : 0 0 CELL CELL TARIFF=0 TARIFF=0 MS MS CLASSMARK=2 CLASSMARK=2

SUBSCRIBER SUBSCRIBER CATEGORY=ORDINARY CATEGORY=ORDINARY RESULT RESULT IDENTIFIER IDENTIFIER CHARGING CHARGING ORIGIN ORIGIN

: : CONTINUE CONTINUE CALL CALL SETUP SETUP : : 0 0

Fig. 21 Origin Analysis Results for a MOC

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

31

Routing in MSS

Charging Origin for TOC


< < RCI:SEA=3:CGR=2003:PRINT=3; RCI:SEA=3:CGR=2003:PRINT=3; LOADING LOADING PROGRAM PROGRAM VERSION VERSION 12.53-1 12.53-1 CIRCUIT CIRCUIT GROUP(S) GROUP(S) CGR CGR AREA AREA MAN MAN SSET SSET CAC CAC REMN REMN ICLI ICLI ATV ATV EC EC LOC LOC ECAT ECAT : : 2003 2003 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 0 0 : : : : DBA DBA DNN DNN EOS EOS : : 1 1 : : : : PRI PRI RDQ RDQ UPDR UPDR : : 1 1 : : : : CORG CORG DDQ DDQ : : 0 0 : : DCC DCC IGOR IGOR : : : : NCGR NCGR STD STD AAN AAN CLI CLI CACI CACI RFCL RFCL CHRN CHRN : : LP2003 LP2003 : : : : : : : : : : : : -

Fig. 22 CORG for TOC

32

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.4

End of Selection Analysis

The purpose of end of selection analysis (EOS) is to determine the next course of action after certain call events. As illustrated in figure 23, the parameters used as inputs in EOS analysis are the cause codes that result from call events. The task of the EOS analysis is to analyze the cause code, which then defines what should be done next.

3.4.1

Input

During the process of call setup, two events can occur that will alter the call or abandon the call entirely. If a call is cleared, then there will be no further processing required. If a call has reached its destination MSS/MSC (in an MTC), only to find that the B subscriber has activated a conditional call forwarding, then the entire process of finding a new destination must be repeated. These things can happen at any stage during call setup. Associated with each such occurrence is the Cause Code (Cd_t), which (partially) informs the call control as to why the event occurred. The EOS analysis examines these cause codes. Signaling system program blocks based on signaling system messages, such as the MAP blocks, or call control set cause codes.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

33

Routing in MSS

3.4.2

Results

Several outputs from EOS analysis are possible: 1. Continue call setup. 2. Stop call setup. This will happen if the call has to be cleared. If the result identifier is the result of the EOS, then the cause code will be mapped on to a cause code of the signaling message. 3. Execute digit analysis. If call forwarding has taken place or if an MSRN has been obtained from the HLR, then the destination must be found and a tree must be associated with this result. 4. Execute alternative route analysis. 5. Execute re-hunting of outgoing circuits. 6. Execute repeat attempt procedure. 7. Execute EOS attribute analysis. Depending on the type of result, there may be other actions required as well. Some examples of these actions are: notifying the calling party, connecting tones (for example, congestion tone if no circuits are available), connecting to an announcement, and so on. Figure 24 shows a sample EOS analysis.

34

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

End-of-Selection Analysis
Analyze the cause code to find the next phase of the call setup

ANALYSIS FILES
SIGNALLING SYSTEM CAUSE CODE (CD_T)

INFORMATION ON CALL PROGRESS ANALYSIS TREE

ANALYSIS RESULT FILE

ANNOUNCEMENT DATA <NEW CAUSE CODE CD_T> TIME SLOT OF THE SIGNAL TONE CHARGING ORIGIN NOTIFICATION EVENT DETECTION POINT

Fig. 23 EOS Analysis

EOS Analysis Example


RXI:RESGR=2,CAUSE=1009,; RXI:RESGR=2,CAUSE=1009,; MSCi MSCi MSS_226492 MSS_226492 2009-04-17 2009-04-17 19:57:32 19:57:32

END END OF OF SELECTION SELECTION ANALYSIS ANALYSIS INTERROGATION INTERROGATION RESULTS RESULTS RESGR=2 RESGR=2 CAUSE=00001009 CAUSE=00001009 NODE NODE INFO=NOT INFO=NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED : : : : EXECUTE EXECUTE CM CM ANALYSIS ANALYSIS 50 50

RESULT RESULT IDENTIFIER IDENTIFIER CM CM ANALYSIS ANALYSIS TREE TREE CHARGING CHARGING ORIGIN ORIGIN NOTIFICATION NOTIFICATION INFO INFO TIMESLOT TIMESLOT OF OF TONE TONE ANNOUNCEMENT ANNOUNCEMENT NUMBER NUMBER ANNOUNCEMENT ANNOUNCEMENT CHARGING CHARGING FORWARD FORWARD RELEASE RELEASE INFO INFO

: : 0 0 : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED

NEW NEW DX DX CAUSE CAUSE CODE CODE IN : IN DETECTION DETECTION POINT POINT : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED MGW MGW OVERLOAD OVERLOAD CONGESTION CONGESTION : : NOT NOT SPECIFIED SPECIFIED COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED

Fig. 24 EOS Analysis Printout

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

35

Routing in MSS

Cause Codes Cause codes can take two forms: Clear codes. Inside the exchange, these signify different call clearing reasons, such as B subscriber busy (0005), Absent subscriber (0010) No paging response (0012) Event codes. These indicate various other events during the call, such as HLRENQ (1009) or call forwarding (100D~1014). Different signaling systems in which the call originates set the cause codes. Some of these systems are the RANAP, the BICC or the ISUP. Therefore, the same cause code that is set or generated by different signaling systems has its own different result record. Thus, when we interrogate the cause codes, we have to identify the signaling system that set those cause codes.

36

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Cause Code
Clear Code B subscriber busy: 0005 Absent subscriber: 0010 No paging response: 0012 Event Code MSRN: 1009 Call Forwarding: 100D~1014

Fig. 25 Cause code

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

37

Routing in MSS

3.5

Digit Analysis

The purpose of digit analysis is to find a destination for the call. As illustrated in Figure 26, the inputs used in digit analysis are: Analysis tree Charging origin TON Dialed digits (after the pre-analysis) The main task of the digit analysis is to find a destination. Then the analysis chooses a route in order to forward the call to the selected destination.

3.5.1

Input

This section explains the sources of information to perform the analysis. The four input parameters for digit analysis are listed below, along with their corresponding values and/or sources. Analysis tree. A chain of records in an analysis file, used for analyzing different types of digits. The basic tree is received from five possible sources: Circuit group (TOC and PBX calls) General Parameter file PRFILE (in MOC) End-of-selection analysis (forwarding and roaming calls) MSISDN digit analysis (some roaming calls) CM (if the digit analysis is sent back for reanalysis) CORG. The charging origin can come from two different sources: Circuit group (TOC and PBX calls) Origin analysis (in MOC) TON. The Type of Number can have four different values: INT NAT SUB UNK

Dialed digit. The dialed digits that are left after a pre-analysis.

38

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Digits Analysis
To find the destination according to the dialed number
1. OUTGOING ROUTE

BICC ROUTE OR TDM ROUTE ANALYSIS TREE CHARGING ORIGIN TYPE OF NUMBER DIALLING (after preanalysis)
ANALYSIS FILES

ANALYSIS ANALYSIS RESULT RESULT FILES FILE

2. SPECIAL ROUTE
HLR INQUIRY GSM-TERMINATING CALL HANDOVER BETWEEN TWO EXCHANGES ANNOUNCEMENT NUMBER MODIFICATION CALL TO DDA

CM

IN CALL

Fig. 26 Digit Analysis

Input Parameters for Digit Analysis


CGR (TOC) MS cat. (MOC) MS classmark Cell tariff

Origin Analysis
1. C_ORG 2. Dialled digits 3. TON, NPI

Preanalysis

Digit analysis

Destination (Outgoing route or Special route)

normal call 1. CGR 2. PRFILE 3. EOS Analysis tree

4. TREE

Fig. 27 Input Parameters for Digit Analysis

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

39

Routing in MSS

DOCUMENTTYPE TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere TypeYourNameHere

1 (1)

Common Trees TypeDateHere


Tree 2 2 2 20 20 30 48 49 TON NAT INT SUB NAT INT NAT UNK NAT EOS-analysis, cause code 100E (CFU) and 100F (conditional CFW) area serv. numb.handling PRFILE PRFILE Source PRFILE

Call Case MOC

Number B-number - national B-number - International B-number - Local

Call forwarding

C-Nbr. national C-Nbr.-International

Service call Announcment Automatic call redirection Roaming

Service Numbers Announcement number Automatic call redirection number MSRN-National/Handover nbr. MSRN-International

50 50 70 >> 70 >>

NAT INT NAT INT

EOS,cause code 1009

TOC

TOC-number - National TOC-number International

circuit group (can be changed easily)

Fig. 28 Analysis Trees

Analysis Tree
Digit Analysis MOC

2
Announcement number

50
Service number

48
C-number

30
TOC

20

70

Fig. 29 Analysis Tree

40

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.5.2

Results

Associated with each of the numbers is a result set containing a number of parameters pointing towards a destination. Destination indicates the desired result of routing. It provides the reference to the set of routing alternatives, sub-destinations, on the basis of the digit analysis. For instructions, see Creating sub-destination and destination. Sub-destination is used to route the call to the desired connection (destination). There may be up to five subdestination alternatives connected to the same destination component, each using a different call control alternative. For instance, there may be four sub-destinations using different outgoing routes, and a fifth one connected to an announcement, in case the other connections are congested. When you create a sub-destination, you must indicate the sub-destination result, that is, the type of connection to be used for the call. The result can be one of the following: Outgoing route, this is used to connect calls out of the exchange to another exchange. Special route, which is used to manage a set of special functions in the exchange. The special route is recorded in the sub-destination data to give instructions on how to continue the call, which needs special treatment. Announcement specified to direct calls to announcements. Service set for IN services in SSP <option>.

Destination and Sub-destination


Sub-destination 1 (primary route) Sub-destination 2 (Alternative route)

Special Special route route or or Outgoing Outgoing route route

Special Special route route or or Outgoing Outgoing route route

Digit Digit analysis analysis

Destination

Sub-destination 3 (Alternative route) Sub-destination 4 (Alternative route) Sub-destination 5 (Alternative route)

Special Special route route or or Outgoing Outgoing route route

Special Special route route or or Outgoing Outgoing route route

Special Special route route or or Outgoing Outgoing route route

Fig. 30 Destination and Sub-destination

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

41

Routing in MSS

3.5.2.1

Sub-destination leading to outgoing route

Sub-destination is used to route the call to the desired outgoing connection. There may be up to five sub-destinations connected to the same destination component, each using a different external route (BICC or TDM route). Each sub-destination is assigned to one route, but each route can be assigned to several sub-destinations. Routes in MSS/GCS have two types, Control Plane Route, such as BICC route. Use control plane CGRs. User Plane Route: TDM route. Use TDM CGRs. Control Plane CGRs are created to connect Control planes between two exchanges. The control plane group identifies the destination, direction, call control parameter set, used register signaling and user plane reference for incoming calls. Circuit Group types for Control Plane Routing are: BICC, CGR for Bearer Independent Call Control SIP, CGR for Session Initiation Protocol For user plane, the external resources that have to be configured to the MSS and the MGW are TDM resources, that is, physical terminations. All other resources such as ATM or IP are ephemeral terminations, which are configured only in the MGW. Circuit Group types for User Plane Routing are: CCS: TDM resources located in MSS (Integrated MSS) ECCS: TDM resources located in MGW

42

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Route Parameters
< < RRI:GSW:ROU=2001; RRI:GSW:ROU=2001; LOADING LOADING PROGRAM PROGRAM VERSION VERSION 6.51-0 6.51-0 MSCi MSCi ROU ROU 2001 2001 MSS_226492 MSS_226492 2009-04-17 2009-04-17 19:59:37 19:59:37 CGM CGM N N ICR ICR N N

TYPE STP TMT TYPE OUTR OUTR STP TSG TSG TMT SAT SAT EXT N EXT O69K0 O69K0 3 3 N RCR RCR MCR MCR OCR OCR RPR RPR PBX PBX ISDN ISDN STATE STATE N N N N N N WO-EX N N N N N N WO-EX APRI APRI ASTC ASTC NCCP NCCP N N BASICOUTPSTNPBX N N BASICOUTPSTNPBX CLISET CLISET NCLISET NCLISET 0 DEFAULT 0 DEFAULT AICR PNR AICR PNR RNPR RNPR RFCL RFCL UPDR UPDR FCL FCL LBCUID LBCUID WB-AMR WB-AMR -

ATME ATME DCME DCME ECHO ECHO CONT CONT TON TON N N N N NOE N N N N NOE NCGR NCGR

LP2001 LP2001 T_IND T_IND ENBLOC ENBLOC ATV ATV 0 0 -

PCLI PCLI NEF NEF NONE NONE ACGM ACGM -

COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED

Fig. 31 Route Example

Route & CGR in MSS/GCS


Control Plane ROUTE CGR TYPE=BICC CIC: Call Instance Code

MSS/VLR
SIGU CCSU

GCS
ET

User Plane ROUTE CGR TYPE=ECCS TERMID: Termination ID CCSPCM

User Plane ROUTE CGR TYPE=CCS CRCT: Circuit CCSPCM

MGW1

MGW2
NIS1

RNC

NIWU

PSTN

NIWU

BSC

Fig. 32 Route & CGR in MSS/GCS

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

43

Routing in MSS

Once a circuit group within the route is chosen, the procedure for selecting a free circuit, termination or CIC within the circuit group is initiated. This is known as hunting. Three different directions are possible. Outgoing circuit groups Incoming circuit groups Bi-directional circuit groups. Each circuit group has one or two hunting groups that depend on the direction of the circuit group. Outgoing circuit groups have only one hunting group, because only this network element is allowed to select a free circuit. Incoming circuit groups have also only one hunting group, but the network element is not allowed to select a free circuit. An example is the circuit group in the BSC. Bi-directional circuit groups have two hunting groups that divide all circuits into two groups. The own network element is allowed to select circuits in one of the hunting groups; the adjacent network element selects circuits in the other one. If one of the network elements does not find any free circuit in its own hunting group, it will search for a free circuit in the hunting group under the control of the other network element. An example of dividing the circuits into two hunting groups is to assign the even numbered circuits to one group and the odd numbered circuits to another. After the hunting procedure, one free circuit will be selected inside the hunting group. There are four different hunting methods for a free circuit: Fixed Rotating (FR), also known as circulating hunting. Hunting begins from the next circuit where it was stopped last time. Fixed Start Point (FF), also known as sequential hunting. Hunting begins always from the same circuit. Longest Free (LF), selection of the longest free circuits. The circuit, which has not been used for the longest time, will be selected. Shortest Free (RF), selection of the shortest free circuits. The circuit, which has not been used for the shortest time, will be selected.

44

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Hunting Concept
AL4 -

Digit Analysis

AL0 DESTINATION

has max. 5 or 20 (feature supports) or HUNTING GROUP 1 CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT GROUP GROUP CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT GROUP GROUP HUNTING GROUP 2 which contain max. 4096

SUBSUBSUBSUBDESTINATION SUBDESTINATION DESTINATION DESTINATION DESTINATION

which is either

SPECIAL ROUTE OUTGOING ROUTE consists of max. 8 CGRs

CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT GROUP CIRCUIT GROUP CIRCUIT GROUP GROUP CIRCUIT GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP

Fig. 33 Hunting Concepts

CGR Direction and Hunting Control


Outgoing circuit groups : x Incoming circuit groups: y Bi-directional circuit groups. Hunting Group 1: x Hunting Group 2: y

Fig. 34 CGR direction and hunting control

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

45

Routing in MSS

3.5.2.2

Sub-destination leading to special route

Special routes are used to manage a set of special functions in the exchange. The special route gives instructions on how to continue the call, which needs special treatment. The treatment indicated by the special route may be: number modification, telling how the received dialing needs to be modified before sending it forward, or before reanalyzing it inter-MSC handover, providing data needed in the handover number analysis PAD access, enabling the routing of DDA calls HLR enquiry and GSM end, providing data needed for the routing of mobile terminating calls announcements, in which case the special route conveys information about the desired announcement

Special Route
What happens if we don't want to route the call out of our exchange?

SCP

HLR

RNC

MGW MSS

MGW

BSC

A-sub Dialled digit = 01771XXXX

Analyse dialed digits in Tree 2 because of MOC

B-sub

Fig. 35 Special route

3.5.2.2.1 HLR_ENQ SPR During every MTC, an HLR_ENQ must be performed to find out the MSC/VLR where the subscriber is located at the moment. The required signaling messages from the MSC to the HLR can be routed using the two main principles: Routing on label Routing on Global Title (SCCP routing).

46

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

This enquiry is indicated in the specific trees by an SPR for HLR_ENQ. In this case the definition for the SPR HLR_ENQ must contain the signaling point code from the HLR, as shown in figure 37. Different HLRs should be handled with a separate line for the specific range of numbers pointing to a unique SPR, all containing a different signaling point code. This allows the most flexible and elegant way of routing HLR_ENQs to the HLRs. Only one SPR for HLR_ENQ, as shown in figure 36, has to be created.

Example of Digit Analysis


ZRII:TREE=2&70; ZRII:TREE=2&70; DX DX 200 200 MSC03 MSC03 ATYPE=N ATYPE=N 2007-12-12 2007-12-12 TON=NAT TON=NAT AL AL NBR NBR 0 0 2 2 TON=NAT TON=NAT AL AL NBR NBR 0 0 2 2 11:51:12 11:51:12 SP SP NL NL RC RC 10 10 32 32 APR APR SP SP NL NL RC RC 10 10 32 32 APR APR DEST DEST 4 4 DEST DEST 4 4 CHI CHI 3 3 CHI CHI 3 3 CNT CNT N N CNT CNT N N SDEST SDEST 4 4 SDEST SDEST 4 4

TREE= 2 TREE= 2 DIGITS DIGITS 1771&&-9 1771&&-9

RT RT CT CT SPR SPR SC SC RT RT CT CT SPR SPR SC SC

TREE= 70 TREE= 70 ATYPE=N ATYPE=N DIGITS DIGITS 1771&&-9 1771&&-9 COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED

The result is HLRENQ special route

Fig. 36 Digit analysis HLR_ENQ

HLRENQ Special Route

< < ZRPI:SPR=2; ZRPI:SPR=2; LOADING LOADING PROGRAM PROGRAM VERSION VERSION 2.4-0 2.4-0 SPECIAL SPECIAL ROUTE ROUTE FOR FOR HLR HLR ENQUIRY ENQUIRY SPR SPR 00002 00002 STP STP 1 1 DIG DIG 6598000130 6598000130 TON TON INT INT NP NP E164 E164 TREE TREE CORG CORG 00050 0 00050 0

COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED


Fig. 37 HLR_ENQ SPR

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

47

Routing in MSS

3.5.2.2.2

Mobile terminating call SPR (GSMEND)

For a mobile-terminated call, the MSC receives its own MSRN back from the HLR after HLR_ENQ requests. The MSC performs digit analysis in tree 50 to analyze its own MSRN number. If the result of the analysis is to terminate the call to a BSC, the correct SPR is called GSMEND. In case the MSC receives its own MSRN back from the trunk, it has to perform digit analysis in tree 70 and the result is GSMEND.

Example of Digit Analysis


< < RII:TREE=50; RII:TREE=50; LOADING LOADING PROGRAM PROGRAM VERSION VERSION 5.12-0 5.12-0 DX DX 200 200 TREE= TREE= DIGITS DIGITS 6010 6010 6020 6020 6030 6030 6040 6040 MSC03 MSC03 50 50 ATYPE=N ATYPE=N TON=NAT TON=NAT AL AL NBR NBR 0 0 910 910 0 0 920 920 0 0 1 1 0 0 940 940 2008-12-12 2008-12-12 RT RT ROU ROU ROU ROU SPR SPR ROU ROU CT CT NC NC NC NC SC SC NC NC 08:03:43 08:03:43 DEST DEST CHI CHI 3 1 3 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 5 1 CNT CNT N N N N N N N N SDEST SDEST 3 3 4 4 1 1 5 5

SP SP NL NL RC RC 8 8 0 0 APR APR 8 8 0 0 APR APR 3 3 32 32 APR APR 3 3 0 0 APR APR

COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED

The result is GSMEND special route

Fig. 38 Digit Analysis Example for GSMEND SPR

48

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

GSMEND Special Route

< < ZRPI:SPR=1; ZRPI:SPR=1; LOADING LOADING PROGRAM PROGRAM VERSION VERSION 4.1-0 4.1-0 SPECIAL SPECIAL ROUTE ROUTE FOR FOR GSM GSM END END OUTROUTE STP OUTROUTE STP SIGNALLING SIGNALLING OMCG7 OMCG7 COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED Outgoing Signaling to BSC 1 1

SPR SPR 00001 00001

Fig. 39 GSMEND SPR Definition

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

49

Routing in MSS

3.5.2.2.3

CM number modification SPR

If the sub-destination of the CM number analysis leads to number modification, the result may require a reanalysis of the modified digits. In this case, the CM gives the analysis start point (basic tree) of the modified digits to the call control. You provide the basic tree with the help of the number modification MML commands.

Number Modification Special Route

Digit Analysis Digit


TREE

Number Modification Analysis


Modified Digit

Outgoing Route

or
TREE Modified Digit

Note: The result after a Number Modification Analysis can be either outgoing route or sending the digit back to a new TREE to be re-analysed.

Fig. 40 Number Modification Analysis

50

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.5.2.2.4

Announcement SPR

For specific cases it is necessary to assign an announcement to certain subscribers. Announcements are assigned in tree 48, as shown in figure below. Figure 42 displays a list of digits, which point to an SPR for an announcement. This SPR contains a set of specific parameters for this announcement.

Digit Analysis for Announcement


< < RII:TREE=48; RII:TREE=48; DX DX 200 200 TREE= TREE= DIGITS DIGITS 00300 00300 03300 03300 09234 09234 09235 09235 09236 09236 09237 09237 MSC03 MSC03 48 48 ATYPE=N ATYPE=N AL AL NBR NBR 0 0 2047 2047 0 0 2047 2047 0 0 501 501 0 0 502 502 0 0 503 503 0 0 504 504 TON=UNK TON=UNK RT CT RT CT SPR SPR NGC NGC SPR SPR NC NC SPR SPR NGC NGC SPR SPR NGC NGC SPR SPR NGC NGC SPR SPR NGC NGC SP SP 5 5 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 NL NL 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 2008-12-12 2008-12-12 RC RC APR APR APR APR APR APR APR APR APR APR APR APR 11:52:08 11:52:08 CHI CHI 1 1 1 1 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 CNT CNT N N N N N N N N N N N N SDEST SDEST 7 7 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25

DEST DEST 8 8 25 25 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31

COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED

The result is Announcement special route

Fig. 41 Digit Analysis in Tree 48

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

51

Routing in MSS

Announcement Special Route

< < ZRAI:SPR=501&504; ZRAI:SPR=501&504; DX DX 200 200 MSC03 MSC03 2008-12-12 2008-12-12 STATE STATE AIND AIND ALLO ALLO FICH FICH ON 501 ON 501 OND OND STATE STATE AIND AIND ALLO ALLO FICH FICH ON 504 ON 504 OND OND 11:54:19 11:54:19

ANNOUNCEMENTS: ANNOUNCEMENTS: SPR PHA SPR PHA DEV DEV 501 MAI 501 MAI VAN VAN SPR SPR 504 504 PHA PHA MAI MAI DEV DEV VAN VAN

ANAM ANAM BTO BTO TXIND TXIND AFIL AFIL VAMG0 1,2,3 VAMG0 1,2,3 ANAM ANAM BTO BTO TXIND TXIND AFIL AFIL VANG0 1 VANG0 1

COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED

Fig. 42 Announcement SPR Printout

Announcement Parameter Printout

ZRAL:ANAM=VANG0; ANNOUNCEMENT PARAMETERS: ANAM VANG0 DEV VAN LCL 2 LTL -

Fig. 43 Announcement Parameter Printout

52

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Digit Analysis for Tree 2

< < RII:TREE=2,TON=SUB; RII:TREE=2,TON=SUB; MSCi MSCi DX220-LAB DX220-LAB 2003-01-15 2003-01-15 17:57:30 17:57:30

TREE= TREE= 2 2 ATYPE=N ATYPE=N TON=SUB TON=SUB DIGITS DIGITS 6767 6767 AL AL 0 0 NBR DEST NBR RT RT CT CT SP SP NL NL RC RC DEST CHI CHI CNT CNT SDEST SDEST 300 0 8 N 30 300 ANN ANN SC SC 3 3 0 APR APR 26 26 8 N 30

Fig. 44 Digit Analysis for Direct Announcement in Tree 2

There are several ways the switch can obtain one of the numbers in Tree 48: EOS cause-code. Direct Announcement. Although the announcement number usually contains three digits, such as 500, the related digits in tree 48 start with two more leading digits, such as 00500 or 03500. The first digit specifies the announcement language with value 0.4. The value 0 indicates the default language used in the exchange. The second digit refers to the announcement case. This describes in which call phase the announcement is given, for example: 0 direct call to announcement 3 intermediate announcements Call barring analysis. The result of call barring analysis can be the provision of an announcement. Attribute analysis. When using attribute analysis, one of the possible final results can be an announcement. Function analysis. A typical example here is the call-drop announcement.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

53

Routing in MSS

In case of direct announcement, the digits sent to the tree 48 are resulted from preceding digit analysis, e.g. in tree 2 for MOC. The preceding digit analysis points to announcement specifier: RDC:DIG=1234567,TREE=2:ANN=300,CT=SC,SP=7:CP=OE; SP must be the same as the number of digits brought to the analysis. This command creates special route (RT=ANN, NBR=300) which can be displayed with RIR:ANN=300; The result of the analysis (NBR=300) is now sent to TREE=48 defined in parameter file in hexadecimal form: WOI:0,9; As mentioned above, the digits in tree 48 start with two more leading digits, in case of direct announcement and default language, 00300 is sent to digit analysis in TREE=48.

3.5.3

Routing and Charging Components

The second part of digit analysis is the charging component. Routing cannot be completed without charging. Somebody has to pay the bill. Figure 46, Figure 47 and Figure 48, illustrate the relationship between the routing component and the charging component.

54

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Routing and Charging Components

Fig. 45 Routing and Charging Components

Digit Analysis Components


<RII:TREE=2,TON=NAT,DIG=10; <RII:TREE=2,TON=NAT,DIG=10; DX DX 200 200 TREE= TREE= DIGITS DIGITS 10 10 MSC MSC 2 2 ATYPE=N ATYPE=N TON=NAT TON=NAT AL AL NBR NBR 0 0 1000 1000 1 1 1001 1001 2007-12-12 2007-12-12 RT RT CT CT SP SP NL NL ROU ROU NC NC 1 1 0 0 ROU ROU NC NC 1 1 0 0 14:59:38 14:59:38 RC RC APR APR APR APR DEST DEST 6 6 6 6 CHI CHI 6 6 6 6 CNT CNT N N N N SDEST SDEST 1 1 2 2

< < RIH:TREE=2,TON=NAT,DIG=10; RIH:TREE=2,TON=NAT,DIG=10; DX DX 200 200 TREE= TREE= DIGITS DIGITS 10 10 MSC-CSC MSC-CSC 2 2 ATYPE=N ATYPE=N 2000-12-12 2000-12-12 TON=NAT TON=NAT AL AL NDEST NDEST 0 0 BJPSTN BJPSTN 1 1 BJPSTN BJPSTN CHI CHI 6 6 6 6 CNT CNT N N N N 14:59:45 14:59:45 NSDEST NSDEST BJPSTN BJPSTN MSC2 MSC2 CORG CORG 0 0 10 10 0 0 10 10 NCHA NCHA FREE FREE CHEAP CHEAP FREE FREE CHEAP CHEAP

Fig. 46 Digit Analysis Components

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

55

Routing in MSS

Routing and Charging Components (1/2)


RIA:DIG=10,TREE=2,TON=NAT; RIA:DIG=10,TREE=2,TON=NAT; DX MSC01 DX 200 200 MSC01 DIG DIG = = 10 10 TON TON = = NAT NAT FIRST FIRST ANALYSIS ANALYSIS TREE: TREE: 2 2 ALT ALT = = 0 0 2008-12-12 2008-12-12 18:04:16 18:04:16

STATE: STATE: ENDS ENDS BJPSTN BJPSTN BJPSTN BJPSTN RT RT ROU ROU CT CT NC NC

FOLLOWING FOLLOWING DIGITS: DIGITS:

NAME : NAME OF OF DESTINATION DESTINATION : NAME NAME OF OF SUBDESTINATION SUBDESTINATION : : ROUTING ROUTING DATA DATA NBR NBR 1000 1000

SP SP 3 3 QA QA N N RC RC APR APR

NL NL 0 0

CNT CNT CNP CNP EC EC N N N N

MNL MNL 0 0 CDRS CDRS 0 0

SELO SELO ADDITIONAL ADDITIONAL DATA DATA PAD PAD

DSTATE DSTATE SRCL SRCL A N A N CAT CAT A A MDC MDC 0 0

PC PC ORD ORD

DESTINATION DESTINATION SSET SSET = = 0 0 ATTR(DEST) ATTR(DEST) : : ATTR(ALT) ATTR(ALT) : : ATTN(DEST) ATTN(DEST) : : ATTN(ALT) ATTN(ALT) : : -

Fig. 47 Routing and Charging Component Printout

Routing and Charging Components (2/2)


CHARGING CHARGING INDEX INDEX : : 6 6 CHARGING CHARGING ORIGIN: ORIGIN: 0 0 CHA: CHA: 1 1 ICAM: ICAM: CP CP OE OE MCZ MCZ 2 2 ACZ ACZ 0 0 IAZ IAZ 3 3 OAZ OAZ 4 4 HB HB NHB NHB 00000000 00000000 OCC OCC : : 6 6 00000000 00000000 CHARGING CHARGING ORIGIN: ORIGIN: 10 10 CHA: CHA: 2 2 ICAM: ICAM: CP CP OE OE MCZ MCZ 5 5 ACZ ACZ 0 0 IAZ IAZ 3 3 OAZ OAZ 4 4 HB HB NHB NHB 00000000 00000000 OCC OCC 00000000 00000000 NAME NAME OF OF CHARGING CHARGING CASE: CASE: FREE FREE NAME NAME OF OF CHARGING CHARGING MODIFICATION: MODIFICATION: DC DC NDC NDC CM CM PLS PLS ICC ICC SPM SPM SPA SPA TCI TCI NCB NCB N N N N N N N N PT PT 0 0 HC HC CI CI

CHARGING CHARGING INDEX INDEX

NAME NAME OF OF CHARGING CHARGING CASE: CASE: CHEAP CHEAP NAME NAME OF OF CHARGING CHARGING MODIFICATION: MODIFICATION: DC DC NDC NDC CM CM PLS PLS ICC ICC SPM SPM SPA SPA TCI TCI NCB NCB N N N N N N N N PT PT 0 0 HC HC CI CI

Fig. 48 Routing and Charging Component Printout

56

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

The digit analysis produces a destination with one or more sub-destinations. Each destination of an individual digit analysis gives a charging index. The CORG gives the calling party information. The CORG and the charging index together are a charging case. Associated with each charging case is a set of parameters called charging zone, which is used for accounting purposes between network operators and the supplementary service Advice Of Charge. If a charging component in the digit analysis does not exist for a certain CORG, even though the destination component exists, that call will not be successful. Thus, it is essential that all possible CORGs have been included in the charging component. This will avoid the alarm shown in figure 50.

Alarm 2532

MSC MSC ** ** ALARM ALARM BSU-1 BSU-1

BSU-1 BSU-1 1F109-00 1F109-00

SWITCH SWITCH IC2_SS IC2_SS

2007-10-15 2007-10-15

15:16:22.53 15:16:22.53

(0105) (0105) 2532 2532 ANALYSIS ANALYSIS FOR FOR NETWORK NETWORK GENERATED GENERATED NBR NBR OR OR FOR FOR CHA.CASE CHA.CASE IS IS MISSING MISSING 0002 0002 08 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 12 12 34 34 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

Fig. 49 Generated Alarm in Case of Missing Charging Case

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

57

Routing in MSS

3.5.4

Creation of Digit Analysis


Procedure - Create Digit Analysis

Create circuit group ZRCC:TYPE=CCS,NCGR=XXX,CGR=123: .. Add circuits to circuit group ZRCA:CGR=123:CRCT= Create external route ZRRC:EXT:ROU=456,NCGR=XXX Create Digit analysis components Create Charging component ZRDE:NCHA=FREE:CP=OE Create Subdestination ZRDE:NSDEST=AAA:ROU=456,CT= ,SP= .. Create Destination ZRDE:NDEST=BBB,ALT=0:NSDEST=AAA:NCHA=FREE Create Digit analysis ZRDC:TREE= ,TON= ,DIG= :NDEST=BBB;

Fig. 50 Creation of Digit Analysis

58

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.6

Area Service Analysis

The purpose of area service analysis is to decide where to send a service call. As illustrated in figure 51, the parameters used as inputs to area service analysis are: Zone code Service number The main task of the area service analysis is to produce a service centre number to locate the nearest service centre.

Area Service Number Analysis

ANALYSIS FILES
ZONE CODE

ANALYSIS RESULT FILE

EMERGENCY/SERVICE CENTRE NO. ANALYSIS TREE

SERVICE NUMBER

Fig. 51 Area Service Analysis

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

59

Routing in MSS

60

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.6.1

Input

The two input parameters for area service analysis are listed below. Zone Code. A certain number of cells are grouped together, and a service centre will be associated with that particular service area, known as the routing zone. When a MOC starts, it also contains information about the geographical cell location, which is required for the CORG. Service Type Number. This is a result of the pre-analysis. Once the call has been identified as a service call, its type is also identified.

3.6.2

Process

The service number analysis is generally done in tree 30 (but it can vary depending on the definition within the area service number analysis). A service call is routed to a destination where the service can be provided to the subscriber, such as a service centre. Service centers are located in a number of different places in the network. Depending on the location of the subscriber, the call will be routed to the nearest service centre.

Area Service Number Concepts


service calls from cells 1, 2 and 3 are routed to service centre 1

cell 1

123
cell 3

cell 2

routing zone 1

BSC
cell 4 cell 5

MSC
service calls from cells 4, 5 and 6 are routed to service centre 2

2 routing zone 2 123


cell 6

Fig. 52 Source of Zone Code

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

61

Routing in MSS

3.6.3

Results

The result will be the number of the service centre nearest to the geographical location of the subscriber. These two analyses together form the output for the area service number analysis. The parameter SERVICE TYPE is the output of the normal pre-analysis for a MOC. The values for routing zones are part of the cellular-network database in the MSS/MSC. A combination of these two parameters refers to the correct service number which is analyzed in tree 30, TON=NAT. The result of digit analysis, as demonstrated figure 54, is that the call is forwarded to the nearest requested service centre.

Routing Zone Example


EPO:NO=701; MSCi MSS04 2009-04-17 20:07:53 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION DATA BTS BSC LA NAME :BTS701 NAME :BSC07 NAME :LAC700 NUMBER NUMBER LAC :701 :7 :700

MOBILE COUNTRY CODE ....................(MCC)... :460 MOBILE NETWORK CODE ....................(MNC)... :30 CELL IDENTITY ..........................(CI).... :701 BTS ADMINISTRATIVE STATE ....................... :UNLOCKED ROUTING ZONE ...........................(RZ).... :1000 TARIFF AREA ............................(TA).... :0 DOWNLINK DTX DISABLED BY MSC ...........(DTX)... :OFF CELL DEPENDENT ROUTING .................(CDR)... :NORMAL
Fig. 53 Routing Zone Example

62

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Area Service Number Analysis


RUI:; RUI:; DX DX 200 200 MSC MSC 2008-12-12 2008-12-12 11:29:07 11:29:07

INTERROGATING INTERROGATING AREA AREA SERVICE SERVICE NUMBERS NUMBERS AREA AREA SERVICE SERVICE NUMBER NUMBER 4315100 4315100 4321255 4321255 4322123 4322123 ROUTING ROUTING ZONE ZONE 1000 1000 1000 1000 1001 1001 SERVICE SERVICE TYPE TYPE 1 1 2 2 1 1 ANALYSIS ANALYSIS TREE TREE IN IN CM CM 30 30 30 30 30 30 TYPE TYPE OF OF NUMBER NUMBER NATIONAL NATIONAL NATIONAL NATIONAL NATIONAL NATIONAL SERVICE SERVICE NUMBER NUMBER INDEX INDEX 1 1 2 2 1 1

Fig. 54 Area Service Number Analysis

Other types of Control Plane Analyses are concluded in the following figure:

Other Control Plane Analysis


ORIGIN ANALYSIS

BEARER CAPABILITY ANALYSIS

DIALLING PREANALYSIS

AIF ANALYSIS

*3
ROUTING & CHARGING ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS

REASON CODE (CD_T) OR FACILITY CODE

FUNCTION ANALYSIS

DIGIT ANALYSIS CM

*2
EOS ANALYSIS EOS ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS

REASON CODE (CD_T)

*1
CHARGING MODIFICATION ANALYSIS

CALL BARRING ANALYSIS CM

*4 *1 can be executed in several different call phases *2 can be executed only in speech state *3 is executed only in mobile originated calls *4 is executed in MOC and MTC in the call setup phase

Fig. 55 Other Control Plane Analysis

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

63

Routing in MSS

3.7

Bearer Capability Analysis

The purpose of bearer capability analysis is to determine whether the call is a data or fax call and select the right handling for those calls.

3.7.1

Input

This section explains the sources of information to perform the analysis. Here are some examples of BCIE information, used in BCIE analyses for data calls: Information Transfer capability Radio Channel Requirement Number of Data bit/Stop bit User rate Parity information Modem type Connection element. In speech calls only the radio channel requirement is checked. The radio channel requirement has the following information attached: Half rate Full rate Dual/half rate preferred Dual/full rate preferred.

64

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Bearer Capability Analysis

Modem BCIE Bearer Capability Internal route to .... Analysis Fax/Modem

Data interface unit


BCIE = Bearer Capability Information Element

Fig. 56 Bearer Capability Analysis

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

65

Routing in MSS

3.7.2

Process

In a MOC, the BCIE is obtained from the MS itself on a SETUP signaling message, while in mobile-terminating calls it is received from the HLR as a basic service associated with the dialed MSISDN. The bearer capability analysis checks the validity of the BCIE, which contains information about the required bearer and teleservices.

3.7.3

Output

The bearer capability analysis produces an internal route in the MSS/MSC as an output. The route contains a set of required entities (for example, facsimile modems and data interface units). If the BCIE is invalid, the call is cleared.

66

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.8

Call Barring Analysis

The purpose of call barring analysis is to detect possible outgoing call restrictions. As illustrated in Figure 58, the parameters used as inputs to call barring analysis are: Supplementary service barring classes (SS) Operator-determined barring classes (ODB) Called number with TON Roaming status The main tasks of call barring analysis are to find out in what way calls are restricted to this subscriber and instruct the exchange to take action based on this.

Call Barring Analysis

SUPP. SERVICE BARRING CLASSES OPERATOR DETERMINED BARRING C. CALLED NUMBER WITH TON ROAMING STATUS

ANALYSIS ANALYSIS FILES RESULT FILE

BARRING INFO

CM

Used to find the outgoing call restrictions Barring is not checked in the emergency calls ICC calls get restrictions asynchronous services to handle the barring analysis in the Central Memory
Fig. 57 Call Barring Analysis

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

67

Routing in MSS

3.8.1

Input

This section explains the sources of information to perform the analysis. 1. SS barring classes have four possible values: Barring of all outgoing calls Barring of all international outgoing calls Barring of all international outgoing calls, except when the call is directed to the subscriber's home country Barring of all outgoing calls if the subscriber is abroad. 2. ODB classes. These specify the barring conditions of outgoing calls, roaming, or supplementary service management. The ODB classes apply only to your own subscribers, who are either located in the home PLMN or roaming in the visited PLMN. The operator-specific categories do not apply to the roaming subscribers of foreign operators. Several ODB categories can be in use simultaneously. For outgoing calls, the subscriber can have up to seven categories active at the same time. You can activate one of the following categories: Barring of outgoing calls Barring of outgoing international calls Barring of outgoing international calls, except for those directed to the home PLMN country Barring of outgoing calls when roaming outside the home PLMN country. The first three categories above are invoked in the MSS/VLR. The last category is sent as barring of outgoing calls to the MSS/VLR when the subscriber is roaming outside the home PLMN. When barring premium rate calls (operator-determined barring), you can activate one or both of the following categories: Barring of outgoing premium rate calls (information) Barring of outgoing premium rate calls (entertainment). The categories are invoked in the MSS/VLR. Four types of operator-specific barring categories (operator-determined barring) can be invoked in the MSS/VLR when the subscriber is registered in the home PLMN. You define the effect of the categories by creating a corresponding analysis in the MSS/MSC of the HPLMN. The categories can be activated all at the same time; some of them can also be left inactive.

68

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3. Called number with TON. This is the familiar TON used in many analyses. It can have the following values: INT NAT SUB UNK

4. Roaming status may be listed as: Subscriber in home PLMN country Subscriber from another country

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

69

Routing in MSS

3.8.2

Process

There are two ways to activate call barring: By the subscriber, using an SS By the operator, using an ODB When a barring category is invoked during a MOC in the MSC, there are three possibilities. The call is: Cleared Connected to an announcement Routed to another B party (for example, a network operator)

3.8.3

Results

This section explains the output of call barring analysis. The result of the Call Barring Analysis for the call control produces barring information with values as follows: 1. Continue call setup. This happens when the barring analysis does not satisfy the barring conditions. 2. Stop call. This value indicates that the analysis satisfies the barring conditions. 3. Check the country code. This is possible if the subscriber has activated the "all international calls barred, except his home PLMN." The result will be to check whether the B SUB is in the barred country. The result of this further analysis will then be either Continue Call setup or Stop call. 4. Number modification. When a barring category is invoked during the call, the called number is modified according to the call barring analysis and the call is rerouted to the new destination. When the call is barred, the mobile subscriber receives one of the following responses: Announcement / tone; GSM notification; Announcement / tone and a GSM notification. In addition to producing these responses, the analysis sends a release cause code indicating outgoing call barring to the mobile station. Note The routing of emergency calls is not affected by call barring functions. There is no reason for defining restrictions for an emergency number.

70

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Call Barring Analysis


RKI:SS=BAOC,; RKI:SS=BAOC,; OUTGOING OUTGOING CALL CALL BARRING BARRING ANALYSES: ANALYSES: SS TON ATYPE SS TON ATYPE DIG DIG BAOC NAT N 1 BAOC NAT N 1 BAOC N 2 BAOC NAT NAT N 2 BAOC N 3 BAOC NAT NAT N 3 BAOC N 4 BAOC NAT NAT N 4 BAOC N 5 BAOC NAT NAT N 5 BAOC N 6022 BAOC NAT NAT N 6022 OUTGOING OUTGOING CALL CALL BARRING BARRING ANALYSIS ANALYSIS COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED TC TC ANNC ANNC TONE TONE ANN ANN NOTIF NOTIF SPR SPR N N 0 0 Y N N 0 0 Y N 0 0 N N N 0 0 Y Y N N 0 0 N N 0 0 Y Y N 0 0 N N N 0 0 Y Y N 10 0 N Y Y 10 0 N N Y 3 0 Y N N 3 0 N N INTERROGATED INTERROGATED

Fig. 58 Call Barring Analysis Printout

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

71

Routing in MSS

3.9

Priority Analysis

The priority analysis is used by the call control to analyze different working states of the exchange. It offers preferential handling in the traffic handling of a telephone call of a certain type, so that other calls are barred and/or the priority call in question receives preferential handling in circuit hunting. The handling of the call in the exchange depends on the subscriber categories, the subscriber's selection, and the working state of the exchange. The operator can change the working state of the exchange with MML commands. This feature (Feature 435) is optional. Note A priority subscriber is a subscriber who has defined his category as 'primary' (CAT=PR) in HLR.

Priority Analysis

A-SUBSCRIBER CATEGORY B-SUBSCRIBER CATEGORY CALL TYPE

ANALYSIS FILES

ANALYSIS RESULT FILE


PRIORITY INFO

WORKING STATE OF THE EXCHANGE

Used to analyze different working states of the exchange

Fig. 59 Priority Analysis

72

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Exchange Mode Parameter


< < ZWOI:13; ZWOI:13; LOADING LOADING PROGRAM PROGRAM VERSION VERSION 7.8-0 7.8-0 PARAMETER PARAMETER CLASS: CLASS: 13 13 IDENTIFIER IDENTIFIER POSSIBILITY POSSIBILITY 00000 00000 00003 00003 00007 00007 00010 00010 PRIORITY_CALLS PRIORITY_CALLS VALUE VALUE 0000 0000 000A 000A 0006 0006 0000 0000 CHANGE CHANGE YES YES NO NO NO NO YES YES

NAME NAME OF OF PARAMETER PARAMETER EXCHANGE_MODE EXCHANGE_MODE QUE_SEARCH_TI_OF_OUTCRC QUE_SEARCH_TI_OF_OUTCRC QUE_SEA_TI_CODE_EQUIP QUE_SEA_TI_CODE_EQUIP OVERLOAD_MSG_USE OVERLOAD_MSG_USE

COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED

Fig. 60 Exchange Mode Parameter Printout

Exchange Mode Values

Exchange Mode Values 0000 0001 Normal operation: All calls are allowed during high traffic. Only emergency calls and calls, in which one or both subscribers ( sub-A and sub-B) are priority subscribers, are allowed. Only emergency calls are allowed. Only calls in which one or both subscribers ( sub-A and sub-B) are priority subscribers are allowed.

0002 0003

Fig. 61 Exchange Mode Values

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

73

Routing in MSS

3.10

Function Analysis

The function analysis is used by call control to analyze subscriber facility or subscriber clear codes. The analysis is initiated in the call active state (speech). The clear code informs the clearing cause of the call. The facility code informs of services or events used by the subscriber, or occurred to the user, for example call drop. The clear code to be analyzed is fetched from a clear message at the location where the analysis is done. In the same way the facility code is fetched from a notification message. The parameters used in the function analysis are: 1. Used signaling type (signalling_type_t) This information is received from the Incoming Register Signaling File (INSIGN) or the Outgoing Register Signaling File (OUSIGN). Different signaling, for instance BSSAP and ISUP0, can have different analyses. 2. Target of the analysis; clear event or facility event 3. Clear code (cd_t) or facility code (dx_ss_t) The result of Function analysis: 4. The analysis identifier result is always 'continue call' when the subscriber facility code is analyzed. In the clear code analysis, the analysis result is either 'continue call' or 'stop call'. 5. Connect tone This can be the result of clear code and facility code analyses. The time slot number of the tone is also given to hear some special tone. 6. Connect speech path This can be an analysis result of a facility code analysis. This result is used to disconnect a tone. For instance, when a tone is connected to a remaining party while the other subscriber is out of radio coverage, this analysis result is used to disconnect tone and connect speech paths after successful reestablishment. 7. Connect announcement This additional result can be defined only in a clear code analysis. The announcement can be connected to the incoming or outgoing circuit (MOC or MTC). An index of the announcement is given by the analysis result. The announcements are not chargeable for the subscriber. 8. Do not send the received notification This can be the result of the facility code analysis only. 9. Detection point (DP) This additional data is used by the system if the related code (dx_ss_t) is defined to the detection point of IN.

74

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Function Analysis

ANALYSIS FILES
CD_T (clear code) or DX_SS_T (facility code)

ANALYSIS RESULT FILE

RESULT IDENTIFIER ANNOUNCEMENT DATA

ANALYSIS TARGET (clear or facility event) TIME SLOT OF THE SIGNAL TONE SIGNALLING TYPE

NOTIFICATION INFO

used to analyze subscriber facility or subscriber clear codes in the ACTIVE call state

Fig. 62 Function Analysis

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

75

Routing in MSS

3.11

Attribute Analysis

There are three types of attribute analysis, which can influence the digit analysis. Routing attribute analysis Charging attribute analysis EOS attribute analysis

Attribute Analyses Order


Attributes

Origin Analysis

C_ORG

1. Charging Attribute Analysis

C_ORG'

3. EOS Attribute Analysis

Pre-analysis

Digit analysis

Tree selection

TREE

2. Routing Attribute Analysis

TREE'

Attributes

Fig. 63 Order of Attribute Analysis

76

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.11.1

Attributes

The purpose of all these attribute analyses is to analyze different attribute values and provide the final results, which can affect the digit analysis to obtain different destinations. Most of the attribute values used as input parameters for different types of attribute analysis are the same. The following table is an example of attributes that each attribute analysis can use as input parameters.

Attributes
Attribute analyses 1.Routing Attribute Analysis Attributes -Incoming Signalling -Subscriber Category -IMSI Indicator -Channel type -MS Power Capability -Routing Category -Etc. 2.Charging Attribute Analysis -Incoming Signalling -Subscriber Category -IMSI Indicator -Channel type -MS Power Capability -Routing Category -Etc. 3. EOS analysis -Incoming signalling -Cause Code -subscriber category -IMSI indicator -Etc.

Fig. 64 Example of Attributes Used for Different Attribute Analyses

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

77

Routing in MSS

The basic structure of each attribute analysis is the same. Attribute analysis consists of different attributes. The operator can freely decide which attributes have to be analyzed together with the desired values in a different attribute analysis. The operator can also decide in which order the analysis is to be done. Attribute analysis does not influence call set-up if the analysis has not been created. Attribute analysis is created step by step, so that the analysis is built up of different sub-analysis names. Each sub-analysis consists of an analysis of one attribute. The link to another attribute is just the sub-analysis name. The following figure shows the steps of attribute analysis, which uses three attributes to analyze the different final results.

Attribute Analysis
Subanalysis2 Subanalysis1 Attribute 2
Value 1 Value 2

Final result
Result1 Result 2 Result 3

Value1
Attribute1

Subanalysis3 Attribute3
Value1 Value 2

Value2 Value3 Value4

Result 4 Result 5 Defau lt

An attribute and its values What is the wanted value?

Result of sub analysis What is the corresponding result?

Fig. 65 Attribute Analysis

78

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS
TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere TypeYourNameHere

3.11.2

Final result for attribute analysis

The final result of the analysis depends on the type of attribute analysis. The final results of the routing, charging and EOS attribute analyses are presented in the following paragraphs.

3.11.2.1

The final result of routing attribute analysis

The result can be defined with the following information: New digit analysis tree or original digit analysis tree (before routing attribute analysis) Intermediate announcement to calling (or redirecting) subscriber with a chargeable / free announcement indication. The default result is that the analysis does not change the digit analysis tree and there is no announcement for the subscriber.

Final Result for Routing Attribute Analysis


Attributes

Routing Attribute analysis

Digit analysis tree

Intermediate annoucement

Hello

Digit analysis

Destination

Fig. 66 Final Results of Routing Attribute Analysis

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

79

Routing in MSS

3.11.2.2

The final

TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere TypeYourNameHere result of charging attribute

analysis

By means of this analysis the charging origin information (C_ORG) can be changed. The default result is that the analysis does not change the charging origin. The charging attribute analysis is very flexible and powerful. With this application the regional subscriber could, for example, be charged differently depending on his location. If he is inside his home area, the call can be cheaper, but if not, the call can be more expensive or the subscriber can't make / receive the call at all. Charging attribute analysis only affects mobile originating calls, PSTN originating calls, PBX originating calls and call forwarding calls, but it does not affect emergency calls. Note Charging attribute analysis and routing attribute analysis are not processed for the alternative route analysis, for the number modification and for a roaming number.

Final Result for Charging Attribute Analysis


Attributes

Charging Attribute analysis

Charging Origin

Charging analysis

Charging Destination

Fig. 67 Final Result of Charging Attribute Analysis

80

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

3.11.2.3

The final result of End of Selection (EOS) attribute analysis

The result of the EOS attribute analysis can influence the continued processing of a call beside the EOS analysis by using attributes. The results of EOS attribute analysis are the same as the results of EOS Analysis, but the strength of the attribute analysis is that the input parameter for the analysis does not necessary have to be only the 'cause code'. Thus, the proceeding of a call can be affected with the aid of several attributes (parameters). The EOS attribute analysis is processed if the user defines the result of the EOS analysis to be ' EOS attribute executed'. The main result of EOS attribute analysis is: Stop call Execute the digit analysis with MSRN or for a call forwarding number Execute the digit analysis with a called number Execute the digit analysis again for default routing purposes Execute re-hunting of an outgoing circuit Execute alternative sub-destination analysis Execute repeat attempt procedure.

Final Result for EOS Attribute Analysis


Attributes
Cause code EOSATTR

EOS analysis

EOS Attribute analysis

Execute Alternative subdestination analysis Execute Repeat Attempt procedure Execute Digit analysis EOSATTR: Execute EOS attribute analysis Execute Rehunting of an outgoing circuit Stop call

Fig. 68 The Final Result of EOS Attribute Analysis

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

81

Routing in MSS

3.12

AIF Attribute Analysis

The AIF attribute analysis is an optional feature where the MSC performs the analysis. As a result the Priority Information Element (PIE) is sent to the BSC, if the BSC parameters allow this event. The BSC uses the PIE to determine whether an assignment request or a handover request has to be performed unconditionally and immediately. If this is the case, it may lead to a forced release or a forced handover of an existing connection of a lower priority. AIF attribute analysis is shown in figure 70.

3.13

Summary

Summary of control plane analysis is shown in figure 71.

AIF Attribute Analysis

MSC
Attributes AIF Attributes Analysis Priority Information Element (PIE)

Assignment Request

BSC
Handover Request

Fig. 69 AIF Attribute Analysis

82

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Analyses Summary
Signalling System attributes Circuit group (TOC) MS_Class mark MSCAT Cell Tariff routing zone service type TON NPI digits Dialling preanalysis digits/TON normal call circuit group TREE selection PRFILE attributes TREE' Routing attribute analysis Call bar analysis CM Digit analysis DESTINATION Area service numbers Origin Analysis MOC CORG Charging attribute analysis attributes CORG' EOS Attribute Analysis Cause code EOS Analysis

TREE/ TON/ digits

TREE

TREE

Cont. or Stop

Fig. 70 Analysis Summary

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

83

Routing in MSS

84

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

User Plane Routing

In the MSC Server (MSS) system, the actual user plane (bearer) connection is separated from the control plane (call control and signaling) connection. In a circuitswitched network this separation is partial. With the user plane routing functionality and the related MMLs, it is possible to control and use the ATM, IP, and TDM user plane resources provided by external Multimedia Gateways (MGWs). User plane routing is responsible for controlling the user plane transmission in the MSS in a network where media processing is decomposed to several network elements, to MGWs.

Decomposed Network Architecture

Fig. 71 Decomposed Network Architecture

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

85

Routing in MSS

4.1

User Plane Analysis

One part of the user plane routing configuration is User Plane Analysis. It consists of several analysis chains, which are itemized by phase names. The operator can define the relationship of parameters (call's and network's) and analysis phases by User Plane Analysis' MML. User Plane Analysis and its components are created by UANHAN MML. The analysis consists of several sub analysis, which can be linked to chain and the different kind of results. The structure of one analysis is in the following figure.

User Plane Analysis


In MSC server concept, user plane is separated from the control plane. MSC server controls the user plane information and uses user plane analysis to control routing of user plane. User plane analysis consists of several user plane analysis phases. Depending up on the call case and received information, phase analysis are executed. Each phase analysis consists on several sub analysis. Each sub analysis analyses one attribute. Structure of user plane analysis is similar to Attribute Analysis.

Fig. 72 User plane analysis

86

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

User Plane Analysis Architecture

Fig. 73 Example of User Plane Analysis structure

The six phases involved respectively to the User Plane Routing in the user plane analyses:

User Plane Analysis Phases

1. Preceeding UPD determination

2. Succeeding BNC Characteristics determination

3. CMN determination

4. Succeeding UPD determination

5. Succeeding Action indicator determination 6. Inter-Connecting BNC Characteristics determination

Fig. 74 User Plane Analysis Phases

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

87

Routing in MSS

The different phases of User Plane Analysis have relationship to each other. The result of an analysis can be the input parameter for the next phase. Maximal interrelation is presented in figure 75. Note: Those parameters, which are obligatory for the successful analysis in a specific phase, are marked with (*)

4.1.1

Phase Preceding UPD determination

This Phase is needed only for BICC and SIP signaling. RANAP signaling is able to figure out appropriate UPD for a call. Significant parameters: Phase User Plane Bearer Requirement, UPBREQ Emergency call indicator Preceding Signaling type Preceding BNC Characteristics Preceding Action Indicator Preceding BCU-ID Preceding UPDR (*) Preceding User Plane Destination, UPD (result)

88

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

4.1.2

Phase Succeeding BNC Characteristics determination

This Phase is needed to figure out bearer technology used towards succeeding MGW. This Phase is valid with BICC and SIP signaling. Significant parameters: Phase User Plane Bearer Requirement, UPBREQ Emergency call indicator Preceding User Plane Destination, UPD (from phase 1, if exists) Preceding Signaling type Succeeding Signaling type Preceding BNC Characteristics Preceding Action Indicator Preceding BCU-ID Preceding UPDR Succeeding UPDR Inter MSS handover indicator Succeeding BNC Characteristics (result)

4.1.3

Phase CMN determination

This Phase is used to detect whether a MSC Server should act as a CMN node. Precondition for this analysis execution is that Phase Succeeding BNC Characteristics determination has been executed. The Call Mediation Node (CMN) mode operation is possible if no user plane resource is required by the MSS and the required type of user plane connectivity exists between the preceding and succeeding nodes controlling the user plane. During call processing, based on its configuration data, the MSS is able to determine whether it should act as a CMN or a TSN node. The CMN detection is carried out by a user plane control application via executing user plane analysis phase 3, CMN determination. When the MSC Server is in CMN mode, it is no longer possible to return to TSN mode. The CMN functionality can be used with the BICC and SIP call control signaling. Call control signaling interworking is not allowed in CMN mode. This restriction means that the incoming and the outgoing signaling used in the CMN node must be the same. In the figure below MSS CMN acts as a CMN between MSS A and MSS B.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

89

Routing in MSS

The BCU-ID-based MGW selection optimization can be especially useful when CMN nodes are involved in the call between the MSSs that control user plane resources. In this case determining an optimal proceeding or succeeding UPD towards the peer MSS can be problematic because the CMN node can hide the identity of the peer MSS that controls user plane resources. The BCU-ID can be used to overcome the problem. It can identify the MGW that was selected for the call by the peer MSS. This information can be used in user plane analysis to select an optimal UPD that provides connectivity towards the MGW selected by the peer MSS. Significant parameters: Phase OLCM usage indicator Preceding Signaling type Succeeding Signaling type Preceding BNC Characteristics Succeeding BNC Characteristics (from phase 2) Preceding UPDR (*) Succeeding UPDR (*) CMN indicator (result)

4.1.4

Phase Succeeding UPD determination

This Phase is needed only for BICC and SIP signaling. RANAP signaling is able to figure out appropriate UPD for a call. Significant parameters: Phase User Plane Bearer Requirement, UPBREQ Emergency call indicator Succeeding Signaling type Succeeding BNC Characteristics (from phase 2) Preceding Action Indicator Preceding BCU-ID Preceding UPDR Succeeding BCU-ID (This parameter has meaning only in case of delayed MGW selection. It can be received from the succeeding MSS in APM.) Succeeding UPDR (*) Succeeding User Plane Destination, UPD (result)

90

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

4.1.5

Phase Succeeding Action indicator determination

Significant parameters: Phase User Plane Bearer Requirement, UPBREQ Emergency call indicator Preceding User Plane Destination, UPD (from phase 1, if exists) Succeeding User Plane Destination, UPD (from phase 4) Preceding Signaling type Succeeding Signaling type Preceding BNC Characteristics Succeeding BNC Characteristics (from phase 2) Preceding Action Indicator Preceding BCU-ID Preceding UPDR Succeeding UPDR Inter MSS handover indicator Succeeding Action Indicator (result)

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

91

Routing in MSS

4.1.6

Phase Inter-Connecting BNC Characteristics determination

Significant parameters: Phase User Plane Bearer Requirement, UPBREQ Emergency call indicator Preceding User Plane Destination, UPD (from phase 1, if exists) Succeeding User Plane Destination, UPD (from phase 4, if exists) Preceding Signaling type Succeeding Signaling type Preceding BNC Characteristics Succeeding BNC Characteristics (from phase 2, if exists) Preceding Action Indicator Succeeding Action Indicator (from phase 5, if exists) Preceding UPDR Succeeding UPDR Inter-Connecting BNC Characteristics list (result)

92

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

User Plane Analysis Results

Analysis Call Mediation Node (CMN) Inter-connecting backbone network connection characteristics (ICBNC) Preceding user plane destination (PUPD) Succeeding action indicator (SAI) Succeeding backbone ntetwork connection characteristics (SBNC) Succeeding user plane destination (SUPD)

Results Active (CMN), Inactive (TSN) AAL2, IPv4, TDM PUPD number Backward, Forward, Delayed forward AAL2, IPv4 SUPD number

Fig. 75 User plane analysis result

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

93

Routing in MSS

94

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

4.2

User Plane Topology Database

User plane topology database is a separate structural element in the MSC Server (MSS). Its main purpose is to store user plane topology information and when requested, deliver this information to the user plane control application. The user plane control application uses topology data to route the user plane to the proper destination. There are two kinds of data in the topology database: Data records for User Plane Destinations (UPDs) Data records for interconnections The operator enters the actual network configuration to the database using MML commands. Furthermore, a database manager forms the interface towards the user plane control application for database inquiries.

User Plane Topology Information

Fig. 76 User plane topology information

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

95

Routing in MSS

4.2.1

User Plane Destination

The User Plane Destination (UPD) defines connections to (incoming side) and from (outgoing side) the MGW which controlled by an MSS. The UPDs are created by the operator during network configuration. Physically, a UPD is one record in the topology database. The number of UPDs stored in the database is limited to 1000. From one MSS' point of view, the UPDs are a set of MGWs, which are grouped based on certain criteria. Additionally, UPDs reflect the operator's intention about the planned routing schemes. The typical grouping criterion is BNC characteristics and IP Trunk capability. UPDs can be overlapping. This means that different UPDs can contain the same MGWs where the grouping viewpoint is different. The grouping can be different not only based on BNC characteristics, but also based on the IP Trunk capability indicator. In case such a parameter is set, call setup procedures are executed differently. In case the IP Trunk indicator is ON, it means that the UPD is targeted to M11 IPET (IP Trunk) and acts accordingly. Example 1. UPD_1 is defined with MGW_1, MGW_3, and MGW_17. The UPD BNC characteristics are defined as ATM AAL2. This means that when the call is routed through this UPD, only the above listed MGWs can be used towards the given direction and the connection type will be ATM AAL2 eventually. Example 2. UPD_2 is defined with MGW_1 and MGW_21. MGW 1 is included also in UPD_1. The BNC characteristic is IPv4 in this case, so both selectable MGWs establish IP connections towards the destination. Example 3. UPD_3 is defined with the very same configuration like UPD_2. The BNC characteristics is IPv4, the MGWs are the same. The IP Trunk capability is also set, which means that the UPD points to M11 IP Trunk. In that case the call setup operation will be different compared to UPD_2. For example, no Iu/Nb Framing Protocol (FP) is used in the user plane connection. The figure below shows an example of UPDs towards the succeeding MSS B. In this example there are several UPDs used towards the same destination.

96

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

User Plane Destinations

Fig. 77 User Plane Destinations

A User Plane Destination (UPD) consists of parameters specific for the user plane destination itself. In addition, part of the parameters is MGW-specific. Backbone network connection characteristics It indicates what type of bearer is used in the UPD (AAL2, IPv4). Default codec It indicates the default codec used in the UPD in case more optimal codec cannot be negotiated (the possible values are G.711, EFR, FR). List of MGW identifiers (MGW-specific) It identifies the MGWs belonging to the UPD. MGW re-selection provisioning status It indicates the provisioning status of the MGW reselection procedure. Note This parameter can be set for both normal and emergency calls. Trunk capability It indicates if the UPD provides interworking towards the IP Trunk (IPET). User plane destination index Numerical identifier of the User Plane Destination

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

97

Routing in MSS

User plane destination name Alphabetical identifier of the user plane destination (15 characters) Load Sharing Index (MGW-specific) Weight value for user plane traffic sharing between MGWs in the scope of one UPD

You can use MML command to interrogate the UPDs defined in the MSS.

Interrogate the UPDs


< ZJFL; LOADING PROGRAM VERSION 7.23-0 NAME ---RNC NBIPV4 NBAAL2 BICCLOOP10 BICCLOOP20 COMMAND EXECUTED ID -000 001 002 010 020 BNCC ---AAL2 IPV4 AAL2 IPV4 IPV4

Fig. 78 UPDs Defined in MSS

98

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Interrogate one UPD


JFI:UPD=1; MSCi NAME: IPV4 RESELECTION PROVISION: NORMAL CALLS: PREPARE BNC EMERGENCY CALLS: PREPARE BNC BNC CHARACTERISTICS: IPV4 UPD CAPABILITIES: STOM: AUDIO CALL HANDLING METHOD: TRUNK: CODEC MODIFICATION SUPPORT: TONE DETECTION IN INCOMING NB TERM: SOCOOR: TONE DETECTION IN MB TERM: FAX PREFERENCE LIST: DEFAULT CODEC: UMTS AMR 2 CODEC PREFERENCE LIST: PRIORITY -------1 2 MGWS: NAME ---VMGW41 VMGW42 COMMAND EXECUTED NAME ---UAMR2 FRAMR ID -6 7 REG --YES YES LDSH ---1 1 RACC ---NO NO RORIG ----YES YES CODEC NEGOTIATION AUDIO NO CODEC NOT SUPPORTED NOT SUPPORTED NO NO NEEDED IF DIFFERS G711 MSS_226492 ID: 001 2009-04-17 20:13:43

Fig. 79 UPD Printout

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

99

Routing in MSS

4.2.2

User plane topology between MGWs

The interconnection data in the topology database gives a possibility to make configurations where user plane is routed through two MGWs controlled by one MSC Server. The interconnection data defines user plane connectivity between MGWs. Interconnection data is organized on per MGW basis. For each MGW the interconnection data consists of a list of interconnection data elements that identify existing interconnections from a particular MGW towards other MGWs and an indication about full-meshed connectivity. The relevant properties related to interconnections are: MGW identifier Identifies the MGW in question, which is connected to one or several other MGWs. The other MGWs are identified either by the full-meshed connectivity or interconnection data. Full meshed connectivity Indicates fully-meshed configuration. The full-meshed indication is MGWspecific and it means that the MGW has connectivity to all other MGWs within the same MSS area with the given BNC characteristics. Possible interconnecting BNC characteristics in the full-meshed configuration are ATM AAL2 and IPv4. The full-meshed configuration can be supported with one or more BNC characteristics simultaneously. Interconnection data Interconnection data defines interconnections towards one or more other MGWs that are controlled by the same MSS. In addition to identifying other MGWs, it also identifies what kind of bearer connections exist towards those MGWs by defining the available BNC characteristics. Possible interconnecting BNC characteristics are ATM AAL2, IPv4, and TDM. An interconnection can support one or more BNC characteristics simultaneously. In case of TDM interconnections, the interconnection data also identifies up to three interconnecting TDM routes between the MGWs. Note Regardless of whether the interconnected MGWs are physical or virtual MGWs, you always have to define interconnections between them if calls should be routed through the two MGWs.

100

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Interrogate the Existing Connections


JFG:MGW=1:MGW=ALL:; MSCi MSS_226492 2009-04-17 20:19:22 INTERROGATED MGW: NAME ---VMGW12 CONNECTED MGWS: NAME ---VMGW21 VMGW22 VMGW31 VMGW32 COMMAND EXECUTED ID -2 3 4 5 REG --NO YES YES YES BNCC ---IPV4 TDM IPV4 TDM IPV4 TDM IPV4 TDM LSWGHT -----10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 NO 0 803 1 NO 0 803 1 NO 0 800 1 BNCCF ----NO 0 800 1 ROUTE ----HMGW ---ID -1 REG --YES

Fig. 80 MGW Interconnection Printout

You can find the MGW information with ZJGI:

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

101

Routing in MSS

MGW Information in MSS 1/4


JGI:MODE=1:MGWID=3; MSCi MGW DATA: MGW ID........................3 MGW NAME......................VMGW22 MGW ADDRESS...................10.5.2.91 PORT NUMBER...................8010 DOMAIN NAME................... ROUTE.........................0 MGW TYPE......................GENERAL UNIT TYPE.....................SIGU UNIT INDEX....................1 CTRL ADDRESS..................10.5.2.11 E.164 AESA....................8622300300 LOCAL BCU-ID..................20 DEFAULT PARAMETER SET.........0 PARAMETER SET ATTACHMENT......USE DEFAULT MGW PROFILE...................NOKIA MGW PROFILE VER 20 REGISTRATION ALLOWANCE........ALLOWED REGISTRATION STATUS...........REGISTERED MSS_226492 2009-04-17 20:22:29

Fig. 81 MGW Information in MSS

MGW Information in MSS 2/4


AUDIT STATUS..................ALLOWED LOCAL PORT....................2945 TRANSPORT TYPE................SCTP SCTP PARAMETER SET NUMBER.....1 LOAD REDUCTION PERCENTAGE.....0% NETWORK DELAY TIME............0 *10 MSEC H.248 PROTOCOL RELATED DATA: H.248 VERSION.................1 H.248 CODING..................ASN USED PARAMETER SET............0 TIMERS: NORMAL MG EXECUTION TIME.............95 *10 MSEC NORMAL MGC EXECUTION TIME............150 *10 MSEC MG PROVISIONAL RESPONSE TIME.........90 *10 MSEC MGC PROVISIONAL RESPONSE TIME........250 *10 MSEC NE HEARTBEAT TIME....................200 *10 MSEC CONTEXT AND TERM HEARTBEAT TIME......60000 *10 MSEC TW TIMER.............................2000 *10 MSEC

Fig. 82 MGW Information in MSS

102

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

MGW Information in MSS 3/4


H248 AUDITABLE PARAMETERS: TRFO..........................NOT ALLOWED TFO 2G........................NOT ALLOWED MG ORIGINATED PENDING LIMIT...6 MGC ORIGINATED PENDING LIMIT..6 PACKAGE(S)....................0x0000 VER 1 (nat) 0x0001 VER 1 (g) 0x0002 VER 1 (root) 0x0003 VER 1 (tonegen) 0x0004 VER 1 (tonedet) 0x0005 VER 1 (dg) SUPPORTED CODECS..............G711 64 A LAW G711 64 Y LAW G711 56 A LAW G711 56 Y LAW AMR UMTS AMR UMTS 2 AMR FR AMR HR GSM EFR GSM FR CLEARMODE TEL_EVENT

Fig. 83 MGW Information in MSS

MGW Information in MSS 4/4

PROVISIONED MGW CAPABILITIES: NUMBER 0 50 51 52 53 NAME DIRECT TONE CONN CODEC MODIFICATION CAPAB THROUGH CONN CAPAB THROUGH CONN CTRL CTM CTRL VALUE N 3 2 0 2 BOTH TOPOLOGY MSS CONTROLLED VALUE NAME IP & ATM AAL2

PROVISIONED CODECS: CLEARMODE TELEPHONE EVENT COMMAND EXECUTED

Fig. 84 MGW Information in MSS

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

103

Routing in MSS

104

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Relationship between User Plane and Control Plane Routing

Despite being separate entities, the user plane and the control plane is linked in an indirect and flexible way via the User Plane Destination (UPD) and User Plane Destination Reference (UDPR) parameters.

Relationship Between Control Plane Routing and User Plane Routing


RANAP BICC & SIP CGR and ROUTE BSSAP/ ISUP UPD is configured directly in the radio network configuration (RNC data) User Plane Destination Reference (UDPR) in parameters. User plane analysis is required to get UPD. There is no UPD for TDM connections

Fig. 85 Relationship between control plane and user plane

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

105

Routing in MSS

5.1

RANAP Signaling

The UPDs towards the radio access network are configured directly in the radio network configuration data. Therefore, in the UE originating or terminating calls neither the preceding nor the succeeding UPD determination phase is needed for the UE side of the call.

Check RNC Information


E2I:RNCID=1,:RT=ALL; MSCi MSS04 2009-03-24 10:36:41 RNC IN OWN RADIO NETWORK =========================================== RNC IDENTIFICATION: RNC IDENTIFICATION............. RNCID ... : 0001 MOBILE COUNTRY CODE............ MCC ..... : 460 MOBILE NETWORK CODE............ MNC ..... : 30 RNC NAME....................... RNCNAME . : RNC01 RNC PARAMETERS: RNC STATE...................... STATE ... : UNLOCKED RNC OPERATIONAL STATE.......... OPSTATE . : AVAILABLE USER PLANE DESTINATION INDEX... UPD ..... : 001 USER PLANE DESTINATION NAME.... NUPD .... : RNC USER PLANE TYPE................ UTYPE ... : AAL2 RNC PARAMETER SET.............. VER ..... : R99 AMR SPEECH CODEC MODE COUNT.... AMR ..... : 8 RNC GLOBAL TITLE ADDRESS....... DIG ..... : NUMBERING PLAN................. NP ...... : TYPE OF NUMBER................. TON ..... : -

Fig. 86 RNC Information in MSS

106

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

5.2

BICC and SIP Signaling

The UPDR parameter is used as a link between the control plane and the user plane. For the incoming calls, the operator configures the UPDR parameter to the circuit group data. For the outgoing calls, the operator configures the UPDR parameter to the route data. On per call basis, the value of UPDR is delivered to user plane control application to be used as an input attribute in several phases of the user plane analysis along with many other input attributes. Both the BICC and the SIP signaling behave similarly in this respect. In this figure the UPDR value 5 is read from the outgoing ROUTE data. It is used as an input attribute for user plane analysis with many other attributes as defined in User plane analysis attributes. Analysis results to UPD=2 means that two MGWs belonging to the UPD2 are allowed to be used for a call.

A link between Control Plane and User Plane (UPDR)

Fig. 87 UPDR parameter on outgoing side

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

107

Routing in MSS

UPDR in CGR
< < RCI:SEA=3:CGR=2003:PRINT=3; RCI:SEA=3:CGR=2003:PRINT=3; LOADING LOADING PROGRAM PROGRAM VERSION VERSION 12.53-1 12.53-1 CIRCUIT CIRCUIT GROUP(S) GROUP(S) CGR CGR AREA AREA MAN MAN SSET SSET CAC CAC REMN REMN ICLI ICLI ATV ATV EC EC LOC LOC ECAT ECAT : : 2003 2003 : : : : NCGR NCGR STD STD AAN AAN CLI CLI CACI CACI RFCL RFCL CHRN CHRN : : LP2003 LP2003 : : : : -

: : : : : : : : : : : : 0 0 : : : : DBA DBA DNN DNN EOS EOS : : 1 1 : : : : -

: : : : : : : : -

PRI PRI RDQ RDQ UPDR UPDR

: : 1 1 : : : : 133 133

CORG CORG DDQ DDQ

: : 0 0 : : -

DCC DCC IGOR IGOR

: : : :

Fig. 88 CGR Information in MSS

UPDR in Route
< < RRI:GSW:ROU=2001; RRI:GSW:ROU=2001; LOADING LOADING PROGRAM PROGRAM VERSION VERSION 6.51-0 6.51-0 MSCi MSCi ROU ROU 2001 2001 MSS_226492 MSS_226492 2009-04-17 2009-04-17 20:01:37 20:01:37 CGM CGM N N ICR ICR N N

TYPE STP TMT TYPE OUTR OUTR STP TSG TSG TMT SAT SAT ATME ATME DCME DCME ECHO ECHO CONT CONT TON TON EXT N N N N N NOE EXT O69K0 O69K0 3 3 N N N N N NOE RCR RCR MCR MCR OCR OCR RPR RPR PBX PBX ISDN ISDN STATE STATE NCGR NCGR N N N N N N WO-EX N N N N N N WO-EX LP2001 LP2001 APRI T_IND APRI ASTC ASTC NCCP NCCP T_IND ENBLOC ENBLOC ATV ATV N N BASICOUTPSTNPBX 0 N N BASICOUTPSTNPBX 0 CLISET CLISET NCLISET NCLISET 0 DEFAULT 0 DEFAULT AICR AICR PNR PNR RNPR RNPR RFCL RFCL UPDR LBCUID WB-AMR ACGM UPDR LBCUID WB-AMR ACGM 1000 1000 FCL FCL COMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED EXECUTED

PCLI PCLI NEF NEF NONE NONE

Fig. 89 Route Information in MSS

108

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

MGW Selection

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

109

Routing in MSS

An MGW selection is functionality in the MSC Server (MSS), which is necessary for selecting an optimal MGW for the user plane transmission for a call.

6.1

MGW Selection Basic Functionality

In case of physical TDM resources the circuits are hunted at the control plane level in the MSS. The circuit that has been assigned for the call directly identifies also the MGW where the resource is configured. In this case, the MGW selection for the call is dictated by the TDM circuit. The MGW where the circuit is configured is always selected. In case of ephemeral resources, like ATM AAL2 or IP, the situation is different. There can be several MGW candidates that are suitable for user plane transmission for the call. The user plane level MGW selection procedure is then invoked to find the available MGW candidates and to make the selection among them. Taking the MSS user plane routing application into consideration, the MGW selection procedure consists of the following logical subtasks: Collecting control plane and user plane-related information from signaling and call control applications. Further processing of collected data in user plane analysis. The 'preceding UPD determination' and 'succeeding UPD determination' user plane analysis phases are executed in order to solve UPDs, which contain the MGW candidates for a call. In UE- -originating or -terminating calls, the UPD is directly defined in the radio network configuration data and is provided to the user plane control application. In this case the user plane analysis phases mentioned are not executed for the UE side of the call. Collecting updates and possible changes to control plane- and user plane- related information from signaling and call control applications. If the user plane control application receives new information, data processing is done again on condition that the actual resources of an MGW have not been reserved yet. Selecting an MGW from the UPD. Selection can be done, for example, by using load sharing weight values as specified in the following sections. The most optimal result for an MGW selection is that the user plane is routed via one MGW under the scope of one MSS. This is a preferred functionality that the user plane control application targets during MGW selection. In such cases, the 'preceding UPD determination' and the 'succeeding UPD determination' user plane analysis phases result in the same UPD, and from that, a common MGW can be selected for the incoming and the outgoing side user plane.

110

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Example of MGW selection between different UPD

Fig. 90 Example of MGW selection between different UPD

Another optimal scenario is when the 'preceding UPD determination' and the 'succeeding UPD determination' user plane analysis phases do not result in the same UPD but there is a common MGW in the UPDs. In this case the user plane routing application is able to optimize the selection by finding and selecting the common MGW for the call. Depending on the network configuration, it is possible to have two MGWs under the scope of one MSS. This scenario is similar to the previous one, except that there is no common MGW in the UPDs. An interconnection has to be created between the MGWs and, therefore, the 'inter-connecting BNC characteristics determination' user plane analysis phase is executed. After the analysis one MGW is selected from the UPD belonging to the side where the resource reservation request is received first. Then, to find possible MGW candidates for the remaining (incoming or outgoing) side, the user plane control application makes a topology database inquiry to check the connectivity between the MGWs in the UPDs. The MGWs without connectivity are ruled out from the MGW selection.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

111

Routing in MSS

6.2

Weight-based MGW selection

Normally, the MGW selection from a UPD is done by using the load sharing weightbased method. A relative load sharing weight is assigned for each MGW in the UPD. When the UPD contains several MGW candidates that have sufficient capabilities for the call, the load sharing weight values are used to distribute traffic between the MGWs. You must configure the load sharing weights for each MGW in the UPD. Example: In a UE-originating call the early RAB assignment method is used and the incoming side MGW is selected first. The incoming side UPD has been obtained from the radio network configuration data. In the UPD there are five MGWs configured that are all capable of handling the call and each has an individual load sharing weight.

Weight-based MGW Selection

Fig. 91 MGW Selection Based on Load Sharing Weights

The weight-based selection process consists of the following steps: 1. Calculate the sum of the load sharing weights of each MGW 2. Generate a random number A random number is generated and scaled to the range from 1 to the sum of the load sharing weights. In this example, the random number is in range [1116]. 3. Select MGW from UPD Each MGW is assigned a number range depending on the index of the MGW and the load sharing weight.

112

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Weight-based MGW Selection

Fig. 92 Collecting Load Sharing Weights in the MGW

Selecting MGW from UPD

Fig. 93 Selecting MGW from UPD

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

113

Routing in MSS

The MGW with the range matching to the scaled random number is selected. For example, if the generated random number is 88, then it falls to MGW_5 range [77116], and MGW_5 is selected. The load sharing weight-based MGW selection method provides flexible mechanism for weighted traffic distribution between MGWs. When new MGWs are added to a UPD or MGWs are removed from a UPD, the traffic is automatically distributed between all the MGWs depending on their relative weight. Note that relative load sharing weights of the other MGWs in a UPD remain unchanged when a new MGW is added to a UPD or an MGW is removed from a UPD. This means that adding or removing an MGW has effect also on the percentage of traffic that is routed through the other MGWs. The traffic from the other MGWs is either directed to the new MGW or it is directed from the removed MGW to other MGWs. If an MGW has load sharing weight defined to zero in a certain UPD, no traffic that is directed to that UPD is routed through that MGW. The same MGW can belong to several different UPDs and can have different load sharing weight in each UPD. The total traffic directed to an MGW is the sum of the sub streams of traffic that is directed to the MGW from each UPD.

114

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

Appendix A: The BCIE

The trace below shows the BCIE, which comes to the MSC in the SETUP message on the DTAP interface.
Bearer Capability 00000100 IE Name Bearer Capability 00000111 IE Length 7 -----010 Info transfer capability 3.1 kHz audio, ex PLMN ----0--- Transfer mode Circuit mode ---0---- Coding standard GSM standardized coding -01----- Radio channel requirement Full rate channel 1------- Extension bit No Extension -------0 Establishment Demand ------0- Neg of Intermed Rate Req -----0-- Configuration Point-to-point ----1--- Duplex Mode Full duplex --00---- Structure Service Data Unit Integrity -0------ Spare 1------- Extension bit No Extension -----001 Signaling access protocol I.440/450 ---00--- Rate adaption No rate adaptation -00----- Access ID Octet identifier 1------- Extension bit No Extension -------1 Synchronous/asynchronous Asynchronous ---0000- User Info L1 Protocol Default layer 1 Protocol -01----- Layer 1 ID Octet identifier 0------- Extension bit Extension ----0101 User rate 9.6 kbit/s Rec. X.1 & V.110 ---1---- Number of data bits 8 bits --0----- Negotiation In-band not possible -0------ Number of stop bits 1 bit 0------- Extension bit Extension -----011 Parity information None ----0--- NIC on Rx Cannot accept, not supported ---0---- NIC on Tx Not required -11----- Intermediate rate 16 kbit/s 0------- Extension bit Extension ---01000 Modem type Autobauding type 1 -01----- Connection element Non transparent (RLP) 1------- Extension bit called party BCD number 01011110 IE Name called party BCD number 00000111 IE Length 7 ----0001 Number plan ISDN/telephony numbering plan -000---- Type of number Unknown 1------- Extension bit No Extension ******** Called party number 01779100101 1111---- Filler

The sections in bold show those parts of the BCIE that are used in the BCIE analysis.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

115

TypeYourNameHere

TypeDateHere

Routing in MSS

Appendix B: Attributes
ATTRIBUTES ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS Charging/Routing attribute analysis non-CFC CFC GENERAL ATTRIBUTES Incoming signalling Call Forwarding Leg Indicator Cause Code Phase of Incoming signalling Digit analysis tree ATTRIBUTES OF CALLING SUBSCRIBER CLI with TON or only TON Subscriber Category IMSI Indicator Channel type Cell Dependent Routing Category MS Power Capability MS Location Type, Feature 526 Routing Category, Feature 503 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X EOS attribute analysis non-CFC CFC

CFC: Call forwarding calls

ATTRIBUTES OF CALLED SUBSCRIBER Called number with TON or only TON Routing Category, Feature 503 Carrier Identification code ( Roaming Subscriber) feature 818 Carrier Selection (Roaming Subscriber) Feature 818 Reanalysis choice ATTRIBUTES OF REDIRECTING SUBSCRIBER Redirecting number with TON or only TON IMSI Indicator Routing Category, Feature 503 Carrier Identification Code, Feature 818 Carrier Selection, Feature 818 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

116

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

9
9.1

Exercises
Objectives

After this module, participants should be able to: Interrogate necessary basics of routing, e.g. Dialling pre-analysis, Origin Analysis, EOS Analysis Know necessary parameters in the CGR, ROU, Component Analysis Understand the basic call cases scenario

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

117

TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere TypeYourNameHere

TypeDateHere
Routing in MSS

9.2

The routing concept

Characteristics of Incoming Circuit Group

Characteristics of Subscriber A

Analysis

Outgoing speech route

Hunting

Outgoing circuit

Dialled Digits

Special Handling

Fig. 94 Routing concept

attributes Circuit group (TOC) MS_Classmark


Nokia Siemens Networks

Cause code EOS Analysis CORG

MSCAT

Origin Analysis MOC

Cell Tariff routing zone

Charging attribute analysis

CORG'

TREE service type TON NPI digits Dialling preanalysis digits/TON normal call DESTINATION circuit group TREE selection PRFILE attributes
Fig. 95 Different analyses and their execution order
Nokia Siemens Networks

Area service numbers

TREE/ TON/ digits

CM Digit analysis

TREE' TREE routing attribute analysis

118

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

9.3
9.3.1

Routing analyses
Configuration

Before creating the interface you need to know some Parameters. Please ask your trainer for useful parameters for the Testbed. Important Parameter of the Network elements:

9.3.2

Interrogation of analyses

1. Output the Origin Analysis. What are the input and the output parameters? Input: MSClassmark/MSCAT/Cell tariff (MOC) Or CGR (TOC) Output: Charging Origin (C-ORG)
Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example

NPI Result Identifiers

RVI:[ (CPC = <subscriber category>|<all> def), (TARIFF = <cell tariff>|<all> def), (CLASSM = <mobile station classmark>|<all> def) ]...; ZRVI;

Input Parameters
Digit TON

Result Parameters
Call characteristic Service Number NBR CON Other necessary parameter

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

119

Routing in MSS

2. Output the Normal Preanalysis for mobile originating calls. (Consider only those Type of Number and Numbering Plan values which exist in the network).
RWI:ORIG=<call origin>, [ [TON=<type of number>|<all> def] | [NPI=<numbering plan>|<all> def] | [DIG=<dialled digits>|<all> def] ]...: ( <show default analyses>|<do not show default analyses> def); ZRWI:ORIG=MOC;

Syntax

Proposed solution Testbed example

Input Parameters
Digit TON NPI

Result Identifiers

Result Parameters
Call characteristic Service Number NBR CON Other necessary parameter

3. Output the Normal Preanalysis for Trunk Originating Calls


RWI:ORIG=<call origin>, [ [TON=<type of number>|<all> def] | [NPI=<numbering plan>|<all> def] | [DIG=<dialled digits>|<all> def] ]...: ( <show default analyses>|<do not show default analyses> def); ZRWI:ORIG=TOC;

Syntax

Proposed solution Testbed example

Input Parameters
Digit TON NPI

Result Identifiers

Result Parameters
Call characteristic Service Number NBR CON Other necessary parameter

120

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

4. Output the default Preanalysis for Mobile Originated Call


Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example

NPI Result Identifiers

RWO:ORIG=<call origin>, [ [TON=<type of number>|<all> def] | [PREF=<dialled digits prefix>|<all> def] ]...; ZRWO:ORIG=MOC;

Input Parameters
Digit TON

Result Parameters
Call characteristic Service Number NBR CON Other necessary parameter

5. Output the default Preanalysis for Trunk Originated Call


Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example

NPI Result Identifiers

RWO:ORIG=<call origin>, [ [TON=<type of number>|<all> def] | [PREF=<dialled digits prefix>|<all> def] ]...; ZRWO:ORIG=TOC;

Input Parameters
Digit TON

Result Parameters
Call characteristic Service Number NBR CON Other necessary parameter

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

121

Routing in MSS

6. Output the digit analysis tree for calls coming from the BSCs Tree number:2
RIJ: [ TREE = [ <analysis trees> def ]... ] , [ DIG digits> def ] ] , [ ATYPE def ] ] , [ TON = [ <type of number> def ] ] ; ZRIJ:TREE=2; tree number> | <all = [ <digits> | <all = [ <analysis type> | N of number> | <all types

Syntax

Proposed solution Testbed example

7. Output the digit analysis tree for roaming and handover calls Tree number:50
RIJ: [ TREE = [ <analysis trees> def ]... ] , [ DIG digits> def ] ] , [ ATYPE def ] ] , [ TON = [ <type of number> def ] ] ; ZRIJ:TREE=50; tree number> | <all = [ <digits> | <all = [ <analysis type> | N of number> | <all types

Syntax

Proposed solution Testbed example

8. Output the End of Selection Analysis in a case where the called subscriber is busy (Clear Code=5)
Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example RXI:RESGR=<result group>,(CAUSE=<cause code>|<all> def); ZRXI:RESGR=x,CAUSE=5;

122

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

9. Output the Analysis Components (e.g. Sub Dest, Dest, Charging Name)
RIL: ( NDEST = <name of destination> | DEST = <number of destination>... | NSDEST = <name of subdestination> | SDEST = <number of subdestination>... | NCHA = <name of charging case> | CHA = <number of charging case>... | CHI = <number of charging index>... ) , [ DSTATE = <destination state> | SRESTR = <restriction of subdestination> | PRESTR = <restriction of primary routing alt> | SRCL = <subdestination restriction class>| [ OUT= <printout format> | F def] ] ]... ; ZRIL:DEST=0&&xx;

Syntax

Proposed solution Testbed example

TREE TON Digits

Purpose -> -> -> -> -> Route type & NR: Destination name:

TREE TON Digits

Purpose -> -> -> -> -> Route type & NR: Destination name:

TREE TON Digits

Purpose -> -> -> -> -> Route type & NR: Destination name:

TREE TON Digits

Purpose -> -> -> -> -> Route type & NR: Destination name:

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

123

Routing in MSS

9.4
9.4.1

Routing definitions
Display the routing information
RRI: (GSW | SSW <subscriber stage number>): [ROU = <route number> ... | NCGR = <circuit group name> ... | <all routes> def ]; ZRRI:GSW;

1. Output the routes in the MSS


Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example

2. Output one of the routes in detail in the previous exercise


Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example RRI: (GSW | SSW <subscriber stage number>): [ROU = <route number> ... | NCGR = <circuit group name> ... | <all routes> def ]; ZRRI:GSW:ROU=x;

What kind of information is found here? Type of Route, State of Route, NCGR, TON Note: When creating ROU, check with the instructor the possible values of Outgoing Register Signaling (OUTR). Check also from the already created circuit groups, which one you have to use. In practice this depends on the INR of the other node (in this case the MSC/MSS). 3. Output the Circuit Groups (CGRs) in the MSS. Give two names of internal circuit groups and external circuit groups. Internal circuit groups : External circuit groups :
Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example Consult NED ZRCI;

124

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

4. Output the CGR towards the BSC(s).


Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example Consult NED ZRCI:SEA=2:DIR=OUT:PRINT=3;

5. Output the CGR towards the PSTN(s)


Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example Consult NED ZRCI:SEA=2:DIR=BI:PRINT=3;

6. Output the CGR towards the other MSC/MSS


Syntax Proposed solution Testbed example Consult NED ZRCI:SEA=1:TYPE=BICC:PRINT=2;

Note While creating the circuit group, pay special attention to the following items: a) Direction: This parameter defines the direction of the circuit group. The direction is set as: DIR=BI: bi-directional, if the circuit group is used for both incoming and outgoing traffic. DIR=OUT: outgoing, if the circuit group is used for outgoing traffic only. No analysis tree (TREE) or register signaling (INR) needs to be defined. DIR=IN: incoming, if the circuit group is intended for incoming traffic only. b) The possible values for Line Signaling Indicator (LSI). Although this is a network which uses common channel signaling, the use of a line signaling indicator is necessary for control actions on the circuit, such as, the use of the Service Information Octet while C7 messages are being sent. This parameter has an operator/country specific value. One of the possible values could be TUP01. Ask your instructor for the correct value for the exercise.

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

125

Routing in MSS

c) The possible incoming register signaling (INR). This is a parameter similar to the LSI, but this one is required for call processing. The INR has an operator/country specific value. Check with the trainer for possible values at the training centre. This parameter is needed only if the circuit group is Incoming or Bi-directional. d) CIC (CCSPCM number + TS number for ISUP and Call Instance Code for BICC). This is a parameter that uniquely identifies a PCM line between two adjacent elements. It is required, because the actual PCM number for the same physical line could be different at both ends. Thus, this parameter has to be defined with the same number for the same PCM line at both ends. In case of BICC is concerned, this value is used as Call Reference.

126

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

9.5
9.5.1

Call Example Exercises


Mobile originated PSTN terminated call

Nokia Siemens Networks

Fig. 96

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

127

Routing in MSS

9.5.2

PSTN originated mobile terminated call

Nokia Siemens Networks

Fig. 97

128

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

9.5.3

Mobile originated mobile terminated call

Nokia Siemens Networks

Fig. 98

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

129

Routing in MSS

9.5.4

Call Forwarding Unconditional, CFU

Nokia Siemens Networks

Fig. 99

130

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

Routing in MSS

9.5.5

Call forwarding conditional

Nokia Siemens Networks

Fig. 100

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks

131

Routing in MSS

132

CN34019EN40GLA3
2011 Nokia Siemens Networks