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1.

INTRODUCTION
The dynamic ones of markets, the technology, and the competition have brought changes to
virtually each sector of market and have made the new development of products one of the more
long-range economic activities. The monumental changes that affect commerce constantly have
forced to the companies to innovate with the increase of speed, effectiveness, and quality.
Alternatively, this has made the new development of products one of the more complex and
more difficult functions of business. Nevertheless, the companies must innovate to survive. The
energy of the innovation is revealed in the numerous studies, that demonstrate that the companies
that took their quality of the industries on half of their yields to products they turned into the five
last years. About the comparison, the companies in the part inferior of their industries reach
approximately one-tenth of their sales of new products.

Firm' new efforts of the product development of s are formed by their size, as well as the nature
of the industry in which it works. The new products can be defined as any product, not at the
moment be maintained or done idea or putting by a company, or that the consumer can perceive
like new. Many types of new products exist, never-to see-before of products like Apple' the
personal communicator, to the placed standards has taste of Sears' again; he changes of position
to the power station of the trade name of Sears. The several studies suggest enters the 50 and 80
percent of new products leave to major the index product development, higher is the percentage
of failures again. Although there are numerous reasons for which the new products fail, the
guilty management and the planning is in the base of the majority of the lack. Therefore, the
handling of the new process of the product development is a key to a healthy organization.

HISTORY

The history of the product innovation can be divided in three stages, beginning with product
oriented stage or with the technology-pushed stage. In the post-World War II era the Americans
they came dull the shortages from the time military and were in humor to buy the many
merchandise that the manufacturers produced. The engineers, who were cones more direction
towards the product that oriented for the consumer, designed the new products that could or they
could not find places in consumers' hearts and minds. This one was a process with direction
towards the product in which the market was considered the receiver for the products that
emerged from firm' efforts of the investigation and development of efforts.

Nevertheless, the extended competition and the consumers got to be more skeptical and selective
on the types of products that they bought. The salesmen found more and more difficult to trust
persuasive techniques of the sales to products of the movement. The retailers grew anxious when
these products did not move of shelves like quickly as anticipated. The companies had to know
more on their markets of target. Which were wanting and need the people who were the purchase
her products? How could its company/signature satisfy these wants and needs?

The second stage was marked by the appearance of the market like the conductor of the
innovation. Instead of being product development determined by the technology, new it was
developed in a process based on the market in which the new products emerged from needs
goods investigated of the client. The new process of the product development was put in the

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hands of the salesmen who knew consumers' it wants and it needs. Customer demand "pulled"
the product through the improvement process.

The new modern product development is a mixture of these two directions in “dual-drive"
approach to the innovation. The companies recognize that the innovation is a complex process
that requires the safe investment in the investigation and development, as well as the advising in
significant commercialization that the centers in the satisfaction of consumers' it wants and it
needs

The fast step of the change that devoured businesses towards the end of the twentieth century
even put a greater load in the companies to get up adaptive capacities to its organizations. The
means of the world-wide competition are more competing able there of operation of world-wide
quality. This has made most intense, rigorous, and aggressive the competition that always before.
Doing more sophisticated fragments and markets mean that the consumers demand more of
products in terms of quality, differentiation, and “meaningfulness." The new technologies have
had two important results in view of the innovation. First, the new technologies are responsible
for this sophistication of the new market in which the consumers have more options and are thus
more demanding. Secondly, the new technology has increased manufacturers' the capacities for
the fast answer to the market of the displacement need.

Finally, the vital cycles of product have gotten to be more compressing whereas the required
abilities to develop new products increase of complexity. For example, it considers the
development of a new type of computer science programs. The masters necessary to develop the
software of the concept to the commercialization could take years. Product' the vital cycle of s in
a so competitive and turbulent atmosphere could last only some months. Therefore, the
companies have embraced the vision that the new products are transitory, whereas the abilities
and the masters necessary to develop these products are a much more persistent requirement for
the success. Instead of monkey-it approaches, in which the innovation of the impulsion of the
technology or the markets, new product development now requires a convergence of the
technology, the commercialization, the product design, engineering, and the capacities of the
manufacture. The speed, the effectiveness, and the quality in the product development the
product development is now the expensive challenges of that in today' intense competitive
atmosphere environment.

2. WHAT IS CONCURRENT ENGINEERING?


Concurrent engineering is a method by which numerous teams within an association work
simultaneously to develop a new products and services. Hooking to numerous aspects of the
improvement concurrently, the amount of time implied in obtaining a new product to the market
is diminished perceivably. In the markets where the clients value the compression of the time,
the revealers of the express-cycle have a different advantage. In addition, in many areas of high
tech such as electronic and telecommunications, the operation of the product-technology is
increasing continuously and the levels of prices they are falling almost daily. In such areas, firm'
the capacity of s to maintain its competitive position depends to a large extent on the opportune

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introduction of new or enhanced products and technologies. More and more, the parameter of the
time differentiates between the mere survival and the substantial generation from the benefit.
Concurrent engineering is a dominant method to cover this necessity to shorten new product'
time-to-market.

3. SEQUENTIAL V.s CONCURRENT PRODUCT


DEVELOPMENT

3.1 SEQUENTIAL NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT


In the past, the commercial achievement was practically ensured for the companies that could
design, develop, and make products of high quality that the satisfied true needs in the
competitive prices. Nevertheless, beginning in 1990s this traditional formula fundamentally
changed as time-to-market became a vital factor of commercial success. The studies have
demonstrated that the being some slow months to put is much worse than having a leftover of
cost of the 50 percent when these leftovers are related to the financial operation during the vital
cycle of a new product or to maintain. That is to say, the time has become a dominant conductor
of the competitive success, the design and the development to the real induction of a new product
or a service.

The traditional planning and the execution of project have been marked by the definition of
objectives and mile-stones. These goals are solved with a progression of the connected activities,
some of which have to perform sequentially, others whose it can conducted in parallel. The
techniques of the planning such as program evaluation and revision technique (PERT),
evaluation and revision technique (GERT), and the graphical method of critical trajectory (CPM)
have been used to support this sequence of duties and activities. Nevertheless, until the
inauguration of the 1990s time compression was not a major matter in the new product
expansion environment. In the planning and the forecast of tasks and activities, any moment the
preoccupations of the compression were only implicit presents.

3.1 CONCURRENT NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT


Because the time becomes there to the competitive weapon, the pressures of central time have
become the new project-based organization of the product development. These pressures have
led to the clear understanding that the compression of the time is to the conductor of the
operation of the project (and subsequent business). As the consequence, methods, techniques,
and have designed the approaches of organization and turned that allows the compression of the
time it needs sees directed in an appropriate one to the way. All the approaches Time-trims have
a principle in common field: they try to maximize to the number of important tasks of the design

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or the development that the plows realized concurrently, therefore the theory of concurrent
engineering.

In a concurrent environment of engineering, even if certain tasks cannot be executed totally at


the same time, they animate to the designers and the revealers to reach I overlap maximum
between the sequential activities of another way. That is to say, concurrent engineering has as
objective reaching of reductions of the time of the processing yield planning and executing
activities of the design and the development, or striving for I overlap maximum between the
activities that cannot totally be executed (for example, when one of the tasks or the activities
requires the information to be partially generated during a task or a previous activity).

Therefore, concurrent engineering is based on the premise that the parallel execution of the
important components of the design will diminish the time of the yield of processing of projects,
thus reducing to the time-to-market for new products and the services. For example, the
application of concepts of parallelism during the design of the transport of Boeing 777 gave rise
to a compression of the time of 1.5 years with respect to its precursor, Boeing 767. Concurrent
engineering allowed that Boeing Company introduced the new airplane in time to limit the
advantage of its competitor, industries of Airbus.

Many companies have benefitted from this same approach. The companies as Intel and Canon
have been between the leaders in the diminution of their cycles of the product development with
the putting in practice of concurrent engineering. Nevertheless, this tendency has not been
limited the individual companies; the complete industrial sectors also have executed concurrent
principles of engineering. At the beginning of years 90, the industry of the automobile initiated
many of the concurrent concepts of engineering and it’s putting in practice. By 2000s early,
many industries, including pharmaceutical electronics and products, behaved in much the same
way.

(A)

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(B)

Figure -1: (A) Sequential engineer (B) Concurrent Engineer

4. IMPLEMENTING CONCURRENT ENGINEERING


In a concurrent atmosphere of engineering, they animate to the teams of experts of diverse
disciplines formally to work together to make sure that smoothly the design and of which
progresses the entire participants share equals present information. The methods of the project
and the solution of problems and the used technologies compose the essential elements through
which parallelism in design and the development product can again be reached. What follows is
discussions of how each of these factors contributes to the putting in concurrent perform of
engineering.

4.1 PROJECT METHODS


It projects the methods based on the work as a team, management of the milestone, and target-
oriented work description and follow-up are principal. These methods also are due to support by
the appropriate systems of the commission and the incentive of the administration superior. They
grant to each team a degree of great autonomy to solve the problems of the design where and
when they happen, without much hierarchic intervention. Nevertheless the management must
make sure that the transference of the information between the diverse activities or duties is
smooth and transparent. Also, the means of the experimentation should allow the implied experts
to eliminate differences in the interpretation in the functional and technical parameters of design.
That is to say, so that concurrent engineering is right, the asymmetries of the information and the
interpretation between the implied experts must be avoided whenever it is possible

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4.2 PROBLEM-SOLVING METHODS
During design and projects of development, the methods are used that adoptive definition and of
the problem aid and solution of smooth interdisciplinary problems. The methodologies such as
reflection meeting and brainstorming broke the limits of the equipment to allow ampler ranges of
the alternative definitions and the solutions of the design that will be considered. The use of
methodologies like Quality Function Deployment (QFD) further aids experts from unlike
punitive backgrounds to jointly define a product's functional and technical requirements. The
methods of the organizational chart of the activity such as IDEF3 allow to the detailed planning
and the supervision of the diverse implied parallel and overlapped activities in the execution of
the project.

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) allow to a systematic analysis of the occurrence and
the impact of probable defects in the design product. The use of the design of experiments
(DOE) allows to the systematic recognition of the critical product / process parameters that affect
operation. These are hardly some of the many methods of support that can be used in a
concurrent atmosphere of engineering. The sources enumerated in the end of this test provide
more detailed and more exhaustive descriptions in these and other methodologies that supported
concurrent engineering.

4.3 TECHNOLOGIES
In concurrent engineering, the design technologies are used that foment analysis, the
experimentation, and the representation cross-disciplinary efficient of the designs again product.
Some examples of these technologies include: systems (three-dimensional) three-dimensional of
the automated design (CAD), fast of the creation of a prototype, fast equipment and technical
techniques of test, as well as the techniques that allow the demonstration of the product designs
in a effective context. These technologies of design are imperative due to the dominant
information that they transport: its three-dimensional character allows that the expert interprets
characteristics of the design in more effective and effective way.

All these technologies contribute to the decrease the asymmetries of the elucidation between the
implied experts, as well as to the design of the express-cycle and the development, because they
allow to iterations of high speed of the analysis and the experimentation in the models and
concepts of the product. Thus, they adapt traditional approaches of the management of the
project considering one more a more systematic and more flexible experimentation and the
iteration that will be included through project' design and process of development of s. In fact,
the time and the cost contracted by the development and the prototyping are reduced generally
by factors from 2 to 5 when the digital technologies (e.g., three-dimensional CAD) and physical
using (e.g., of the creation of a fast prototype). These tools have become a factor of important
enabling factor in the concurrent atmosphere of engineering. Without its putting in practice and
later increase, concurrent engineering could never be able to operate its maximum capacity in
terms of cost of the design and optimization of the term of obtaining.

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This brief description has provided a summary of because, what, and how it is implied in the
execution of a concurrent philosophy of engineering for the improvement of new products,
process, and services. It has skirted how the introduction of I overlap during the execution of the
tasks and from the activities of the innovation project it has gotten to be vital due to the
competitive pressures that force the revealers of the new conscious product to be time-more.

Nevertheless, a final warning is authorized. Although concurrent engineering is a method


important to handle the time pressures that happen during the new product development, the
products from precipitation to the market can sometimes be an error. First, the markets need hour
to become. The various examples are be where a new product was too early so that it absorbs it
to the market or where the variety of the product has reached the limits beyond which the
decision of the product option gets to be too complicated for the clients. Secondly, a new more
revolutionary product development, than is often based on significant technological advances,
requires horizons of a longer time typically to reach the completion. To put too much emphasis
in the compression of the time can blind an organization to this necessary fact. Third party, the
theoretical development of the ideas of the new product requires time or the “slack." In an
organization of high speed of the development, the considerations of the time-compression can
mine this necessity.

Therefore, the ones in charge and the revealers of the new product need to find a balance
between the inconsistent needs of the speed and to become loose in their organizations. In spite
of its effectiveness, concurrent engineering will only demonstrate to be effective when this
balance is reached with the experience and the direction of organization' administration.

5. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF CONCURRENT ENGINEER


• It obtains to a strong commission of the administration superior.

• It establishes unified goals of the project and a clear mission of business.

• It develops an early detailed plan in the process.

• It reviews its progress and it reviews its plan continuously.

• It develops to the project leaders who have a total vision of the project and the goals.

• It analyzes its market and it knows its clients.

• It suppresses the individualism and it foments a concept of the equipment.

• It establishes and it cultivates cross-functional integration and the collaboration.

• It transfers the technology between the individuals and the departments.

• It breaks the project into its natural phases.

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• It develops the metric one.

• It determines the tugs through development process.

• It works collectively in all the parts of the project.

• It reduces the costs and the time to the market.

• It finishes the tasks in parallel.

6. WHEN IS CONCURRENT ENGINEER USED?


The majority of product' the costs of s are trusting very early in the design and the process of
development. Therefore, the companies must apply concurrent engineering in the beginning of a
project. This makes the contender who directs a long-range development tool that can be
executed early in the phase of conceptual design where the majority of the costs of products are
trusting. There are several uses in which concurrent engineering can be used. Some primary uses
include the investigation of the product, the design, the development, and re-engineering, the
manufacture, and g of existing and new product readjustment. In these uses, concurrent
engineering is applied through design and of the process of development to allow the
company/signature to reap the complete advantages of this process.

7. WHY DO COMPANIES USED CONCURRENT


ENGINEER?

7.1 COMPETITVE ADVANTAGE


The reasons that the companies or organizations choose to apply concurrent engineering are for
the net advantages and the competitive benefit that concurrent engineering could give them.
Concurrent engineering can benefit to the companies of any size, great or small. Whereas there
are several obstacles initially to execute of concurrent engineering, these obstacles are minimal
when they are compared to the advantages of long term that concurrent engineering offers.

7.2 INCREASED PERFORMANCE


The companies recognize that concurrent engineering is key factor in the development of the
quality, of the development cycle, the production cost, and the term of expedition of its products.
It allows the early discovery of the problems of the design, such way allowing them to be treated
up-front something that more ahead in the development process. Concurrent engineering can

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eliminate multiple revisions of the design, prototypes, and efforts of re-engineering and create an
atmosphere to designing right from the time.

7.3 REDUCED DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TIMES


All companies that use concurrent engineering can transfer technology to their markets and
clients more with effectiveness, and quickly trustworthy. They will be able to respond to the
needs and to desires of the clients, to the products of quality of the product that solve or exceed
consumer' expectations of s. Also they will be able to establish more products and to bring faster
improvements to his existing products with concurrent practices of engineering. Therefore the
companies use concurrent engineering to produce products of one better quality, developed in
less time, in more cheap, than it solves customer' needs.

8. HOW CONCURRENT ENGINEERING BENEFITS


COMPANIES?
There are several advantages that concurrent engineering can bring, although are difficult to
quantify many of these advantages using the leaves of balance and the numbers. These are not
only the advantages that the participant company will experiment, but in last instance the end
users or the clients also will reap these advantages having a quality product that fits its needs and
in much case less cost, them to the purchase. Therefore, concurrent engineering produces a
beneficial corporation unified and a satisfied consumer. Without concerning the type of use,
there are significant advantages to the companies or the organizations that use to the functional
equipment crusades.

Regardless of the type of application, there plows significant benefits to the firms or
organizations that uses cross functional teams.

Potential Advantage of Using Concurrent Engineering

• A time to the market faster than gives rise to quota of increasing market.

• It lowers the costs of the manufacture and production.

• Improved quality of resulting end items.

• Increasing positioning in a highly competitive world-wide market of a highly.

• Increasing exactitude in predicting and the encounter of plans of the project, schedule,
chronologies, and budgets.

• Increasing effectiveness and operation.

• One more a higher trustworthiness in the process of the product development.

• Reduced tariffs of the defect.

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• Increasing effectiveness in transference technology.

• Satisfaction of the increasing client.

• Capacity to execute projects of high level and complexes whereas it reduces to the
minimum the difficulties.

• A design and a shorter process of development with the accelerated execution of the
project.

• A yield of the highest investment.

• Reduction or elimination of the number of changes of design and efforts of re-


engineering in later phases in the development process.

• Reduced requirements of the work and resource.

• Capacity to recognize necessary changes of early design in the development process.

• The increasing innovation having all the players participates in the phase of development
of concept.

• Capacity to outside design to the right the first time towards/capacities of the first time.

• Overlapping capabilities and the capability to work in parallel.

• Increasing cohesiveness within the company/signature.

• Communication improved between the individuals and the departments within the
company/signature.

• It lowers the risks of the putting in practice.

• A faster reaction time in the answer to the market quickly money changer.

• It lowers to the product and the design of process and the costs of development.

• Control of inventory, forecast and improved relations of client.

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