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Defensive driving INTRODUCTION Educating with values The traffic is done by people. nd! as with other hu"an activities!

four princip les are i"portant to the relationship and social interaction in traffic. The first is the dignity of the hu"an person! which derive fro" hu"an rights and values and attitudes funda"ental to the de"ocratic social life! such as "utual respect and re#ection to discri"ination of any $ind! attitude necessary to pro"ote #ustice. The second principle is the e%uality of rights. Everyone has the opportunity to e&ercise full citi'enship and! therefore! you "ust have e%uality! ie the need to consider the differences in people to ensure e%uality which! in turn! is based on solidarity. nother is that of participation! which #ustifies the "obili'ation of society to organi'e itself around the traffic proble"s and their conse%uences. (inally! the principle of shared responsibility for social life! which concerns the for"ation of attitudes and learning behaviors needed to enhance traffic safety! the reali'ation of the right of "obility for all citi'ens and re%uire govern"ent actions to i"prove the spaces public. ) *ehaviors e&press principles and values which society constructs and referenda! and that each person "a$es for hi"self and ta$es to the road. The values! in tur n! e&press the contradictions and conflicts a"ong social groups and even a"ong t he roles each person plays. *e +fast+! +s"art+ and +ta$e advantage+ or +ta$e the car as status+ values are present in the society.,*ut they are untenable fro" t he standpoint of the needs of collective life! health and rights of all. -e need change. Change behavior for a collective life with %uality and respect re%uires an awareness of the issues involved in social life! so that live traffic. It is the choice of principles and values that will lead to a "ore hu"an traffic! har "onious! safer and fairer. . INTRODUCTION Ris$s! ha'ards and accidents In everything we do there is a dose of ris$/ whether at wor$! when we fi&ed so"e thing at ho"e! playing! dancing! practicing a sport or even passing through the

city streets. -hen a situation of ris$ is not perceived! or when a person can no t see the danger! the chances of an accident happening. Traffic accidents result ing in da"age to vehicles and their loads and generate in#ury to people. Needles s to say that they are always bad for everyone. *ut you can help and collaborate to reduce losses/ 0 the suffering of "any people! caused by deaths and in#uries! including physical se%uelae and 1 or "ental! often irreparable! financial loss! loss of inco"e and wor$ absenteeis"! legal constraints! for police investigations and court proceed ings! which "ay re%uire pay"ent of da"ages and even #ail those responsible. 0 0 ccident does not happen by chance! by the wor$ of fate or by chance. 23 E&pensive for *ra'ilian society to pay the da"ages in accidents/ an esti"ated 23 billion reais! every year! that could be tapped! for e&a"ple! to build thousand s of housing units to i"prove the lives of "any *ra'ilians. It is therefore esse ntial to prepare the drivers for safe behavior in traffic! given the guideline o f +preservation of life! health and environ"ent+ of the National Transit. nd th is occasion is an opportunity you have to read carefully this didactic "aterial and $now and learn how to avoid dangerous situations in traffic! decreasing the chances of accidents. 4tudy it well. 5earn the concepts of Defensive Driving wil l be good for you! your fa"ily! your friends and to his country. 22 Defensive Driving Defensive driving or safe driving! is the best way to drive and behave in traffi c! it helps preserve the life! health and the environ"ent. *ut what is defensive driving6 It7s how to drive! allowing you to recogni'e dangerous situations in a dvance and predict what "ay happen to you! with their co"panions! with his vehic le and other road users. 28

(or this you need to learn the concepts of defensive driving and use this $nowle dge effectively. lways drive carefully! in order to predict in advance what to do and "a$e the right decisions to prevent accidents. The first thing to learn i s that an accident does not happen by chance! by the wor$ of fate or chance. In "ost accidents! the hu"an factor is present! ie it is for drivers and pedestrian s a good deal of responsibility. Every tragic occurrence! they are predictable! preventable. The ris$s and dangers to which we are sub#ected in transit are rela ted to/ 0 0 0 0 0 9ehicles: The conductors: The Roads Transit! Environ"ent! *ehavior of people. 5et us e&a"ine separately the principal ris$s and dangers. Crossing the street in full is the right of the pedestrian. Respect it. 2; T<E 9E<IC5E Defensive Driving =our vehicle provides e%uip"ent and syste"s i"portant to avoid dangerous situati ons that could lead to accidents! li$e bra$es! suspension! steering syste"! ligh ting! tires and others. Other e%uip"ent is ai"ed at reducing the i"pacts in case s of accidents! such as seat belts! the +air>bag and bodywor$. ?aintain such e%u ip"ent in good condition is i"portant for the" to fulfill their duties. @eriodic and @reventive ?aintenance ll syste"s and co"ponents of your vehicle wear out with use. The wear of a co"p onent can affect the functioning of others and co"pro"ise their safety. This can be avoided by observing the life and durability set by "anufacturers for the co "ponents! under certain conditions. To $eep your vehicle in safe conditions! the habit of doing regular preventative "aintenance. It is essential to "ini"i'e th e ris$ of traffic accidents. Respect deadlines and guidelines of the owner7s "an ual and! where necessary! use %ualified professionals. "aintenance done on ti" e avoids brea$s! repair costs! and especially accidents. 2A 9ehicle operation

=ourself BaC can observe the operation of your vehicle! whether the particulars of the panel! or by a si"ple visual inspection/ 0 (uel/ see if the panel is shown in enough to reach the destination: level of bra $e fluid! engine and power steering! observe their tan$s! as owner7s "anual: oil level in the trans"ission syste" Be&changeC for vehicles with auto"atic trans"i ssion! see the reservoir level. In the other vehicle! loo$ for lea$s under the v ehicle! the radiator water/ water in refrigerated vehicles! see the level of the reservoir water! -ater 4yste" Cleaner -indshield/ ?a$e sure the water tan$: -ip er *lades -indshield / change! if they are dry: Dese"bacador front and rear Bif anyC/ "a$e sure they are functioning properly: Operation of headlights/ visually chec$ if everyone is lighting Blights low and highC d#ust"ent of the headlight s/ "a$e by s$illed professionals: (lashlights front and rear direction indicator lights! bra$e light and taillight/ visual inspection. 0 0 The habit of regular preventive "aintenance and generate savings and avoid traff ic accidents. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2D T<E 9E<IC5E Defensive Driving Tires The tires have three i"portant functions/ to boost! bra$e and stability to $eep driving the vehicle. lways chec$/ the vehicle 0 Calibration/ (ollow "anuf acturer7s reco""endations is also the vehicle! noting the load condition Be"pty and loadedC. Tires have withered their lifespan di"inished! related to da"age st ability! increase the consu"ption of fuel and to reduce the grip on the floor wi th water. 0 -ear/ the tire grooves should have at least 2.E "" in depth calibrat

ion. The function of grooves is correct to allow the flow of water to ensure per fect tires. adherence to the floor and safely in case of floor wet. 0 Defor"ations in housing/ see if the tires do not have blisters or cuts. These de for"ations can cause an overflow or a rapid loss of pressure. Di"ensions Irregul ar/ Do not use tires of different si'es of "odel or "anufacturer7s reco""ended t o not reduce the stability and wear other suspension co"ponents. 0 =ou can identify other proble"s tire easily. 9ibration of the steering wheel ind icate possible proble"s with the wheel balancing. 9ehicle pulling to one side in dicates a possible proble" with the tire or align"ent of direction. ll this can reduce the stability and bra$ing capacity of the vehicle. 2E Re"e"ber that all of these reco""endations also apply to spare tire BspareC! in vehicles where it is re%uired. 4afety belt The seat belt in place to li"it the "ove"ent of the occupants of a vehicle in ca se of accidents or a sudden stop. In these cases! the belt $eeps people if in co nflict with the internal parts of the vehicle or being thrown out of it! thus re ducing the severity of possible in#uries. (or this! the belts "ust be in good re pair and all occupants "ust use the"! including the rear seat passengers! even p regnant wo"en and children. lways "a$e an inspection of the belt: 0 4ee if the belts have no cuts! not to brea$ in an e"ergency: Chec$ if there are no folds to prevent the perfect elasticity: Test the loc$ to see if it wor$s per fectly: ?a$e sure your seat belts for rear seats are available for use to the oc cupants. 0 0 0 Correct use of the belt/ 0 0 4et fir"ly to the body! leaving no gaps: The botto" band should be below the abd

o"en! especially for pregnant wo"en. 2F T<E 9E<IC5E Defensive Driving 0 The transverse band to co"e over the shoulder! across the chest without touching the nec$: Do not use tabs. They cancel out the effects of seat belts. 0 Transport children up to ten years of age only in the bac$ seat! and stay on ret aining device affi&ed to the vehicle seat belt! suited to your height! weight an d age. 4o"e vehicles have no rear seat. E&ceptionally! and only in these cases! you can ta$e children under 23 years in the front seat using the seat belt. Depe nding on the age! they should be placed in appropriate chairs! with the use of s eat belts. If the vehicle has air bag for the passenger! we reco""end that you t urn it off! while carrying the child. The safety belt use is individual. Carry c hild on her lap! both with the sa"e belt! "ay cause serious in#ury and even deat h of the child. @eople!,in general! have no e&act idea of the significance of th e i"pact of a collision in traffic. Gnow that! according to the laws of physics! colliding with a pole! or a fi&ed ob#ect si"ilar to )3 $" per hour! is the sa"e as falling off a building with . floors. 2) 4uspension The purpose of the suspension and shoc$ absorbers is to "aintain vehicle stabili ty. -hen worn! can cause loss of vehicle control and overturning! especially in curves and bra$ing. @eriodically chec$ the state of repair and operating the"! u sing as basis the "anufacturer7s "anual and ta$ing the vehicle to staff. Direction The direction is one of the "ost i"portant safety co"ponents of the vehicle! the one responsible for handling. Clearances in the steering syste" "a$es the vehic le +pulling+ to one side! e&posing the driver to lose control. t the curb! thes e defects are increased. =ou should periodically chec$ the correct functioning o

f the direction and "a$e the preventive actions within the ti"e specified in the "anufacturer7s "anual! with speciali'ed staff. 5ighting 4yste" The lighting syste" of your vehicle is essential! both for you and see your path ! and to be seen by other road users and thus ensure safety in transit. No light ing! or with poor lighting! you "ay be a cause of collision and other accidents. Chec$ out and avoid the "ain events/ 0 <eadlights burned in disrepair or "isaligned/ they reduce the visibility picture and you can not see anything that should: 4ee and be seen by all the traffic beco"es "ore secure. 2. T<E 9E<IC5E Defensive Driving 0 Torches burned or faulty position at night or in dar$ened environ"ents Brain! da r$nessC/ underta$e the recognition of your vehicle by other road users: *ra$e li ghts burned out or "alfunctioning Bnight or dayC you bra$e and it is not signale d to the other drivers. They7ll have less ti"e and distance to bra$e safely! dir ection indicator lights BflashingC fire or "alfunction/ prevent other drivers to understand their operation and this can cause accidents. @eriodically chec$ the condition and operation of lights and lanterns. 0 0 *ra$es The bra$e syste" wears out with use of your vehicle and its efficiency is reduce d. *ra$es e&penditures re%uire longer distances to bra$e safely and can cause ac cidents. The "ain co"ponents of the bra$e syste" are/ hydraulic! fluid! pads and discs or pads! depending on the type of vehicle. <ere are the "ain reasons of e fficiency loss and how to inspect/ 0 (luid level low/ #ust loo$ at the level of the reservoir! fluid lea$! observe th e e&istence of spots on the floor under the vehicle: 0 83 0

Disc pads and e&penses/ chec$ with a %ualified professional: spent Canvas/ Chec$ with a %ualified professional. 0 -hen you go through local or soa$ed with puddles of water! using the vehicle wit h bra$es canvas! you "ay e&perience "o"entary loss of efficiency of the bra$e sy ste". Observing traffic conditions on site! reduce your speed and step on the br a$e pedal a few ti"es to return to nor"alcy. In vehicles e%uipped with *4 Bcent ral electronics that receives signals fro" the wheels and handles the pressure i n the cylinder and the control of the bra$es! preventing wheel loc$C chec$ in th e panel! the indicator light of proble"s in functioning. -hen driving! avoid sud den bra$ing use both! as unnecessary! because it wears faster co"ponents of the bra$e syste". Hust drive carefully! observing the signs! laws and traffic condit ions. To bra$e safely we "ust be alert. Geep safe distance and bra$es in good conditio n. 82 T<E DRI9ER <ow to avoid physical stress related to the way of sitting and driving The correct position to avoid direct physical wear and helps to avoid danger. (o llow the guidelines/ 0 Drive with your ar"s and legs slightly bent! avoiding stress! and 4upport the bo dy in the seat and the seat bac$! the closest to an angle of .3 degrees: d#ust the headrest according to the height of the vehicle occupants preferably at eye level: <old the steering wheel with both hands as the cloc$ in the position for nine hours and 2D "inutes. 4o you see better panel! better enter the vehicle con trols and in vehicles with air bag does not preclude its functioning: 0 0 0 0 Try to $eep your heels flat on the floor of the vehicle and avoid supporting the

foot on the pedal when you7re not using: Use shoes that are well fastened to hi s feet!,so you can throw the pedals %uic$ly and safely: @ut your seat belt! so t hat it fits tightly to your body. The lowest band "ust pass through the region o f 0 0 88 abdo"en and the transverse band pass on his chest and not on the nec$: 0 4tay in position to see clearly the infor"ation panel and always chec$ the opera tion of "a#or syste"s such as the engine te"perature. @roper use of "irrors The "ore you see what happens around you while driving! the greater the chance o f avoiding danger. On vehicles with rear internal! sit in the correct position a nd set it in a position that gives you a broad view of the rear window. Do not p lace luggage or ob#ects that i"pede your vision through the rearview! the outsid e rearview! left and right! should be ad#usted so that you! sitting in the "anag erial position! sees the rear li"it of your vehicle and thereby reduce the The correct position while driving produces less physical wear and increasing yo ur security. 8; T<E DRI9ER possibility of +blind spots+ or without sight. If you can not eli"inate these +b lind spots+ before starting a "aneuver! "ove the head or body to find other angl es of vision with the outside "irrors! or by the side view. 4tay tuned also to t he noise of the engines of other vehicles and #ust do the operation if you are c onfident that will not cause accidents. The proble" of concentration/ telephones! radios and other "echanis"s that reduc e their attention while driving <ow we "a$e decisions in traffic6 ?any of the things we do in traffic are auto"a tic! done without that we thin$ of the". Once we learn to drive! no "ore thin$ o

f all the things we have to do behind the wheel. This happens after auto"atic re peat often the sa"e "otions and procedures. This! however! hides a proble" that underlies "any accidents. Under nor"al conditions! our brain ta$es a few tenths of a second to register the i"ages you see. This "eans that as you are careful w hen driving a vehicle! there will be! in a short space of ti"e! situations you c an not observe. ?oving vehicles constantly change their position. (or e&a"ple! t he )3 $" per hour! a car travels 88 "eters in one second. If an e"ergency occurs ! between perceiving the proble"! deciding to stop! drive the pedal and the vehi cle stops co"pletely! it will ta$e at least AA "eters. Concentration and refle&es di"inish "uch with alcohol and drugs. The sa"e happen s if you do not sleep or sleep poorly. 8A If you are #ust unable to concentrate or focus entirely on the direction! their nor"al reaction will increase! "a$ing the ris$ of traffic dangers on the road. 4 o"e of the factors that decrease your concentration and slows the refle&es/ 0 0 0 Consu"ing alcoholic beverages: Using drugs: Using "edication that "odifies the b ehavior! according to his doctor! "ust have participated recently in discussions with strong fa"ily! wor$! or for any other reason: 4taying too long without sle ep! or sleep too little sleep badly: Eating too heavy! entailing drowsiness. 0 0 0 Drin$ing alcohol or using drugs not only reduce the concentration affects "otor coordination! changes behavior and decreases perfor"ance! li"iting the perceptio n of danger and reducing the capacity of action and reaction. Other factors that reduce the concentration! although "any do not reali'e this/ 0 Use the phone while driving! even hands free operation: -atching T9 on board to direct: 5isten stereo volu"e that does not allow to hear the sounds of his vehic

le and others: 0 0 8D T<E DRI9ER 0 Transporting ani"als loose and unattended inside the vehicle transporting inside the vehicle! ob#ects that could "ove during the #ourney. 0 -e can not $eep our attention focused all the ti"e while driving. Constantly we are led to thin$ about other things! whether i"portant or not. 8E (orce your concentration on driving! beco"ing accusto"ed to always loo$ and eith er/ 0 The infor"ation panel of the vehicle! such as speed! fuel! light signals! rear>v iew "irrors: The "ove"ent of other vehicles in front! their bac$ or sides: The " ove"ent of pedestrians! particularly near the #unctions! the position of hands o n the wheel. 0 0 0 0 Constant i"prove"ent The act of driving has ris$s and can result in "a#or conse%uences! both physical and financial. Therefore!Idriving re%uires constant updating and i"prove"ent! t o i"prove the perfor"ance and results. =ou drive a vehicle that re%uires $nowled ge and s$ill! involves co"ple& and diverse places! not always $nown! which also circulate other vehicles! people and ani"als. 4o you have a lot of responsibilit y on all that "a$es the wheel. It is very i"portant for you to $now the traffic rules! the techni%ue of driving safely and how to act in situations of ris$. lw ays try to revise and refine their $nowledge about all this. ll our activities re%uire i"prove"ent and updating. 5iving is a perpetual learn ing. 8F T<E DRI9ER Riding "otorcycles and "opeds large nu"ber of "otorcyclists need to urgently change their way of driving. Co

nstantly change lanes! overta$e by right circular velocities inco"patible with s afety! travel between "oving vehicles and without $eeping safe distance have res ulted in a disturbing increase in "otorcycle accidents across the country. ?any deaths and serious in#uries that cause per"anent disability and that could be pr evented si"ply with a safer direction. If you drive a "otorcycle or "oped! thin$ about it and be sure to follow the guidelines below/ 4afety re%uire"ents for dr ivers of "otorcycles and "opeds/ 0 It re%uired the use of safety hel"et for the driver and passenger: It re%uired t he use of protective "as$s or goggles! is forbidden to transport children under F years old! is "andatory for headlights on when driving! day or night: 0 0 0 8) 0 Overta$ing should always be done by the left! the speed "ust be co"patible with the conditions and circu"stances at the ti"e! within the li"its set by the rules of the road! Do not ride between lanes of traffic: Use plain clothes! both the driver as the passenger: Re%uest to +ride+ that "ove the body the sa"e way as th e driver to ensure stability in curves: <old the handlebars with both hands. 0 0 0 0 0 4afety rules for "opeds/ 0 The "oped driver Btwo>wheeled! "otori'ed! up to D3ccC should conduct this type o f vehicle the right of the roadway! preferably in the center of the trac$ to the right or the right edge of the runway where there is no shoulder or he designed the band itself! The circulation of "opeds in the fast lane and on the sidewal$ s of urban streets. 0 ?otorcycles are vehicles li$e the other/ they "ust respect the speed li"its! "ai

ntain safe distance! #ust beyond the left and not "oved between vehicles. 8. TR N4IT ROUTE @ublic highway is the area where passing vehicles! people and ani"als! including the roadway! the sidewal$! the sidewal$! the island and the central plot. Can b e urban or rural areas Broads or highwaysC. Each route has its characteristics t hat "ust be observed to reduce the ris$ of accidents. 4peed (astening =ou have an obligation to drive at a speed co"patible with the conditions of the road! respecting the speed li"its. lthough speed li"its are those in signs! th ere are certain circu"stances in the snapshots of the road conditions > traffic! weather conditions! obstacles! crowded places > that re%uire you to slow down a nd redouble their attention to driving with security. The higher the speed! the greater the ris$ and "ore ;3 4erious accidents are greater and the possibility of death in traffic. The ti"e gained by using a higher speed is not worth the ris$ and stress. (or e&a"ple! th e )3 $" per hour you are driving along a distance of D3 $ilo"eters in ;F "inutes and 233 $" per hour will ta$e you ;3 "inutes to travel the sa"e distance. Curves Rounding a bend! we feel the effect of centrifugal force! the force that +plays+ out of the curve and re%uires so"e effort not to let the vehicle out of the pat h. The higher the speed! the "ore we feel that force. It can get to the point of ta$ing control of the vehicle! causing a rollover or crossing the runway! colli sion with other vehicles or running over pedestrians and cyclists. The "a&i"u" p er"itted speed on a curve ta$es into account geo"etric aspects of trac$ construc tion. (or your safety and co"fort! trust signaling and adopt the following proce dures/ 0 4low down in advance! using the bra$e and! if necessary! reduce the "arch! befor

e entering the curve and start "ove"ent of the steering wheel: 4tart "a$ing the curve s"ooth and continuous "ove"ents with the steering wheel! ;2 0 TR N4IT ROUTE accelerating gradually and respecting the speed li"it. s the curve is finished! return the shuttle to the starting position! also with s"ooth "ove"ents: 0 5oo$ to the curve! "oving as little as possible the wheel! avoiding sudden "ove" ents and fluctuations in direction. 4lopes =ou reali'e that the front has a steep slope/ before the descent begins! test th e bra$es and hold the shifter in a reduced gear engaged during the descent. Neve r get off the vehicle disengaged. *ecause! if necessary! you will not get the en gine7s power to help stop or reduce speed and the bra$es "ay not be enough. Do n ot turn off the engine when going downhill. -ith it off! the bra$es do not wor$ properly and the vehicle can reach speeds uncontrolled. ?oreover! the direction "ay loc$ if you turn off the engine. @assing -here there are signs prohibiting overta$ing! not e&ceed it. The signal is the r epresentation of law and has been deployed by service personnel who have calcula ted that this stretch is not possible to overta$e! because there is danger of an accident. ;8 In sections where there is signaling allowing the e&cess! or where there is any $ind of signage! if not e&ceed the range of reverse flow is free! and even then! only ta$e the decision considering the power of your vehicle and the vehicle sp eed that go ahead. On slopes e&ceeding only when it is available the third trac$ ! designed to slow vehicles. bsence of this trac$! follow the sa"e guidelines a s above! but consider that the re%uired power of your vehicle will be higher tha n in flat trac$. To bridge! turn left arrow! change the trac$ to a safe distance

fro" the vehicle in front and only return to full nor"al traffic when you can s ee the vehicle e&ceeded the rearview "irror. The slopes! the speeds of all vehic les are "uch larger. To overco"e! ta$e e&tra care with the speed necessary to ov erta$e. Re"e"ber that you can not e&ceed the speed li"it along that stretch of t rac$. Other vehicles "ay want to pass hi". ?a$e it easy to overdrive! $eeping th e speed of your vehicle or even reducing it slightly. Road narrows ny narrowing of the trac$ increases ris$s. *ridges narrow or no shoulder! wor$s ! collapsing Ta$e your ti"e. -ait a safe condition and allowed to "a$e the overdrive. ;; TR N4IT ROUTE barriers! the presence of ob#ects on the trac$! for e&a"ple! causing narrowing. Once you see the sign or notice the narrowing redouble their attention! reduce s peed and gait and! when possible the passage of only one vehicle at a ti"e! wait for the opportune "o"ent! with alternating passing other vehicles that co"e int o effect opposite. Coasting It is a part of the trac$! but differentiated fro" the roadway! designed to stop or par$ vehicles in an e"ergency situation! the "ove"ent of pedestrians and bic ycles in the latter case! when there is no appropriate place. It is forbidden to traffic with auto"otive vehicles on the roadside as this can cause accidents wi th pedestrians or other vehicles stopped for pedestrians or cyclists. Can occur in stretches of the road leveled the shoulder in relation to traffic lane! a +st ep+ between one and ;A another. In these cases! you "ust redouble your attention. Concentrese align"ent of the road and stay at a safe distance fro" its li"it! preventing the wheels f ro" falling on the side and this "ay cause a runaway vehicle. If you "ust stop a t the side! loo$ for a place where there is no gap or it is reduced. If it is e&

tre"ely necessary to stop! slow down first! as gently as possible to avoid causi ng accidents with vehicles that co"e bac$ and signal with the arrow. fter stopp ing the vehicle! signal with the triangle of safety and turn signals. Condition of floor traffic lane Undulations! holes! elevations! slopes or changes in the type of flooring can de stabili'e the vehicle and cause loss of control. @ass through holes! dips or bu" ps can cause i"balance in your vehicle! da"age co"ponents or "a$e you lose drive ability. lthough you "ay worsen the proble" if incorrectly use the bra$es or "a $es a sudden "ove"ent with the direction. Reali'ing these occurrences in advance on the trac$! slow down! using the bra$es. *ut! avoid punch the" while passing through the holes! dips and bu"ps! because this will increase the i"balance of t he whole. It is forbidden and dangerous travel by road.,It is "eant for e"ergency stops an d the traffic of pedestrians and cyclists. ;D TR N4IT ROUTE E&cerpts slippery The friction of the tire with the ground is reduced by the presence of water! oi l! clay! sand or other li%uids or "aterials in lane and that loss of adhesion ca n cause slippage and lac$ of vehicle. lways $now the condition of the pave"ent of the road and loo$ for "atching its speed to that situation. void abrupt chan ges of speed and sudden bra$ing! which "ade it difficult to control the vehicle under these conditions. 4ignaling The signal is a co""unication syste" to help you drive safely. The various types of signs showing what is allowed and what is forbidden to do! warn of dangers o n the road and also indicate the following directions and points of interest. Th e signal is designed based on engineering and hu"an behavior! regardless of the individual s$ills of the driver and the particular state of conservation of the vehicle. (or this reason! you should always respect the signs and ad#ust their b

ehavior to the li"its of your vehicle. ;E 4idewal$s or @ublic Tours The sidewal$s are for the e&clusive use of pedestrians and can only be used by v ehicles for access to lots or garages. Even in these cases! the vehicle traffic on the roadway should be done with great care not to cause tra"pling of pedestri ans. 4topping or par$ing of vehicles on the sidewal$s re"oves itself fro" the pe destrian area! leading hi" to transit traffic lane! which clearly is in danger o f being run over. (or this reason! it is prohibited the circulation! stopping or par$ing of "otor vehicles on sidewal$s. =ou should also $eep an eye on streets without sidewal$s! or when they are under construction or deteriorated! forcing pedestrians to wal$ on the roadway. The sidewal$s are public sidewal$s or pedestrian spaces. ;F TR N4IT ROUTE Trees 1 vegetation Trees and vegetation in the central beds of boulevards or sidewal$s "ay hide sig ns. -hy not see these signs! "otorists can be induced to do tric$s that bring da nger of collisions between vehicles or running over pedestrians and cyclists. No ticing trees or vegetation that "ight be covering up the signs! to redouble thei r attention to reducing the speed to be able to identify restrictions on "ove"en t and thereby prevent accidents. Intersections between roads t a crossroads! the "ove"ent of vehicles and persons not change at any "o"ent. The "ore crowded! there will be "ore conflict between vehicles! pedestrians and cyclists! increasing the ris$s of collisions and pedestrian accidents. It is ver y co""on! too! the presence of e%uip"ent as +public phones+! poles! garbage cans ! newspaper rac$s and even with advertise"ents! with the corners! thus further r educing the perception of "ove"ents of persons and vehicles. Thus! when approach ing an intersection! regardless of whether any type of signal! you "ust redouble

your attention and to slow the vehicle. lways re"e"ber a few basic rules/ 0 If no signal! the preference of passage is the vehicle approaching the intersect ion fro" the right: ;) 0 If the 4TO@ sign in its sense of direction! you "ust stop! see if you can cross and only then "ove the vehicle! a roundabout! the preference of passage is the v ehicle that is already circulating in it: <aving signaling by se"aphore! the dri ver should "a$e the switch to green light. Under the yellow light you need to sl ow down and stop. -ith the yellow light! you should only "a$e the crossing if it has already entered the intersection! or if this condition is safest to stop th e vehicle! which co"es after colliding with it. 0 0 Hunctions are areas of ris$ in traffic. Reduce speed and follow the signs. t intersections with traffic lights! you should observe only the focus of light that controls traffic of the road where you are and wait for the green signal b efore "oving your vehicle! even if other vehicles! at his side! "oving. ;. T<E EN9IRON?ENT 4o"e weather and natural conditions affect traffic safety. Under these condition s! you should ta$e so"e actions to ensure their safety and that of other road us ers Rain Rain reduces visibility of all! let the wet and slippery and can create pools of water if the botto" of the trac$ is uneven! has not favorably inclined to the f low of water! or you are with holes. It7s good to stay alert since the beginning of the rain! when the trac$ usually gets "ore slippery due to the presence of o il! sand and dirt. nd ta$e "ore care in the event of heavy rain! ,when visibilit y is reduced further and the trac$ is covered with a layer of water "ay appear "

uch "ore puddles. In this situation to redouble their attention! turn the light low light! increase the distance fro" the vehicle ahead and slow down until you feel co"fort and safety. void stepping on the bra$e abruptly! not to loc$ the w heels and not leave the vehicle s$idding! loss of adhesion. If your vehicle has *4 bra$es Bwhich leaves no loc$ the wheelsC! apply the force on the pedal holdi ng it down until your total control. In the case of rains of hail BhailC! the be st thing is to stop the vehicle in a safe place and wait for your order. It does not last long under these circu"stances. A3 <ave the windshield wipers always in good condition! the defroster and signaling syste" of the vehicle running s"oothly increase their conditions of safety and co"fort on these occasions. The condition of the tires and the depth of the furr ows are very i"portant to prevent loss of grip in the rain. %uaplaning or hydroplaning -ith water on the trac$! hydroplaning can occur! which is the loss of grip the t ire with the ground. It is when the vehicle floats on water and you lose all con trol over it. The hydroplaning can happen with any type of vehicle and on any su rface. To avoid this danger! you "ust carefully observe the presence of standing water on the trac$! even without rain! and reduce the speed using the bra$es! b efore entering the region puddling. In the rain! increases the possibility of lo ss of adhesion. In this case! reduce your speed and increase the distance fro" t he vehicle ahead. -hen the vehicle is over puddles of water! is not reco""ended to use the bra$es. <old the steering hard to $eep trac$ of your vehicle. The con dition of the tires and the depth of the furrows are e%ually i"portant to preven t loss of grip. -et weather reduces tire grip. Reduced speed and tires in good condition prevent accidents. A2 T<E EN9IRON?ENT ?ist or fog

Under "ist or fog! you should i""ediately turn the light low light Band if you h ave or fog la"psC! increasing the distance fro" the vehicle ahead and reduce you r speed until you feel "ore security and co"fort. Do not use high bea"s because it reflects light in water droplets! and further reduces visibility. Re"e"ber th at in those circu"stances the pave"ent is wet and slippery! reducing the grip of the tires. In fog! slow down and use the low light of the -ind very strong winds! reaching his "oving vehicle and beacon. can "ove it causes the loss of stability and lac$ of control! that "ay cause col lisions with other vehicles or even rollovers. There are stretches of highway wh ere strong winds are fre%uent. Jet used to observe the "ove"ent of vegetation on the ban$s of the trac$. It is a good guideline to identify the strength of the wind. In so"e cases! these pieces are "ar$ed. Noting A8 If you e&perience difficulty in continuing traveling! stop in a safe place! li$e a gas station. *ecause of poor visibility in fog is generally not safe to stop on the roadside. Use the shoulder only in e&tre"e cases and e"ergency use in the se cases! the turn signals. strong "ove"ents of vegetation or seeing the signs corresponding to slow down an d do not be surprised to "aintain stability. -inds can also be generated by the air displace"ent of other larger vehicles at speed in the sa"e direction or oppo site direction of traffic! or even outside of tunnels. The speed should be reduc ed! adapting itself to start the engine to decrease the li$elihood of destabili' ation of the vehicle. 4"o$e fro" forest fires The s"o$e produced by fires in the grounds outside the trac$ causing reduced vis ibility. ?oreover! the soot fro" the fire can reduce the adhesion of the surface . In cases of fires! redouble your attention and reduce speed. Connect the low l ight of the lighthouse and then to go up in s"o$e! do not stop the vehicle on th

e trac$! because with the lac$ of visibility! other drivers can not see hi" stan ding on the trac$. 5ight condition The lac$ or e&cess of light can increase the ris$s in traffic. 4eeing and being seen is a basic rule to a safe direction. Chec$ how to act/ A; T<E EN9IRON?ENT 0 <igh or 5ow 5ighthouse 5ighthouse deregulated The low light of the lantern "ust be used at night! even on roads with street li ghting. The lighting of the vehicle at night or in situations of dar$ness! rain or tunnels! allows other drivers! and especially to pedestrians and cyclists!,ob serve in advance the "ove"ent of vehicles and thus! protect the"selves better. U se the high bea" or low bea" deregulated the cross with another vehicle! "ay clo ud the vision of the other driver. Therefore! always $eep the lights and regulat ed! by crossing with another vehicle! turn the light low in advance. -hen we are facing a high bea" headlight or a deregulated! te"porarily lost vision Bblurrin gC. In this situation! try to divert his vision for a reference on the right tra c$ to the trac$. -hen the light of the lantern on the vehicle which is behind th e "irror reflect internal! set it to deflect the bea". ?ost vehicles have this d evice. Chec$ your owner7s "anual. It is reco""ended to use low light vehicle! ev en during the day on the highways. In the case of "otorcycles! "opeds and public transportation for passengers! the latter when they "oved in band itself! the u se of low light of the headla"p is re%uired. Geep your headlights ad#usted and use the" correctly. ?a$e the safe transit at a ny place or circu"stance. AA 0 @enu"bra Bno lightC The shadows BtwilightC! is a fre%uent occurrence in the passage fro" late aftern oon to early evening or late night to dawn or even when the s$y is cloudy or if it rains with intensity.

Under these conditions! as i"portant as seeing! is also being seen. t the sligh test sign of poor lighting illu"inates the low bea". 0 4lope of 4unlight In the early "orning or late afternoon! the sunlight +$noc$ on the guy.+ The sun ! due to its inclination! can cause glare! reducing your vision. Needless to say ! this presents a danger of accidents. 4earch plan your #ourney to avoid these c onditions. The glare can also happen by the reflection of the sun in so"e polish ed ob#ects! li$e bottles! cans or windscreen. In all these conditions! reduce ve hicle speed! use the drop>sun Bvisor internal protectionC or even a protective e yewear BsunglassesC and try to observe a reference to the right lane. The blurri ng "ay also occur with the "otorists co"ing in the opposite direction when they are having the sun in the front. In this case! redouble your attention! slow dow n to your co"fort and safety and the low bea" lights to ensure you are seen by t he". t intersections with traffic lights! the sun! to cover against the spotlig hts! can prevent you fro" properly identifying the signaling. In these cases! sl ow down and step out! until you are sure indication of the se"aphore. AD JENER 5 RU5E4 ND OT<ER I?@ORT NT *efore you put your vehicle in "otion! chec$ the operating conditions of the co" pulsory use of e%uip"ent such as seat belts! headrests! fire e&tinguisher! safet y triangles! spare tire! windshield wiper! lighting syste" and horn ! and observ e if the fuel is enough to reach your destination. <as at any ti"e! the field of your vehicle! driving it with attention and care necessary for traffic safety. Jive preference to passing vehicles "oving on rails! co"pliance with the standar ds "ove"ent. -hen driving a larger vehicle! ta$e great care and is responsible for the safety of s"aller vehicles by non>"otori'ed and pedestrian safety. Reduce speed when p assing a transportation vehicle BbusC that has stopped "a$ing the boarding or di

se"bar$ing passengers AE -ait for a safe opportunity and allowed by signaling to "a$e an overta$ing while driving on roads with double sense of direction and one lane in sections on cur ves and slopes. Do not overta$e vehicles on bridges! overpasses and pedestrian c rossings! e&cept if signaling per"its. On a highway to "a$e a left turn or a return! wait for a safe opportunity to the road. No shoulder on highways! follow the signs indicative of per"ission. Do no t sla" on the bra$es your vehicle! e&cept for safety reasons. Do not stop your v ehicle at intersections! bloc$ing the passage of other 5arger vehicles are responsible for the safety of s"aller vehicles. AF JENER 5 RU5E4 ND OT<ER I?@ORT NT vehicles. Even if you7re in the preferred route and the light is green for you. -ait! before the intersection! traffic flow and a space to wander along the stre tch of road ahead. Use warning signs Btriangle upC and turn signals when you nee d to te"porarily stop the vehicle on the roadway. In places where par$ing is prohibited!,you should stop #ust long enough for boar ding or dise"bar$ing passengers. This! provided that the parade will not stop th e flow of vehicles or pedestrian loco"otion. Do not open the door or let it open ! not sure it will not bring danger to you or other users of A) pathway. ?a$e sure that your passengers do not open or leave open the doors of t he vehicle. 5oading and unloading "ust occur always on the side of the sidewal$! e&cept the driver. Geep your attention while driving! even on roads with dense traffic and low speed! carefully watching the "ove"ent of vehicles! pedestrians and cyclists because of the possibility of pedestrians crossing outside the rang e and approach over other vehicles! which can cause accidents. These situations occur at prearranged ti"es! $nown as +pea$ hours+. These are the ti"es of entry and e&it of wor$ers and access to schools! especially in centers that generate t

raffic! as the shopping centers! super"ar$ets! sports venues! etc.. Geep a safe distance fro" the vehicle in front. good distance gives you ti"e to react and apply the bra$es before an e"ergency situation and there is ti"e A. JENER 5 RU5E4 ND OT<ER I?@ORT NT also for the vehicle! once stopped! stop before colliding. Under nor"al conditio ns of the trac$ and the cli"ate! the ti"e re%uired to "aintain the safe distance is appro&i"ately two seconds. There is one si"ple rule > the rule of two second s > which can help you "aintain a safe distance fro" the vehicle in front/ 2. Ch oose a fi&ed point of the roadway 8. -hen the vehicle that will pass in front of the fi&ed point! start counting: D3 ;. Count two seconds slowly. n easy way is to rely on string si& words +fifty>o ne! fifty>two.+ A. The distance between your car and going forward will be safe if your vehicle passes by the fi&ed point after the count of two seconds. D. Oth erwise! slow down and do a recount. Repeat until you establish a safe distance. void collisions! $eeping safe distance. (or vehicles over si& "eters in length or in the rain! increase the ti"e of coun ting/ +fifty>one! fifty>two! fifty>three.+ D2 RE4@ECT T<E EN9IRON?ENT and social living 9ehicular pollution and noise pollution ir pollution in cities is now one of the "ost serious threats to our %uality of life. The "ain cause of air pollution are "otor vehicles. The gases leaving the e&haust containing carbon "ono&ide! nitrogen o&ides! hydrocarbons! sulfur o&ide s and particulate "atter Bblac$ s"o$eC. The a"ount of these gases depends on the type and %uality of fuel and the type and ad#ust"ent of the engine. The better is the burning of fuel! or rather! how "uch better your vehicle is covered! the less pollution. The presence of these gases in the at"osphere is not only a prob le" for every person! is a proble" for the whole co""unity of our planet. Carbon

"ono&ide has no s"ell! is tasteless and colorless! it is difficult to identify the" by people. *ut it is e&tre"ely to&ic and cause di''iness! vertigo! changes in central nervous syste" and can be fatal in high doses! indoors. The sulfur di o&ide present in the co"bustion of diesel! causing runny nose! phleg" and irreve rsible da"age to the lungs and can also be fatal in high doses. <ydrocarbons! pr oducts of inco"plete burning of fuels Bethanol! gasoline or dieselC! are respons ible for the increased incidence of lung cancer! cause irritation to eyes! nose! s$in and respiratory tract. 4oot! which is co"posed of solid and li%uid particl es are suspended in the at"osphere and can reach the lungs of people @reserving the environ"ent is a duty for all of society. D8 and aggravate allergic conditions asth"a and bronchitis! irritation of nose and throat and facilitating the spread of influen'a infections. Noise pollution caus es "any negative effects. The "ain ones are/ sleep disorders! stress! hearing lo ss! deafness! headaches! digestive disorders! loss of concentration! increased h eartbeat! and allergies. @reserving the environ"ent is a necessity for any co"pa ny to which all "ust contribute. 4o"e procedures contribute to reducing air poll ution and noise pollution/ 0 0 0 0 0 d#ust and do the regular "aintenance of your engine! tires gauge periodically: Do not carry e&cess weight: 4witch gears in correct rotation of the engine: redu ctions void constant "otion! acceleration and sudden bra$ing e&cessive:,4top th e engine a long brea$! Do not accelerate when the vehicle is idling or stopped i n traffic: Geep the e&haust pipe and "uffler in good condition: ?a$e periodic "a intenance of e%uip"ent to reduce pollutants > catalyst Bin vehicles where it is e&pected C. 0 0 0 0 D; RE4@ECT T<E EN9IRON?ENT and social living

=ou and the environ"ent The dirt thrown in the street or on the edges of highways sti"ulates the prolife ration of insects and rodents! which favors the trans"ission of contagious disea ses. Other "aterials du"ped into the environ"ent! such as cans and plastic bottl es ta$e a long ti"e to be absorbed by nature. 9ery e&pensive for society to $eep public spaces clean and restore the affected nature. Therefore/ 0 Geep garbage bags inside the vehicle. Do not throw garbage on the road! in vacan t lots or in the vegetation alongside the highways! du"ps should be transported to pre"ises. Do not throw rubbish on roads and their "argins: In the event of an accident involving transportation of ha'ardous "aterials Bche"ical! fla""able! to&icC! try to isolate the area and prevent the" fro" reaching rivers! springs! and flora: ?a$e "aintenance! repair and cleanliness of the vehicle in a proper p lace. Do not pour oil or discarded "aterials in the trac$ and in public spaces: *y observing situations that violate nature! foul public places or that they can also cause ris$s to traffic! re%uest or cooperate in its re"oval or cleaning. T he public space belongs to everyone! do your part "aintaining the" clean and "ai ntained. 0 0 0 0 0 DA =ou and your relationship with the other In the Introduction! we tal$ about the relationship of people in transit. To i"p rove the living and %uality of life! there are so"e principles that should for" the basis of our relations in transit/ 0 <u"an dignity Universal principle of hu"an rights which are derived and the values and attitud es funda"ental to the de"ocratic social life. 0 E%ual rights

It is able to e&ercise full citi'enship through e%uity! ie the need to consider the differences in people to ensure e%uality! solidarity reasons. 0 @articipation It is the principle underlying the "obili'ation of people to organi'e the"selves around traffic proble"s and their conse%uences for society. 0 Co>responsibility for social life *ehaviors needed to enhance traffic safety and the reali'ation of the right of " obility for all citi'ens. *oth the govern"ent and the people have their share of contribution to a better and safer transit. Do your part. Respect for hu"an solidarity and har"ony "a$e traffic safer. DD *RE C< ND @EN 5T= -hen a driver does not co"ply with the laws of any ite" he is co""itting a traff ic infraction and is sub#ect to the penalties provided in the ct 9iolations als o typically generate traffic accident ris$s. (or e&a"ple/ Do not respect the red light at an intersection "ay cause a collision between vehicles or run over ped estrians or cyclists. The traffic violations are classified by their severity in light! "ediu"! serious and very serious. @enalties and d"inistrative ?easures Every violation is punishable by a penalty. fine! for e&a"ple. 4o"e offenses! in addition to the fee "ay have an ad"inistrative conse%uence! ie! the traffic a gent should adopt +ad"inistrative "easures+ whose goal is to prevent the driver continue driving in irregular circu"stances. DE d"inistrative "easures are/ 0 0 0 Retention of the vehicle! re"oval of the vehicle: Collection Docu"ent7s license Bor CN< @er"ission to DriveC Collection of certificate of license: transship"ent of e&cess load. 0 0 @enalties are as follows/ 0 0 0 0 0 0 9iolating traffic laws is also a ris$ factor for accidents. -ritten warning! fine! suspension for driving: sei'ure of the vehicle! enabling

the docu"ent Cassation: (re%uency co"pulsory refresher course. (or e&a"ple! driving faster than the "a&i"u" allowed in "ore than 83K on highway s! has as its conse%uence! besides the penalties Bfines and suspension of drivin gC! also the recollection of a %ualifying docu"ent Bad"inistrative actionC. 9alues and scores of fines Jravity Jrave grave Ta$e verage @rice U.4. L D;.83 U.4. L )D.2; U.4. L 28F.E. U .4. L 2.2.DA @ts ; A D F DF *RE C< ND @EN 5T= If you reach 83 points will have their drivers7 license suspended for one "onth to one year! as deter"ined by the transit authority. To score points! is conside red the su" of violations in the last year!,to count down the date of the last p enalty received. (or so"e infractions! because of its severity and conse%uences! the fine can be "ultiplied into three or even five ti"es. Resources fter a violation is recorded by the transit agency! the notification of ta& ass ess"ent will be forwarded to the address of vehicle owner. (ro" there! the owner "ay indicate that the driver drove the vehicle and forward the ta& assess"ent a ppeal for the national transit. (ro" NOTI(IC TION O( @EN 5T=! the vehicle owner "ay apply to the d"inistrative *oard of ppeals 9iolations > Hari. If the appea l is dis"issed! "ay further appeal to the 4tate *oard of Traffic > CETR N Bin th e case of the (ederal District to CONTR NDI(EC and in so"e cases specific to CON TR N for resource assess"ent in the second and final instance. D) Traffic Cri"e They are classified offenses described in the CT* in ad"inistrative! civil and c ri"inal penalties. The cri"inal offenses resulting fro" cri"inal action! are sub #ect to general rules of the @enal Code and its processing by the Code of Cri"in al @rocedure. The offender! in addition to penalties i"posed ad"inistratively by the transit authority shall be sub#ected to #udicial proceedings! which! found

guilty! the penalty "ay be to provide co""unity service! fines! suspension of dr iving! and even detention. ?ore fre%uent cases! understand the driving without a license! drun$ or travel at a speed inco"patible with the safe route! near scho ols! causing danger of har"! which penalty "ay be i"prison"ent fro" si& "onths t o a year in addition to any filing of civil action to repair da"age to third par ties. D. RENE- 5 O( @ORT(O5IO N TION 5 MU 5I(IC TION4 rticle 2D3 of the *ra'ilian Traffic Code re%uires that any driver who does not have current defensive driving and first aid! should be sub"itted to the"! while the National Council of Transit > CONTR N its regulations. Through Resolution C ONTR N No. 2E) of Dece"ber 2A! 833A! in force fro" Hune 2.! 833D are set out in the curriculu"! wor$load! and how to i"ple"ent the provisions of rticle 2D3! th ere are three possible ways of co"pliance with the provisions of the ct/ 0 Co"pleting the course with a presence in the classroo" The driver "ust attend a course offered by the national e&ecutive of the transit 4tate or the (ederal District BD?9C! or by bodies accredited by hi"! forcing he rself to attend on a full 2D hours of tuition! and 23 hours on defensive driving and D hours on first aid. The provision of the certificate of participation wit h the fre%uency of attendance of 233K of the classes "ay be sufficient to "eet t he legal re%uire"ent. 0 Reali'ation of Distance 5earning Course > Distance 5earning "ode BOD5C Course offered by the national e&ecutive of the transit 4tate or the (ederal Dis trict BD?9C or by speciali'ed entities he accredited as specific regulations! du ly certified by the National Depart"ent! with the "ini"u" re%uire"ents set out i n nne& I9 of Resolution 2E). E3 0 9alidation 4tudy > self>taught for"

The driver can study alone! by teaching "aterials containing the contents of def ensive driving and first aid. Drivers who participate in distance learning cours es or to study as autodidact should undergo an e&a"ination to be conducted by th e e&ecutive body of the transit 4tate or the (ederal District BD?9C! with proof of ;3 %uestions! which re%uired the use of the "ini"u" F3K approval. Drivers who have already done courses in defensive driving and first aid agencies or instit utions officially recogni'ed! they "ay ta$e these courses! provided that the dri ver sub"it the supporting docu"entation. E2 Developed by