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Original Title: Al_sadder_2004_exact Secant Stiffness Matrix for Nonprismatic

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EXACT SECANT STIFFNESS MATRIX FOR NONPRISMATIC BEAM-COLUMNS WITH ELASTIC SEMIRIGID JOINT CONNECTIONS

S. Z. AL-SADDER and H. Y. QASRAWI

Department of Civil Engineering, Hashemite University Zarqa 13115, Jordan

secant stiffness fixed end forces matrix . . . . . Exact analytical solution and exact secant stiffness matrix with fixed-end forces vector for any nonprismatic beam-column member with semi-rigid joint connections under tensile or compressive axial force and under generalized loading have been developed. A power series approach has been used in solving the fourth-order ordinary differential equation with variable coefficients. Several examples are presented to check the accuracy, validity and effectiveness of the present method and to compare the results with the available numerical solutions. The results obtained using the exact analysis presented in this work have been found to be in excellent agreement with the results obtained by other numerical solutions. Furthermore, based on the analysis described in this work, exact expressions for elastic stability functions for any nonprismatic beam-column member with semi-rigid joint connections under tensile or compressive force have been obtained for the first time. These expressions can be used in calculating elastic critical loads and exact tangent-stiffness matrix for any nonprismatic beam-column member or for any frames with semi-rigid joint connections.

INTRODUCTION

Members of variable stiffness are commonly used to optimize the distribution of weight and strength, achieve a better distribution of the internal stresses, reduce the dead load, and sometimes to satisfy architectural and functional requirements in many engineering structures. Examples are highway bridges, buildings, space and aircraft structures and many mechanical components and machines. Therefore, the stability analysis of nonprismatic beam-column with semi-rigid connections is of interest to many structural, aeronautical, and mechanical engineers. Beam-columns are structural members subjected to combined axial forces and bending moments. The bending moments that are present in a beam-column consist of two types: primary bending moments which arise from moments applied or induced at the ends of the member and moments from transverse loadings on the member. Secondary bending moments arise as a result of the axial force acting through the lateral displacement of the member. The so-called P-

moments are those caused by axial forces acting through the lateral displacement of the member relative to its chord, whereas the P- moments are those caused by the axial force acting through the relative displacement of the ends of the member. Secondary moments generally produce detrimental effects to slender compression members and therefore must be accounted for in design. Closed-form solution of the fourth-order differential equation governing the stability problem of a nonprismatic beam-column member with variable coefficients is often difficult1,2, if not impossible, to obtain when dealing with general depth variation, general loadings, and general boundary conditions. A review of the previous research concerning the solution of some cases are shown in references 3-15, each case dealt with a specific condition. Based on the previous review, it has been concluded that no attempt has been found for an exact analysis of a general nonprismatic beam-column member under general loadings, general boundary conditions and under general axial force (whether tensile or compressive).

127

The aim of this study is to determine an exact secant stiffness matrix and fixed-end forces vector (under general loadings) for a general nonprismatic beam-column member with semi-rigid connections under any axial force. A rigorous analytical solution for solving the fourth-order ordinary differential equation with variable coefficients of a nonprismatic beam-column member has been developed using power series method. Furthermore, exact elastic stability functions have been obtained for any nonprismatic beam-column member with semi-rigid connection, which can be used in deriving exact tangent stiffness matrices for rigid and semi-rigid frames composed of nonprismatic members.

I i* = I i Li ;

i q* i =q i L

(6)

and substituting Eq.(5) into Eq.(4), the following equation can be obtained:

d 2 * i I (i + 2)(i + 1)ai + 2 i 2 i d i = 0 i = 0 +

or

* o

[I

i =o

* j

Within the limitations of the beam-column theory1,2, the governing fourth-order ordinary differential equation with variable coefficients for a typical nonprismatic beam-column member (neglecting the presence of semirigid joint connections) subjected to a variable distributed load, q(x), (as shown in Fig. 1) is as follows:

j =1

i +2

i +4 j

(8)

d2y d2y d2 E I ( x ) + p 2 + q( x ) = 0 2 dx 2 d x dx

(1)

ai+4 =

Fig. 2 shows the configuration of the beam-column member. Referring to Fig. 2a and using local coordinates. Both the variable moment of inertia I(x) and the distributed load q(x) can be presented in power series as follows:

I (x ) =

I x ,

i i i =0

q( x ) =

q x

i i =0

(2)

x L

Therefore all the coefficients ai in Eq. (9) are known except the initial four coefficients (ao, a1, a2, a3), which should be found by using the boundary conditions. In order to obtain the values of the coefficients ao, a1, a2, and a3 , the following boundary conditions must be satisfied: 1. At = 0 (x=0), then,

I ( )=

i =0

I i Li i ,

q( )=

q L

i i i =0

(3)

y (0)=V A =a o

2. At = 0 , then

dy = A which gives: dx

(10)

d 2 y PL2 d 2 y L4 d 2 Ii Li i + + d 2 E d 2 E d 2 i=0

i=0

qi Li i = 0 (4)

dy 1 dy 1 = A = = dx x = 0 L d = 0 L

or a 1 = L A

(i + 1)a

i =o

i +1 ( 0 )

(11)

y ( ) =

a

i =o

(12)

a

i i =0

(5)

128

Exact Secant Stiffness Matrix for Nonprismatic Beam-Columns with Elastic Semirigid Joint Connections

q( )

A P

I( ) = Variable

Figure 1. Nonprismatic beam-column subjected to variable distributed load and an axial force.

y

B MA

P

MB

S

VB

VA

Original Position x

L

(a) Member forces and deformations in local coordinate system.

y

r3 r1 r2 d1

r4

d3

d6

r6

r5 d5

d2

d4

x

(b) Member forces and deformations in global coordinate system. Figure 2. Nonprismatic beam-column member neglecting the presence of semirigid joint Connections.

129

4. At = 1 (x=L), then

dy = B which dx

gives:

dy 1 dy 1 = = = (i + 1)a i+1 B dx L d x =L = L L i =o

or L B =

(i + 1)a

i =o

i +1

(13)

For specified values of the moment of inertia I(x), distributed load q(x), axial force (P) and beam-column properties (E, L), Eq. (9) can be written in a matrix form. Hence it can be seen that the coefficient at level i (or row i) is a function of the coefficients at level i-1 (or row i-1) and so on. Thus all the coefficients ai+4 can be determined as functions of (a2, a3) as follows:

ai = Ai a2 + Bi a3 + Ci

k11 EI B [k ] = L

0 k 22

0 k 23 k 33

k 14 0 0 k 44

0 k 25 k 35 0 k 55

Sym .

0 k 26 k 36 (18) 0 k 56 k 66

where

L

x=L

dx A( x) x =0

, k22 =

Q ; L2

(i = 4,5,6.... )

(14)

k 25 =

Q S + SC ; k 26 = 2 2 2 L L

It should be mensioned that the constant (Ci) is responsible for the presence of the variable distributed load q() and if the beam-column member is not subjected to this distributed load, then the constant (Ci) must be zero. By substituting Eq.(14) into Eqs.(12) and (13) and then solving Eqs.(10) to (13) simultaneously, the following equations can be obtained:

S1 = 2.I A L + K 2 Z 3 ; LI B K1 1 SC = 2.I A K 2 Z 4 ; LI B K1

(15) (15)

S 2 =

The constants (K1 to K4, Z1 to Z5, Y1 and Y2) are shown in Ref.16. Knowing that the first four coefficients (ao, a1, a2, a3) are functions of the displacements DOF, then all the coefficients ai (i = 0,1,2,3,.) are also functions of the displacements DOF. Thus the lateral deflection expression y() can be obtained as a function of the displacement DOF.

FORMULATION OF THE EXACT SECANT STIFFNESS MATRIX FOR A NONPRISMATIC BEAM-COLUMN MEMBER NEGLECTING THE PRESENCE OF SEMIRIGID JOINT CONNECTIONS

K Z 2 4 )N + Z N ( 1 4 2 L K 1

2EI

(19)

rF3 =

K Z +Y A 2 5 1 ; 2 K L 1

rF 6 =

EI K Z Y B ( 2 5 1 ) N + Z N + N ; r = 0 1 5 2 3 F1 2 K L 1 (20)

q Li + 2 i L i = o (i + 2)

1 rF3 - rF6 ;

rF 5 =

Following the same procedure developed by AlSadder and Qasrawi16, the exact 6X6 secant stiffness matrix relating the member end-forces (r1, r2, r3, r4, r5, r6)T and the member end-displacements (d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, d6)T of a general beam-column member shown in Fig. 2b may be given as:

r F2

q Li + 1 r ; = i i = o (i + 1) F5

=0 r F4

(21)

(17)

where S1 , S2 and SC are stability functions for a general nonprismatic member neglecting prescnce of semi-rigid connections and{rF} is the fixed-end force vector.

130

Exact Secant Stiffness Matrix for Nonprismatic Beam-Columns with Elastic Semirigid Joint Connections

FORMULATION OF THE EXACT SECANT STIFFNESS MATRIX FOR A NONPRISMATIC BEAM-COLUMN MEMBER WITH ELASTIC SEMIRIGID JOINT CONNECTIONS

Fig. 3a shows a nonprismatic beam-column member with six degrees of freedom and 2 two degrees of freedom elastic rotational springs A and B. The stiffness relationship for the indivual element shown in Fig. 3a is given in Eq. (17), while the moment rotation relationships for connections A and B can be expressed as:

KB are the rotational stiffnesses at ends A and B respectively. Now, following the same procedure given in coventional matrix analysis2, one can get the stiffness relationships for the intermediate hybrid element shown in Fig. 3b. The force-displacment relationships for the hybrid element (nonprismatic beam-column member with elastic end restraints) shown in Fig. 3c can be obtained by using method of static condensation2 for eliminating the internal degrees of freedom. It follows:

{r } = [k ]{d }+ {r }

hyb hyb hyb Fhyb

(23)

where

r1 r 2 r = 3 r4 r5 r6

(22)

{rhyb }

{d hyb }

In the above equations, the (r) parameters are the moments in the connections and the (d) paprameters sre related to the rotations by r = d 1cn d 2cn . KA and

q( )

d1 d 2 d = 3 d 4 d 5 d 6

(24)

3 1 A 2 1 A 2 B

6 4 1 B 2

I( ) = Variable

(a): Individual element

q( )

3 1 2 A 7 B 8 5 I( ) = Variable

6 4

q( )

3 1 A 2 B

6 4

I( ) = Variable 5

(c): Hybrid element

Figure 3. Hybrid beam element: (Nonprismatic beam-column with semi-rigid joint connections)

131

[k ] = [k ] [k ][k ] [k ]; {r } = {r } [k ][k ] {r }

1 hyb inaa inab inbb inba 1 Fhyb F int a inab inba Finb

where

(25) (25)

= L / I B

x= L

x =0

dx A( x )

k12 0 k41 k15 k22 0 k24 k25 0 kA 0 0 k24 k25 0 0 0 0 k44 k45 k45 k55 0 0

0 0 0 ; 0 0 kB

k hyb 22

Q* = 2; L

k hyb 23

S1* + SC * ; = L

*

k hyb55 =

(26)

* S* Q* * 2 + SC ; k = ; k hyb 66 = S 2 56 hyb 2 L L

* + 2SC * 2 B ; Q * = S1* + S 2

EI S 2 EI S 2 EI SC R = 1 + B 1 1 + B 1 2B LK A LK B L K A K B

*

[kinba ] =

k13

k 23

kA

k 34

k35 k 56

k 46 0 k16 k 26 k A + k 33 k 36 [kinbb ] = k k B + k 66 36

rF 1 r F2 0 {rF int a } = r F4 rF 5 0

0 ; kB

(27)

2 EI S 2 EI SC S1 + B 1 B LK LK B B ; S1* = * R 2 EI B S12 EI B SC S1 + LK A LK A ; SC * = SC * S2 = * R R*

(30)

r {rF int b } = F 3 rF 6

(28)

Where

[khyb ]

and

[rFhyb ] represent

respectively,

the the exact secant stiffness matrix and fixed-end forces vector for a nonprismatic beam-column member with elastic semi-rigid joint connections. By simplifying [khyb ] , it can be written in a more convenient form:

k hyb11 EI B = L 0 k hyb 22 0 k hyb 23 k hyb33 0 k hyb 25 k hyb35 0 k hyb55 0 k hyb 26 k hyb36 0 k hyb56 k hyb 66

* * , S2 and SC* are exact stability functions for where S1 a nonprismatic beam-column with elastic semirigid connections. They are function of stability functions of a nonprismatic beam-column neglecting presecnce of elastic semirigid connections (Eq. 19) and rotational stiffnesses KA and KB. Now, normalizing the rotational stiffnesses at ends A and B by introducing the fixity factors ( f A and f B ) at ends A and B of the beamcolumn member as follows:

fA =

1 EI A +1 LK A

fB =

1 EI B +1 LK B

(31)

[k hyb ]

k hyb14 0 0 k hyb 44

The fixity factor at each end may vary from zero to one as the rotational stiffness of that end vary from zero to infinity respectively.

Sym.

(29)

132

Exact Secant Stiffness Matrix for Nonprismatic Beam-Columns with Elastic Semirigid Joint Connections

This example aims to check the validity of the analytical solution and also the exact secant stiffness matrix with fixed-end forces vector, a fixed-fixed beam-column of a rectangular cross-section with elastic semirigid joint connections is considered . The fixity factors at ends A and B are equal to 0.4 and 0.9 respectively. The column has a rectangular crosssection with the depth of the column varies parabolically along the length of the beam. The depth dA has been taken as 2 units while the depth dB was taken as 1 unit as shown in Fig. 4. The modulus of elasticity of the beam-column material was assumed

shows the variation of the lateral deflection y(x) along the length of the beam, while Fig. 6 shows the variation of the angle of rotation (x) along the length of the beam. Figs. 7 and 8 show the shearing force, S(x), and the bending moment, M(x), diagrams respectively. The results of the present analytical method are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the numerical results.

Example 2

The second example is the check of the validity of the exact secant matrix in performing exact buckling analysis (second-order analysis) for any nonprismatic columns. A nonprismatic column member similar to that given in Fig. 4, is investigated. The column is fixed at ends A and B respectively and attached to two elastic rotational springs with fixity factors equal to (f A and f B ) respectively. The distribution of moment of inertia is similar to the one shown in Eq.(32). The elastic critical buckling load (Pcr) of the column can be found by monitoring the determinant of the global secant stiffness matrix of the nonprismatic column [2]. The exact buckling load analysis (second-order analysis) is checked using MSC/NASTRAN program by dividing the column member into one-hundered segments and performing buckling analysis for the nonprismatic column. The elastic critical load (Pcr) is equal to the axial load parameter (cr) times (PE)B).Table 1 shows the critical axial load parameter (cr) for different fixity factors at end A and B.. The results shown in the table show that the exact stiffness matrix described in this work produces results that are in excellent agreement with the results obtained by the numerical analysis.

represented by the equation:

I ( ) = I B 1 + ( 1 )2

(32)

where IB is the moment of inertia at end B. The beam is subjected to uniformly distributed load and to a compressive force (P=2*PE}B) at support B. Where PE}B is Euler buckling load of a prismatic member having moment of inertia equal to IB, which is represented as

2 E IB = { P } E B L2

The analytical results of this example have been checked using MSC/NASTRAN program by dividing the beam-column member into one-hundered segments and performing a large displacement analysis. Fig. 5

q( ) = 0.15

P = 2( 2 EI L2

f A = 0.4

f B = 0.9

1 Unit

A

100 Units

Non-Prismatic Beam-Column

2 Units

1 Unit

Section at A

Section at B

Figure 4. Fixed-fixed nonprismatic beam-column subjected to uniformly distributed load and compressive force with semirigid connections at ends A and B.

133

Distance (x)

0 0 -0.2 -0.4

Deflection (y)

20

40

60

80

100

5. Deflection diagram, y(x) FigureFigure 5. Deflection diagram, y(x).

0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 0 -0.02 -0.03 -0.04 -0.05

20

40

60

80

100

Distance (x).

Figure 6. Angle of rotation diagram, q(x). 7500 6000 4500 3000 1500 0 -1500 0 -3000 -4500 -6000 -7500

96 48 0 0 -48 -96

Figure Shear force diagram, S(x) S(x). Figure 7. 7. Shear force diagram,

Bending Moment (M).

20

40

60

80

100

20

40

60

80

100

Distance (x).

Distance (x).

Figure 8. Bending moment diagram, M(x) M(x). Figure 8. Bending moment diagram,

Table 1. Critical axial load parameter (cr) for nonprismatic column with different fixity factors at ends A and B respectively.

CR (Present study) fB

0.0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 0.0 1.801 1.895 2.071 2.495 3.988 0.25 2.081 2.191 2.382 2.832 4.428

CR (MSC/NASTRAN) fA

0.75 3.135 3.269 3.519 4.111 6.331 1.0 4.062 4.219 4.511 5.213 8.221 0.0 1.799 1.899 2.078 2.493 3.994 0.25 2.079 2.185 2.378 2.821 4.432 0.5 2.496 2.613 2.826 3.322 5.129 0.75 3.141 3.277 3.524 4.109 6.335 1.0 4.069 4.226 4.515 5.219 8.226

fA

0.5 2.486 2.621 2.829 3.314 5.134

134

Exact Secant Stiffness Matrix for Nonprismatic Beam-Columns with Elastic Semirigid Joint Connections

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Based on the results obtained in the present study, several conclusions are drawn. These are summarized as follows: 1. Exact analytical solution has been obtained for the fourth-order ordinary differential equation with variable coefficients under general loading, variable moment of inertia, general boundary conditions and whether the axial load (P) is tensile or compressive. 2. Exact secant stiffness matrix and fixed-end forces vector of any nonprismatic beam-column member with semirigid joint connections have been derived. 3. The proposed method can handle accurately and simultaneously the problem of determining exact values for the elastic stability functions of any general nonprismatic beam-column member with semirigid joint connections under tensile or compressive axial load (P). 4. The derived exact secant stiffness matrix can be used in an exact second-order elastic analysis (or P- analysis) of plane frames with semirigid joint connections. 5. An exact tangent-stiffness matrix for a nonprismatic beam-column member with semirigid joint connections can be derived and thus one can generate an accurate non-linear elasto-plastic analysis of rigid and semi-rigid plane frames.

REFERENCES

1. Chen W.F. and Atsuta T. ,Theory of Beam-Column, Vol.1. In Plane Behaviour and Design. NY: McGrawHill,1976. 2. Chen W.F. and Lui EM., Stability Design of Steel Frames, Second Edition: CRC Press, 1999. 3. Al-Sarraf S.Z.,Elastic Stability of Frameworks, Ph. D. Thesis Presented to the University of Liverpool: at Liverpool, England, July, 1964. 4. Al-Sarraf S.Z.,Elastic Instability of Frames With Uniformly Tapered Members,. The Structural Engineer, 57B(1), 1979, pp. 18-24.

5. Timoshenko S.P. and Gere J.M.,Theory of Elastic Stability,. Second Edition, NY, McGraw-Hill, 1961. 6. Oran C.,Geometric Nonlinearity in Nonprismatic Members, Journal of Structural. Divivion, (7), 1974, pp. 486. 7. Ermopoulos J.C. and Kounadis A.N.,Stability of Frames With Tapered Built-Up Members, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 11(9), 1985, pp. 1979-1992. 8. Ermopoulos J.C.,Buckling of Tapered Bars under Stepped Axial Loads, Journal of Structural Engineering, 11, 1986, pp. 1346-1354 9. Williams F. and Aston W.,Exact or Lower Bound Tapered Column Buckling Loads, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1989, pp. 1088-1100. 10. Chan S.L.,Buckling Analysis of Structures Composed of Tapered Members, Journal of Structural Engineering, 116(7), 1990, pp. 1893-1906. 11. Yu, C. H. and Shanmugam, N. E., Stability of Frames With Semi-Rigid Joints, Comp. and Struct., . 23(5), 1986, pp. 639-648. 12. Levy, . and Gal, E., Three-Dimensional Non-Prismatic Beam-Columns, Int. J. of Struct. Stability and Dynamics, 2(2), 2002, pp. 395-408. 13. Aristizabal-Ochoa, D., Stability and Second-Order Analyses of Frames With Semi-Rigid Cpnnections Under Distributed Axial Loads, Journal of Structural Engineering, 127(11), 2001, pp. 1306-1314. 14. Syngellakis, S. and Kameshki, E.S., Elastic Critical Loads for Plane Frames by Transfer Matrix Method, Journal of Structural Engineering, 120(4), 1994, pp. 1140-1157. 15. Yau, C.Y. and Chan, S. L, Inelastic and Stability Analysis of Flexibly Connected Steel Frames by Springs-in-Series Model, Journal of Structural Engineering, 120(10), 1994, pp. 2803-2819. 16. Al-Sadder, S.Z. and Qasrawi, H.Y., Exact Secant Stiffness Matric for Non-prismatic Beam-Column Member, Submitted to International Journal of Computers and Structures.

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