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# ASSIGNMENT No. 6 NAME: Mancenido, Jerwin P.

SECTION: 1D

## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014 RATING:

Specific Heat
1. Find the specific heat of 350 g of an unknown material when 34,700 Joules of heat are applied, and the temperature rises from 22C to 173C with no phase change.

## Given: m = 350 g Q = 34,700 Joules T = 173C - 22C = 151C Cp = unknown

Solution: Original equation: Cp = Q/mT c = 34,700 J/(350 g x 151C) Final answer: 0.65657521286 J/(g x C).

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

2.How many liters of water can 6.7 L of ethane boil? The initial temperature and pressure of the ethane and water is .95 bar and 25C. First we must find the amount of heat released by the ethane. To do this, we calculate the number of moles of ethane gas using the ideal gas equation and multiply the molar heat of combustion by the number of moles. Hcombustion= 1437.17 kJ/mol n=PV/RT n=[.95*6.7]/[.08314*298] n=.2569mol Heat released by ethane: (1437.17 kJ/mol)(0.2569mol) = 369.21 kJ Then using the heat equation q=mCsT, we can find the mass of water that would be raised to boiling with the given amount of heat. First, the kJ must be converted to J to match the units of the specific heat. 369210= (m) (4.184)(373-298) Using basic algebra we solve for the mass, and since water has a density of 1.0g/cm3, the mass will be equal to the volume. m=1176.58g W = -(PV) W = Work P = Pressure V = Volume Final Answer:

## Volume of water: 1.177 L

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

3.There is a house hold heater that operates at 4 V and at 35 and is used to heat up 15g of copper wire. The specific heat capacity of copper is 24.440 J/mol/K. How much time is required to increase the temperature from 25C to 69C? It is important to know the equation in circuitry that calculates power: P=V2/R, which is derived from the equation V=IR. We will also be using q=mCsT. P=(4)2/35=.457 J/s q=(15)(24.440)(69-25)= 16130.4 J We now know how many joules of heat must be added to the copper wire to increase the temperature and we know how many joules of energy are given off by the heater per second. We divide to find the number of seconds. Ln(P1/P2)=[HVap/R]*[(1/T2)-(1/T1)] P1 and P2 refer to the pressures in any unit (bar, atmosphere, Pascal) R is the gas constant that correlates with the pressure and temperature units used. T1 and T2 refer to the temperatures in Kelvin

## Final Answer: (16130.4 J)/(.457 J/s) = 35296.3 seconds

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

Entropy
1. Calculate the entropy for an irreversible compression ofoxygen gas. The initial pressure of the gas is 1 bar in a volume of 100 L. The final pressure of the gas is10 bar and the temperature is 400 K. Solution: Note that you need to obtain the number of Moles. The problem does not ask you for molar entropy. Write down the expression for the entropy: ( ) We need either the ratio of volumes or the ratio of pressures. We are given the pressures so we can use those. P2/P1= 10 bar/ 1 bar = 10. We obtain the number of moles using the ideal gas law:

## Final Answer: Now we can substitute into the entropy expression: ( )

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

2. Calculate entropy change when 36.0 g of ice melts at 273 K and 1 atm.

If you look up the enthalpy of fusion for ice in a table, you would get a molar enthalpy of 6.01 kJ/mol. When a system receives an amount of energy q at a constant temperature, T, the entropy increase defined by the following equation. Final Answer: S = q / T. , Therefore, S is

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

3. Evaluate the entropy change for the reaction: CO + 3 H2 -> CH4 + H2O ,in which all reactants and products are gaseous. Solution Standard entropies of reaction, Soreaction, equal the entropy of products minus the entropy of reactants.

The standard entropies of the reactants and products have been given above, and for clarity, the entropi es are given below the formula of the reactants and products: (data are given in 3 significant digits) CO + 3 H2 -> CH4 + H2O 198 131 186 189 Therefore, use: [ 6+ 9 9 + ]

## Final Answer: S = -216 J/K.mol

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## Enthalpy of an Ideal Gas

1.)

Using standard thermodynamic values, calculate the change in enthalpy of reaction (Hrxn) in the formation of liquid water from Hydrogen and Oxygen gas. Chemical Equation: H2(g) + O2(g) => H2O(l) + heat Product: Hf H2O(l) = -285.83 kJ/mol Reactants: Hf H2(g) = 0 kJ/mol (the Hf of elements in their standard state is defined to be 0 kJ) Hf O2(g) = 0 kJ/mol x 2 Use H of formation (Hf) for each of the chemicals involved in the reaction found in a standard table or reference book. [(Hf H2O = -285.83 kJ/mol)] - [() (Hf O2 = 0 kJ/mol) + (Hf H2 = 0 kJ/mol)] Final Answer: Hrxn = SUM [(-285.83 kJ) (() (0 kJ + 0 kJ)] = -285.83 kJ/mol

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

2) Using standard thermodynamic values, calculate the enthalpy of the reaction of the combustion of methane gas with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and liquid water. Chemical Equation: CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) => CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) + heat Products: Hf H2O(l) = -285.83 kJ/mol x 2 Hf CO2(g) = -393.51 kJ/mol Reactants: Hf CH4(g) = -74.87 kJ/mol Hf O2(g) = 0 kJ/mol x 2 Use values found in a standard table or reference book [2 (Hf H2O(l) = -285.83 kJ/mol) + Hf CO2(g) = -393.51 kJ/mol] - [2 (Hf O2 = 0 kJ/mol) + (Hf CH4 = -74.87 kJ/mol)] = Hrxn = [2 (-285.83 kJ) + (-393.51 kJ)] [(2) (0 kJ) + (-74.87 kJ)]

## Final Answer: -890.3 kJ/mol

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

3. How much heat is released when burning 0.5 kg of liquid rubbing alcohol (2-propanol)? Products are carbon dioxide and liquid water. Assume an excess of oxygen. Chemical Reaction: 2 C3H8O (l) + 9 O2 (g) => 6 CO2 (g) + 8 H2O (l) + heat 0.5 kg propanol (1 mol / 60.084 g) = 8.3 mols propanol Hrxn = [products - reactants] = [6 (-393.51 kJ) + 8 (-285.83 kJ)] - [2 (-318.2 kJ) + 9 (0 kJ)] = -4011.3 kJ / (2 mols propanol) = -2005.65 kJ/mol

## Final Answer: -2005.65 kJ/mol (8.3 mols) = -16646 kJ released as heat

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## Constant Pressure Specific Heat

1. 300 grams of ethanol at 10 C is heated with 14640 Joules of energy. What is the final temperature of the ethanol? Useful information: The specific heat of ethanol is 2.44 J/gC. Solution: Use the formula q = mcT where: q = heat energy m = mass c = specific heat T = change in temperature 14640 J = (300 g)(2.44 J/gC)T Solve for T: T = 14640 J/(300 g)(2.44 J/gC) T = 20 C T = Tfinal - Tinitial Tfinal = Tinital + T Tfinal = 10 C + 20 C Tfinal = 30 C Final Answer: The final temperature of the ethanol is 30 C.

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

2.If 150 g of lead at 100C were placed in a calorimeter with 50 g of water at 28.8C and the resulting temperature of the mixture was 22C, what are the values of qlead, qwater and qcal? (Knowing that the specific heat of water is 4.184 J/g C and the specific heat of lead is 0.128 J/g C) For lead, we know that: m(mass) = 150 g, Ti (initial temperature) = 100C Tf = 28.8C csp (specific heat of lead) = 0.128 J/g C For water: m= 50 g, Ti = 22C Tf = 28.8C csp = 4.184 J/g C q =m x csp x T qlead = 0.128 J/g C x 150g x (28.8C - 100C) = -1.37 E3 J qwater = 4.184 J/g C x 50g x (28.8C - 22C) = 1.42 E3 J qcal = -(qlead + qwater) Final Answer: qcal = -(qlead + qwater) = -(1.42E3 +-1.37 E3) = -50.0 J

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

3.A 28.2 gram sample of Copper (Csp Cu= 0.685 J/g K) is placed in a coffee cup calorimeter containing 100 grams of water that just stopped boiling. After some time the temperature of the water becomes constant at 92.3 oC. Assuming the atmospheric pressure is 1 atmosphere, calculate the initial temperature of the Copper block. Assume no heat is lost to the surroundings. Csp H2O(l) = 4.18 J/g oC) qH2O =qCu (mH2O)(CspH2O)(T)=(mCu)(CspCu)(T) (100g)(4.18 J/goC)(7.7oC)=(28.2g)(0.685J/goC)(92.3oCTfCu) Solve for TfCu: 3218.6=19.317(92.3TfCu) 1435.64=19.32TfCu Final Answer: TfCu=74.32=74.3oC

Note: Notice the difference in temperature units given by the two Csp values. The Csp

Cu =

0.685

J/g K is given in Kelvins and the CspH2O = 4.18 J/g oC is given in Celcius. There is no need for conversions because when Csp values are given, the change in temperature will remain constant. In other words, no matter what the units are, the change will still occur and be exactly the same as would naturally.

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## Constant Volume Specific Heat

A tank initially containing air at 30 atm and 1000oF is connected to a small turbine. Air discharges from the tank through the turbine, which produces work in the amount of 500 Btu. The pressure in the tank falls to 5 atm during the process and the turbine exhausts to the surroundings at 1 atm. Assume the air behaves as an ideal gas and ignore any irreversibilities within the tank and the turbine. Determine the volume of the tank, in ft3. Heat exchange with the atmosphere and changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible.

The key to this process is that it is entirely isentropic. This will let us determine the initial and final properties of the air in the tank, as well as the properties of the turbine exhaust. The best part is that the properties of the turbine exhaust do not change during the process. Give:P1 T1 WS Find:V ? Diagram : 30 1000 500 atm o F Btu ft3 P2 Pout 5 1 atm atm

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

Assumptions:- The system is shown in the diagram. - For the system heat exchange with the atmosphere is negligible. - Changes in kinetic and potential energies are negligible. - The process is reversible. - The air behaves as an ideal gas. This is a shakey assumption at these pressures, but the problem statement instructed us to make it ! Equations / Data / Solve : We want to evaluate the volume of the tank in the absence of irreversibilities. We can begin by applying the 1st Law to this system. Eqn 1 We can simplify Eqn 1 because the process is adiabatic and we have assumed that changes in kinetic and potential energies are negligible and because there is no mass flow into the system. Eqn 2 The mass conservation equation for this process is : Combining Eqns 2 & 3 yields : Eqn 3 Eqn 4

Because the entire process is reversible and adiabatic, the process is isentropic. Therefore, two intensive properties, can be determined and does not change during the process. Because and Pout, are constant, we can conclude that the state of the turbine are constant. Therefore, Eqn 4becomes : Eqn 5 The initial and final moles of air in the tank can be determined from the ideal gas EOS: Eqn 6 Eqn 7

## exhaust is constant and, therefore, Tout and

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

Apply Eqn 7 to both the initial and final state Eqn 8 Now, we can solve Eqn 8 for the unknown volume of the tank : Eqn 9

Method 1: Use the Ideal Gas Entropy Function. The Gibbs Equation for Ideal Gases in terms of the Ideal Gas Entropy Function is : Eqn 10

We can apply Eqn 10 to the process that the gas inside the tank undergoes AND to the process that the gas undergoes as it passes through the turbine: Eqn 11 We can solve Eqns 10 & 11 for the unknowns SoT2 and SoTout : Eqn 12 Eqn 13

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

We can look up SoT1 in the Ideal Gas Property Tables and use it with the known pressures in Eqn 13 to determine SoT2 and SoTout : T1 R MW 810.93 8.314 29.00 K J/mol-K g/mol T (K) 810 820 So (kJ/kg-K) 1.045 1.058 kJ/kg1.046 K kJ/kgSoT2 0.5325 K kJ/kgSoTout 0.07112 K SoT1

Now, we can use SoT2 and SoTout and the Ideal Gas Property Tables to determine both T2and Tout and then U1, U2 and Uout by interpolation : T (K) 810 820 Uo1 Uo (kJ/kg) 392.73 400.92 393.49 11411.2 kJ/kg J/mol T (K) 500 510 Uo2 T (K) 310 320 Hoout So(kJ/kg-K) 0.5270 0.5477 150.25 4357.37 So(kJ/kg-K) 0.0707 0.1016 107.55 3118.83 Uo(kJ/kg) 148.23 155.81 kJ/kg J/mol Uo(kJ/kg) 107.41 117.45 Tout = 310.14 K kJ/kg J/mol

T2 = 502.67 K

## And at the turbine outlet :

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

We can plug all of the given and determined values back into Eqns 3, 7, 8 & 9 to evaluaten1, n2, n, WS and, finally,V : WS R 527550 8.314 J J/mol-K J kg Pa ft3 g/mol moles moles moles m1 = 1.922 kg m2 = 0.517 kg m = -1.405 kg P1 P2 V V 3039750 Pa 506625 Pa 0.14701 5.192 m3 ft3

Conversion Factors : 1 Btu = 1055.1 1 lbm = 0.453593 1 atm = 101325 3 1m = 35.315 MW 28.97 n1 = n2 = n = 66.28 17.82 -48.46

m1 = m2 = m =

## lbm lbm lbm

Method 2: Use the Ideal Gas Relative Pressure. When an ideal gas undergoes an isentropic process : Eqn 14

Where Pr is the Ideal Gas Relative Pressure, which is a function of T only and we can look up in the Ideal Gas Property Table for air. We can solve Eqn 14 For Pr(T2), as follows : Look-up Pr(T1) and use it in Eqn 15 To determine Pr(T2) : T (K) 810 820 Pr 38.108 39.954 T1 Pr(T1) Pr(T2) 810.93 K 38.279 6.380 Eqn 15

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

Once we know Pr(T2) we can determine T2 by interpolation on the the Ideal Gas Property Table. We can then use T1 and T2 to determin U1 and U2 from the Ideal Gas Property Tables. T (K) 810 820 U1 U (kJ/kg) 392.73 400.92 393.49 11399.4 kJ/kg J/mol T (K) 500 510 U2 Pr U (J/mol) 6.2732 148.23 6.7424 155.81 149.95 kJ/kg 4344.1 J/mol

T2 =

502.27

Because the turbine is also an isentropic process, we can determine the relative pressure of the turbine effluent: Eqn 16 Rearranging: Pr(Tout) 1.276 Eqn 17

Now, we can use Pr(Tout) to determine T2 and then Hout using the Ideal Gas Property Tables : T (K) 310 320 Pr 1.1452 1.2794 H (J/mol) 97.40 107.41 Tout Hout 319.74 K 107.15 kJ/kg 3104.27 J/mol

We can plug all of the given and determined values back into Eqns 3, 7, 8 & 9 to evaluaten1, n2, n, WS and, finally,V : WS R P1 P2 n1 = n2 = n = 527550J 8.314J/mol-K 3039750Pa 506625Pa 66.26 17.83 -48.43 moles moles moles m1 = 1.920 kg m2 = 0.517 kg m = -1.403 kg V V 0.14697 m3 5.190 ft3

m1 = m2 = m =

## Answers : The volume of the tank is: V

Method 1 5.19

Method 2 5.19

ft3

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## Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas

1. Determine the specific internal energy of 98 L of neon gas at 400C and 2 MPa. The neon gas has a total enthalpy of 1200 kJ . Assume that the neon gas is an ideal gas.
Given the temperature, pressure and volume of neon in an ideal gas state, we can calculate the mass of neon in the system using the Ideal Gas EOS. This allows us to convert the enthalpy into specific enthalpy. We can use the definition of enthalpy or specific enthalpy to relate U to H and PV and then eliminate PV using the Ideal Gas EOS again. The units may get tricky. Given: Find: V= T= U= 98 400 ??? L oC kJ/kg P= H= 2 1200 MPa kJ

Assumptions: Solution :

## - Equilibrium conditions - Neon is an ideal gas at this T and P

Since neon behaves as an ideal gas, the definition of specific enthalpy can be modified as follows: Eqn 1 Eqn 2 Eqn 3 Eqn 5 Eqn 7 20.18 g / mol 0.08205 atm L/gmol K 8.314 J/mol K or Pa m3/mol K T= m= RT / MW H= Final Answer: U= 673.15 0.7067 277.3 1698.0 1421 K kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg

But :

Eqn 4

For ideal gases : Molecular weight of neon : ( NIST WebBook ) Universal Gas Constant values :

Eqn 6

MW R R

## Note: To convert C to K, add 273.15 to C.

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

2. Which has a higher molar internal energy: the superheated water vapor stored in Tank A or the superheated water vapor stored in Tank B? What is the difference in molar internal energy between the two tanks? Use data from the NIST WebBook.

Because the water vapor is superheated, it has 2 degrees of freedom. In this case both the T and P must be specified to completely determine the state. Because the state is completely determined, we can use the given T and P values to look up properties like Uand H in the Superheated Tables in the Steam Tables. Given: Find: Solution: PA = TA = 1.5 200 atm C kJ/mol PB = TB = 0 150 atm C

U = UA - UB = ???

The internal energy of a substance is the sum of the kinetic energies stored in the vibrational, rotational, and translational motion of the molecules. Tank A has more energy by virtue of its higher temperature. Therefore, it must have the higher intern We must look up the isobaric properties of superheated water in the NIST Webbook. Use the ASHRAE convention. A portion of the thermodynamic table used in this problem is given below. Pressure (atm) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Internal Energy (kJ/mol) 46.2 46.479 46.756 47.032 47.306 47.581 47.855 48.129

Verify:

Temperature (C) 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210

## Phase vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor

The internal energies at the two given temperatures are: T = 200C UA = 47.855 KJ/mol T = 150C UB = 46.479 KJ/mol

As we predicted, the internal energy of the water vapor in Tank A is greater than in Tank B. The U of Tank A is greater by: Final Answer: U = UA - UB = 1.376 KJ/mol

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

3. Superheated water vapor at 300C expands isothermally in a piston-and-cylinder device from 10 atm to 5 atm. Calculate the change in the molar enthalpy and molar internal energy in units of KJ / mol.
Because the water vapor is superheated, it has 2 degrees of freedom. In this case both the T and P must be specified to completely determine the state. Because the state is completely determined, we can use the given T and P values to look up properties like Uand H in the Superheated Tables in the Steam Tables. Given: T1 = T2 = U H 300 300 ??? ??? oC oC kJ/mol kJ/mol P1 = P2 = 10 5 atm atm

Find:

Solution :

Use the NIST Webbook to determine the properties of superheated water vapor at the initial and final pressures. As always, use the ASHRAE convention. A portion of the thermodynamic table used in this problem is provided below. Temp. (C) 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 Pressure (atm) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Internal Energy (kJ/mol) 50.533 50.499 50.465 50.43 50.395 50.359 50.324 50.288 Enthalpy (kJ/mol) 55.252 55.206 55.159 55.112 55.065 55.018 54.97 54.921

## Phase vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor

The internal energy and enthalpy at the given pressures are: P = 10 atm U1 = H1 = P = 5 atm U2 = H2 =

50.324 54.97

KJ/mol KJ/mol

## 50.499 KJ/mol 55.206 KJ/mol

Remember that the change in any property is defined as the final state minus the initial state. FinalAnswers: U = U2 - U1 = H = H2 - H1 = 0.175 0.236 KJ/mol KJ/mol

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

Temperature-Entropy Coordinates

A closed system consists of an ideal gas with constant specific heats. a.) The gas undergoes a process in which temperature increases from T1 to T2. Show that the entropy change for the process is greater if the change in state occurs at constant pressure than if it occurs at constant volume.

Sketch the processes on PV and TS coordinates. b.) Using the results of (a), show on TS coordinates that a line of constant specific volume passing through a state has a greater slope than a line of constant pressure passing through a state.

c.) The gas undergoes a process in which pressure increases from P1 to P2. Show that the ratio of the entropy change for an isothermal process to the entropy change for a constantvolume process is (1 - ). Sketch the process on PV and TS coordinates.

Read : Sketch the process in parts (a), (b) and (c) first to get a better understanding of the processes. For part (a) use equations relating entropy to CP and CV. For part (b) recall that the slope on a TS diagram is (dT/dS). For part (c) determine S for each process and determine the ratio. Given : A closed system consisting of an ideal gas with constant specific heat ratio .

Find:Part(a) For the process where the T increases from T1 to T2: show that S is greater if the change in state occurs at constant P than if it occurs at constant V. Sketch PV and TS diagrams for the process. Part(b)Show on a TS diagram that a line of constant specific V passing through a state has a greater slope than a line of constant P. Part(c) For the process where the P increases from P1 to P2: show that the ratio of Sfor an isothermal process to S for a constant V process is (1 - ). Sketch PV and TS diagrams for the process.

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Part (c)

## Part (a) and (b)

Part (c)

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

Equations / Data / Solve : Part There are two key equations for calculating the entropy change of an ideal gas. a.) Eqn 2

Eqn 1 For Process 1-A, specific volume is constant. For Process 1-B, pressure is constant. We can apply Eqn 1 to Process 1-A and Eqn 2 to Process 1-B. Eqn 3 Because the specific heats are constant, Eqns 3 & 4 can be integrated to obtain : Eqn 5 Notice that both the intial and final temperatures are the same: TA = TB = T2.

Eqn 4

Eqn 6

Eqn 7

## (SB - S1) > (SA - S1)

Eqn 1

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

Part Here, we compare, at state 1, (dT/dS)V to (dT/dS)P. b.) Since (dT/dS) at fixed V (or fixed P) is : Eqn 12

In part (a), we showed that, for the same T, S at constant P is greater than S at constant V.

Consequently :

Eqn 13

On a TS Diagram, a constant specific volume line passing through State 1 has a greater slope than a constant pressure line passing through the same state.

Part For Process 1-A, temperature is constant. For Process 1-B, volume is constant. c.) Apply Eqn 2 to Process 1-A and Eqn 1 to Process 1-B. Eqn 15

Eqn 14

We need to consider the ratio of Eqn 14 to Eqn 15 and compare its value to 1 to determine which is greater, S1-A or S1-B.

Eqn 16

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## TITLE: SOLVED PROBLEMS No. 5 DATE: February 11, 2014

But, for ideal gases undergoing a constant volume process 1-B : Eqn 17 Eqn 19 and : Eqn 18

## Therefore : Now, we can use Eqns 9 & 19to simplify Eqn 16 :

Eqn 20

Verify :

The assumptions made in this solution cannot be verified with the given information.

## (SB - S1) > (SA - S1) Part c.)

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