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SOCTEC 2 Science, Technology and Society 2 Master Lecture: Dr. Robert Ja ier De!art"ent o# $sychology, %& South 'ing Old Library DLS()M *ey Conce!t $oints #or (nderstanding: Topic 1: Science, Technology and the Development Process: The Dynamics of the Interactions between Scientific and Technological Development with State-B ilding, !apitalism, "oderni#ation and $lobali#ation The Development $rocess o o o Most !eo!le de#ine de elo!"ent as a !rocess o# change, !rogress and "oderni+ation. ,o-e er, de elo!"ent could also be seen beyond the "aterial di"ension and needs o# hu"an beings and in the conte.t o# their !olitical and e en s!iritual de elo!"ent. The do"inant "odel o# de elo!"ent sees it as synony"ous -ith econo"ic gro-th. /s such, it is associated -ith increasing !roducti e ca!acities o# econo"ies to generate -ealth. 0ts "ain indicators include "oderni+ation, -esterni+ation and industriali+ation o# -hat used to be traditional societies. ,o-e er, a growth-oriented model o# de elo!"ent, -hich !roduced !ositi e changes in the li es o# so"e !eo!le, also !roduced negati e i"!acts. There are "any e.a"!les -here the ga! bet-een the rich and the !oor -ithin countries #urther -idened, e en as the sa"e is also true bet-een rich and !oor countries. &urther"ore, gro-th "odels #or de elo!"ent created "ore de!endency o# !oor countries on rich countries, and #urther i"!o erished "any sectors e en as they bene#ited only the elite sectors o# society, and the interests o# richer countries. The !roble" -hich gro-th)"odels o# de elo!"ent !roduced led to the de elo!"ent o# alternative models #or de elo!"ent. There are those -ho loo1 at de elo!"ent in ter"s o# the hu"an di"ension. This !ers!ecti e recogni+es the need #or econo"ic and "aterial de elo!"ent, but goes beyond this by also #ocusing on !olitical e"!o-er"ent, !olitical de elo!"ent, and e en "oral and s!iritual de elo!"ent. There are also those -ho see de elo!"ent as a !roduct o# a 'estern, ca!italist and "ale)do"inated !ers!ecti es. This !articular ie- ad ances as alternati e "odels o# de elo!"ent those !rocesses that !uts alue on indigenous !ractices, or "ore sustainable de elo!"ent and less ca!italist and !ro#it)oriented !ractices, or !ractices that are "ore 2#e"inine3.

Theories o# social and technical change o De elo!"ent entails a !rocess o# social change, and science and technology !lay a big role in the !rocess. o The relationshi!s bet-een social change and technical change can be seen in three !ers!ecti es: techno)deter"inis", structural #unctionalis",

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and historical "aterialis". Techno-determinism, -hose "ain e.!onent is J.*. 4albraith, considers technology as the "ain dri er #or social change. Such ie- is su!!orted by the argu"ent that the uni ersal a!!lication o# technology has led to industriali+ation. Technological de elo!"ents in 5orth /"erica and Euro!e beca"e the "ain engines that dro e the industrial re olution, and caused signi#icant changes in the econo"y, !olitics and culture o# hu"an societies not only in these !laces but -orld-ide. Str ct ral f nctionalism, -hich is "ainly es!oused by '.'. Rosto-, loo1s at social changes as an e olutionary !rocess. /s such, change is ie-ed as gradual and incre"ental, -herein the ideal state is characteri+ed by balance and har"ony, and -herein con#lict is seen as dys#unctional and abnor"al. This ie- argues that societies start as traditional characteri+ed "ainly by li"ited !roduction. This is caused by the !re alence o# !ri"iti e technologies and o# s!iritual -orld ie-s, -hich -ere the do"inant characteristics o# the pre-industrial stage. The e"ergence o# "odern science and the de elo!"ent o# "odern technologies gradually dro e traditional societies to beco"e "ore "odern, and !re!ared the" #or econo"ic 2ta1e)o##.3 These societies e entually too1)o## -ith the #urther "oderni+ation o# scienti#ic and technological acti ities. This -as seen during the !eriod o# the industrial revolution. The continued de elo!"ent o# scienti#ic 1no-ledge and technological inno ation e entually dri e society to achie e #ull "aturity, -here the "ain econo"ic acti ity is the !roduction o# consu"er goods, and -here consu"!tion noe.ceeds needs, a society that can be considered as e.!eriencing a state o# 2high "ass consu"!tion.3 Such #inal state is nore#erred to as the post-industrial stage. The third theoretical !ers!ecti e, -hich dra-s its theoretical roots #ro" Mar.is", is re#erred to as historical materialism% 'hile structural #unctionalis" belie es in e olutionary change, historical "aterialis" !osits a dyna"ic ie- o# society, and considers con#lict and contradiction as the 1ey !rocesses that dri e social change. This is in contrast to structural #unctionalis" -hich considers con#lict as dys#unctional. ,istorical "aterialists argue that the historical de elo!"ent o# society is dri en by the contradiction bet-een social #orces at a gi en ti"e. The resolution, or synthesis, o# such con#lict !a es the -ay #or the e"ergence o# a ne- !eriod. Mar. and other historical)"aterialists de#ine society according to the "anner by -hich social institutions are organi+ed in relation to the con ersion o# nature into !roducts and co""odities, re#erred to as modes of production. Trans#or"ations in the "odes o# !roduction -ere seen in the succession #ro" !ri"iti e socialis", to 1inshi! "odes, to #eudalis", then to ca!italis", and #inally to co""unis". The

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!rocess o# trans#or"ation in the "odes o# !roduction e"anates #ro" the inherent con#lict bet-een social classes -ithin such "ode o# !roduction. Technology, in this conte.t, is no- seen as co"!rising the forces of production, -hich in the conte.t o# a gi en "ode o# !roduction is under the control o# the ruling class and is used by it to "aintain the status 6uo. ,o-e er, the ruling class "ay e entually lose control -hen it is unable to control the e"erging technologies. This situation "ay e entually lead to a crisis, and the social class that has the ca!acity to control the e"erging technologies is the one -ho -ill beco"e the re olutionary class and challenge the current ruling class. This ie- could be clearly illustrated in the transition #ro" #eudalis" to ca!italis" in Euro!e. 0n #eudalis", the "ode o# !roduction is land) based, and the do"inant technologies are agricultural in nature o# -hich the ruling landlords ha e control. ,o-e er, during the industrial re olution, the !roduction !rocess shi#ted #ro" agriculture to industry. This -as #acilitated by the de elo!"ent o# industrial technologies used by the nascent or early industrial classes. E entually, the bourgeoisie or the ca!italist class that ac6uired control o er these e"erging technologies beca"e the re olutionary class -hich challenged the landlords and e entually too1 control o# society in the conte.t o# a ca!italist "ode o# !roduction. ,o-e er, this #ra"e-or1 beco"es !roble"atic -hen -e a!!ly it in the analysis o# the transition #ro" ca!italis" to socialis". 0n Mar.ist theory, the re olutionary class in ad anced ca!italis" is su!!osed to be the -or1ing class, -ho !ro ides the #unda"ental technology #or hu"an labor. ,o-e er, the e"ergence o# "echani+ation and the de elo!"ent o# in#or"ation technology, arti#icial intelligence, and 1no-ledge in robotics ha e e##ecti ely dis!laced the -or1ing class. These technologies are not controlled by the re olutionary -or1ing class, but are instead controlled by the technocratic class co"!osed o# science)based technical e.!erts. The relationshi! bet-een science and technology on one hand and the de elo!"ent !rocess on the other can be understood in the conte.t o# #our basic !rocesses. These are "oderni+ation, the de elo!"ent o# the "odern state and its attendant bureaucratic organi+ations, the de elo!"ent o# a ca!italist econo"y, and globali+ation. o Science, Technology and Moderni+ation "oderni#ation is a !rocess o# social change, -herein a gi en society "o es #ro" a !ri"iti e state to-ards an ad anced and "odern state. This "o e"ent is unidirectional, and is considered to be good since it i"!lies !rogress, hu"anity and ci ili+ation. This change is not re olutionary but e olutionary in nature, characteri+ed by a slo-, gradual and !iece"eal !rocess. The "oderni+ation !rocess is characteri+ed by the #ollo-ing:

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$hased7the !rocess co"es in stages ,o"ogeni+ing7the !rocess tends to uni#y di##erent !olitical, cultural, econo"ic and social syste"s into a single syste" Euro!eani+ation 8or 'esterni+ation97the !rocess #ollo-s the Euro!ean or 'estern "odels and !atterns o# social change 0rre ersible7a syste" cannot go bac1 to its original state once "oderni+ation ensues $rogressi e7the change is #ro" bac1-ard to ad anced states Lengthy7the !rocess ta1es a long ti"e Syste"atic7the !rocess #ollo-s a distinct !attern Trans#or"ati e7the !rocess trans#or"s societies #ro" one state o# e.istence to another 0""anent7the !rocess is ine itable

The #ollo-ing characteristics are associated -ith relati ely non) "oderni+ed societies Lo- degree o# s!eciali+ation ,igh le el o# sel#)su##iciency Cultural nor"s o# tradition, !articularis" and #unctional di##useness Relati ely lo- e"!hasis on "oney circulation and "ar1et &a"ily nor"s such as ne!otis" are !re alent One)-ay #lo- o# goods and ser ices #ro" rural to urban areas On the other hand, the #ollo-ing characteristics are associated -ith relati ely "oderni+ed societies: ,igh degree o# s!eciali+ation and interde!endency o# organi+ations Cultural nor"s o# rationality, uni ersalis" and #unctional s!eci#icity ,igh degree o# centrali+ation Relati ely "ore e"!hasis on "oney circulation and "ar1et E"!hasis on bureaucratic organi+ations T-o)-ay #lo- o# goods and ser ices bet-een to-ns and illages The role o# science and technology in the !rocess o# "oderni+ation 0t is inaccurate to argue that non)"odern societies do not ha e their o-n technologies, nor it is correct to argue that they do not ha e science. Science and technology, albeit in nascent #or"s, are !resent e en in non)"odern societies. &or e.a"!le, technologies such as the -heel, or 1no-ledge about #ire and gun!o-der, -ere disco ered in

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relati ely non)"oderni+ed conte.ts. The relationshi!s bet-een "oderni+ation on one hand and science and technology on the other, is not unilinear, in that it is hard to say that one causes the other. Moderni+ation is enabled by de elo!"ents in scienti#ic 1no-ledge and technologies. ,o-e er, the increasing co"!le.ity o# society -hich attends the "oderni+ation !rocess also enables the gro-th o# science and technology by !ro iding the conte.t #or the de elo!"ent o# higher le els o# thin1ing, seen in the e"ergence o# ne!roble"s and the de elo!"ent o# ne- "echanis"s #or disco ery. Modern societies de"and ne-er 1no-ledge syste"s and technological inno ations. The need #or netechnologies e"erges as a result o# ne- li#estyles -hich, in turn, are in#luenced by ne- technologies. &or e.a"!le, electricity is a !roduct o# "odern technologies that e"anate #ro" "odern societies, e en as electricity enables the #urther "oderni+ation o# societies. /nother e.a"!le is the de elo!"ent o# auto"obiles -hich created changes in society, and these changes e entually re6uired better technologies in trans!ortation to satis#y the de"and #or cleaner, #aster, sa#er and "ore e##icient "odes o# trans!ort

Science, Technology and State):uilding $olitical "oderni+ation, seen in the de elo!"ent and e"ergence o# the state and the bureaucracy, e"erged hand in hand -ith the !rocess o# social and cultural "oderni+ation. Political moderni#ation in ol ed the di##erentiation o# !olitical structures. 0t also sa- the seculari+ation o# !olitical culture and the entrench"ent o# the ethos o# e6uality as a !olitical ideal. Conse6uently, it led to the enhance"ent o# the ca!acity o# a society;s !olitical syste". The "odern state is an outco"e o# the increasing scale or co erage o# a !olitical syste", and its ability to i"!le"ent its decisions. 0t is no- able to !er#or" its tas1s through bureaucratic organi+ations that are able to !enetrate, go ern and regulate the conduct o# its citi+ens. 0t also ac6uired the ca!acity to aggregate the interests o# arious !olitical grou!s. This is achie ed through the institutionali+ation o# !olitical structures and !rocesses that strengthen the ca!acity o# the state #or !roble")sol ing e en as it is able to sustain the e"ergence o# ne- !olitical de"ands and organi+ations. ,o-e er, together -ith increasing co"!le.ity o# the state, the continuous de"ands by society #or e6uality e entually creates tensions and di isi eness that "ay lead to the #ollo-ing crises: The crisis o# national identity engendered by the shi#ting loyalties o# citi+ens #ro" !ri"ordial grou!s to the nation The crisis o# !olitical legiti"acy o# the state

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The crisis o# !enetration, seen in the di##iculty in a!!lying !olicies throughout society through the central go ern"ent The crisis o# citi+en !artici!ation The crisis o# integrating the interests o# arious !olitical grou!s The crisis o# distribution e"anating #ro" the inability o# the state is to bring about econo"ic gro-th, and its #ailure to distribute the bene#its o# such gro-th.

The role o# science and technology in the de elo!"ent o# the state Science and technology are resources -hich the state uses to enhance its ca!acity to deal -ith the arious crises cited abo e. States consider science and technology as ital in establishing and "aintaining the #oundations o# !olitical and econo"ic stability o# society. / country that is in control o# its scienti#ic and technological resources, and -hich !ossess the ca!acity to e.!and and "oderni+e such resources, -ould be in a better !osition to address the arious econo"ic and !olitical !roble"s the co"e its -ay. The "oderni+ation !rocess "ani#ests itsel# in the arious bureaucratic organi+ations. Ma. 'eber has de#ined b rea cracy as a "odern organi+ation, contrasting it to traditional institutions. 0t is through bureaucratic organi+ations that the o!erations o# the "odern state are #acilitated. 'hat "a1es bureaucratic organi+ations "odern is their de!endency on "odern "achines, tools, and techni6ues that allo- the" to deal -ith the arious co"!le. !roble"s that arise #ro" "odern societies. $rinci!les o# scienti#ic "anage"ent are used in the o!erations o# "odern organi+ations, including those that are under the state in addition to !ri ate cor!orations. These !rinci!les, -hich originated #ro" the -ritings o# &rederic1 Taylor, entail the "anage"ent and go ernance o# organi+ations using scienti#ic a!!roaches, such as -or1 #rag"entation, seen in the di ision o# -or1 into its co"!osite !arts and the assign"ent o# each to di##erent indi iduals s!eciali+ing in such s!eci#ic tas1s. 0t is also in the conte.t o# scienti#ic "anage"ent that !rinci!les -ere laid out #or the de elo!"ent o# !lanning and "onitoring syste"s. These -ere all ai"ed at !ro"oting e##iciency in aid o# the ad ance"ent o# the "odern state and its econo"ic syste", -hich is "ainly ca!italist in nature.

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