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Philippine Clear Air Act of 1999 (RA 8749) An Act Providing for a Comprehensive Air Pollution Control Policy

and or !ther Purposes Sec. 21. Pollution from Motor Vehicles a. The DOTC shall implement the emission standards for motor vehicles set pursuant and as provided in this Act. The D !" has provided emission standards for t#pe approval of motor vehicles a. for li$ht dut# vehicles %. for li$ht commercial vehicles c. for heav# dut# vehicles &uel evaporative emission for spar'(i$nition en$ines shall not e)ceed 2.* $rams h#drocar%ons per test. +t shall not allo, an# emission of $ases from cran'case ventilation s#stems into the atmosphere. Application of sec. 21 read -ilarion -enares et al. vs .T&"/ and DOTC 0.". 11223* Oct. 245 2**6 7nder the Clean Air Act5 it is the D !" that is tas'ed to set the emission standards for fuel use and the tas' of developin$ an action plan. As far as motor vehicles are concerned5 it devolves upon the DOTC and the line a$enc# ,hose mandate is to oversee that motor vehicles prepare an action plan and implement the emission standards for motor vehicles5 namel# the .T&"/. Petitioners are una%le to pinpoint the la, that imposes an indu%ita%le le$al dut# on respondents that ,ill 8ustif# a $rant of the ,rit of mandamus compellin$ the use of C!0 for pu%lic utilit# vehicles. More properl# the le$islature should provide first the specific statutor# remed# to the comple) environmental pro%lems %ared %efore an# 8udicial recourse %# mandamus is ta'en. )ecutive Order !o. 23* +mplementin$ the !atural 0as Vehicle Pro$ram for Pu%lic Transport 9!0VPPT: ,hich too' effect on &e%.2;5 2**;. The pro$ram reco$ni<ed5 amon$ others5 natural $as as a clean %urnin$ alternative fuel for vehicle ,hich has the potential to produce su%stantiall# lo,er pollutants and the Malampa#a 0as(to(Po,er Pro8ect as representin$ he %e$innin$ of the natural $as industr# of the Philippines. Para$raph 1.2 Sec 1 cites as one of its o%8ectives5 the use of C!0 as a clean alternative fuel for transport. One of the components of the pro$ram is the development of C!0 refuelin$ stations and all related facilities in strate$ic locations in the countr# to serve the needs of C!0(po,ered P7Vs. Sec. 4 consistent ,ith .O. !o. 66 series of 2**2 desi$nated the DO as the lead a$enc# a: in developin$ the natural $as industr# of the countr# ,ith the D !"5 thru the M/ and %: in formulatin$ emission standards for C!0. Par. ;.1 Sec. ; tas's the DOTC5 ,or'in$ ,ith the DO 5 to develop an implementation plan for =a $radual shift to C!0 fuel utili<ation in P7Vs and promote !0Vs 9natural $as vehicles: in Metro Manila and .u<on throu$h the issuance of directives>orders providin$ preferential franchises in present da# ma8or routes and e)clusive franchises to !0Vs in ne,l# opened routes. )ecutive Order 23* assures that the implementation for a cleaner environment is %ein$ addressed. At most the .T&"/ under the O as %een tas'ed in par ;.1 9ii: Sec. ; =to $rant preferential and e)clusive Certificates of Pu%lic Convenience 9CPC: or franchises to operators of !0Vs %ased on the results of the DOTC surve#s. %. The D !"5 in colla%oration ,ith the DOTC5 DT+ and .07s5 shall develop an action plan for the control and mana$ement of air pollution from motor vehicles consistent ,ith the +nte$rated Air ?ualit# &rame,or'. The DOTC shall enforce compliance ,ith the emission standards for motor vehicles set %# the D !". The DOTC ma# deputi<e other la, enforcement a$encies and .07s for this purpose. The DOTC shall have the po,er to 1.: inspect and monitor the emissions of motor vehicles 2.: prohi%it or en8oin the use of motor vehicles or a class of motor vehicles in an# area or street at specified times 4.: authori<e private emission testin$ centers dul# accredited %# the DT+ c. the DOTC to$ether ,ith the DT+ and the D !" shall esta%lish the procedures for the inspection of motor vehicles and the testin$ of their emissions for the purpose of determinin$ the concentration and>or rate of emission of pollutants dischar$ed %# said sources.

d. +n order to ensure the su%stantial reduction of emission from motor vehicles5 the DT+5 to$ether ,ith the DOTC and the D !" shall formulate and implement a national motor vehicle inspection and maintenance pro$ram that ,ill promote efficient and safe operation of all motor vehicles. The DT+ shall develop and implement standards and procedures for the certification of trainin$ institutions5 instructors and facilities and the licensin$ of @ualified private service centers and their technicians as prere@uisite for performin$ the testin$5 servicin$5 repair and the re@uired ad8ustment to the vehicle emission s#stem. The DT+ shall li'e,ise prescri%e re$ulations re@uirin$ the disclosure of odometer readin$s and the use of tamper(resistant odometers for all motor vehicles includin$ tamper(resistant fuel mana$ement s#stems for the effective implementation of the inspection and maintenance pro$ram. Sec. 22. "e$ulation of All Motor Vehicles and n$ines An# imported ne, or locall# assem%led ne, motor vehicle shall not %e re$istered unless it complies ,ith the emission standards evidenced %# a Certificate of Conformit# 9COC: issued %# the D !". An# imported ne, motor vehicle en$ine shall not %e introduced into commerce5 sold of used unless it complies ,ith emission standards An# imported used motor vehicle or re%uild motor vehicle usin$ ne, or used en$ines5 ma8or parts or components shall not %e re$istered unless it complies ,ith the emission standards +n case of noncompliance5 the importer or consi$nee ma# %e allo,ed to modif# or re%uild the vehicle or en$ine so that it ,ill %e in compliance ,ith applica%le emission standards. !o motor vehicle re$istration 9MV": shall %e issued unless such motor vehicle passes the emission testin$ re@uirement. Such testin$ shall %e conducted %# the DOTC or its authori<ed inspection sectors ,ithin 6* da#s prior to date of re$istration. The DT+ shall promul$ate the necessar# re$ulations prescri%in$ the useful life of vehicles and en$ines includin$ devices in order to ensure that such vehicles ,ill conform to the emissions ,hich the# are certified to meet. These re$ulations shall include provisions for ensurin$ the dura%ilit# of emission devices. Sec. 24 Second(-and Motor Vehicle n$ines An# imported second(hand motor vehicle en$ine shall not %e introduced into commerce5 sold or used unless it complies ,ith emission standards. Article 1. Pollution from Other Sources Sec. 2;. Pollution from Smo'in$ Smo'in$ inside a pu%lic %uildin$ or an enclosed pu%lic place includin$ pu%lic vehicles and other means of transport or in an# enclosed area outside of oneAs private residence5 private place of ,or' or an# dul# desi$nated smo'in$ area is prohi%ited. This provision shall %e implemented %# the .07s. Sec. 21. Pollution from Other Mo%ile Sources The D !"5 in coordination ,ith appropriate a$encies5 shall formulate and esta%lish the necessar# standards for all mo%ile sources other than those referred to in Sec. 21 9 referrin$ to vehicles:. The imposition of the appropriate fines and penalties from these sources for an# violation of emission standards shall %e under the 8urisdiction of the DOTC. Chapter 4 &uels5 Additives5 Su%stances and Pollutants The DO shall also specif# the allo,a%le content of additives in all t#pes of fuels and fuel(related products. Such standards shall %e %ased primaril# on threshold levels of health and research studies. On the %asis of such specifications5 the DO shall li'e,ise limit the content or %e$in the phaseout of additives in all t#pes of fuels and fuel(related products as it ma# deem necessar#. Other a$encies involved in the performance of this function shall %e re@uired to coordinate ,ith the DO and transfer all documents and information necessar# for the implementation of this provision. ver# 2 #ears or as the need arises5 the specifications of unleaded $asoline and of automotive and industrial diesel fuels shall %e revie,ed and revised for further improvement in formulation. The fuels characteri<ed a%ove shall %e commerciall# availa%le. .i'e,ise5 the same shall %e the reference fuels for emission and testin$ procedures to %e esta%lished in accordance ,ith this Act.

An# proposed additive shall not in an# ,a# increase emissions of an# of the re$ulated $ases ,hich shall include5 %ut not limited to car%on mono)ide5 h#drocar%ons5 and o)ides of nitro$en and particulate matter5 in order to %e approved and certified %# the D !". Sec. 2B. "e$ulation of &uels and &uel Additives The DO 5 in coordination ,ith the D !" and the /PS5 shall re$ulate the use of an# fuel or fuel additive. !o manufacturer5 processor or trader of an# fuel or additive ma# import5 sell5 offer for sale5 or introduce into commerce such fuel or additive unless the same has %een re$istered ,ith the DO . Prior to re$istration5 the manufacturer5 processor or trader shall provide the DO ,ith relevant information. Sec. 22. Misfuelin$ To prevent the disa%lin$ of an# emission control device %# lead contamination5 no person shall introduce or cause or allo, the introduction of leaded $asoline into an# motor vehicle e@uipped ,ith a $asoline tan' filter inlet and la%eled Cunleaded $asoline onl#.C This prohi%ition shall also appl# to an# person ,ho 'no,s or should 'no, that such vehicle is desi$ned solel# for the use of unleaded $asoline Sec. 23. Prohi%ition on Manufacture5 +mport and Sale of .eaded 0asoline !o person shall manufacture5 import5 or sell5 offer for sale5 introduce into commerce5 conve# or other,ise dispose of5 in an# manner leaded $asoline and en$ines and components re@uirin$ the use of leaded $asoline. Article T,o. Other pollutants Sec. 4*. O<one Depletin$ Su%stances Consistent ,ith the terms and conditions of the Montreal Protocol on Su%stances that Deplete the O<one .a#er and other international a$reements and protocols to ,hich the Philippines is a si$nator#5 the D !" shall phase out o<one(depletin$ su%stances. Sec. 41 0reenhouse 0ases. The Philippine Atmospheric5 0eoph#sical ad Astronomical Service Administration 9PA0ASA: shall re$ularl# monitor meteorolo$ical factors affectin$ environmental conditions includin$ o<one depletion and $reenhouse $ases and coordinate ,ith the D !" in order to effectivel# $uide air pollution monitorin$ and standard(settin$ activities. The D !"5 to$ether ,ith concerned a$encies and local $overnment units5 shall prepare and full# implement a national plan consistent ,ith the 7nited !ations &rame,or' Convention on Climate Chan$e and other international a$reements5 conventions and protocols on the reduction of $reenhouse $as emisions in the countr#. Sec. 42. Persistent Or$anic Pollutants 9POPs: The D !" shall develop short(term and lon$(term national $overnment pro$rams on the reduction and elimination of POPs such as dio)ins and furans. Such pro$rams shall %e formulated ,ithin a #ear after the esta%lishment of the inventor# list. Sec. 44. "adioactive missions All pro8ects ,hich ,ill involve the use of atomic and >or nuclear ener$#5 and ,ill entail release and emission of radioactive su%stances into the environment5 incident to the esta%lishment or possession of nuclear ener$# facilities and radioactive materials5 handlin$5 transport5 production5 stora$e5 and use of radioactive materials5 shall %e re$ulated in the interest of pu%lic health and ,elfare %# the Philippine !uclear "esearch +nstitute 9P!"+:5 in coordination ,ith the D !" and other appropriate $overnment a$encies. Chapter ;. +nstitutional Mechanism Sec. 4; .ead A$enc# The D !"5 unless other,ise provided 5 shall %e the primar# $overnment a$enc# responsi%le for the implementation and enforcement of this Act. The M/ is converted from a staff %ureau to a line %ureau. Sec. 41. .in'a$e Mechanism The D !" shall participate5 cooperate and enter into a$reement ,ith other $overnment a$encies5 or ,ith affected non$overnmental or$ani<ations 9!0Os: or peopleAs or$ani<ations 9Pos:5 or private enterprises in the furtherance of the o%8ectives of this Act Sec. 46. "ole of .ocal 0overnment 7nits .07s shall share in the responsi%ilit# in the mana$ement and maintenance of air @ualit# ,ithin their territorial 8urisdiction. Consistent ,ith Secs. B5 2 and 35 .07s shall implement air @ualit# standards set %# the /oard in areas ,ithin their 8urisdiction. +n areas ,here the /oard has not %een dul# constituted and has not promul$ated its standards5 the standards set forth in this Act shall appl#.

The D !" shall provide the .07s ,ith technical assistance5 trainin$s and a continuin$ capa%ilit#(%uildin$ pro$ram to prepare them to underta'e full administration of the air @ualit# mana$ement and re$ulation ,ithin their territorial 8urisdiction. Sec. 4B nvironment and !atural "esources Office sta%lishment of an !"O in ever# province5 cit#5 or municipalit# headed %# an !" officer appointed %# the Chief )ecutive in accordance ,ith the provisions of Sec. ;2; of "A B16*. +ts po,ers and duties areD a. To prepare comprehensive air @ualit# mana$ement pro$rams5 plans and strate$ies ,ithin its 8urisdiction upon the approval of the san$$unian %. To provide technical assistance support to the $overnor or ma#or5 in carr#in$ out measures to ensure the deliver# of %asic services and the provision of ade@uate facilities relative to air @ualit# c. To ta'e the lead in all efforts concernin$ air @ualit# protection and reha%ilitation. d. To recommend to the /oard air @ualit# standards ,hich shall not e)ceed the ma)imum permissi%le standards set %# national la,sE e. )ercise such other po,ers and perform such duties and functions as ma# %e prescri%ed %# la, or ordinance. +n provinces5 cities5 municipalities ,here there are no !" officers5 the local e)ecutive concerned ma# desi$nate an# of his official and>or chief of office prefera%l# the provincial5 cit# or municipal a$riculturist5 or an# of his emplo#ees +n case an emplo#ee is desi$nated as such5 he must have a sufficient e)perience in environmental and natural resources mana$ement5 conservation and utili<ation. Sec 42. "ecord('eepin$5 +nspection5 Monitorin$ and ntr# %# the D !" The D !" or its dul# accredited entit# shall5 after proper consultation and notice5 re@uire a person ,ho o,ns or operates an# emission source or ,ho is su%8ect to an# re@uirement of this act toD 9a: to esta%lish and maintain relevant records5 9%: ma'e relevant reports5 9c: install5 use and maintain monitorin$ e@uipment or methods5 9d: sample emission5 in accordance of the methods5 locations5 intervals5 and manner prescri%ed %# the D !"5 9e: 'eep records on control e@uipment parameters5 production varia%les or other indirect data ,hen direct monitorin$ of emissions is impractical5 and 9f: provide such other information as the D !" ma# reasona%l# re@uire. The D !"5 throu$h its authori<ed representatives5 shall have the ri$ht ofD 9a: entr# or access to an# premises includin$ documents and relevant materials5 9%: inspect an# pollution or ,aste source5 control device5 monitorin$ e@uipment or method re@uired5 and 9c: test an# emission. An# record5 report or information o%tained shall %e made availa%le to the P7/.+C5 e)cept upon a satisfactor# sho,in$ to the D !" %# the entit# concerned that the record5 report5 or information5 or parts thereof5 if made pu%lic5 ,ould divul$e secret methods or processes entitled to protection as intellectual propert#. Such record5 report or information shall li'e,ise %e incorporated in the D !"As industrial ratin$ s#stem. Sec. 43. Pu%lic ducation and +nformation Campai$n. A continuin$ air @ualit# and education campai$n shall %e promoted %# the D !"5 the D P d5 D+.05 DA and the P+A. Such campai$n shall encoura$e the participation of other $overnment a$encies and the private sector includin$ !0Os5 Pos5 the academe5 environmental $roups and other private entities in a multi(sectoral information campai$n. Chapter 1. ACT+O!S Sec. ;*. Administrative Action. Fithout the pre8udice to the ri$ht of an# affected person to file an administrative action5 the D !" shall5 on its o,n instance or upon verified complaint %# an# person5 institute administrative proceedin$s a$ainst an# person ,ho violatesD 9a: standards or limitation provided under this Act5 or 9%: an# order5 rule or re$ulation issued %# the D !" ,ith respect to such standard or limitation Sec. ;1. Citi<en Suits. &or purposes of enforcin$ the provisions of this Act or its +""5 an# C+T+G ! ma# file an appropriate civil5 criminal or administrative action in the proper courts a$ainstD 9a: an# person ,ho violates or fails to compl# ,ith the provisions of this Act or its +""E or

9%: The D !" or other implementin$ a$encies ,ith respect to orders5 rules and re$ulations issued inconsistent ,ith this ActE and>or 9c: an# pu%lic officer ,ho ,illfull# or $rossl# ne$lects the performance of an act specificall# en8oined as a dut# %# this Act or its +""E or H a%uses his authorit# in the performance of his dut#E or H in an# manner5 improperl# performs his duties under this Act or its +"". !o suit can %e filed until after thirt# 94*: da# notice has %een $iven to the pu%lic officer and the alle$ed violator concerned and no appropriate action has %een ta'e thereon. The court shall e)empt such action from the pa#ment of filin$ fees5 e)cept fees for actions not capa%le of pecuniar# estimations5 and shall5 li'e,ise5 upon prima facie sho,in$ of the non(enforcement or violation complained of5 e)empt the plaintiff from the filin$ of an in8unction %ond for the issuance of a preliminar# in8unction. Fithin 4* da#s5 the court shall ma'e a determination if the complaint herein is malicious and >or %aseless and shall accordin$l# D+SM+SS the action and a,ard attorne#As fees and dama$es. Sec. ;2. +ndependence of Action. The filin$ of an administrative suit a$ainst such person>entit# does not preclude the ri$ht of an# other person to file an# criminal or civil action. Such civil action shall proceed independentl#. Sec. ;4. Suits and Strate$ic .e$al Actions A$ainst Pu%lic Participation 9S.APP: and the nforcement of this Act. Fhere a suit is %rou$ht a$ainst a person ,ho filed a citi<en suitE or a$ainst an# person5 institution or $overnment a$enc# that implements this Act it shall %e the dut# of the investi$atin$ prosecutor or the court5 as the case ma# %e5 to immediatel# ma'e a determination not e)ceedin$ 4* da#s ,hether said le$al actions has %een filed to harass5 ve)5 e)ert undue pressure5 or stifle such le$al recourses of the person complainin$ of or enforcin$ the provisions of this Act. 7pon determination thereof5 evidence ,arrantin$ the same5 the court shall dismiss the case and a,ard attorne#As fees and dou%le dama$es. This provision shall also appl# and %enefit pu%lic officers ,ho are sued for acts committed in their official capacit#5 there %ein$ no $rave a%use of authorit#5 and done in the course of enforcin$ this Act. Sec. ;;. .ien 7pon Personal and +mmova%le Properties of Violators. &ines and penalties imposed pursuant to this Act shall %e liens upon personal and immova%le properties of the violator. Such lien shall5 in case of insolvenc# of the respondent violator5 en8o# preference su%se@uent to la%orerAs ,a$es under Articles 22;1 and 22;2 of "A !o. 426 9!e, Civil Code:. Chapter 6. &+! S A!D P !A.T+ S Sec. ;1. Violation of Standards for Stationar# Sources. &or actual e)ceedance of an# pollution or air @ualit# standards under this Act or its +"" P1**5*** for ever# da# of violation a$ainst the o,ner or operator of a stationar# source until such time that the standards have %een complied ,ith. The D !" throu$h the PA/ shall impose the fine. &or purposes of the application of the fines5 the PA/ shall prepare a fine ratin$ s#stem to ad8ust the ma)imum fine %ased on the violatorAs a%ilit# to pa#5 de$ree of ,illfulness5 de$ree of ne$li$ence5 histor# of noncompliance and de$ree of recalcitrance. +n case of ne$li$ence5 the first time offenderAs a%ilit# to pa# ma# li'e,ise %e considered %# the PA/. +n the a%sence of an# e)tenuatin$ or a$$ravatin$ circumstances5 the amount of fine for ne$li$ence shall %e e@uivalent to I of the fine for ,illful violation. The fines herein prescri%ed shall %e increased %# at least 1*J ever# 4 #ears to compensate for inflation and to maintain the deterrent function of such fines + +n addition to the fines5 the PA/ shall order the closure5 suspension of development5 construction or operations of the stationar# sources until such time that proper environmental safe$uards are put in place. An esta%lishment found lia%le for a 4rd offense shall suffer permanent closure immediatel#. This is ,ithout pre8udice to the immediate issuance of an e) parte order for such closure5 suspension of development or construction5 or cessation of operations durin$ the pendenc# of the case upon prima facie evidence that there is imminent threat to life5 pu%lic health5 safet# or $eneral ,elfare5 or to plant or animal life5 or ,henever the

there is an e)ceedance of the emission standards set %# the D !" and>or PA/ and>or the appropriate .07. Sec. ;6. Violation of Standards for Motor Vehicles. !o motor vehicle shall %e re$istered ,ith the DOTC unless it meets the emission standards set %# the D !" as provided in Sec. 21. An# vehicle suspected of violation of emission standards throu$h visual si$ns5 such as5 %ut no limited to smo'e(%elchin$5 shall %e su%8ected to an emission test %# a dul# authori<ed emission testin$ center. The DOTC or its authori<ed testin$ center shall esta%lish shall esta%lish a roadside inspection s#stem Should it %e sho,n that there is ,as no violation of emission standards5 the vehicle shall %e immediatel# released. Other,ise5 a testin$ result indicatin$ an e)ceedance of the emission standards ,ould ,arrant the continuin$ custod# of the impounded vehicle unless the appropriate penalties are full# paid5 and the license plate is surrendered to the DOTC to authori<e the use of the motor vehicle ,ithin a specified period that shall not e)ceed B da#s for the sole purpose of ma'in$ the necessar# repairs on the said vehicle. The o,ner(operator of the vehicle shall %e re@uired to correct its defects and sho, proof of compliance to the appropriate pollution control office %efore the vehicle can %e allo,ed to %e driven on an# pu%lic or su%division roads. +n addition5 the driver and operator of the apprehended vehicle shall under$o a seminar on pollution control and mana$ement conducted %# the DOTC and shall also suffer the follo,in$ penaltiesD 9a: 1st Offense a fine not to e)ceed P2**5***E 9%: 2nd Offense a fine not less than P2**5*** and not to e)ceed P;**5***E 9c: 4rd Offense 1 #ear suspension of the MV" and a fine of not less than P;**5*** and not more than P6**5***. An# violation of the provisions of Sec. 215 para$raph 9d: ,ith re$ard to national inspection and maintenance pro$ram5 includin$ technicians and facilit# compliance a fine of not less than P4*5*** or cancellation of license of %oth the technician and the center5 or %oth5 as determined %# the DT+. Sec. ;B. &ines and Penalties for Violations of Other Provisions in the Act. &or violations of all other provisions in the Act and +"" fine of not less than P1*5*** %ut not more than P1**5*** or imprisonment of 6 months to 6 #ears or %oth fine and imprisonment. +f the offender is a 8uridical person5 the president mana$er5 directors5 trustees5 the pollution control officer or the officials directl# in char$e of the operations shall suffer the penalt# herein provided. Sec. ;2. 0ross Violations. +n case of $ross violation of this Act or its +""5 the PA/ shall recommend to the proper $overnment a$encies to file the appropriate criminal char$es a$ainst the violators. The PA/ shall assist the pu%lic prosecutor in the liti$ation of the case. 0ross violation shall meanD 9a: 4 or more specific offenses ,ithin a period of 1 #earE 9%:4 or more