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Strives to be a VIRTUOUS MAN, not simply for some generic VIRTUE

A) not required or necessary for powers with a determined single act. Example: nutritive powers which only seeks the preservation of the body. Powers which have DIFFERENT OBJECTS (goals or ends). Therefore, they need a QUALITY that will STABILIZE them towards their TRUE and PEREFECTING end GOOD



B) for a human person to be GOOD, a good will is not sufficient. He requires RECTITUDE:


May rebel against the HIGHER POWERS because they have an instinctive movement


They require the MORAL VIRTUES to perfect them by following REASON and WILL with docility. C) due to the DEFICIENCY of human FREEDOM: (1) the intellect and the will can have a certain INDETERMINATION towards the good; (2) the virtues perfect freedom against the INDIFFERENCE of the will and disordered emotions.

Kinds of Virtues.
1) By ORIGIN. GOD MAN SUPERNATURAL VIRTUES Infused with sanctifying grace e.g. theological virtues (faith, hope,charity) Through repeated acts e.g. intellectual and moral virtues


2) By OBJECT (Goal).


Love of God (i.e. fasting, sacrifices, prayers, etc.) Human realities (i.e. work, health, success, etc.) Understanding: habit theoretical principles of the 1st

Human Virtues. INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES Theoretical Intellectual Virtues

Synderesis: habit of the 1st moral principles Wisdom: consider things from their ultimate causes

Practical Intellectual Virtues Science: study things from their ultimate causes to make conclusions
*Prudence: is more on RIGHT ACTIVITY rather than RIGHT KNOWLEDGE. It commands, rather than to judge, it directs powers according to dictates of RIGHT REASON. * thus: justice/religion control the WILL * and fortitude/magnificence manage the aggressive APPETITES

Dictates what to do in each individual case to do good (recta ratio agibilium) Makes known what must be done to produce given certain objects (recta ratio factibilium)

Operative Powers: - intellect, will, senses, passions, etc.

FREEDOM for Love

Possess the GOOD, achieve PERFECTION.

VIRTUE (intermediate quality)


freedom is lost due to ones ENSLAVEMENT to the passions and senses; leads to quick gratitification, which is the SEPULCHRE of VIRTUE, and ultimately to bad actions (VICES), self DESTRUCTION the VICES give the powers a disposition which makes it CONNATURAL with its evil activity, making it more proned to act in an evil way

disposes operative power toward a definite type of act thus: they can also be called good operative habits or stable qualities as opposed to dispositions and transient qualities they do not affect ENTATIVE HABITS (e.g. mans health) powers that more proper to the nature of a thing they perfect the operative power by disposing it to act in accord with the nature of the subject, bringing it closer to its proper activity, making it more perfect therefore through virtues (1) the operative powers accomplish good acts easily and promptly, in an agreeable and natural manner; (2) they make the possessor of virtue good and makes his activity good.