Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 21

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.0 INDUCTION MOTOR

INDUCTION MOTOR

6.1 INTRODUCTION TO INDUCTION MOTOR

Definition of Induction:

ELE 290

The process by which an electromotive force is produced in a circuit by varying the magnetic

field linked with the circuit.

Induction motors are the most commonly used electric motors.

Although it is possible to use an induction machine as either a motor or a generator, it has many disadvantages and low efficiency as a generator and so is rarely used in that manner. The

performance characteristics as a generator are not satisfactory for most applications.

For this reason, induction machines are usually referred to as induction motors.

AC current supplied to the stator winding produces a flux through t he air gap that induces currents in

the rotor windings.

Rotor receives electric power by induction in exactly the same way as the secondary of 2 winding transformer.

Can be treated as a rotating transformer, one in which primary winding is stationary (stat or) but the secondary is free to rotate (rotor).

Most appliances, such as washing machines and refrigerators, use a single - phase induction machine

For industrial applications, the three-phase induction motor is used to drive machines

Advantages

Very simple and extremely rugged

Low cost and very reliable

Requires minimum of maintenance

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Disadvantages

ELE 290

Speed cannot be varied without sacrificing some of its efficiency.

Speed decreases with increase in load

6.2

CONSTRUCTION

A machine is called induction machines because the rotor voltage (which produces the rotor current and the rotor magnetic field) is induced in the rotor windings instead of being physically connected by wires.

The distinguishing feature of an induction machine is that no DC field curre nt is required to run the machine.

is that no DC field curre nt is required to run the machine. Although it is

Although it is possible to use an induction machine as either a motor or a generator, it has many disadvantages as a generator and so is rarely used in that manner. For this reason, induction machines are usually referred to as induction motor.

Two sets of electromagnets are formed inside any motor. In an AC induction motor, one set of electromagnets is formed in the stator because of the AC supply connected to the stator windings. The alternating nature of the supply voltage induces an Electromagnetic Force (EMF) in the rotor (just like the voltage is induced in the transformer secondary) as per Lenz’s law, thus generating another set of electromagnets; hence the name induction motor. Interaction between the magnetic field of these electromagnets generates twisting force, or torque. As a result, the motor rotates in the direction of the resultant torque.

An induction motor consists of two main parts: stator and rotor. It has the same physical stator as a synchronous machine but with different rotor construction. There are two types of induction motor rotors that can be placed inside the stator, i.e. squirrel -cage rotor and wound rotor.

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.2.1 TYPES OF ROTOR

a) Squirrel-Cage Rotor

ELE 290

Squirrel -cage rotor, as shown below, consists of a series of conducting bars laid into slots carved in the face of the rotor and shorted at either end by large shorting rings.

the rotor and shorted at either end by large shorting rings. Fig. 6.0: Example of Squirrel-Cage
the rotor and shorted at either end by large shorting rings. Fig. 6.0: Example of Squirrel-Cage
the rotor and shorted at either end by large shorting rings. Fig. 6.0: Example of Squirrel-Cage
the rotor and shorted at either end by large shorting rings. Fig. 6.0: Example of Squirrel-Cage

Fig. 6.0: Example of Squirrel-Cage Rotor

The rotor is cylindrical and is made of conducting bars short circuited at both ends

It is also known as brushless induction motor.

It is more rugged and since there are no brushes it is safer in combustible environment.

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

b) Wound Rotor

ELE 290

Wound rotor, as shown below has a complete set of three -phase windings similar to stator windings. Usually, it is Y-connected and the rotor coils are tied to the slip rings.

Y-connected and the rotor coils are tied to the slip rings. Fig. 6.1: Wound Rotor 
Y-connected and the rotor coils are tied to the slip rings. Fig. 6.1: Wound Rotor 

Fig. 6.1: Wound Rotor

The rotor is cylindrical and is made up of a three phase windings with terminals brought out to slip rings

Wound rotor induction motors are also known as a slip-ring motors

This type is the more complicated of the two type but it has a higher starting torque and is more controllable

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.2.2

STATOR

ELE 290

The stator is made up of several thin laminations of aluminum or cast iron. They are punched and clamped together to form a hollow cylinder (stator core) with slots as shown in Fig. 7.2. Coils of insulated wires are inserted into these slots. Each grouping of coils, together with the core it

surrounds, forms an electromagnet (a pair of poles) on the application of AC supply.

The number of poles of an AC induction motor depends on the internal connection of the stator windings. The stator windings are connected directly to the power source. Internally they are

connected in such a way, that on applying AC supply, a rotating magnetic field is created.

are connected in such a way, that on applying AC supply, a rotating magnetic field is
are connected in such a way, that on applying AC supply, a rotating magnetic field is

Fig. 6.2: A Typical Stator

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.3 PRODUCTION OF ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD

ELE 290

When a three phase stator winding is connected to a three phase voltage supply, three phase currents will flow in the windings which induce three-phase flux in the stator. This flux will rotate at a

speed called as synchronous speed

N . The flux is called as rotating magnetization field. The

s

mathematical equation is given as:

N s

120 f

p

where

f the supply frequency

p no. of poles in the

machine/motor

The currents that flows in the stator are spaced 120° each other. Graphical representation is shown in Fig. 6.3.

each other. Graphical representation is shown in Fig. 6.3. Fig. 6.3: 3-Phase Current i R i

Fig. 6.3: 3-Phase Current

i

R

i

i

Y

B

t t t  

i sin t

m

m

m

i sint 120

i sint 120

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.4 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

ELE 290

When a three phase current flow in a three-phase winding, rotating magnetic field (flux) will be produced. The flux has constant magnitude and is distributed in sinusoidal form. This flux will induce voltage in the rotor conductor by Fleming’s Right Hand Rule. By Faraday’s Law, if the rotor winding is short-circuited, rotor current will flow in it. The reaction between rotor current and stator flux causes

the rotor to rotate in the same direction as the stator flux.

An induction motor with 2 poles can be taken to explain this phenomena. Conductor A will be located under north pole while conductor B will be located under south p ole as illustrated in Fig. 6.4. The flux rotates in the clock-wise direction (towards the right).lf the flux is taken as the reference, the conductors A and B are likely to move to the left. Then, from the Right Hand Fleming, voltage or

current will be i nduced as shown in

Fig. 6.5.

voltage or current will be i nduced as shown in Fig. 6.5. Fig. 6.4: Conductor A

Fig. 6.4: Conductor A is located under north pole and conductor B is located under south pole

under north pole and conductor B is located under south pole Fig. 6.5: Right Hand Fleming

Fig. 6.5: Right Hand Fleming

under north pole and conductor B is located under south pole Fig. 6.5: Right Hand Fleming

Fig. 6.6: Ampere Right Hand Rule

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

The same process happens to conductor B.

ELE 290

As shown in Fig. 6.6, when current flows in the rotor circuit, flux will be induced and the direction is anti-clock-wise. This is called Ampere Right Hand Rule. The interaction between flux produced by the rotor current and the rotating flux will induce torque on the rotor conductor that acts to the right. This torque causes the rotor to rotate clockwise. The illustration is shown in Fig. 6.7.

to rotate clockwise. The illustration is shown in Fig. 6.7. Fig. 6.7: Interaction between Rotor Current

Fig. 6.7: Interaction between Rotor Current Flux and Rotating Flux

Conclusion:

Rotating field will cause the rotor to rotate at the same direction as the stator flux. The torque direction is independent upon the conductor position. Torque direction is always the same as the flux

rotation.

At the time of starting the motor, rotor speed = 0. The rotati ng magnetic field will cause the rotor to rotate from 0 speeds to a speed that is lower than the synchronous speed. If the rotor speed is equal to the synchronous speed, there will be no cutting of flux and rotor current equals zero. Therefore, it

is not possible for the rotor to rotate at

N

s

.

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.5 SLIP AND SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

ELE 290

Slip is defined as the difference between synchronous speed (magnetic field’s speed) and rotor speed:

where:

N

s

N

r

N N

s

s

r

N

s

synchronous speed in rev/min.

rotor speed in rev/min.

……………………………

(3.0)

From Eqn. 3.0, the rotor speed can be derived as N

r

N

s

1 s

. Slip can also be represented in

percent. When the rotor move at

n

r

rev/sec (rps), the stator flux will circulate the rotor conductor at

a speed of

where:

s slip

n n

s

r

per second. Therefore, the frequency of the rotor emf,

f

r

sf

n

s

n

r

p

f

r

is written as:

f supply frequency.

The rotor therefore runs at a speed slightly less than the synchronous speed the difference being called slip speed.

Slip speed

N N

s

r

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.6 PER PHASE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

ELE 290

The per-phase equivalent circuit of a three-phase induction motor is just like a single phase transformer equivalent circuit. The difference is only that, the secondary winding is short-circuited unlike in the transformer it is open-circuited as a load is to be connected later. The per-phase

equivalent circuit is illustrated in Fig. 6.8 below.

equivalent circuit is illustrated in Fig. 6.8 below. Fig. 6.8: Per-Phase Equivalent of 3-Phase Induction Motor.

Fig. 6.8: Per-Phase Equivalent of 3-Phase Induction Motor.

The per-phase equivalent circuit referred to the stator winding is shown in Figure 7.9. This equivalent circuit is categorized into two types: [i] actual equivalent circuit and [ii] approximate equivalent

circuit.

equivalent circuit and [ii] approximate equivalent circuit. Fig. 6.9: Per-Phase Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator

Fig. 6.9: Per-Phase Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator Winding.

From the equivalent circuit;

I

1

Stator phase current. :

I

1

I I

o

2

= Stator line current (for stator Y-connection)

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELE 290

I  = I L 3 , where L stator line current (for stator: Δ
I 
= I L
3
, where
L
stator line current (for stator: Δ - connection)
I 
2
Rotor current referred to stator winding
I 
I
 I  I
o
No-load current,
o
c
m
I
c
Core current
I 
m
Magnetizing current

For approximate equivalent circuit;

I

c

E

s ph

R

c

;

I

m

E

s ph

jX

m

;

I I I

 
 

1

o

2

I

I

I

o

 

c

m

I

2

E

s ph

  R

2

s

R

1



j X X

2

1

……

(3.1)

This model is normally used for analysis purposes for simplicity.

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.7 POWER FLOW DIAGRAM

ELE 290

Power flow diagram is actually a flow of power right from the input to the output.

Input power = Output Power + Losses

Core Loss
Core Loss
Iron Loss
Iron Loss

Stator Input Power

=

Stator Output Power

+

Stator Losses

Stator Input Power = Stator Output Power + Stator Losses Stator Iron Losses ( SIL )
Stator Input Power = Stator Output Power + Stator Losses Stator Iron Losses ( SIL )

Stator Iron Losses ( SIL ) @ Core Loss (Pcore) ( Normally Given )

Iron Losses ( SIL ) @ Core Loss (P core ) ( Normally Given ) Stator

Stator Cooper Losses ( SCL )

@ PSCL

) ( Normally Given ) Stator Cooper Losses ( SCL ) @ P SCL Rotor Input

Rotor Input Power ( RIP) @ Air-gap Power

( SCL ) @ P SCL Rotor Input Power ( RIP) @ Air-gap Power Fig. 6.10:

Fig. 6.10: Power Flow Diagram

Fig. 6.10 shows the power flow diagram while Fig. 7.11 illustrates the components that involve in the power losses calculation.

the components that involve in the power losses calculation. Fig. 6.11: Components Involved in Power Flow

Fig. 6.11: Components Involved in Power Flow Diagram

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELE 290

From the circuit shown in Fig. 6.11, the power equations can be derived as follows:

[i]

[ii]

[iii]

SCL occurs at

R

s

RCL occurs at

R

2

, then

R'

R

SCL 3 I R

2

2

s

, then

RCL 3 I R

2

2

2

P

m

occurs at

R

2

s

1 s

, then

P

m

3 I

2

2

R

2

s

1 s

…………….… (3.2)

…………….… (3.3)

…………….… (3.4)

[iv]

RIP occurs on

R 2 ,

s

then :

RIP 3 I

2

2

R

2

s

…………….… (3.5)

From Eqn. (3.2

From Eqn. 3.4

From Eqn. 3.5

:

3.5),

we can derive the power equations in terms of slip and power, then:

:

P

m

3 I

2

2

2

R

2

s

2

R

2

s

1 s

P

m

= 1 s

=

=

RCL 1 s

= RIP 1 s …………(3.6)

RCL

s

s

P

m

and RIP , if

…………(3.7)

RIP 3 I

From these equations, we do not need to recalculate

RCL is known provided that

the value for slip is known.

The input power comes from the stator input, then:

Where

V

L

and

I

V

ph

and

P in

the stator input, then: Where V L and I V ph and P in  3V

3V I cos 3V I cos

L L

ph ph

L are line voltage and line current respectively.

I

ph

are phase voltage and phase current respectively.

is the angle between voltage and current.

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELE 290

6.8 EFFICIENCY

Efficiency for any electrical machine is defined as:

P

out

P

in

P

out

P total .losses

out

……………………… (3.8)

One thing should be noted that the

P out

input power comes from the stator.

is actually the output from the rotor or motor itself while the

6.9 TORQUE EQUATION

Torque equation can be derived from the power equation that is expressed in mechanical formula and electrical formula. These two formula can be equated together to obtain its relationship in terms of circuit parameters.

Basic power equation is given as;

Then torque,

P T

Torque; T

60 P

2 N

where

2N

60

(speed in rad/sec)

N Speed in rev/min (rpm)

T Torque in Nm

……………………………………….………… (3.9)

Eqn. 3.9 is the general formula for torque equation. This formula can be employed to calculate the output and mechanical torque by some formula modification.

For mechanical torque :

T @ T

mech

m

60 P

m

2 N

……………………

(3.10)

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

For output torque :

T

o

60 P

out

2 N

……………………

(3.11)

ELE 290

T

m

)

6.9.1 MECHANICAL TORQUE (

The mechanical torque is sometimes called the induced torque. The mechanical torque can be also

expressed in terms of circuit parameters.

where

But,

I

2

 

P

m

3 I

2

2

R

s

2

1

s

2 N T

r

60

m

 

r

T

m

 

N

speed of the rotor and

 
 

r

 
 

The rotor speed in rad/s

r

T

3 I

2

2

R

s

2

 

1 s

3

I

2

2

R 1 s

2

3 I

2

2

R

2

m

 

 

s

1 s

s

 

E

s ph

r

I

s

E

s ph

s

 

;

so ,

 

2

2

R

s

2

R

1

 j X

2

X

1

  R  2  s
 R
2
s

R

1

X

2

Substitute

I

Thus,

T

m

2

E    s ph 2  R   2  R 
E
s ph
2
 R
2
 R
X
 2
1
s

, into the mechanical torque,

T

m

3


 


2

 
 

E

s

ph

R

 R 2  s 
R
2
s

R

1

2

X

2

2

 

s

 
 

s

3 E

s

ph

2 R

2

s

s

R

2

s

R

1

2

X

2

equation,

…………

(3.12)

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

By simplifying the above equation, therefore, the formula for the mechanical torque,

T

m

3 E

s ph

2

sR

2

R sR

2

1

2

sX

s

2

where

X X X

1

2

…………………… …………

(3.13)

T

m

is

ELE 290

………… (3.13) T m is ELE 290 Eqn. 3.13, if we draw on the Fig. 6.12:

Eqn. 3.13, if we draw on the

Fig. 6.12: Motor Torque vs Slip(Speed)

T

m

versus s

versus s

on the graph will be appeared as in Fig. 6.12. From the

torque-speed characteristics (Fig. 6.12.) it is observed that;

T st

T

max

S

max

T NL

T FL

N

s

: The torque required by the motor to start. Also called as initial torque.

: The max torque for the motor. Also called as stalling or pull-out torque.

:

The slip at

T

max

: No-load torque.

: Full-load torque.

: Synchronous speed.

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.9.2 MAXIMUM TORQUE (

T max

To obtain

T

max

, differentiate the

T

m

)

to obtain

s

max

,

ELE 290

From the same curve, the max point can be obtained by differentiating Eqn. 3.13.

To obtain max torque, then, yield:

Substitute

s into Eqn. 3.13, we get:

max

dT m  0 ds : R s  2 max  R 1 
dT
m
 0
ds
:
R
s 
2
max
R 1 
2  X
2

T 

max

  3 E 2 1 s ph    2  R 
3 E
2
1
s ph

2 
R
R
2
 
X
2
s
1
1

…………………… (3.14)

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

6.9.3 STARTING TORQUE (

T st

)

Starting torque can be derived from Eqn. 3.13 with slip, s

1.0

At starting, N

r

0 ,

therefore,

s

Ns Nr

Ns

1

As a result, the equation of the starting torque,

T st

is

T  3 E

st

 

2

R

 

s ph

2

 

s

R

2

R

1

2

X

2

………………………… (3.15)

ELE 290

Fig. 7.13 represents the relationship between torque and slip/speed with varying R .

between torque and slip/speed with varying R . The relationship between T st Fig. 6.13: Motor

The relationship between

T

st

Fig. 6.13: Motor Torque vs SIip(Speed)

and

T

max

can be obtained by assuming stator resistance =0. From Fig.

6.13, we found that at starting, torque is proportional to the resistance.

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Tutorial

ELE 290

QUESTION 1

A 15 hp, 415V, 50Hz, 4 pole, three-phase star connected induction motor operates at 1465 rpm when carrying rated load. The motor parameters refer to the stator expressed in ohm per phase are:

Rs 0.3Xs

0.83

Rr '0.31

Xr '1.25

Xm 31

The total rotational losses are 1100 W and are assumed to be constant. At rated voltage and rated frequency,

find:

i) The motor slip

ii) The stator current

iii) The stator copper loss

iv) The power converted from electrical to mechanical form

v) The overall machine’s efficiency

QUESTION 2

A single phase transformer has the following circuit parameters :

20KVA, 1500/5000V, 50Hz, 0.95 lagging power factor.

R 1 = 0.5Ω

R 2 = 1.5Ω

X 1 = 2.0Ω

X 2 = 0.45Ω

R c = 350Ω

X m = 500Ω

Calculate;

i) The approximate equivalent circuit parameter referred to primary side.

ii) The full-load current on the primary and secondary windings.

iii) Assume that this transformer is supplying rated load at 5000V and 0.95 lagging power factor. What is the transformer input voltage?

iv) What is the transformer efficiency under condition of part (3).

v) What does the power losses essentially show for the short circuit and open circuit tests.

QUESTION 3 Draw and label the related power equation for the power flow diagram of the induction motor.

QUESTION 4

A three-phase 5hp, 50 Hz, 4 poles induction motor operating at rated voltage and frequency with rated load

has an efficiency of 84.5%. The stator conductor loss, rotor conductor loss and core loss are 225 W, 153 W, and

115 W respectively. Find the percent of slip and the shaft speed for this induction motor.

A 3-phase 415V, 50Hz, 4 poles induction motor running at 1450rpm. The motor is taking 70kW at 0.85 lagging

power factor. The total stator losses are 3.5KW and the friction mechanical losses are 1.5kW. Determine:

i) The motor input current ii) The motor slip

iii) The rotor copper loss

v) The overall motor efficiency

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELE 290

QUESTION 5

A 415 V, three-phase, 8-pole, 50 Hz, star-connected induction motor runs at 5% slip. Find:

i) The speed of the rotational magnetic field.

ii) The speed of the rotor.

iii) The slip-speed of the rotor.

iv) The fr equency of the induced emf in the rotor circuit.

QUESTION 6

The motor stated in Question 1 has an output power of 20 hp at the shaft when operating on full -load when the slip is 0,05. Its friction and windage losses are found to be 500 W, Determine;

i) The shaft power in Watts.

ii) The shaft torque.

iii) The mechanical power developed in the rotor.

iv) The induced torque,

v) The air gap power.

QUESTION 7

A three phase, star-connected 440 V, 50 Hz six-pole induction motor is rated at 100 hp. The equivalent circuit

parameters

Rs = 0.084 Ω Xs = o.2Ω

Rr = 0.066 Ω Xr' = 0.165Ω

Xm = 6.9 Ω

Protor=1.5kW Pcore=1.0kW

For a slip of 0.035, find

i) The line current I1

ii) The stator copper losses

iii) The air gap power

iv) The power converted from electrical to mechanical form

v) The induced torque

vi) The load torque

vii) The overall machine efficiency

QUESTION 8 Prove that the speed of an induction motor Nr is given as:

Nr = Ns(1-s) Where Ns = synchronous speed. s= slip

QUESTION 9 State two methods of starting an induction motor.

QUESTION 10

A 3-phase 440V, 60Hz, 4 poles induction motor running at 1710rpm. The motor is

taking 60kW at 0.75 lagging power factor. The total stator losses are 2.5KW and the friction and windage tosses are 2.0kW. Determine:

i) The motor input current

ii) The motor slip

iii) The rotor copper loss

iv) The brake horse power

v) The overall motor efficiency

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELE 290

QUESTION 11

A 440V, 60Hz, six poles Y-connected induction motor is rated at 20hp. Its equivalent circuit components are:

Rs = 0.344Ω Rr1 = 0.145Ω

Xs = 0.498Ω Xr' = 0.226Ω

Xm = 12.4Ω

The rotational losses including the core losses amount to 260W. The slip of the machine is 0.03. Draw the induction machine approximate equivalent circuit.

Determine:

i) The induced electromechanical power.

ii) The output power.

iii) The output torque.

QUESTION 12

A 3-phase, 415V, 50Hz, 6 poles, wye-connected induction motor has the following parameters:-

R1= 0.06Ω

R2 =

0.24

Xm = 7.5 Ω

X1 = 0.35 Ω

X2 = 0.21 Ω

 

PF&W = 2.7kW

PMISC = 230W

 

Under load, the motor operates at 950rpm. Using approximate equivalent ci rcuit, determine:-

i) stator line current

ii) stator power factor

iii) the developed torque

iv) the overall efficiency

if the induction motor connection is rearranged to operate using delta connection, determine the stator line current