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# Matrices Review Matrix Multiplication : When the number of columns of the first matrix is the same as the number

of rows in the second matrix then matrix multiplication can be performed. Here is an example of matrix multiplication for two 2x2 matrices

## Here is an example of matrices multiplication for a 3x3 matrix

When A has dimensions mxn, B has dimensions nxp. Then the product of A and B is the matrix C, which has dimensions mxp.

Transpose of Matrices : The transpose of a matrix is found by exchanging rows for columns i.e. Matrix A = (aij) and the transpose of A is: AT=(aij) Where i is the row number and j is the column number. For example, The transpose of a matrix would be:

In the case of a square matrix (m=n), the transpose can be used to check if a matrix is symmetric. For a symmetric matrix A = AT

The Determinant of a Matrix : Determinants play an important role in finding the inverse of a matrix and also in solving systems of linear equations. Determinant of a 2x2 matrix Assuming A is an arbitrary 2x2 matrix A, where the elements are given by:

## Inverse Matrix For a 2x2 matrix the matrix inverse is

Example:
Cos A= Sin Sin Cos

Cos Sin 2 2 =1 A= A Cos Sin = + Sin Cos 1 Cos Sin 1 T A = = A 1 Sin Cos

## For a 3x3 matrix

Coordinate Transformations

## x1 y1 = x sin cos + y sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

cos 2 [T ] = sin 2 sin cos sin 2 cos 2 sin cos 2 sin cos 2 sin cos cos 2 sin 2

## X 1 = X cos 2 + Y sin 2 + 2 XY sin cos 2 2 Y 1 = X sin + Y cos 2 XY sin cos

x1 x y1 = [T ] y x1 y1 xy

x x1 1 y = [T ] y1 xy x1 y1

## Theory of Matrix Method for Stress Calculations in 2-D

From equations of rotational transformation of axis, we obtain the following:

Hence

sin x y cos

cos = T sin
1

x cos y = sin

## sin x ' cos y '

xx yx xy yy
y yx xy x xy yx y

sin = T cos
Y Y'

## AC = Area A AB = A cos BC = A sin

A X' X

x
B C

x
xy

x'

{0} = {F }

Using and force equilibrium equation, we obtain expressions for stress transformations as follows:

x
xy

x'

Fx Fx Fx {0} = + + Fy AB Fy BC Fy AC

x xy cos sin {0} = A cos A sin + A x ' + A x ' y ' sin cos xy y x xy cos cos sin x ' {0} = A + A sin sin cos y x' y' xy Canceling area A out and pre-multiplying by transformation T (where T T T = I
the identity matrix. The order of the matrix multiplication does matter in the final outcome., we have

cos sin

## sin cos cos sin

sin 1 0 = =I cos 0 1
sin x ' cos x' y'

## sin x xy cos cos xy y sin

For the forces in the X axis we will use the same procedure.
Y' Y BD = Area A BC = A cos CD = A sin

{0} = {F } {0} =
Fx F y

Fx Fx + + Fy BC Fy BD CD

X' D B C X

x xy sin cos A A A A sin cos + + y' x' y' cos sin xy y sin cos sin x ' y ' {0} = A x xy A + sin cos cos xy y y'

{0} =

y'

x' y'

xy x
y

## sin x xy cos cos sin y xy

sin x xy sin cos cos y xy

## x ' y ' cos = y ' sin

Combining the above expressions

or

T

sin cos

## State of Stresses in Three Dimensions

z K The general three dimensional state of stress consists of three unequal principal stresses acting at a point (triaxial state of stresses). x The plane JKL is assumed to be a principal plane and is the principal stress acting normal to the plane. -y Let, and are the angles between the vector and the x, y and z axis respectively and

yx y yz zy J -x

xy xz zx z

k = cos

l = cos

m = cos

k = xx k + yx l + zx m
Under equilibrium conditions

l = xy k + yy l + zy m m = xz k + yz l + zz m

( xx ) k yx l zx m = 0
xy k + ( yy ) l zy

xz k yz l + ( z ) m = 0

k +l + m =1
2 2 2

## xx yx zx k The determinant must be zy l = 0 equal to zero yy xy xz yz zz m

xx yx zx yy xy zy = 0 zz xz yz

## Solution of the determinant results in a cubic equation in

xx yx zx k zy l = 0 yx yy xz yz zz m

k +l + m =1 3 I1 2 + I 2 I 3 = 0 I1 = x + y + z
2 2 2

The eigenvalues of the stress matrix are the principal stresses. The eigenvectors of the stress matrix are the principal directions.

1 > 2 > 3

2 2 2 I 2 = x y + y z + x z xy xz yz 2 2 2 I 3 = x y z + 2 xy xz yz x yz y xz z xy

The three roots are the three principal stresses 1 , 2 , 3. I1, I2, and I3 are known as stress invariants as they do not change in value when the axes are rotated to new positions.

I1 = x + y + z

x xy y yz x xz I2 = + + xy y zy z z zx z x xy xz I 3 = yx y yz zx yz z
I1 has been seen before for the two dimensional state of stress. It states the useful relationship that the sum of the normal stresses for any orientation in the coordinate system is equal to the sum of the normal stresses for any other orientation

x + y + z = x1 + y1 + z1 = 1 + 2 + 3

3 I1 2 + I 2 I 3 = 0
I1 1 = 2 A cos + 3 I1 = 2 A cos 60 + 3
0

## 3 2,3 I1 I1 2 I 2 + I 3 3 3 Cos (3 ) = 2 A3 Stress Invariants for Principal Stresses

I I A = 1 2 3 3

1 = 2 3
The solution are the eigenvalues of the stress tensor

I1 = 1 + 2 + 3 I3 = 1 2 3

I 2 = 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1
1 2 2 3 3 1 , , 2 2 2

max = max

Example: determine the principal stresses for the state of stress (in MPa). Solution: The solution are the eigenvalues of the stress tensor; Substituting:

## (240) 0 0 =0 (280) (240) 0

x xy xz yx y yz = 0 zx zy z

200
0

## ( (280) ) (( ( 200) ) ((240) (240)) ) = 0

One solution 3=-280MPa is a principal stress because xz and yz are zero, then the other two principal stresses are easy to find by solving the quadratic equation inside the square brackets for

## 240 0 0 240 200 0 0 280 0

I1 = 80

I 2 = 113,600

I 3 = 16,128,000

A = 196.4

Cos (3 ) = 0.8620

= 10.15

80 = 359.99 3 80 2 = 2 196.4 Cos (10.15 + 60 ) + = 160.0 3 80 3 = 2 196.4 Cos (10.15 60) + = 279.9 3

## 0 0 360 0 160 0 0 280 0

Example 2: Determine the maximum 20 principal stresses and the maximum = 40 shear stress for the following triaxial stress state. 30 Solution

40 30 30 25 MPa 25 10

xx yx zx 20 40 30 Stress _ Tensor = [ ] = xy yy zy = 40 30 25 xz yz zz 30 25 10

3 I1 2 + I 2 I 3 = 0

I1 = x + y + z

= 20 + 30 10 = 40 MPa
2 xy 2 xz 2 yz

I 2 = x y + x z + y z

= -3025 MPa

2 2 2 I 3 = x y z + 2 xy xz yz x yz y xz z xy = -89500 MPa

Solution to Exam ple 600000 400000 -51.8 MPa 200000 Sigm a (MPa) 0
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100

26.5 MPa

3 = 51.8MPa

## Mohrs Circles for 3-D Analysis

Mohrs circles can make visualization of the stress condition clearer to the designer. Note that the principal stress values are always ordered by convention so the 1 is the largest value in the tensile direction and 3 is the largest value in the compressive direction. Note also that there is one dominant peak shear stress in this diagram. Be forewarned the principal stresses and this peak shear stress are going to play a strong role in determining the factor of safety in mechanical design.

A Mohrs circle can be generated for triaxial stress states, but it is often unnecessary, as it is sufficient to know the values of the principal stresses. The principal stresses must be ordered from larger to smaller.

12 =

1 2

2 2 3 23 = 2 1 3 13 = 2

Compare 2-D and 3-D Mohrs Circle. If z is zero, does it have an effect in 3D?

P
2 2
1 + 2
2

2 + 3
2

1 + 32
2

Consider 3=0 then the plane will be an angle from 1, in the direction of 2 (clockwise). Point P Consider 2=0 then the plane will be an angle from 1, in the direction of 3 (clockwise). Point Q The required system of stresses, fall within P and Q. Loci determined by the center in 2 + 3
2

2 2

Consider 1=0 then the plane will be an angle from 2, in the direction of 3 (anticlockwise). Point R Consider 3=0 then the plane will be an angle from 2, in the direction of 1 (clockwise). Point S The required system of stresses, fall within R and S. Loci determined by the center in +
1 3

Example: Use Mohrs Circle to obtain the principal stresses and maximum shear of a component subjected to the following stresses:

## x = 90tension y = 30tension z = 25compression xy = 40ccw

ccw counterclockwise

Stress on ANY Inclined Plane (3-D) The stress on a plane (S) can be decomposed into its normal component (Sn) and its shear component (Ss).

S = S + S = +
2 2 n 2 s 2

Sn = sx + sy + sz

If , and are the angles between the vector Sn and the x, y and z axis respectively and

k = cos

l = cos

m = cos

then

## It can be proved that

xx yx zx = xy yy zy xz yz zz

1 1 xx x1 y1 1 1 xz

y x y y y z

1 1

1 1

1 1

z x z y z z

xx yx zx T T ] xy yy zy [T ] 1 1 = [ xz yz zz 1 1
1 1

## Mohrs Circles for 3-D Analysis

There is no easy Mohrs circle graphical solution for problems of triaxial stress state. Solution for maximum principal stresses and maximum shear stress is analytical. z Consider the x, y and z axis to coincide with the axis of the principal stresses 1, 2 and 3. If , and are the angles between the normal to the plane and the x, y and z 1 axis respectively and

k = cos
y

l = cos

m = cos

k 2 + l 2 + m2 = 1

3 x

We would like to find graphically the normal stress and shear stress on the plane.

## Octahedral Plane and Stresses

An octahedral plane is a plane that makes three identical angles with the principal planes.

k = xx k + yx l + zx m l = xy k + yy l + zy m m = xz k + yz l + zz m
1 =n n1 = n2 = n3 = 3

op = 1 n + 2 n + 3 n =
2 1 2 2 2 3

1 + 2 + 3
3 1 = 3

I1 = 3

op = n ( + + )
2 2 1 2 2 2 3

2 op

( 1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 3 1 )2

9 op = 2 I12 6 I 2
2

## Mean and Deviatoric Stresses

When describing the materials behavior of metals, one concludes that in certain cases some stress components play a more important role than other components. Plastic behavior of metals, is reported to be independent of the average (mean) normal stress.

M =
Mean stress matrix

1 + 2 + 3
3 0

x + y + z
3

I1 = op 3

M M = 0 0

M
0

0 0 M

Deviatoric stress

x = x M

y = y M

z = z M

## Deviatoric Stress Matrix 1 1 2 yx 3 xx 3 yy 3 zz 2 1 1 xy yy xx zz D= 3 3 3 xz yz

zy 2 1 1 zz xx yy 3 3 3

zx

Deviatoric stresses play an important role in the theory of plasticity. They influence the yielding of ductile materials. The principal stresses obtained only from the deviatoric matrix is

P,D

1 M = 0 0

0 2 M 0

3 M 0 0

Example For a given stress matrix representing the state of stress at a certain point Find the stress invariant, the 1 2 3 MPa principal stresses, the principal [ ] = 2 2 0 directions, the octahedral stress 3 0 2 and the shear stress associated with the octahedral stress. Solution:
I1 = 1 + 2 + 2 = 5 I 2 = 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 1 22 02 32 = 5 I 3 = 1 2 2 1 02 2 32 2 22 + 2 2 0 3 = 22

5 + 5 + 22 = 0
3 2

## 1 = 5.14 2 = 2.00 3 = 2.14

( xx ) k yx l zx m = 0

xz k yz l + ( z ) m = 0

xy k + ( yy ) l zy m = 0

1 2 3 MPa 2 2 0 [ ] = 3 0 2

k1 + l1 + m1 = 1
2 2 2

## k1 = 0.657 k2 = 0 l1 = 0.418 l2 = 0.832

k3 = 0.714 l3 = 0.364

## m1 = 0.627 m2 = 0.555 m3 = 0.546

I1 5 = 3 3

Mean =

9 op = 2 I12 6 I 2
2 2

9 op = 2 52 6 (5) = 80

op

80 = 9