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Review of Literature:

The Indian advertising industry, with an estimated value of INR 13,200 crore, has shown an astonishing growth and creativity in the recent times (Indian Advertising Industry, 2010). The industry is growing at an average rate of 10-12 per cent per annum. Some of the commonly used media for advertising are TV, radio, websites, newspapers, magazines, and out of- home (OOH).

Advertisement: Advertisements were chosen as the tool for analysis for many reasons. Pollay (1985) states that advertisements, particularly print ads, are important because they are visual records of behaviors, values, lifestyles and roles of objects of culture at that time. Kassarjian (1977) also states that the analysis of historical documents, such as advertisements, could lead to conclusions about public opinion, consumer values, or buyer beliefs in an earlier era. Many researchers have recognized the strength of using ads; Goffman's Gender Advertisements, (1979) pays particular attention to the way in which men and women are pictured together in advertisements. Gornick (1979) states that ads are highly manipulated representations of recognizable scenes from real life, and that Goffman uses ads to speculate on what those ads tell us about ourselves.

Content Analysis: The chosen method of study is content analysis. Analyzing the content of an ad is to study the message itself and not the communicator or audience (Kassarjian 1977). Berelson (1952) defines content analysis as a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication (p 55). Kolbe (1991) lists the benefits of using content analysis; first, it allows for an unobtrusive appraisal of communications (p 244). Secondly, content analysis can assess the effects of environmental variables and source characteristics on message content, in addition to the effects of different kinds of message content on receiver responses (p 244). Finally, content analysis provides an empirical starting point for generating new research evidence about the nature and effect of specific communications (p 244). Despite the effectiveness of content analysis, there are some limitations connected to this method of analysis. Kolbe (1991) warns that this method of analysis is susceptible to the bias of the

researcher, content analysis studies are constrained in their potential and usually yields categorical data (p 244). To mitigate these problems, qualitative analysis was also used. Denzin et al. (2000) recognize the importance of combining different forms of analysis. Flick (1998), states that the combination of multiple methods of analysis adds both complexity and richness to any study.