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# 1. Homomorphism,Isomorphism (1) Let (a1 , . . . , ak ), Sn . Then show that (a1 , . . . , ak ) 1 = ( (a1 ), . . . , (ak )). (2) Let : G H be an isomorphism.

phism. Prove that 1 : H G is an isomorphism. (3) Let a G and ia : G G be the map ia (g ) = aga1 for all g G. Show that ia is an automorphism of G. Let B (G) denote the group of bijections of G. Dene : G B (G) by (a) = ia . Show that is a group homomorphism and ker = Z (G). Show that the image I (G) of G under is a normal subgroup of Aut(G). (4) Show that the map : GLn (R) GLn (R) dened by (A) = (At )1 is an automorphism. (5) Show that the map : G G dened by (x) = x1 is an automorphism if and only if G is abelian. (6) Show that upto isomorphism the only cyclic groups are Z/nZ for n = 0, 1, 2, . . . (7) Determine the group of automorphism of Z, S3 and Z/nZ. (8) Show that Z (Sn ) = (1) for n > 2. (9) Find Z (GLn (R)). (10) Give an example of a subgroup of index 3 which is not normal. (11) Show that the functions f (x) = 1/x and g (x) = (x 1)/x generate, under composition of functions, a group isomorphic to S3 . (12) Let : G G be a surjective group homomorphism. Show that for any normal subgroup N of G, (N ) is a normal subgroup of G . (13) Prove that the subgroup of upper triangular matrices in GL3 (F2 ) is isomorphic to the dihedral group of order 8. (14) Let G be an abelian group of odd order. Prove that the map : G G dened by (g ) = g 2 for all g G is an automorphism. (15) Show that GL2 (R) is not a normal subgroup of GL2 (C). (16) Give examples of three groups G H K so that G is not normal in K . (17) Suppose H and K are subgroups of nite index in the group G with [G : H ] = m and [G : K ] = n. Prove that l.c.m(m, n) [G : H K ] mn. Deduce that if m and n are relatively prime then [G : H K ] = [G : H ][G : K ]. (18) Let K < H < G be subgroups of a nite group G. Show that [G : K ] = [G : H ][H : K ]. (19) Prove that if H and K are nite subgroups of G whose order are relatively prime then H K = 1 (20) Let H < G. Prove that the map x x1 sends each left coset of H in G onto a right coset of H and gives a bijection between the set of left cosets and the set of right cosets of H in G. (21) For n N, (n) := {j N|1 j n and (j, n) = 1} is called the Eulers phi function. Use Lagranges theorem in the multiplicative group (Z/pZ) to prove Fermats Little Theorem: if p is a prime then ap a(mod p) for all a Z.

(22) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. Find the order of p in (Z/(pn 1)Z) and deduce that n|(pn 1) (here is Eulers function). (23) Use Lagranges Theorem in the multiplicative group (Z/nZ) to prove Eulers Theorem: a(n) 1(mod n) for every integer a relatively prime to n, where is Eulers phi function.