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SANSKRIT

GRAMMAR.

A GRAMMAR

THE SANSKRIT LANGUAGE

  • P. KIELHORN, PH.D,,

LL. D.,

C. I. E.,

PROFESSOR OF SANKRIT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ~OTTINQEN; LATE PROBESBOR OF ORIENTAL LANQUAOEB, DECCAN COLLEGE.

FIFTH EDITION, REVISED.

Registered under Act XXV, of 1867.

PUBLISHED

( All rights reeerved. )

Published by Tukeram Javaji, Proprietor N. 5. Preea, 23, Kolbhet Lene, Bombay.

Printed by B. R. Ghsneksr at the Nirnaya-Sagar Pre~q 23, Kolbhat Lane, Bombay.

PREFACE TO

THE

FIRST

EDITION.

THE present grammar, which is published at the request and under the patronage of Mr. J. B. Peile, the Director of Public Instruction in this Presidency, is intended principally for Indian students. It contains as much of the Sanskrit accidence as is necessary for the ordinary B. A, examination. Those who look higher, I refer to the Siddhiinta-Kaumudf and other indigenous works on grammar, without a wreful study of which a scholarlike knowledge of the Sansk~itlanguage appears to me unattainable

My chiof aim in composing this grammar has been correctnese, and to attain this object I have considered it the safest plan not

to give any rules nor to put down any forms without the authority

of the best

native grammarians. I trust I may not appear pre-

sumptuous in maintaining that this has not always been an easy

task, and that in many cases much patient labour and weighing

of arguments had to be gone through before a certain form could, on the best possible authority, either he accepted as correct

or rejected as incorrect. The result of

my labour is before the

public; and having done my best, I shall be grateful to every one

who will take. the trouble to point out to me any errors which insufficient care or reading or want of judgment has allowed me to pass unnoticed.

On the arrangement of my grammar only few words need be said here. I have considered it necessary to separate the roots of the tenth class from those of the other nine classes, and to treat of them under the head of derivative verbal bases. Most scholars will, I hope, approve of thie change. Nor will they, I trust, object to the introduction of the Subjunctive mood in ij 218. That

the terms Radicd Aorigt tpd 8-Aoriet will be generally approved

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.-THE

LETTERM §$ 1-19

 

...

,,,

...

1

 

1,

The NAgarl Alphabet §S 1-6

 

...

I

  • 2. Classification of the Letters §§ 7-12

...

...

4

CHAPTER11-RULES

OF ECPHONY 5 5 13-50

...

.

6

A.

Final and initial letters of complete words SS 13-41

...

6

 
  • 1. Contact of final and initial vowels

 

17-23

..

,

6

2.

Contact of final vowels and consonants with initial vowels and consonants $ $ 26-41

...

8

 

(a)

Changes

of

final consonants § $ 26-37

 

...

8

(b)

Changes of

initial consonants §$ 36-41

...

11

B

Changes of final letters of

nominal and verbal Bases and

 

other letters

initial letters of Terminations, and of in the interior of words 5s 42-59

...

...

12

CHAPTER111.-DECLENSION

OF

NOUNS

 

BUBSTAN-

 

TIVE AND ADJECTIVE §$ 60-168

...

14

A

Consonantal Bases 3 § 71-130

...

...

...

...

...

1

Unchangeablo Bases § § 71-91

 

...

...

...

 

Decl.

I.

Bases in qand q $5 71-72

 

...

Decl.

11. Bases in

radical consonants other

than

 
 

nasals

and semivowels § S 73-82

 

...

...

...

Deal, 111. Rases in T $183-84 Dwl. IT. Bases in the suffixes m,h, and @q

...

...

...

...

 

3585-87

...

...

...

...

...

Deal.

V. Bases in the suffixes m, ~fl[,and

gq

§$88-91

...

...

.a.

...

...

...

...

...

2.

Changeable Basee $$ 92-130

 

...

...

... ...

Decl.

VI. Comparativo Basea in qq $5 97-100

Decl.

VII. Participle Bases in qq $5 101-108

...

Deal. VIII.

Bases

in

the

auffixee

 

and

qq

§§109-113

...

0

..

.,.

...

.,,

PAGE

Decl . IX. Bases in the saxes

5s

114..

121

qq. and

qq

.....................

35

Deal .

X .

Perfect-Participle

Bases

in

qq.

$§l2!2-125

.....................

39

Deal . XI . Basesinqy3~~~1$$

126-130

-\

......

  • B. Vowel-Bases $8 131-153

..................

Decl. XI1. Bases in q and rn 5s 131-135

......

Decl . XI11. Bases in g and 3 $5 136-140

Decl . XIV . Femin . Bases in $ and s; $8

......

141-144

Decl . XV . Monosyll . Masc. and Fern . Bases in w,

$, s;. at the end of Tatpur . Comp. $8 145-147

Decl . XVI. Bases in

$ 5 148-152

.........

Decl.

XVII. Bases in 8, a,and & $ 153 ......

A

list of some irregular Bases 5 § 154-166

......

41

Suffixes expressing the meanings of cases and inde-

clinable nouns $$ 167-168

............

CHAPTER1V.-COMPARISON

OF ADJECTIVES 169-

  • 176 ...........................

(a)

By

means of

the secondary suffixes

and

5s 169-172

 

(6) By means of

tlie primary suffixes and

 

§§ 173-175

56

56

59

CHAPTERV.-PRONOUNS, PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.

AND THEIR DECLENSION $5 177-800

...

  • 1. Personal Pronouns $8 177 -178 ............

2 . Demonstrative Pronouns 5 5 179-181 .........

  • 3. The Relative Pronoun § 182 ...............

  • 4. The

Interrogative Pronoun § § 183-184 ......

  • 5. Indefinite Pronouns 3 $ 185-186 ............

6 . Reflexive Pronouns $ 5 187-188 ............

  • 7. Poeaeesive Pronouns $5 189-190 .........

  • 8. Correlative Pronouns $5 191-192 ..........

  • 9. Reciprocal Pronouns 5 193 ...............

  • 10. Pronominal Adverbe 1 194 ...............

PUS

CEAPTEBV1.-NUMERALS AND THEIR DECLENSION

$1 201-213

.....................

Cardinals and Ordinals $5 201-203 Dec!ension of the Cardinals arid Ordinals §§ 204-212

.........

69

69

73

Numeral Adverbs aud

other

Numeral

Derivatives

 
 

§

213

75

CHAPTERVI1.-CONJUGATION

OF VERBS $8

214-485

75

  • I. Con,jugation of Primitive Roots

$$ 221-403

77

  • 1. The Pernsmaipada and atmanepada $$ 224-385

...

78

Augment and Reduplication $3 298-232

79

A .

Special Tenses 5s 234-296

...............

82

(a)

Special Tenses of

Roots

with

uncha.2geable

 

special

Base

(

lat, 4th.

and

6bh

Classes )

$$ 238-250

 

85

 

Irregular Roots of

 

the

1st. 4th.

and

6th

Classes

$8 247-250

 

88

Special Tenses of Roots wit11 changeable spacial

  • (b) Base ( 2nd. 37-4 5th. 7th. 8th. and 9th Classes ) $3 251-296

.....................

90

B .

Irregular

Roots

of

the

2nd. 3rd.

and 91h C1:isses 266-296

5th.

7th. 8th.

............

104

General Tenses $$ 297-385

...............

109

The intermediate

§ 298

..................

110

  • 1. The Perfect $S 299-330

...............

(a)

The Reduplicated Perfect §S 301-327

...

(b)

The Periphrastic Perfect $$ 328-330

......

111

112

124

2 .

3.

4

..

The Aorist

$$ 331-366

...............

(a)

The Radical Aorist $5 333-344

(b)

The Sibilant-Aorist 5s 345-366

......

......

126

127

130

The two Futures 367-377

............

(a)

The Simple Future $5 368-372

.........

(b)

The Periphrastic Future 373-377

......

137

138

141

The Conditional $$ 378-379

............

143

5.

The Benediotive §§ 380-385

............

144

PAGE

 

I1 .

The Passive $0 386-401

 

148-

 

k

The Present and Imperfect $$ 387-390

 

148

B, The Perfect. the Aorist.

the

two Futures. the

 

Conditional. and the Benedbtive $$ 391-401

 

149

 

Conjugation of rt .

in Par

..

Atm

..

and Pass. $

402

152

Alphabetical list of some irregular Verba $ 403

157

IL

Conjugation of

Derivative Verbal Bases 5s 404-485

168

  • 1. Conjugation of the roots of the tenth class and

of

 

the Causal of all roots 53 404-438

 

168

A

.

The roots of the tenth class $5 404-423

 

168

B . The Causal 5$ 424-438 ...............178

  • 2. The Desiderative $5 439-456

    • 3. The Frequentative 5 5 457-474

  • 4. Nominal Verbs $S 475-485

...............

186

............

197

...............

206

  • <:=- VII1.-PREPOSITIONS

AND

PREFIXES $5 486-490

OTHER VERBAL

...............

311

CHAP~HB1X.-FORMATION

OF

NOMINAL

BASES

§$ 491-576

........................

214

I.

Derivative

Nominal Bases $ 5 494-540

............

215

  • 1. Participles $5 498-512 ..................216

8 .

  • (a) Participles of the Present Tense $5 498-500

...

(6) Participles of the Simple Future $ 501

(c)

Participles of the Parfect $5 502-505

PAGE I1 . The Passive $0 386-401 148- k The Present and Imperfect $$ 387-390 B,

(d)

The Past Participles $5 506-512

.........

216

218

2191

221

The

Gerund $3 513-526

...............

228

(a)

(b)

The Gerund in rn $$ 514-518

The

Gerund in

p. $8 519-525

.........

228

.........

232

(c)

The Gerund

in

~q $ 526 ...............235

The Infinitive $

  • 3. 527 .....................236

  • 4. Verbal Adjrrotivas $5 528-538

............

(a)The

(a)

Verbal Adj . in

The Verbal

Adj. in &q

$ 529

............

$5 530-531

......

236

237

237

The Verbal

  • i Adj

(c)

.

in q $$ 532-538

.........

  • 5. A list of other common Primary Su5xes $ 539

...

238

242

PAGlB

II

.

hpoand Nominal Bases $$ 541-576

 

247

 

1.

Tatpurusha or Determinative Comp. $$ 547-561

. 253

 
  • (a) Dependent Debermiuativo Comp. $

547-553

353

  • (b) Appositional Determ . Comp. ( JKarmadhPraya )

$5 853-557 .....................256

  • (c) Numeral

Determ . Comp. (Dvigu)

ij.$ 558-560

. 257

 

2.

Bahuvrihi or

Attributive Compounds

$ $ 562-568

. 359

  • 3. Dvandva or Copulative Compounds $$ 569-573

. 263

4 . AvyayPbhlva or Adverbial Compounds S$ 574, 575 364

CHAPTEBX.-INFLECTED

WORDS IN THE SENTENCE

 

265

1 . The Finite Verb $9 578-593

 

266

 
  • (a) The Present Tense 5s 583-583

267

 

(6) The

three Paat Tenses Ej$ 584

585

268

 
  • (c) The two Futures $ 586

...............269

  • (d) The Imperative:§ 687

 

269

  • (e) The Subjunctive $ 588

270

 

(f)The

Potential

§$ 589-591

270

 
  • (g) The Conditional 5 593

 

271

  • (h) The Benedictive 5 593

271

2.

The Infinitive, Gerund, Participles, and Verbal

Adjectives 594-604

 

271

  • (a) The Infinitive $3 595-597

271

  • (b) The Gerunds in and q $$ 598-599

272

  • (c) The Participles 600-603

 

273

  • (d) The Verbnl Adjectives § 604

274

  • 3. The Cases of Nouns $$ 605-645 ............274

 
  • (a) The

Nominative $ 607

275

 
  • (b) The Accusative $$ 608-613

 

275

  • (c) The Instrumental $$ 614-619 .........277

  • (d) The Dative $3 620-624

 

279

(e)

The Ablative §§ 625-630

280

(f)

The htive 5s 631-638

282

(9) The Genitive $$ 639-644

 

284

Number and Gender 3 645

............286

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER I.

TIIR LETTERS.

1.

Sanskrit, tho sacred as well as the learned langungu of

India,

is commonly writton in tlie oE tho following Icttere :-

Nkgari alpl~abet. 'Chi8 alphablt

consists

X

(a)

13 vowel-signs:-3

a,

VT

12,

+;7i, L (i, 4 a, h ai, Jit o, Jii OZL.

P

i, B 2, J u, 3i d, 'fi yi,

  • (b) 33 syllabic signs for tho various

the vowel a :-

consonants, each followcd by

T

Im,

Fl

kl~u,

rl

gcc,

q

gha,

3

7itc;

zfT

ckcc,

V

cl~htc,

T

jv,

V

jl~a,

=T

(i~u;

z

!a,

a

!IL(~,

z

$a,

z

4llcc,

v

Fi

ta,

eT

tha,

(la,

~~LCC,

ncc;

cl

pa,

Vi

231in,

bcc,

Y

blia,

rT

ma;

ya,

T

TCC,

3

la,

va;

V

sha,

B

~ILc~,

TI

sn,

ha.

  • (c) Two signs for two nasal. sounds, viz. Anusvbra,

denotod by " ii,e,

denoted by A,

a dot

within s

i, e. a dot placed above the letter after whicli Anusvlra is pronounced

(e,

g,

ohsa), and Anunbsika,

semicircle placed abovo the letter after which Anunfisika is pronounced ; and one sign for a strong spirant called Visarga, denotod by : i. e. two

vertical dote placed after the letter after which Vis~rgais pronounced

(e. g. rlq: gaja!~).

2. (a) The vowel-signs in not preceded by a consonant

$ 1 (a) denote only

such

vowels as are

in the same aentence or

verso, i, e, they

denote the vowels which stand at the commencement of ia sentence or

verse, aud those vowels in the middle of a

sentence or verse which are

preceded by another vowel; e. g. qym abhavata; q

sa dha.

(b)

Short a, following

upon a

consonant

Terse, is not denoted at all; e. g. qq: gajah.

 

(c)

Tho

other

vowels, when

following

a

sentence or verse, are denotod tl~us:-

 

b~If'7"

qc

ag

8

BII~~

r

i.e.

1i.d

hi

lit

ku

Icd

k?i

kl.5

Exception: The vowel ~i,

when

 

iuitial sign q ~i;& = ryi.

(See 5 3 c.)

 

$ 3. (a)

When

 

a sentence or verso, the sign , ,

 

under it; e.g. mlcakup, qw

abhavat,

 

(b)

of g* yulikle.)

 

(c)

When the consonant

r

immediately

 

or the vowel q yi,

it is

denoted Ly the sign

q,

kdvlsnycc.

This sign

for p. is

placed

sign8 which may stand above

 

e. g.

&

a~keqa, q*

arko,

&

arkah.

of the snlne sentence or

consonant; of

tho same

cEiQud?i ?$tienioau

a

Ic(i

.,

h

%

Ice

%

Eai

1

ko kau,

following upon r, is denoted by the

any of tlie 33 syllabic signs in $ 1 (I,) is to denote a

consonant which ia not followed by any vowel and stands at the end of

placed

called Virama ( i.6 . 'pause'), is

ayanz.

Two or more consonanls which are not separated by a vowel or

vowels are denoted by colubinationa of the syllabic signs ill 5 1 (b). Theso

combinations are formed either by placing the succeeding under the

preceding sign, leaving out the horizontal top-line of the former, or by

placing the signs one after tho other, loaving oub the vertical stroke of

the preceding sign ; e.y. p = p-ta ; fi= lc-fza ; = n-cla ; q = ch-ya ;

-= t-s-n-ya. (Owing to the difficulty of printing, the Viritma is

occasionally employed in combinations of consonants; e, g. @ instead

precede8 another consonant

' placed above the

letter

arks,

to the right

of any

other

When r

follows anotlier

or combination of letters bgove which it is pronoucced; e. g. q$

ll~eletter over which it has to be placed ;

consonant'without tlie intervention of a vowel, it is denotod by the sign

4 placed

under

the

consonant aftor which r is pronounced; e. g. qq

vajra, gif; skukrcc.

5

4. The

changes which: some letters undergo when they are com-

bined with

other letters

mill appear from

the

following

alphabetical

liet :-

§ 4- I

 

THE LETTERS.

 

3

 

S k-ka, BR k-kha, Wi k-ta, FH k-t-ya, W lc-t-ra, W

k-t-ca,

V

kna, W

lc-ma, W

loya,

9i

or

kr-a, S

k-la,

FFi

12-va,

Q k-sha, qq E-S~L-~;

 
 

WT kh-ya,

kh-ra;

W g-ya,

g-ra,

g-r-ya;

FI gh-na, W gh-ma, ET gh-rcc;

 

g fi-lea,

fi-1-k-ta,

8 ri-k-gha,

1-ha

$ 6-ga,

n-gha;

 
 

sT ch-cha,

W

C~L-cl~hn,

ch-chh-~a,a ch-iia, W ch.ma;

B+4 chh-ycc, chh-ru; 3 j-ja, 3W j-jha, W j-iia,

5q j-2-ycc,

j-mcc,

;a j-ru;

$

t-l;a, F t-ta,

$-ya;

El th-ya, ?, th-ra; 2T a-ga, 57 d-ya;

 

Sl' dh-ya,

4h-ra;

US ?t-ts,rr6 ?t-tl~a, US ?-$a,5 ?-1$hc6, UT or ?-?ta, 'J9?-ma,

3

[-%a, eq t-pa, 3 W th-ya;

or

?I t-ra, 39. or

3q t-r-yu,, R t-W,

Fq t-scL,

 

X d-ga,

T d-da, GZ

d-dha,

5 d-dl~-z~n,K cl-%a,

d-ba,

& d-bha, TI ti-bh-yu, T4 d-ma, V d-ya, Z d-ru, A d-r-ya, E d-va,

;34 d-v-ya; U dh-na, XTl dh-ma, W dh-ra, tT dh-va;

a n-ta, =F4 n-t-ya, ';fl m-t-ra, T n-da, %

n-d-ra, =Y n-dlia,

U &ra,

W la-m,

n-ra;

  • 4 SANSKRIT GltAMMAR.

[

9 5-

R p-tcc, X p-?&ch, W p-ma, sT p-ra, 3 p-Zcc, CFT p-sa; b-ja, =P b-dcc, =q b-dlzcc, W b-nn, BT b-ru;

W bh-nu, W

bh-ycc, 'f;l bh-ru;

5l m-ncc, W m-pu, T m-ba, a rn-ra,

ZV i-Y(~,

za Y-~(L;

P

  • 6 r-u, F r-fi, % r-lia, 4 T-dbn;

9 rn-la;

FTi 1-La, FT L-j~cb,7 3 Z-lei, Fq ha;

5T v-na, =q v-ya, 3 1;-ru;

3

or

3 sh-u, 8, or

Tsh-d,

or T

sli-?i,

5;! or

W sh-cha,

W

sk-ell-pcc, ST

sk-nn, TT

or

s14 sh-pn,

sT

shy$,

sh-?a,

5'4 sk-r-ycc, 3t7; sh-l(c, JET s1~-zn,J bY sl~-c-yo;

8

sh-ta, PT $1~-t-ya,

IY sh-$ha,

gh-th-yn,

sh-f-rtc,

P;

sl~-t-r-yc~,

5 1- t -%X,

pl~-!za, WT gh-?t-y'~,EJT sli-mcc;

Ffj s-Ida, F'iJ s-lclta, W s-tc~,

s-t-yrl, FFf or

s-t-ra,

33 s-t-vcc, W s-tl~cc,-tjy s-nu, ?V s-jm, W s-roc(; % h-fi, S h-fi, 5 h-na, F; h-nee, Q h-ma, 5 h-rc~,6 l~-lrc,i! $ Ib-va.

§ 6. (a) Tlio sign 5, called Avagraha (i. e. 'separation, mark of sepn-

ration'), is in many

texts e~nployedto iticlicato tlie elisiori of (slioit) q a

after preceding q e or $1 0; e. g. ~SU~F fe'bhnvnn;

ynjo's~i.

(b)

The sign " donotes an

abbreviation; e. y.

ogyqh

(acha) kshuvbhydu~;v0 Pd(ni~zi'pe).

nchak.?hughaz',

(c)

The signs of punctuation are I and 11.

6.

 

§

Tho numeral figures are :-

9iBV4a\scgo

 

12346678~0

90

lo;

94

15;

?V?

143;

;(%c

268;

Scu?

1879,

$

7.

(a)

Vowels nro divitled into :-

 

(1)

(2)

Simple vowels, w, w, F, .if, 3, T, q,T, 8; and

Diphthongs, p, a;, a,$r .

  • (b) They are also divided into :-

TIIE

LETTERS.

3

8,

( 1. )

('3.

)

Short \.owelr, q, I;,

3, q,3 ; and

Long vowelr, wr, $, 3,x ; T, *, $T, qi.

Short vomelq wliich are not followed by any consonant, or are

followed by ollly orie consoneut, are prosodially sliort ; sliort vowels followed by coubin~tionsof two or ruoro consonants and all loilg vowels

are prosodially long.

S 9.

Vowels :vhich

differ in nothing but tlieir quantity

are called

g

and

homogeneous vowels ; ~r and ~rrare homogeneous ;

and if ;

3; ; q and x.

q

10.

Gugn and 'C'riddlbi. Tlie vowcl~q, q, gT,and tlio tlyllables

nnd the syllables

nnd qq arc called Guna ; the vowels w, if, $r,

,:(and q~) are called Vriddhi. Tlie rrlution of the Gu!~a and Vqiddhi vowels and syllables to tlie siml)le vowels will appe .r fro111 the following table :-

Simple V.

Guns.

Vriddhi.

I

i

ah

1

sit

g$,

$ 11.

(a)

Consonants are clussificd thus :-

I

rak

-T

am,

1

j

a

wq

) (qlll

."

I!

  • I Unaspirate, Aspiratc,'Sibilants. ~nas~irntc.'~spirate.

'

Nasal. Semivowels.

Gutturals

I'nlatal~

Linguals

nentals

Labials

 

q

q

7

q

q

V

X

T

~.l;s

B

7

F

Tx

Y

%

YTq

p\

5

q=%3

  • (b) The collsollant g is a sonant aspirate,

  • (c) Vowels likewise aro sonant,

5

12.

(a)

The four semivowels q,q, y, aild

simple vowels q #, 3 3,q x, and 3 respcctively.

corrcs~olldto tile

(b)

The three semivowels 7,q, and yare sometimes nasal, and they

are than distinguished from tho ordinary 7,q, and y by tlie sign for AnunBaika ( § 1 c ) which is placed over them (%, 8, ancl q).

SANSKRIT

CRAMMAIL

CHAPTER 11.

RULES OF EUPHONY ( Sandhi ).

  • 13 A complete word (which ought to be carefully distinguished

from a verbal root or a nominal base ), when standing alone or at the

end of a, sentence or verse, may end in any rowel, except q and 3,or

in one of the consollants

g, 5, q, q, q, a~, q, q-, q, or Visarga.

§

  • 14. Words are not allowed to end in more contlonants than one'

?f,

except that they may end in one of the conju~lctconsonants 6, g,

and q, provided both elemeuts of these conjuncts are radical letters or

substitutes for radical letters; e. g. Noln. Sing. of the

base 3;4=4;

3. Sing. Imperf. Par. of rt. s~jl;=

§

15,

A word, when standing alone or at the commencement of a

sentence or verse, may

begin

with

any

vowel or consonant, except

x, 3,T, q-,T, Anusvhra, or Visagra.

5

16.

When complete words

are joiued together so

as

to

form

n

sentence or verse, their final and initial letkers remain in some i~lstancav

unchanged, but in the majority of cases the final of the precediug or

the initial of the following word, or both, must undergo certain changes

which are intended to facilitate tho

pronunciation.

The

rules

which

teach these changes are called the Rules of Euphony, or Rules of Sandhi.

$ 17.

1.-Contact

of

Final and Initial Vowels.

Iu general, no hiatus ( i. 0. the

successiou

of

two

vowels

without an intervening consonant) is allowed between two words. To

avoid it, the final and initial vowels are made to coalesce, or the final

vowel is changed to a semivowel, or the initial vowel is dropped. The

speoial rules are :-

 

$

18.

Finals simple vowels, short or long, unite with initial

homo-

geneous ( § 9 ) vowels, short or long, aud form the corresponding

long

vowel8 ; i. e.-

 

vor Wr+vorqr=w;

e.9. vq+~&=mrf%;

a~f~+wtfh;

=Blmtlq;~$~+w&=~.

qor$+~or$=#; e.g.

sl%+~=v&g;

&;?rGt+spr=m.

*+$*=w@-

5 24.

1

RULES OF EUPHONY.

7

$ 1,

Final

and

unite with initial 9. or $ to q, with initial 3 or

s; to &, with initial q to q, with initial p or $ to $, and with initial

V) or

to 4;e.9.-

aa+m=&vl;

w+~=~;

~w+$&=saw$;

qr+m=&sr; ayT+3q:=mb:; w+*:=qvi:;m+

-=a%;

aa+~sr$q=&.a&q; ~r+diaR:=hh:;m+

~FSW~=

dwy.

$

20.

Final simple vowels, short or long, except q

and m,

before

initial vowels not homogeneous with them aro changed to ttie correapond-

ing semivowels ( $12 a ); i. e.-- orjifbeforew,w,~,T,q,p,+,*,

&,tozj;

0.9. m+w=

?(3m;r;f%+Ja;q=q~q;T$T+w=*.

J or 3; before 37, w, F, $, T, 8, %,GI , a, to q, c, g. ?ry + 3T&=

rrc*

; Try + Ti$ = I~PT.

%before n,w,~,$,~,3i,q,k,+,

Gt, tok; e.~.d+srfk=

dm*+-=*.

§

31.

initial q

§

22.

cllsnged to

Final y and 3) before initial is dropped ; e. g.-

 

renlnill unchnngcd,

but

tho

 

any

otlier iuicial

vowel

than

q

arc

T,

or more

commonly both

to

w ;

the

initial

e. g.-

 

w.

 

I1

I>

9 I

8 w.

 

J,

I,

qq *a

 

q and

in

this

and of Visarga in

S$ 35 (c)

and 36, remains; q

and

are before all initial vowels changed to ; the usual practice is to change % to w,

and

++m=+m;ST&+ w=mfn.

Final q and n> before

and

vowel is not cllnnged.

+ + wqq=w, or more comnlonly

a+-=*,

s$c~$$=s&~$1,

Note:-The

hiatus resulting from the dropping of

and the next rule,

etc. carinot be again combined.

$

23.

Final

and q,or both to

& to w~.The initial vowel remains unchanged. e. g.

& + qqq m,or usually

&+mq=~,lJ

a? +

= &,

,I

sometimes m m.

&+w=da, ,,

,,

mw.

q.

mJa;q.

Exceptio~as.

of a verbal form to m;e. g. q + qqf& *.

Ej 24.

(a)

Final q or

of a preposition unites with tho initial

  • 8 SANSKRIT

GRAMXIAR.

[ $ 25-

(b)

Final q or qr of a preposition unites with an initial p ~nd+

of a verbal form (except with tlie initial q of forms derived

from i;

'to

go,' and

'to grow')

to p and q?;

e, 9.-

sr+q&=3~3;q+M=M.-Bub~+q@=a.

5

23.

(a) a, , ,

and p, when final in dual forms and in r)XFft (Nom.

Plur, hlasc. of the demonstrative pronoun qq), remaLl unchanged (yrag~ihya)before all initial vowels, and all intial vowels remain 11x1- changed after them; c, g.-

+ g$

= f?)@

fjtft + & =

 

' two

hills here.'

&

' tliese two hills.'

q.lift+q qr:= &

tqw: ' tllose liorscs.'

wr~+wm~S,=~~q;~~~:;

qqq*

-9

jy?

qq

we two sacrifice here.' ' both sacrifice.' ' YOU both sit Iicrc.'

(6) Interjections conrristing of only olio vowel and the final 4 of particles remain unchanged, and initial vowels remain unclianged after

them;e,g.~+d%=q*;qii;3~,~~g?*.

2.-Covatact

of Final Voweta arid Coneonants with Inidial Vowels nnd Conaonnnts.

( a. ) Changes of Ir'inal Consotannta.

5 2G. Surd finals can stand only before surd initials; before fionant letters they are changed to the correspon&ng sonants, (Visarga generally to T;), and before nasals to the nasal of their own class. Filial dentals are generally assimilated to initial palatals and linguals, and final q to any initial consonant. Tlie special rules aro :-

§

27.

Final T, p, and 7-

  • (a) ww + ~mq= wsgaq; ursq + ad3

Beforo sonant letters are changed to q-, q, and q respectively;

= wmwk Pftm -t

e. 9-

ml?r=*mf;~+rr&r=~~m.

(b)

Bofore nasals, howevcr, final $, q, and q al'e more

comnionly

changed to q, T, and q;e, 8. qrq + f3lhm: = em: by (a), or

niore commonly *&jg:

; r&q

+ q = t&q

or rf+m;qjyjy+

q = BW or -0

(c)

Before surd consonnnts final T, q,

and

7 remain

unchanged ;

e.g.ww+~=~;*m+m=~m@;m+

m=-•

§ 3O* 1

RULES OF EUPHONY.

9

$

28,

Finn1 q-

(a)

Before initial

y or q,

is cl~nngedto y; beforo q or a,to q;

before q or q, to q; before q or q, to q; and before q to q; e. 9. m+q

=m; aq+M+r=a@mf3;

aq+amq=rn,

= ~i~wvq.

= m;aq+d = ag*; a~+~~wq

aq+q

  • (b) Before the palatal sibilant x,final q is changed to y,after wliicli

tlie initial xis comuioiily

or m~q.

chal~gpd to q;a. g. mmq = -4

(c) Eefore the remaining surd co~sonantsfinal

relnnins unchanged;

e.9.

~+;r;Ttr?r=at&~%; aq+Rm"=afW%; m+pi~jq=

+ G&

= am+.

mwq;

(d)

final

Before the re~n:tini~~g

sonnnt consonants

is chariged to q; e. g. m+ * =&,

and

beforo

vowels,

m+q=gR=

~,aq+~=aq~+i;~+w~=~

  • (s) But beforo nasals, final q is more commonly cl~angedto q; 8.9.

aq+

= qigR by (d), or more commonly

mR ; m+ g~qq

C

= mpq 0' T=gJ'q.

$ 20. Final q and q~

(a)

Aro doubled wlle~lprcccdcd Ly a short vowel and followed by

vowel ;

e. g,

qqq + q~&= qq&;

grl~+ ilftl = gq-

nny initial

ha. (See 5 30 a).

(b)

Otherwise filial

and

remain nllchanged ; e. g,

qq + &

-- m&;

mq++&=

srqfhf3;

mq+q:=qq:;

qvq+

M=~mR;gq+a=~;g~+~-g

§ 30. Finn1 ;I;-

(a)

Is doubled when preceded by a

m;l;+ ~8 = &.

short vowel and

But

any initid vowel ; e, g.

&q.

(See § 20 a).

followed by

+ q$ = ym-

(b)

Eefore q,x, and x, final is clianged to s~;;before

to q.; and before q to tilo naaal q;i.

e. to q. After q the initial

be changed to q. e.

9. m;]; + q;l~;~\

= mm; m+

=

and q,

ric, may

orrn-ci;

mq+ww~q=mq; q+ q?wq= x2khm.r;.

(c)

Between final ;I; and

initial

p or q , q or q, and q or ,

the

corresponding sibilants m,y, and q are inserted (i. e.

before y or q,

q before

q or

q, q before q or Y), and before them the

final

sl; is

changed to

Anuev lra ; e. g.

w+3=*.

a-

+ a

~w

;

+ zgrq = efq;

(d)

Before vowels ( except where (a) is applicnble ) and before

tile

remnining consonants, final ;~lromaiusunchal~god ; e, g, m+m=

10

SANSKRIT CIRAMMAR.

[ 3 3l-

armF;

m;r, +rnmf?r=wwv&r;

mq+iT=m,

n;+dk,=~d~;

W+

m+w=

*=TF&;

7q-k mR=m*;

~;~+ig:=m:;~+c=m.

5 31.

Final q-

(a)

Beforo initial vowels remains

unchaoged ;

e. g.

m+

=

m;trq+yy=aih.

(b)

Before sibilants, and before

and

$,

final q is changed

to

Anusvhra;

c. 9. iq+m=+m;

qrl;+q:=+q:;m+~=

?fa;arx.+~e;tfit=ii~sftr.

(c)

Before any other consonant final rl; may be changed to Anusvara,

or it may be changed to the nasal of the class to which the initial con-

sonant belongs (to %, &, % before y, a, y). The usual practice is to

change q before all consonants to Anuivhra. E. g. qq + q$i&

=wtfmirSt (orwerm); m+q=@a(orwsr); wiq+

tal3lfh=Jrrl f$ngR (or ~~);w~+f;tis~

=*hfi(or

ar&wrf2);wgq

+*=+?f+Tr(or~&fw.

9

32. Filial a remains ullcl~angedbefore all in.itia1 letters ; e.g, gm

+~=~~;

s~~+~R=~.

8

33.

Final Visai~ga,preceded Ly any vowel-

(a)

Remains unchanged

before

initial

surd gutturals and labial8

[$, q, Y, F);e.g. m:+ffhea=m:&@;g;r:+q$&

*;*:+*=*:*.

(b)

Before sibilants, final Visarga may

remain

unchanged, or it

= m:

may be assimilated to the following

sibilant ; e. ,o, qm: +

qg or mtq;~m:t:q~~3=n~r:

-or

m&;w:+q:=g;i:

ig: on m:.

(c)

Before yor

,. ?

or q, and q or y, final Vissrga is clinnged

respectively ; e. g, m:+ q

to the corresponding sib~lantsx, 8, and

=ni~sr;m:+g=~;~:+3=~3;;tia:+3=~.

§ 34,

Final Visarga, preceded by any vowel except sr or m,is

changed to

before any sonant letter; but this .i: is dropped before

and

a preceding sliort vow1 is lengthened. c. g. e:+

+d:=*3:;

i~ mq; 88:

*:+vx: =?a w:.

B~:+~=u~;

Exception : 'l'he final Visarga of d:'0, Ho,' is dropped before all sonant

letter8 ; s . g. -.;if:+

= aq?

rn ;

+ r~,$dlq= q) v.

$

35.

Final w:, when standing for original m--

(a)

Ie changed to gh before all sonant consonants ; e. g.

m: ( for

~)+&=mf&;Tm:+&=TFdfm~.

( b )

dropped.

It ie cllanged to 41also 1)cforo initinl q; the initial q itself

E.g. m: + wf?g = nv? s&.

is

( c)

Before all other initinl vowels

q:, when standing for

original

q,becomesq; e.g.m:+m=~mBF; m:+~ara=rmm.

S 3G.

Flnal qr:,

when standing for original

all aonant letters ; e. g. WW: (for qv) +

g-y=ww~;asri:+waf?a=wmw&i.

becomes qr before

= qw m; qqf: +

  • 5 37.

Tlle final Visargt~of q: and JTI:, \vl~onstandiug for original T

is changed to -f before all sonaut letter9 ; bcfore au intiill

is dropped and preceding q is lengthened. E. y. m: ( for

that find

) + q-q

=-; g;r:+R=wf&; ~:+~=~ iq:+

w?r=gar~u?r; ar:(fornq)+sm=pm; g:+m=g-bxr; gr:

4- k.mr = ig R~T.

Note.-In

special combinations filial Visnrgn after penultimate w is

clttulged to q,and after peuultimato ;4 or 3 to 8, bcfore snrd gntturals

and labials.

Instances of this cllauge will be drawn attention to.

( b. ) Changes of Initial Consonanla.

8 38.

Inilial q-

(a)

After a final sllort vowol, and

~nuatbo changed to

e5m;

+ sly&

; e. g.

+