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W OJ SKOW E STUD I UM NA UC ZA NI A J ZY KW OB C Y C H

CENTRALNA KOMISJA EGZAMINACYJNA JZYKW OBCYCH MON

PRZYKADOWE MATERIAY MATERIAY EGZAMINACYJNE JZYK ANGIELSKI POZIOM 3 CZYTANIE SUCHANIE


WG STANAG 6001

d 2007

PRZYKADOWE MATERIAY EGZAMINACYJNE JZYK ANGIELSKI


POZIOM 3 CZYTANIE SUCHANIE
wg STANAG 6001

Opracowanie i redakcja: mjr Dariusz wierzona Ewa Pawelec Agata Majchrzak Magdalena Kamierczak Maciej Kurzawiski Daria Sotys Konsultacja: Eric Atkinson David Crosbie Mark Crossey

Sowo wstpne
Niniejszy skrypt stworzony zosta z myl o onierzach zawodowych i pracownikach wojska przygotowujcych si do egzaminu z jzyka angielskiego na poziom 3. wg STANAG 6001. Materia ten zawiera przykadowe zadania egzaminacyjne z jzyka angielskiego, ktre zostay przygotowane i wczeniej uyte przez Centraln Komisj Egzaminacyjn Jzykw Obcych MON w rzeczywistych w zestawach egzaminacyjnych. Ze wzgldu na fakt, i model egzaminu na poziom 3. uleg zmianie w sprawnociach mwienie i pisanie, publikacja ta koncentruje si wycznie na czciach egzaminu czytanie i suchanie. Ze wzgldw praktycznych nie zachowuje ona podziau na czci typowe dla zestaww egzaminacyjnych. Rozdziay publikacji dotyczce kadej ze sprawnoci podzielone zostay na czci zawierajce jeden typ zadania egzaminacyjnego. Taki ukad zastosowany zosta gownie ze wzgldu na ograniczenia wynikajce z moliwoci przenoszenia materiau dwikowego. Osoby wykorzystujce niniejsz publikacj jako narzdzie w przygotowaniu do egzaminu jzykowego niewtpliwie doceni fakt zawarcia w niej transkrypcji wszystkich teksw w rozdziale powiconym sprawnoci suchanie. Ze wzgldu na fakt, i w jzyku angielskim nie wystpuj korelacja pomidzy realizacj fonetyczn sw a ich reprezentacj formaln, w przypadku wiczenia teje sprawnoci korzystanie z takiej formy pomocy w ramach pracy wasnej staje si nieodzowne. Liczymy, i publikacja ta bdzie skutecznie wspomaga wszystkich jej uytkownikw zarwno w przygotowaniach do pierwszego egzaminu resortowego na poziom 3. z jzyka angielskiego, jak rwnie do prb potwierdzenia ich umiejtnoci na tym poziomie w pniejszym okresie. Wierzymy, i trafi ona, jak i analogiczna publikacja powicona poziomowi 2., na pki nie tylko orodkw jzykowych, ale rwnie jednostek i instytucji wojskowych.

CKEJO MON

Spis treci REA


DING

Reading Part One.

Reading Part Two

35

Reading Part Three

51

Listening Part One

81

Listening Part Two

91

Listening Part Three

103

Listening Part Four

113

Scripts for Listening

129

Answer Key

175

Rcvbvbn

READING READING READING READING

Part One
Read the texts and choose the answers A, B, or C.

Text 1
Kyrgyzstan Link-up to Foil Insurgents
In preparation for an expected escalation of militant Islamist activity in mid-year, Kyrgyzstan has held mobilisation and staff exercises involving groups from neighbouring Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The three-day exercises, held in mid-April under the direction of Kyrgyz Defence Minister Esen Topoyev, reportedly aimed to improve planning and coordination between the Ministry of Defence and other central and regional departments, with emphasis on the southern regional administrations of Osh, Jalalabad, and Batken. The involvement of staff groups from the defence ministries of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan reflects stepped-up efforts to mount a more integrated response to what is increasingly a trans-national threat. Over the past two years, southern Kyrgyzstan has been the scene of incursions by the Afghanistan-based Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), which has sought to move from bases in northern Tajikistan through Kyrgyz territory to reach the Ferghana Valley region of Uzbekistan. Kyrgyz authorities are also concerned over local support for both the IMU and the Hizb ut Tahrir, another banned Islamist party, which has mounted a leaflet campaign in southern parts of the country calling for the overthrow of the government and the establishment of a Central Asian caliphate. In late March, police in the southern capital of Osh held anti-riot exercises practising the use of water cannons and tear gas.

1. The three countries held joint exercise to A. improve their national mobilization plans B. train for a possible increase of rebellious actions C. set up a trans-national regional administration 2. IMUs headquarters is located in A. Afghanistan B. Uzbekistan C. Kyrgyzstan 3. A Central Asian caliphate has been advocated by the A. Hizb ut Tahrir B. IMU C. Kyrgyz public

Text 2
Virtual Deployment: Soldiers May Soon Train Anywhere
Soldiers may be able to train for future peacekeeping deployments from the comfort of their own dayrooms, if a recent $45 million Army investment bears fruit. The service is spending the money on a five-year contract with the University Of Southern California to establish a center for developing cutting-edge virtual-reality training systems. Army Secretary Louis Caldera opened the center the Institute for Creative Technologies Sept. 26 in Marina del Rey, Calif. The center plans to team with computer game manufacturers and other entertainment companies to develop simulation technologies that can be used in both Army training systems and computer games. Virtual reality simulation technology is nothing new for the Army. The service already uses it in simulators like the Close Combat Tactical Trainer. The CCTT simulates the operational characteristics and performance of a variety of combat vehicles complete with the sights and sounds of armored vehicle combat. Troops use it to practice and perfect small-unit skills of shooting, moving and communicating with each other. At present, the only way soldiers can train for the challenges of operating in tense environments like those in the Balkans is to go through rigorous and expensive exercises at the Armys combat training centers. These exercises feature role players performing as civilians, presenting the troops with the sort of difficult situations they are likely to encounter during peacekeeping operations. While the new simulations wont replace such training, they will allow soldiers to rehearse numerous scenarios in a cost- and risk-free environment.

1. The Institute for Creative Technologies is financed by A. the Army B. the University C. the games companies 2. The Close Combat Tactical Trainer simulates A. hand-to-hand fighting B. armored vehicle operation C. peacekeeping tactics 3. The combat training center exercises are expensive because A. they take place in the Balkans B. they have to employ people as actors C. they present difficult situations

Text 3
Reserve Soldiers Called Up to Fill the Gaps
Reservists are being mobilised by the Ministry of Defence to help fill gaps in Britains capabilities exposed by the military campaign against Afghanistan, it emerged yesterday. The move, to be announced officially today, comes as military planners are wrestling with plans to deploy ground troops in Afghanistan which they know could be extremely risky. About 150 reservists will be asked to volunteer for specialist jobs, including interpreting photographs taken by specially equipped Canberra aircraft, defence sources said. They have been called up to assess the damage done to Taliban military targets, including mobile forces, and Bin Laden training camps over the past seven nights of air strikes. Their mobilisation suggests that military intelligence officers are having difficulty in analysing the impact of precision weapons, including cruise missiles aimed at small targets over large areas. The reservists are likely to be summoned to the joint air reconnaissance interpretation centre at RAF Brampton, in Cambridgeshire. Most of the reservists are being asked to help with battle damage assessment, defence sources said yesterday. They insisted there were no moves to call up medical staff. The Defence Medical Services are suffering serious shortages, including estimated shortfalls of more than 70% in consultant anaesthetists, more than 80% in accident and emergency consultants, and 70% in burns and plastic surgery consultants. Defence officials are coy about discussing the prospect of ground forces in Afghanistan. Operations involving ground troops are not imminent, one official said yesterday.

1. The reservists are being called up to ... A. increase the efficiency of work already being done B. join a ground force in Afghanistan C. replace officers going to Afghanistan 2. The reservists are going to A. take photographs of bomb damaged areas B. indicate targets to be attacked C. analyse air reconnaissance information 3. The MOD arent calling up reservists for the Defence Medical Services because A. they do not have properly trained reservists B. they dont want to admit they have a problem C. there is no immediate need for them

Text 4
Record Numbers Desert the Army
The Army has been hit by an unprecedented wave of absenteeism and desertion. Senior officers and defence experts say the huge numbers of soldiers going absent without leave (Awol) threatens a crisis that could jeopardise the ability of Britain's armed forces to fulfil their combat and peacekeeping missions. The Army is already stretched by heavy commitments overseas and has suffered acute recruitment problems. Most of the Awols are among the junior ranks of infantry regiments the lowest paid and least motivated units in the army. Such soldiers however are indispensable, even on todays hi-tech battlefield. Many incidents have been high profile embarrassment for the MoD and have stymied their recruitment campaign. According to Brigadier Sebastian Roberts, the Army's director of corporate communications many servicemen went Awol when they felt there were family situations that demanded their attention. 'Unfortunately they don't go to their commanding officers, but take matters into their own hands.' But experts say the problem will remain chronic until fundamental issues are addressed. 'The underlying reason for desertion is almost always the treatment meted out to soldiers,' said Robert Peterson, a lawyer specialising in military offences. Of the 200 cases involving Awols that Peterson has handled in the past two years all but a handful have involved physical and psychological trauma caused by superior ranks or peers. 'I have only seen one lad who genuinely just couldnt hack the physical demands of army life. The Army has been forced to pay out substantial sums in compensation. Earlier this year, the courts awarded 60,000 to a serviceman who had needed hospitalisation after being beaten by fellow soldiers while on active service in the former Yugoslavia. Scores of other such cases are pending. If they are successful, the MoD could be forced to pay out millions. Academics say that like all 'closed societies' the Army will find it hard to change. They cite senior soldiers' reactions to anything that smacks of 'political correctness' as evidence of the armed forces' institutional conservatism.

1. Heavy absenteeism in the British Army may A. stop British involvement overseas B. make a recruitment campaign necessary C. reduce the number of tasks it does 2. The main reason for desertion is A. low wages B. family problems C. bullying incidents 3. Inquiries into Awol cases may result in A. financial losses for MoD B. stricter penalties on soldiers C. the Army becoming less conservative

Text 5

NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense are negotiating new rules that will govern who can have access to data produced during a 1999 space shuttle Endeavor mission to map the majority of the Earth's surface, according to a NASA scientist. "We agreed with the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) to take a look around and make sure we were not publishing something that could be used by evildoers," said Michael Kobrick, a project scientist at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. "We have given NASA and NIMA more time to work out the distribution details." Kobrick acknowledged that the negotiations between NASA and NIMA have not been the only problem delaying release of data from the mission. "Our original thinking was that we would be done by the end of 2001," Kobrick said. "But it turned out that calibrating and verifying the data was trickier than we thought. That work is proceeding, but it's a slow process. Data will be released incrementally throughout 2002, he said. NASA released some data in late January, but the work will not be completed until the end of the year, Kobrick added. Two different sets of topographic maps are being developed, Kobrick said. A set with 30-meter accuracy will be made for military use, such as providing more accurate terrain data for cruise missiles and better navigation data for pilots. A second set of data, with 90-meter accuracy, will be developed from that set for non-military users such as scientists, emergency relief planners and commercial pilots. The 90-meter data will be available publicly through the U.S. archive at the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

1. NASA and NIMA are changing the rules of exchanging data due to A. security concerns B. reorganization C. technical limitations 2. It will take longer than expected A. for Endeavour to collect data B. for NASA and NIMA to ensure security C. for NASA to process the data 3. Maps for non-military use will be A. based on less accurate data B. adapted from military maps C. a basis for more accurate maps

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Text 6
France Aims To Boost Use of Helios Spy Satellite
French defense authorities are preparing to loosen the classification restrictions on Helios spy-satellite imagery to widen the distribution of those images among tactical French defense forces and France's European allies. They are also considering slashing the price of Helios imagery sold to the European Union's satellite center outside Madrid. The center, which compiles images to verify treaties and monitor refugee movements and troop concentrations, has been purchasing more imagery from the U.S. commercial satellite Ikonos than Helios pictures, according to the center's former director. Addressing a Feb. 13 symposium here at France's military academy, Gen. Bernard Molard, a former director of the center, said the systematic classification of Helios imagery and its high price to European allied governments have kept under wraps a program that should be a showcase of European know-how. "Why has there been such silence? No one knows," Molard said. "It is not surprising that we have difficulty persuading our political leaders to continue the space-based reconnaissance effort when most people are not even aware of its success." Gen. Gavoty, French MoDs official, said that, after consulting with space-hardware manufacturers, he had reached preliminary estimates of what it would cost for Europe to begin to build a broad military-space capacity. According to his figures, it would cost about 750 million euros per year over 11-12 years for the satellites and their related launch vehicles. "That is about one-third of what European governments spend each year on the European Space Agency," Gavoty said. "I am showing these figures to make the point that, if there is a real demand for a military space capability in Europe, the money is there."

1.

The EUs satellite center buys more from Ikonos than from Helios because A. its products are cheaper B. its images are clearer C. it involves less bureaucracy

2.

It is difficult to find ongoing funding for Helios project because A. few people know how good it is B. it is not producing results C. it is being replaced

3.

Gen. Gavoty argues that A. Europe needs a stronger military presence in space B. space-based military projects are affordable C. the European Space Agency costs Europe too much

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Text 7
Germany may delay its decision to help develop the Meteor medium-range air-to-air missile, which could throw the six-nation program into disarray. Defense Ministry officials here say they have not received enough technical data from the partner nations to make a decision. Lawmakers say they may not fund the effort. Five of the partners (United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden) signed a memorandum of understanding last summer, but German officials said in a surprise move that the country would not join until contract details were fully negotiated. Still, the partners had hoped for the final signature by April. But with the approach of the parliamentary summer recess and the September elections, a final signature is unlikely before the year's end. But lawmakers' schedules are not the only barrier to German participation. As Germany's military struggles to make do with a 3.5-billion-euro procurement budget, Meteor's technical troubles could make the radar-guided missile an easy target for cuts, the parliamentary source said. "This is something that Europe has never done before, and it bears a significant risk," he said. "What happens if we produce a multibillion-euro missile that might not work properly in the end? Perhaps we should trust our U.S. partners in this case and buy some of their products instead." The lead firm in the industry team professed astonishment. "We are very surprised by this statement because we understand from the discussions to date and from public statements made by the German parliamentary defence committee that Germany is committed to Meteor," said MBDA spokeswoman Carol Reed in London. "We feel we have all the elements ready for a decision, and contract, to be made this year. This program is extremely important to MBDA and to Europe's air forces as well as to Germany's own defense industry, especially with regard to the ramjet technology from Bayern Chemie."

1. The German government A. are keen to develop the Meteor missile B. want more information about the Meteor project C. want to abandon the Meteor project 2. A parliamentary source suggests A. Europe should ask U.S. for technical assistance B. more money should be spent on the project C. spending money on the project is taking a risk 3. MBDA A. understands the German position B. thinks it has been misled C. will make a decision this year

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Text 8
Singapore's armed forces are seeking U.S. government permission to bring home their U.S.based Apache attack helicopters equipped with the Longbow radar in 2006, two years earlier than originally agreed, according to military officials from both nations. A Singapore Air Force official confirmed that Singaporean military services want the copters and their trained pilots in-country far sooner than planned. U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. Tome Waiters, head of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency, the Pentagon organization responsible for Foreign Military Sales, said, "the United States has a policy of not being the first to introduce certain weapon systems into a region, and the Apache Longbow falls into this category." The first of Singapore's Apaches is scheduled for delivery in April. The Singaporean aircraft will remain for a period of time at a U.S. Army National Guard base in Marana, Ariz., home of an Apache training unit. They will join other Singaporean aircraft detachments in the United States. With large neighbours to the south and north of this small but wealthy city-state, there is little airspace for military pilots to train realistically. Therefore, Singapore has an agreement with the Pentagon to base tactical aircraft detachments in the United States. These include KC-135 refuelling aircraft, F-16 fighters and Chinook cargo helicopters, which are located at various bases in the United States. In return, Singapore allows the U.S. military to use military facilities in Singapore, including the Changi naval base. All of the Apache helicopters are expected to eventually return to Singapore. And the Longbow radar maker, Northrop Grumman Electronic Sensors and Systems Sector, Baltimore, Md., hopes that all 20 aircraft will be equipped with the fire control radar. Northrop Grumman is facing a potential break in its Longbow production line in 2004 unless new orders are placed by this summer, to meet the companys 18-month-long lead time for supply of parts. The U.S. Armys current multiyear procurement ends in December 2003.

1. Singapores armed forces want to A. upgrade their copters with a new radar B. train their helicopter pilots in the U.S. C. speed up the shipment of Apaches 2. Singapore keeps its aircraft fleet in the U.S. because A. it doesnt want to enrage its neighbors B. the pilots have more space to train there C. the U.S. uses Singaporean military bases 3. Equipping all Apaches with Longbow radar would A. cause problems with the supply of parts B. mix-up U.S.s procurement plans for 2003 C. help Northrop Group maintain production

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Text 9
A Nation of Criminals
Britain may have slipped down many world league tables over the past few decades, but it beats all other rich countries (except Australia) in one activity: crime. According to a new victimisation survey of industrialised nations, people in England, Scotland, and Wales are at greater risk than anywhere else of having a car stolen. And apart from Australia, people who live in England, Scotland and Wales are at greater risk of being assaulted, robbed, sexually attacked and having their homes burgled than are people in any other rich country. The results of the 2000 International Crime Victims Survey (ICVS), published by the Dutch Ministry of Justice, are deeply embarrassing to a government, which has promised to be "tough on crime and the causes of crime." That perhaps explains why the Home Office, which co-operated on the English part of the survey, says it has no plans to publish the findings. The home secretary, Jack Straw, says that almost half of all crime is committed by a hard core of 100,000 offenders. He has already forced through legislation introducing longer sentences for persistent burglars and he is now proposing to introduce "special drug courts for drug offenders who are responsible for more than a third of all property crime. But whether any of this will change this country's position in the crime league tables remains open to doubt.

1. Britain leads all other nations when it comes to A. car theft B. assaults C. crime in general 2. The article suggests the results will not be published in Britain because A. they have already been published by the Dutch B. they will cause shame and scandal for the government C. the British did not co-operate in the writing of the survey 3. Mr Straw wants to introduce A. longer sentences for habitual criminals B. special courts for drug related crime C. changes to the way crime tables are written

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Text 10
Towns in Terror
When the Uzbek government announced the arrival of U.S. soldiers at the airbase in Khanabad last month, most locals were eager to meet their new neighbours. Today many wish the Americans would go home. Not that the Americans themselves are the problem. They are ensconced in their own city behind concrete walls, and almost no one has even seen them. The problem is the virtual reign of terror that the Uzbek security services have unleashed on the inhabitants of Khanabad and neighbouring villages: whole villages sealed off by police, visits by outsiders forbidden, regular house-to-house searches and police at checkpoints taking taxi license-plate numbers, interrogating those drivers unlucky enough to have transported a foreign journalist and confiscating their cars. Intense secrecy, repression and the complete information blackout by Uzbekistans state controlled media have left locals anxious about Taliban or terrorist attacks on the nearby base. The media have even raised concerns about the possibility of a biological-weapons attack since American troops were recently seen carrying gas masks, but this is seen as unlikely. What really scares the local people are rumours that villagers living near the base may be forcibly evicted in order to further enhance security for the Americans. Still, the U.S. military isnt doing much in terms of damage control. Pentagon spokesman Rear Adm. Craig Quigley says there are no plans to station U.S. public-affairs officers in Khanabad to handle their neighbours questions on the nature or extent of the U.S. presence or anything else. The U.S. military seems willing to go along with the hosts philosophy: if you grab people tightly enough by the neck, their hearts and minds will follow.

1. The American presence in Uzbekistan has resulted in A. hostility towards American security measures B. ongoing disruption to normal everyday life C. the Uzbek people feeling more secure 2. The Uzbeks are afraid of being A. invaded by the Taliban B. ordered to leave their homes C. exposed to biological attacks 3. The US military A. accept the current security policy B. want to increase their military presence C. will respond to their neighbours questions

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Text 11
Soldiers Taking Wing
Faced with recruiting shortfalls and retention problems, the Air Force has decided it too could use some hard-charging Army soldiers. Though some will laugh at the thought of former soldiers putting on Air Force blue, the plan makes sense from a Defense Department perspective. The Army needs a high ratio of junior enlisted troops. The Air Force, on the other hand, needs more midlevel people and it relies on second and third term re-enlistments to bolster its ranks. By drawing veterans from the other services, the Air Force can get hundreds of new airmen who already know the military basics. Its not like Air Force recruiters will lurk outside Army forts trying to lure soldiers away. Prospective prior-service airmen would have to have honorable discharge papers in hand to be eligible for the program. In years past, the Air Force limited its prior-service recruiting to former soldiers, sailors and Marines with specific skills, such as military police or linguists. In its new policy, released May 3, the Air Force welcomed all eligible veterans including infantry troops to sign up. If necessary, the Air Force will provide technical training for the prospective airmen. The Air Force policy change may present a challenge for Army personnel planners who are currently 2,500 re-enlistments short of their goal for first-term and mid-career soldiers whose contracts expire this fiscal year. But for those soldiers who decide to leave the Army, the Air Forces offer gives them another opportunity to serve their country. Some will certainly take it.

1. The Air Forces plan ... A. isnt being taken seriously B. is criticised by the Defense Department C. is designed to recruit retired soldiers 2. To qualify for the new AF program one has to ... A. B. C. be a specialist have military experience have previous flying experience

3. The Army ... A. will challenge the Air Force policy B. may face personnel shortfalls C. will change its recruiting policy

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Text 12
Do-Good Hackers
For as long as there have been computer networks, there have been hackers ready to break into them and cause trouble. So it is surprising that the biggest story to emerge from this years Def Con hackers convention is that members of one of the most notorious hack collectives are doing something constructive. The challenge: governments of China, Cuba and some Islamic countries block Web sites that carry information or ideas that these governments prefer to keep from their citizens. The hackers response: software that lets users get around government-installed firewalls and gain access to the forbidden sites. This programme was created by a special operations group of the Cult of the Dead Cow a group best known for creating a programme which gained access to the PCs of unsuspecting windows users. The groups spokesperson, who calls himself Oxblood Ruffin, says the software is an extension of the hacker ideal of free flowing information. Once installed, Hacktivismo, as the programme is called, works with a standard Web browser. But instead of linking to the local, filtered server, the one the censor expects you to use it goes through the computers of fellow travellers who have installed the software, and who form a kind of anonymous, peer-to-peer underground network. Eventually the network leads to a server outside the firewall and access is granted. Dozens of hackers from many countries, for example Germany, South Korea and Canada, collaborated on the project. The biggest question about Hacktivismo is whether users in a censorious state run the risk of being found out. That risk should decrease as the program spreads to thousands of users, making it impractical to track down anyone. Activists within the target countries, who know the risks, are just begging for this application, says Oxblood. The software is due to be released later this year in an open-source format, which means programmers can tweak it to improve its ability to cope with any countermeasures from repressive regimes. Oxblood hopes the worlds best geeks will get involved. Were interested in showing that work like this is badass. Its important. Its going to have a huge practical upside.

1. New software is being created to A. hack into the PCs of Window users B. break through international firewalls C. track down illegal hackers 2. The new software will be able to achieve its goal because it can A. unfilter local web servers B. be used in many countries C. pass information along unexpected routes 3. Users of the new software shouldnt be found out because A. too many people will use it B. it wont be used for long C. the format used is untraceable

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Text 13
Dont Attack North Korea!
North Korea, which has been demanding that the U.S. enter into a nonaggression pact, last week added a curious "or else. Sign, or this place is toast. To drive home the point, North Korea announced it had reactivated its Yongbyon nuclear reactor. Pyongyang said that it would use the reactor to generate much-needed electricity "at the present stage. The problem, according to experts, is that the reactor, which was decommissioned in 1994, is too small to make electricity in useful amounts-but certainly big enough to produce weapons materials. The Bush Administration, preoccupied with Iraq, was determined not to get too excited. Spokesman Ari Fleischer said the White House had "heard much talk from North Korea before. However, Fleischer noted that "the United States is prepared with robust plans for any contingencies. Washington has put 24 bombers on alert for deployment to the region. Yet Secretary of State Colin Powell told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee "we have no intention of attacking North Korea. The U.S. continued to pursue a multilateral approach to the crisis, working with allies South Korea and Japan, as well as Russia and China. But Pyongyang, which pulled out of a nuclear nonproliferation treaty in January, insisted that only direct talks with Washington will do and seemed intent on persuading its people that a U.S. attack was imminent. Air-raid drills are conducted daily, and conditions steadily worsen in the impoverished nation, which is under an oil embargo imposed by the U.S. and its allies. Food rations have been cut as appeals by the U.N. have been ignored. Yet for ordinary North Koreans, the bluffing may be indistinguishable from reality.

1. According to the author, North Korea reactivated the nuclear plan to ... A. cope with energy problems B. produce nuclear weapons C. make US sign the agreement 2. The US ... A. has not reacted to Korean provocation B. has threatened strong military action C. treats the Korean problem as a secondary issue 3. North Korean government wants A. the UN to lift the embargo B. to scare its citizens C. to hold multilateral talks

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Text 14
Old Look For New Labour
Cool Britannia was looking particularly uncool last week. The nations fire-fighters they were seeking a 40 percent pay hike; the government offered 11 percent walked off the job for 48 hours. Across the country, soldiers were left to man ancient military fire trucks. Scattered fire deaths were reported, and tabloids blared angry headlines like: How many more have to die At the same time, Londoners endured massive Tube tie-ups and traffic jams as hundreds of London Underground train drivers sympathetic to the fire-fighters cause stayed at home for what they called safety reasons. This week, barring a settlement, the fire-fighters could begin striking for an additional eight days. And imminent strikes have already been threatened by everyone from air-traffic controllers to court magistrates to mail carriers to university staffers. A country in the grip of strikes is not the image that the Prime Minister Tony Blair wants to project to the electorate. Blair and his fellow modernizers spent more than a decade reforming and rebranding the Labour Party as New Labour the political party that means business, not the one that the Conservatives so successfully demonised in 1979 with their scathing slogan, Labour isnt working. Those were the days of the grim winter of discontent, a desperate era that ushered in Margaret Thatcher and, until Blair marshalled his new-look party to victory in 1997, nearly two decades of Tory rule. Since September 11, Blair has demonstrated his prowess as an international statesman and spent much energy backing a proposed U.S. strike on Iraq. But it may turn out to be the strikes at home that pose the most threatening challenge of all.

1. The press outcry was caused by ... A. the high rate of casualties in fires B. the high demands of the fire-fighters C. the inefficiency of the fire-fighters 2. London suffered from transport problems because ... A. other public services joined the strike B. the underground was closed for safety reasons C. not enough trains were running 3. The strikes are a challenge for Tony Blair because they ... A. undermine the position of GB in the world. B. weaken his position in the Labour party C. threaten the new image of Labour

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Text 15
The Cruise Missile Threat
Pentagon acquisition chief Jacques Gansler got it right in late July when he directed the U.S. Navy to reassess its defenses against cruise missiles. This class of weapons is pervasive, dangerous and much more likely to be used than the ballistic missiles that attract so much public attention. Cruise missiles are already in the hands of more than 70 nations. As their numbers increase, they are becoming more sophisticated and more difficult to defend against. The Navy, forced to deal with limited resources and a variety of defense priorities, has cut its funding for some missile defense hardware. Mr. Gansler appears to hold reservations about the Navys ability to deal with the more than 80 types of cruise missiles in the worlds arsenals, some fitted with advanced target seekers and stealthy designs. His directive to the Navy asks for a re-valuation of whether the services operational assumptions reflect the reality of fleet operations. The assessment is essential. Vice Adm. Art Cebrowski, president of the Naval War College, recently noted the emerging preferred way to kill a ship is with missiles. That is indeed significant. Indeed.

1. The main reason for the shift of attention to cruise missiles is that ... A. they are becoming a bigger threat B. they attract a lot of public opinion C. they failed the Navys assessment 2. Mr. Gansler questions the Navys ability to ... A. produce defence hardware B. improve target seeking software C. defend itself against cruise missiles 3. Mr. Cebrowskis opinion ... A. opposes Ganslers concerns B. supports Ganslers concerns C. ignores Ganslers concerns

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Text 16
Howdy President Putin
The 610 residents of the Texas town of Crawford greeted President Putin warmly. It was a clear signal that it's not only Bush and Putin who are forging a new relationship; something is stirring at the grassroots level as well. There's no doubt who started that something. After September 11, both Putin and Bush proclaimed a new era in U.S.- Russian relations, ignoring or overriding the skeptics at home. And they continued to do so last week. Although they failed to hammer out a deal on missile defense, the two leaders couldn't praise each other enough. Such behaviour is changing not just the tone of the bilateral relationship but the way Americans and Russians see each other. It is a case of a warm and fuzzy glow at the top working its way downward. According to a CBS News poll last week, 25 percent of Americans now consider Russia an ally, and 55 percent consider it friendly. By contrast, 58 percent held an unfavorable opinion of Russia in a l999 poll. Russia has registered a similar trend. Most Russians viewed the United States as an "unfriendly power" before September 11, and a subsequent poll by the Public Opinion Foundation showed that a sizable minority-46 percent continue to believe this. But 14 percent consider the United States an ally, putting it in first place on a list that it didn't even appear on two years ago. And 69 percent now favor closer relations with Washington. Alexander Oslon, the president of the Public Opinion Foundation, which works mainly for the Kremlin, attributes these reversals to much more than Putin's policies. What angered many Russians was the sense that Americans had emerged in the aftermath of the cold war as the sole super power and often seemed to write Russia off altogether. Now the perception is that the United States is no longer invulnerable, and no longer as prone to unilateralism. "America looks a lot weaker than it seemed, " says Oslon. "That means that the mental distance between us has decreased. And that Russians feel important again, which is exactly what Bush had in mind when he pronounced Putin "very trustworthy" at his first meeting with the Russian president in Slovenia last June.

1. Just after September 11 American-Russian relations started to improve A. at the ordinary people level B. at the presidential level C. at all levels 2. According to recent polls, public opinion of the former enemy has changed A. in the US B. in Russia C. in both countries 3. According to the text after the end of the cold war the Russians felt A. underestimated B. threatened C. vulnerable

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Drugs What Drugs
While looking for Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters, American special forces in Afghanistan routinely come across something they're not looking for: evidence of a thriving Afghan drug trade. But according to antinarcotics experts, they're not doing anything about it. Several Kabul diplomats familiar with U.S. military operations say that while carrying out searches in eastern and southern Afghanistan opium-growing areas that are also Taliban strongholds U.S. soldiers have found hidden caches of narcotics, crude heroin-processing labs and convoys racing across the desert with bundles of hashish and opium, headed for Europe and Central Asia. If these drug convoys have any connection with terrorists, special forces will move in, says one Western diplomat. Otherwise, the attitude is: Hey, it's not our problem. Antinarcotics experts in Kabul say the U.S. is making a mistake by ignoring the Afghan drug smugglers. Moving against them would hurt the terrorists, they argue, since both use the same underground pipeline to move cash, guns and fugitives across borders. Im positive that the Taliban are heavily involved in drug trafficking, says Wais Yasini, counternarcotics adviser to Afghan President Hamid Karzai. How else do you account for their money? This year, after a bumper crop of opium poppies, say United Nations officials, Afghanistan became the worlds largest heroin producer, with an estimated $1.2 billion in profits. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld said, I dont want the already overstretched 8,000 U.S. soldiers in Afghanistan to be sidetracked from their main goal: to capture and kill terrorists. And diplomats say that many of the local commanders, whom the U.S. military relies on for intelligence on al-Qaeda and the Taliban, are mixed up in the business.

1. U.S. Special Forces consider drug trafficking in Afghanistan A. helpful to find Taliban camps B. not their responsibility C. a secondary issue to concentrate on 2. Action against drug smugglers would A. reduce Taliban financial resources B. open illegal channels for terrorists C. equal stopping Taliban terrorists 3. Donald Rumsfeld thinks U.S. troops A. have already too much work B. forget what their main goal is C. rely too much on local informers

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Burma Feels the Pressure
Burmas military dictators have shrugged off outrage from the West since they jailed democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi two months ago, but might find it harder to dismiss criticism from near neighbors. Early last week, Malaysian leader Mahathir Mohamad suggested expelling Burma from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) if the Nobel peace laureate isn't freed. It was Mahathir who - despite protest from Suu Kyi and the West - insisted on Burma's inclusion in ASEAN in 1997. But the frustrated PM - no champion of democracy - says the junta's continued obstinacy has affected ASEAN'S international standing. Mahathir's comments were echoed by Philippine Foreign Minister Blas Ople at a meeting last week of Asian and European foreign ministers in Bali. Burma already faces possible U.S. sanctions, and Japan has cut economic aid, but expulsion from ASEAN - which is sending delegates to Rangoon to press for Suu Kyi's release - would carry graver diplomatic and economic consequences. The group is virtually Burma's only link to the outside, and membership lends the junta legitimacy. The regime's release of 91 political prisoners might be too little to maintain that link.

1. Burma has ignored the criticism from A. the western countries B. members of ASEAN C. its neighbours 2. Burma may be expelled from ASEAN because A. it has changed its policy B. it has weakened the pacts credibility C. it has made outrageous comments 3. If expelled, Burma A. would not receive economic aid B. would become an outsider C. would face UN sanctions

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New Life for Sea Kings in India
India has established a facility to repair the Navy's Sea King helicopters, grounded because of age and unavailability of spare parts. In March India's state-owned Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. began developing the repair facility in Bangalore, in technical collaboration with Agusta Westland Helicopters at a cost of $15 million. The facility is expected to be functional by the year's end. Most of the 43 anti-submarine warfare Sea Kings purchased from the U.K company Westland Helicopters about 20 years ago had to be grounded. Spare parts were unavailable following U.S. sanctions in 1999, which were lifted in September 2001. At present, the grounded helicopters need gear boxes, rotor systems, transmission systems, sonars and avionics gear. Details of the technology transfer agreement with Agusta Westland were not provided but are expected shortly. A Navy official said current efforts include the repair of only seven Sea Kings in Bangalore, while the Navy plans to replace 14 of the helicopters with another anti-submarine warfare helicopter. However, James Mohanty, the spokesman for the Agusta Westland, said that the Bangalore facility would be capable of restoring the entire Sea King fleet. Mohanty said the facility may also be used to overhaul the additional anti-submarine warfare helicopters the Navy intends to procure to replace 14 Sea Kings. The ineffectiveness of the Sea King fleet has severely crippled the Navy's offshore surveillance capability. An Indian Defence Ministry official said the ability to overhaul the Sea Kings is vital in view of Pakistan's acquisition of French-made Agusta submarines and because of the heightened presence of China's submarine force in the Indian Ocean region. 1. The objective of the deal with Augusta Westland is mainly to A. provide spare parts for helicopters B. purchase a new fleet of helicopters C. upgrade a repair centre for helicopters 2. The Navy is thinking of A. buying new anti-submarine warfare helicopters B. restoring the entire fleet of warfare helicopters C. servicing newly bought helicopters in Bangalore 3. According to the text, the Indian policy will A. make Pakistan strengthen its defence B. improve Indian observation abilities C. increase tensions between China and India

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Army Logisticians Get SatCom Boost
When the U.S. Army's 3rd Infantry Division heads back to Iraq later this year, their logisticians will bring new satellite communications terminals called Very Small Aperture Terminal (CSS VSAT) that will help them provide improved combat support. Army logistics were determined to fix problems during the March 2003 drive to Baghdad, where support troops equipped with antiquated terrestrial communications systems often had to wait days to use ad hoc line-of-sight communications towers, causing severe delivery delays. And the first priority of the towers was to go to the tactical formations, so it was taking three or four days before the support units had the priority. The introduction of VSAT should considerably reduce threats for the supply personnel who had to literally rely on the sneaker net and physically carry information around the theatre. The crucial supply data could have been not only lost but also seized by the enemy intelligence to further hamper already slow supplies. Developed recently by the Army's G-4 acquisition shop in the Pentagon and its transmission systems program office at Fort Monmouth, the CSS VSAT dish is smaller - only 4 feet in diameter and easier to use. Contrary to the existing system, once the VSAT device is set, it does not need further adjusting. It automatically links with either the Defense Satellite Communications System or commercial satellites and stays connected, which allows defence managers to monitor supply-chain instantly. The MoD plans to provide CSS VSAT systems to all Army divisions when they transform in the next several years into smaller, more modular brigade. CSS VSAT will replace those "not quite as sophisticated" devices now in the field.

1. The problem with the old communications system was that A. it often broke down B. it was too visible C. it had limited access 2. Thanks to VSAT, A. information will be more accurate B. messages will be better protected C. supply deliveries will be safer 3. Contrary to the old system, VSAT A. provides on-the-ground connection B. requires more skills to be operated C. connects to non-military satellites

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Russia Outlines Giant Consortium
A draft plan to create a Russian aircraft-building consortium to rival companies such as Boeing or EADS is on the desk of Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov. The Unified Aircraft-building Corp., or OAK, would be created in two years once its outline is approved by the Cabinet. The consortium would bring under one umbrella Aviation Holding Company Sukhoi, Russian Aircraft-building Corporation (RSK) MiG, Tupolev and Ilyushin Aviation Holding Co. One major problem that planners face, however, is how to bring these fiercely competitive, often rival companies together to make the most of the domestic and export markets. A source at one of the companies which is planned to be part of OAK said it is not yet entirely clear how the integration will take place or whether it is even necessary. You can bring us all together, but this talk is pointless unless the government can provide for a substantial state arms purchase program, he said. Russian companies have survived in the past decade mainly on income from arms exports. Russias defense industry in 2003 reached a record $5 billion in revenues. In the sphere of commercial aviation too, Russia has too many aircraft competing for a tiny domestic market. Today, I have counted we have 14 projects of mid-range aircraft, and there will be more until a certain barrier is put before it, said Alyoshin, deputy prime minister. Mentally people are still in the past century and think that they can create a modern liner single-handedly. The government, which before has kept tight control of Russias aircraft industry, is prepared to take just a blocking stake of 25 percent in OAK, leaving the venture open to foreign investors. The government this year will review current legislation that caps foreign participation in local industry at less than 25 percent, but it is not yet clear what the new limit will be.

1. According to one source, the fusion will make sense only if A. the government buys more B. there are more export sales C. there is less rivalry 2. Alyoshin thinks that A. current personnel lacks qualifications B. OAK will need more new projects C. there is not enough cooperation 3. At present, the foreign investment in the local industry A. can be more than 25% B. is unlimited C. must be less than 25%

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Mortar Fire Challenge
U.S. Army deployed its 20-year old upgraded TPQ-37 Firefinder Weapon Locating System to Iraq. The service developed new software to bring the system up to date. But the upgraded system failed to do what it was intended to do: detect mortar rounds. For members of the 1st Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, the TPQ-37 was more of a problem than an asset. The unit came under mortar fire 40 times in Iraq, but the system only detected rounds three times. The squadron suffered between 10 and 15 injuries from mortars. We tried everything humanly possible to work out the system, said Lt. Col. Reilly, squadron leader. The unit even fired its own mortars at the system. Several factors have complicated the use of TPQ-37s in theatre. For one, soldiers were trained only briefly on the new software before going to Iraq. We did training with soldiers on the ground on the new software, but they didnt get the full course of instruction, the months and years of peacetime training, Col. Michael Bowman, Army program manager, said. Meanwhile, the Army is planning to send teams of Firefinder experts to the field to work on training, while Raytheon, the producer, are working to upgrade the TPQ-37s performance. The use of the system in Iraq has prompted the Army to re-evaluate its future mortar detection systems. The TPQ-47, developed by Raytheon, originally expected in the field several years ago, is still in development and could get cancelled in favor of a short-range system that offers 360degree coverage. The TPQ-47 model can detect artillery as far as 400 kilometers, but offers only 90degree coverage. Raytheon is disappointed that the fate of the TPQ-47 is unclear because recent tests have been very encouraging.

1. The American soldiers were in trouble because they A. couldnt operate the mortar B. didnt see the enemy fire C. came under friendly fire 2. Currently A. soldiers are being familiarized with the software B. the system is being improved by the producer C. the untrained troops are being replaced 3. The alternative to TPQ-47 system has the advantage of A. a longer range B. a greater coverage C. an earlier completion date

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A Careful Campaign
Anyone who followed the endless 2004 U.S. presidential campaign, in which no detail about the candidates was trivial enough to avoid spotlights, would find little familiarity with the campaign under way in Iraq. Three weeks from the scheduled election, most Iraqis dont even know who to vote for, as the candidates are so scared of being murdered that they refuse to be identified. Thats the force of democracy in Iraq, as violence mounts in advance of the January 30 election. U.S. officials have not hesitated in insisting that the vote will be held on schedule. I dont think its a debate anymore, says an official in Iraq. The tactical and strategic consequences would be far more damaging than the problems we would face after the election. Yet, four Iraqi provinces have been declared not safe enough for voting. Meanwhile, Iraqis are being asked to choose among candidates whose names do not appear on billboards sponsored by different factions. These are fixed to innumerable concrete barriers defining Baghdads traffic arteries urging for instance that voters pick List No. 169, the one approved by Grand Ayatullah Ali Husainin Sustani. There is little flesh pressing and baby kissing by candidates, but there are ads on TV and radio; each party also has its own newspaper. Voters too are frightened. Iraqi elder statesman Adnnan Pachachi says many residents of big cities like Mosul and Ramadi want to participate but are too scared even to register. He suspects few in the Sunni minority will go to the polls - perhaps not even 10% - which could undermine the elections legitimacy. Many people from Arab countries will say this is not a correct election, says Dr. Saad Abdul al-Razzak, of Pachachis party. U.S. officials say they will urge Shite leaders after the election to bring Sunnis into the government to make sure they are represented. We believe the process will have Sunni input, says the U.S. official. We believe all Iraqis understand representation is crucial.

1. According to an Iraqi official, the election ... A. should be cancelled altogether B. should be postponed until later C. should take place as planned 2. The campaign in Iraq is unusual because of ... A. strong interference of religious leaders B. lack of important information C. limited sponsorship for parties 3. The election results may be questioned due to ... A. the low number of registered voters B. the strong pressure on Iraqi voters C. the unbalanced voter representation

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Terrorism Takes a Step Back
The Cairo daily Ahram gave the story just a paragraph. But the release of Egyptian militant Karam Zhudi last week could represent a milestone in the global war on terrorism. Once among the most dangerous of Egypts extremists, the 51-year-old leader of the radical Islamist group Gammaa al-Islamiyah, who drew the attention of the media after he had played a key role in the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat 22 years ago. Sadats murder, during a military parade, was intended to unleash an Islamic revolution. Zuhdi was freed from Al. Aquuab Prison after he publicly renounced violence, condemned the September 11 attacks and expressed remorse for Sadats murder. His release and that of roughly 1000 other Gammaa members suggests that Egypt, in contrast to most of its neighbours, may be taming parts of its own terrorist groups. Experts say Zuhdis repentance reflects a major revision in Gammaa thinking. In a recent interview, Zuhdi acknowledged that Gammaa members had carried out the slaughter of foreign tourists in Luxor in late 1997 but claimed the attackers were dissidents. Our understanding of the religious literature has changed, and the reality around us has also changed, he explained. Zuhdi says he no longer believes that leaders, like Sadat, who refuse to carry out Islamic law deserve to die. Zuhdi now calls Sadat a martyr and expresses his disdain for al-Qaedas doctrine of violence: This strategy was a religious mistake, in addition to having terrible consequences. By releasing this important Islamic figure, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak hopes that this would stop the radical younger generation of Egyptians from turning to extreme political actions. But critics complain that Mubarak shows no sign of accepting true democratic reform. Without that, they fear, Egypt will remain fertile ground for extremists.

1. Anwar Sadat was killed because he ... A. refused to follow the Islamic law B. persecuted Gammaa al-Islamiyah C. discovered the plans of a military coup 2. Karan Zuhdi was released because ... A. he regretted his sins B. he gave his religion up C. he named the Luxor killers 3. President Mubarak wants to ... A. introduce necessary social reforms B. keep youths away from violence C. gain Islamic leaders support

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Keep the C-5 Flying
Without fanfare, the U.S. Air Force quietly retired a C-5A Galaxy transport in November. The first Galaxy to go to the boneyard, airplane No.70-0458, was an old friend. I flew aboard the plane as a passenger en route to Operation Just Cause, the U.S. intervention in Panama, in January 1990. Number 70-0458 had a reputation as a hangar queen, prone to more reliability problems than an average C-5. Officials dont like the term boneyard for the Arizona storage and regeneration facility. But when the aircraft is a Galaxy, the term is apt. Two other recent C-5 Galaxy developments are, I hope, a better guide to the future. First, early in January, the Air Force awarded contracts worth $48.7 million for avionics modernization of some C-5s. Considering the value of the Galaxy to the taxpayer, thats chump change. Second, on Jan. 8, a Galaxy outbound from Baghdad International Airport with 11 crew members and 52 military personnel landed safely after its No. 4 engine was hit by a surface-to-air missile. Skillful airmanship undoubtedly contributed to the survival of this C-5, but the incident also is testimony to the resilience of the Galaxy, which can sustain damage and continue flying. A more ambitious improvement program, under which General Electric CF6-8OC2LIF turbofan engines would replace the Galaxys TFJ9 engines, has not received the go-ahead, even though details were worked out more than a year ago. The TFJ9 engines are difficult to support and costly to operate. A re-engining effort seems like a no-brainer an obvious way to assure continued good service by a Galaxy fleet that has plenty of structural life left. Theres a threat to the C-5, but its not from an enemy missile. Behind the scenes, some on Capitol Hill and in industry argue that the Air Force should retire its C-5s, sooner rather than later, and that the strategic-airlift mission should become the responsibility of only the C-17 designed and developed by Douglas Aircraft Co.

1. The first retired C-5A Galaxy got its nickname due to its A. unusual mission B. storage in Arizona C. frequent breakdowns 2. The Baghdad incident A. showed pilot training weaknesses B. proved the worth of Galaxy C-5 C. led to quicker avionics upgrade 3. For more than a year, there was a plan to A. replace Galaxys engines with new ones B. modernize the Galaxys existing engines C. replace C-5 Galaxy transport with C-17

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U.K. Wants Global Hawk Demonstration
Britain has joined the queue of nations interested in Northrop Grummans Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and its ability to provide reconnaissance. Discussions are taking place between London and Washington on whether the high-altitude, long-endurance UAV could be flown into the United Kingdom for a joint exercise just prior to the Royal International Air Tattoo, a large air show at the Royal Air Force (RAF) base at Fairford, England, that begins on July 16. If the timing is right and the necessary approvals gained, the U.S. Air Force would also like to fly Global Hawk into RAF Fairford during the show and continue to use the base to fly the vehicle during the Farnborough air show starting on July 19, said the source. Although there is no chance of it operating from Farnborough, they are looking at a live data link between the show and the vehicle operating somewhere in the U.K. space. A Global Hawk-type vehicle is likely to be one of the contenders to replace the RAFs Canberra PR9 photo-reconnaissance aircraft. The Canberra is still in great demand by the coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan to provide medium/high-level, long-range oblique imagery. But the airframe is now more than 40 years old and is likely to come out of service around 2006, unless the aircraft undergoes a life-extension program. The British move is the latest signal of rapidly growing interest here in the role of UAVs. The MoD recently used an Urgent Operational Requirement to purchase two types of U.S.-built mini-UAV systems destined for British forces in Iraq.

1. The British are interested in seeing the Global Hawk during A. a joint exercise B. the Fairford Airshow C. the Farnborough Airshow 2. During the Farnborough show the Global Hawk A. would fly from Farnborough B. would fly between Farnborough and Fairford C. would fly from Fairford 3. The Canberra A. has been replaced with mini-UAVs B. is planned for an upgrade C. is still in the service

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Sea, Air, Landlocked
It was the worst setback in the 43-year history of the U.S. Navy SEAL program. At least 10 of the elite commandos died when a reconnaissance team came under fire in the mountains of Afghanistan, and a SEAL rescue helicopter crashed trying to save them. For many SEALs (an acronym for sea, air, land), the Afghan debacle was just a bitter new chapter in the frustrating war on terror. Many SEALs have come to feel like second-class citizens in the exclusive world of special forces. Why? The main reason has been severe restrictions on the types of missions they are allowed to undertake, says a U.S. defense analyst under Pentagon contract who works closely with special-forces units (he declined to be identified because his work is classified). The reason for this may be that the Army has taken over most of the senior command. While the Armys Delta Force and the Green Berets get the best direct action and unconventional-warfare missions, SEALs say they are often relegated to being VIP escorts in Iraq or to rescue missions, the defense analyst says. The result is that hundreds of SEALs have not re-enlisted, while others have resigned their commissions, helping to reduce the SEAL population from about 3,000 to about 2,500, says the defense analyst, citing official Pentagon numbers. Asked to respond, SEALs spokesman Cmdr. Jeff Bender said: We cant go into the nature of our missions. But I am unaware of low morale, and I would have to look further into whether re-enlistments are down. Many SEALs have left for higher-paying jobs and sometimes better action with private security firms with a heavy presence in Iraq. The Navy has offered a $150,000 bonus for senior officers who re-enlist for six years. But John Arquilla, who teaches at the Naval postgraduate program at Monterrey, California, says, These men dont become SEALs for the money, and they dont stay SEALs for the money. They do what they do for the prospect of action. And these days, theyre clearly not getting enough.

1. SEALs are frustrated because of A. a high number of casualties B. unsuccessful war on terror C. the type of tasks they do 2. SEALs dont get into direct action because A. they have to provide protection for VIPs B. other special forces are more effective C. they are underrepresented in command 3. The number of SEALs will keep going down unless A. the salary they receive is much higher B. the nature of their missions changes C. the enlistment process is improved

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European Copter Deal Falters
Plans by four Central European nations to modernize the bulk of their Mi-24 Hind attack helicopter fleets in a joint program apparently have collapsed. Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia look to be going their separate ways, though it is possible two or three participants may opt to work together. The nations, known collectively as the Visigrad Four, a reference to the loose regional grouping which nominally ties the Central Europeans together, aim to extend the service life of about 100 airframes and update their avionics to make the formidable Hind attack helicopter NATO-compatible. The deal, estimated to be worth roughly $500 million, has been stalled for several months during which the four participants have argued over workshare. At a Visigrad Four summit involving the leaders of the nations in late June, Czech Premier Vladimir Spidla labeled the program a failure. However, by the time the defense ministers met a few days later, the official line was that the four nations had agreed to continue under looser conditions. A leading British industrialist familiar with the program said information coming out of Eastern Europe indicates that Spidlas comments better reflect the situation. The Visigrad Four deal has effectively come to an end. I expect the Poles to proceed with a national tender for around 16 Hind upgrades sometime in September; they are still talking to Hungary and Slovakia about possible involvement, a NATO military specialist said. The Czechs are looking at a prototype of their own, although there may be interest from other partners. A tender package is likely by the end of the year, he said. Under the original scheme, a prototype of the upgraded Hind would have been rebuilt in Poland, with avionics, sensors and communications provided by Western suppliers. Seventy percent of the upgrade would have been common, with the remainder probably using country-specific equipment. London-based BAE SYSTEMS; Sagem, Paris; Israel Aircraft Industries, Lod. Israel; and a team led by Elbit Systems Ltd., Haifa, Israel, that would include Lockheed Martin Corp., Bethesda, Md., are expected to number among the bidders for the upgrades, even if the program splits up.

1.

The Visigrad four couldnt agree on A. the extent of the upgrade B. the best bidder for the upgrade C. the division of workload

2.

According to the British industralist, the program A. has been unsuccessful B. will be continued C. is being renegotiatied

3.

The Poles are expected A. to invite offers from avionics suppliers B. to come up with their own prototype C. to rebuild 70% of its chopper fleet

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Aircraft Carrier CVNX
For the fifth time this fall, Pentagon leaders on Nov. 1 reviewed various proposals for building the U.S. Navys CVNX, a new class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers pitched as a technological leap ahead of the current Nimitz-class. Even as they argue about whether these new flattops truly are transformational, and about how best to schedule their design and production, one fact looms for them. If work on the new flattop does not begin by 2007, its price will balloon by billions of dollars. As originally envisioned in the late 1990s, CVNXs new design would use electric motors and magnets to drive the ship and launch its aircraft. Operating costs would plummet as reliability and survivability rose. But questions of cost and technology prompted a gradual-increase approach. The first of the new class, CVNX-1, would incorporate some innovations, paving the way for the more advanced CVNX-2. However, the Bush administration is skeptical. Stephen Cambone, the Pentagons chief analyst, suggests it may be wiser to skip CVNX-1 and pour the money into making sure CVNX-2 lives up to its potential from the outset. Others suggest delaying the whole aircraft carrier programme for another two years. It would come at monumental cost with prices ranging from $5 billion to $10 billion a piece, aircraft carriers already are the most expensive pieces of defense equipment in the world. To retain the workforce that can pass the U.S. Navys stringent tests for safety, security and skills, Northrop Grumman Newport Shipbuilding the worlds only shipyard capable of producing these titanic vessels must start a new carrier every five years. Without a new carrier to begin in 2007, it is likely the yard would lay off one-third of its 18,000 workers. Rehiring, replacing and requalifying them would cost about $3.2 billion to the yard alone. Unknown is the cost to the government of replicating the services provided by the firms that might go under or leave the field during the hiatus. These consequences can and must be avoided.

1. As for the new aircraft carrier, the Pentagons biggest concern now is A. the choice of proper technology B. the time of starting the project C. the future operating costs 2. According to the Pentagons chief analyst A. CVNX-1 programme should be put off B. the focus should be on one carrier type C. the CVNX-2 programme is too expensive 3. If the Northrop Grumman shipyard started a new carrier by 2007, A. its workers would keep their jobs B. new workers would be employed C. its workers would have to requalify

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Allies Up In Arms
It may have been no accident that Israel kept its helicopters out of sight during the latest track-and-kill operation against Palestinian militants. The U.S.-made Apaches hovered miles from the Nablus office of the Islamic militant group Hamas, firing laser-guided missiles that flew through its window and showered shrapnel inside. For the Israeli pilots, the success was only partial the strike killed six men in the building, including two top Hamas activists, but also caused the death of two children on the street below. For the United States, it was another moment of regional embarrassment. Once again, Israel had employed high-profile U.S. weapons in an assassination policy Washington opposes. The Bush administration worries that Israels use of Apaches in its targeted killings will have a bad effect on the United States. The issue has already fed anti-American sentiment among Palestinians and angered U.S. allies in the region. The U.S. officials think it undermines the U.S. role as mediator. Publicly, they have refused to condemn Israels use of American weapons in the attacks, but a senior Israeli defense official said that both the State Department and the CIA recently voiced their objections, and sources in Washington privately confirm it. Israels response so far: sometimes it opts for other weapons, sometimes it uses U.S. arms from a discreet distance. Even if it wanted to bow to U.S. pressure, Israel would be hard-pressed. It is bursting with American firepower. Washington approves the sale of its most sophisticated fighter planes and technology to Israel before other countries are allowed to buy them. Tel Aviv finances the deals with its $2 billion in U.S. military aid. The Jewish state already owns about 50 Apaches and has ordered another 29 for $1.5 billion. We spend a lot of money buying arms in the United States, says Shlomo Dror, a spokesman for Israels Defense Ministry. Im sure U.S. companies would not want that to change.

1. The latest track-and-kill operation was carried out in secrecy because A. American choppers were to be used in it B. the U.S. wanted to take the militants by surprise C. Israel wanted to avoid civilian casualties 2. The American officials A. are worried about American influences in the region B. are officially opposed to the Israeli military action C. are afraid of a Palestinian counterattack on the U.S. 3. U.S. pressure mentioned in the third paragraph means American insistence on A. Israel buying more military equipment B. other countries not trading with Israel C. Israel not using the American arms

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READING READING READING READING

Part Two
Read the interviews and choose from questions A to H those which you think fit best paragraphs 1 to 7. In each task, there is an extra question which you do not need to use.

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An interview with a representative of the National Liberation Army (NLA) of Albania.

1. _____ We were forced into a war we didnt want. If Macedonia were a truly democratic country, there wouldnt have been a war. Parliament would never have granted us what we obtained by fighting, particularly as regards the use of the Albanian language. 2. _____ Our future is to live together. The Macedonians must be realistic and pragmatic, and not give in to feelings of anger. If our requests are accepted, therell be no problem between the Macedonian majority and the Albanian minority. 3. _____ Weve already given up a third of our weapons. Naturally, we intend to lay down our arms according to the agreement with Nato and the international community. 4. _____ The return of refugees has already begun. Its wrong to say we are preventing the return of Macedonian civilians. 5. _____ This is a reason for concern, but we are banking on the guarantees provided by the Europeans and Americans. I think there should be an international presence in order to consolidate peace. This is essential to prevent further fighting. 6. _____ I respect the court. From the start of the war I said the NLA would respect the court and the Geneva Convention. The NLA has observed the rules at all times, and we have freed all the prisoners, so there is no reason for indictment. 7. _____ Weve been fighting to ensure that Macedonians and ethnic Albanian Macedonians have equal rights. We have no intention of redrawing borders.

A. But hasnt the fighting caused the gulf between the two communities to widen? B. The proposed amnesty does not cover war crimes. Arent you afraid of being charged? C. The NLA started hostilities seven months ago. Have you achieved your aims? D. Are you getting any financial support from the Europeans and Americans? E. When will the 120,000 displaced Macedonians be able to go home? F. Are you going to continue disarming the NLA? G. What is your answer to the accusations that the NLA has a secret agenda, that it fights for a Greater Albania with part of Macedonia attached to Kosovo and Albania. H. Arent you afraid the government will mount an offensive after the NLA has been disarmed?

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Text 32
An interview with Burhanuddin Rabbani, the founder of one of the Afghan parties.

1. _____ This government was formed through a decision made at the Bonn Conference. Decisions that were made in a hurry. I didnt want the world to think that I opposed peace so I gave my support. But this government is only here for six months. We cant expect them to do much. Theres no real parliament or elected government, and theres no reconstruction taking place. 2. _____ You probably realize that I put his name forward as a potential leader for the interim government. I dont want to interfere too much in his work, and I dont want to make it seem like there is a parallel administration. But if there is a pressing issue to discuss, I do speak to him. 3. _____ The countries present at the Bonn conference manipulated the process. They were probably working with good intentions, but this should be the last act of foreign interference in our domestic affairs. The growth of terrorist groups in the country was a result of foreign interference. All of our wars have been caused by foreign powers. If foreign meddling continues, the Afghan people will conclude foreigners dont want us to be free. 4. _____ I believe their knowledge of Afghanistan is not only limited but bordering on ignorance. They havent taken the time to get to know Afghanistan or its leaders. They only know Afghanistan through spying. But we have always realized the necessity of establishing a healthy relationship with such an important nation. 5. _____ One of the conditions of the interim administration is that no one will have their own armed faction. The soldiers were parts of our party but, from now on, they will be backing the government. 6. _____ Like most Afghans, I dont want the foreign powers in our country. The force isnt counterproductive, but I think security problems wont be resolved by their presence. Their most important role should be to help us create a national army that would stabilize the country. 7. _____ There are many others. Authority hasnt been centralized. Provinces are working for their own interests. Cooperation between Kabul and the provincial governors is based on verbal promises.

A. During the war against the Taliban you commanded a large group of soldiers. What will happen to them now? B. Do you have regular contacts with Mr. Karzai? C. What is your assessment of Americas relationship with Afghanistan?

D. Do you believe that security is the main problem in Afghanistan now? E. F. Do you believe that he was brought to power through American interference? How long do you think it will take the American troops to destroy Alqaeda?

G. What do you think of the international peacekeeping force? H. What do you think of the interim administration?

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Text 33
An interview with Yannos Papantoniou, the Greek Minister of National Defence.

1. _____ Our new defence plan is now responsive to the threats in the new evolving environment. For Greece the threats are clear: First is the Turkish threat. We spend 5% of our gross national product on defence. There are specific Turkish claims against our national territory and our sovereignty. A second threat is the continuing instability in our northern frontier, which causes a significant flow of illegal immigration that influences negatively our social and economic functions. 2. _____ The third threat is the asymmetrical threats related to the surge of international terrorism. 3. _____ It has two main aims. The first is to create a new command and control structure by establishing joint headquarters in which all three branches of the armed forces participate. These headquarters fall directly under the chief of the National Defence General Staff. The second aim is to reorganize the armed forces, and to move them where threats exist. Other supportive aims are improved training, professional soldiers to replace a significant number of conscripts, small and flexible units, reinforcement of the rapid reaction Special Forces, and induction of new technologies. These communications and informatics to develop intelligence collection, processing and disturbing systems, which will permit full use of smart weaponry we have already procured. 4. _____ The main weapon systems: main battle tanks, aircraft, frigates and more. What now is extremely urgent is procuring fast-transport mediums, such as transport helicopters; electronic warfare; communications systems; and intelligence collection systems. 5. _____ Our main criteria are economic cost and technical adequacy. And these were implemented in the recent KYSEA (Governmental Council for Foreign Affairs and Defence) decisions, which have concluded major procurement programs pending for some time. 6. _____ For the Eurofighter there is a political decision for its acquisition, but KYSEA has decided to postpone signing the contract until after 2004. 7. _____ Our participation in the organisation is given, but I wish to say that the role of the United States in the Balkans I consider very critical and essential. I think U.S. presence must remain strong, for mainly political reasons. Another issue is NATO expansion. Greece is among the countries that favour the greatest possible expansion eastward, in suitable time, and after a staged procedure, to include the Russian Federation.

A. What issues surround Greek membership in NATO? B. Is there anything else? C. What key points of your national strategy have changed since Sept. 11? D. What is the attitude of Greece to the Middle East conflict? E. What about the continental attack plane? F. What are the objectives of the new strategic defence review? G. What are your weapons purchase priorities? H. Are there any political criteria on obtaining arms? Should they exist?

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Text 34
An interview with Sheikh Jaber, Kuwaits Deputy Prime Minister and Defense Minister.

1. _____ When I took over the Defense Ministry portfolio, I found Parliament had the appropriate amount of authority, because there are many things within the ministry that need to be closely checked. However, sometimes there are negative sides to the Parliaments exercise of power: mainly the delays it caused to the Armys arms and procurement processes. Now I am exerting a lot of effort to gain the Parliaments confidence in procurement programs. The real problem is in the lack of trust between the Parliament and the Defense Ministry, and its harming the Army. 2. _____ I dont want to discuss specifics, but certain events were questioned before I arrived. 3. _____ The ministry has appointed two consultants to review procurement contracts in dispute. The consultants have come back with reports, which I have referred to the appropriate authorities to take the needed action. I believe these measures have helped. 4. _____ Acquiring modern C4I (command, control, communications, computers and intelligence) and massive firepower. They are necessary to make up for Kuwaits quantitative inferiority in manpower compared to armies in neighboring countries. Thats why we want to have the Apache Longbow, because it has formidable firepower. 5. _____ Another priority or concern for me, personally, is chemical warfare. Iraq used chemical weapons against its own people. So Kuwait is now setting up (nuclear biological-chemical) units. I have asked Kuwaits armed forces to conduct more training exercises on counter chemical warfare. 6. _____ Kuwaits Higher Defense Council endorsed in its last meeting a decision to purchase additional ones. We have yet to decide on the kind of warplanes needed. Our pilots and experts have become used to the F/A-18. However, we want to see if the Army needs a different kind of fighter. So were now short-listing the best available jets on the market. 7. _____ As part of our decision-making process, we always compare a preferred weapon system to the others, to make sure we are getting the best price and highest technical specifications. We emphasize quality ahead of cost. Most of our weapons were produced in the US and Europe, but we have also bought high-quality weapons from the East.

A. And are there any others? B. Whats holding up the procurement process? C. Why has trust broken down? D. Have Arab boycotts of US products affected Kuwaiti arms procurement? E. Do you know if or when Kuwait will buy more fighter jets? F. What are you doing about it? G. What are Kuwaits top weapons priorities? H. Why is Kuwait buying weapons from multiple suppliers?

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Text 35
An interview with Turkeys Deputy Prime Minister.

1. _____ During various consultations, Turkey has been pointing to the problems a military campaign in this part of the world would cause. Such a military action would not only damage Turkeys economic interests, but hurt the sensitive political balances in the region. It is our wish that things go back to normal as soon as possible. It would not be acceptable for us to further damage Iraqs territorial integrity. 2. _____ Only if Iraq fully complies with the resolutions of the United Nations Security Council. It should unconditionally allow the return of U.N. weapons inspectors and enable them to do their work efficiently on Iraqi territory. Only positive report on Iraqs alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction could earn Iraq a place in the international community. 3. _____ Although the U.S. administration has declared that it aimed at a change of leadership in Iraq, it has not yet formally announced a decision to opt for a military action. Washington has not yet asked for Turkish involvement in a possible military strike. 4. _____ It is a reality that there are sometimes problems or delays in winning congressional approval for U.S. arms sales to Turkey. We expect the U.S. Congress to consider the strategic alliance between Turkey and the U.S. when debating arms sales to Turkey, and not to index Turkish-American relations to hostile lobbyists. 5. _____ Turkey supports a just and sustainable agreement which should be formulated so as to reflect the practical realities on the island. It must be structured on two nations- two states basis. Any settlement should guarantee equal status and sovereignty between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots. 6. _____ There should be no intervention from third parties. We continue to advocate direct talks between the two leaders. We believe there would be progress in these talks if a new vision emerges toward partnership between two equal and sovereign nations on the island. 7. _____ Turkeys expectation is to resolve the problem on the basis of the Ankara Text (an agreement among U.S., U.K. and Turkish officials that they would give Turkey a say in EU use of its bases). The arrangements in the Ankara Text are realistic and reasonable. They also form the basis for Turkish contribution to the ESDP. There are negotiations between the EU and NATO to overcome the impasse.

A. Do you think the U.N.-sponsored direct talks in Cyprus could produce a settlement this year? B. For many years, Turkey has sought EU membership. Do you think Turkey will eventually join? C. There are increased indications of a U.S. military strike against Iraq to topple Saddam Hussein. What are Turkeys principal concerns over war at its doorstep? D. What is Turkeys preferred solution regarding the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)? E. Do you think a settlement is possible before resorting to military confrontation? F. What does Ankara expect from Washington in terms of U.S. arms? G. Do you think a settlement in Cyprus is attainable? H. At what level would Turkey cooperate with the United States in a military campaign against Iraq?

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Text 36
An interview with Prince Abdullah form Saudi Arabia.

1. _____ How can a relationship that has been strong and solid for over six decades be questioned like this? I sense that there is some resentment about the relationship, and of the Kingdom, that I frankly don't understand. Somebody must be trying to drive a wedge. There is no enmity at all between the Saudi government and the American government, or between the Saudi people and the American people 2. _____ America is a friend. America's interests are as important to us as our own interests. America cannot fight alone. It will be tiring, difficult and expensive, with human and material losses, and it will cause the number of America's enemies to multiply America cannot be the sole policeman of the world. I have a recommendation to make: every nation, under U.N. auspices, should sign an international agreement and commit to combating terrorism and drugs. If a country refuses to combat terrorism and drugs, it should be punished. 3. _____ I do not believe that the war on terrorism applies to any of those countries. If you have a situation of terrorism in any of them, it is the result of a small fringe group and not government policy. 4. _____ Just the opposite. In the past there were tensions, but these have been worked out. It is a large nation, and it is in the interests of all the Gulf countries to calm matters and maintain stability. 5. _____ Justice. We have a means and a process to arrive at a solution : the Tenet plan and the Mitchell report. On both sides are human beings who have emotions that affect their actions and reactions. As a first step, we can separate the two sides and introduce peacekeepers. And then it will be time to pressure both sides to return to the negotiating table. 6. _____ He cannot control all the Palestinians. Especially, while they are being shelled and killed by the Israelis. The Israeli people may not be the guilty ones. Responsibility lies squarely with the person who gave the orders. You cannot break out of this cycle of violence when the Prime Minister of Israel orders planes to drop bombs and sends tanks to invade villages. 7. _____ May God spare us. It would shake the Arab and Muslim world and destroy the credibility of anyone who was involved in this move. Forever.

A. Is Iran a destabilizing influence? B. Do you favor extending the war on terrorism to Iran and Iraq? C. What is the truth about Saudi- American tensions?

D. What is your solution to the Palestinian issue? E. F. How much has Bin Laden contributed to instability in the Middle East? Do you support America's war on terrorism?

G. What happens if Arafat is eliminated as a negotiating partner? H. Is the violence Arafat's fault?

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Text 37
An interview with Michael Sabbah, Christian Patriarch of Jerusalem.

1. _____ Palestinian Christians liberty of movement is limited. As a result life is hard and they suffer. Theyre humiliated and reduced to begging for their daily bread. Some have left, especially those who are economically able to do so. Others remain by principle, and because they want to stay faithful to their homeland and to the Church. 2. _____ Theres much greater presence of the church, and much greater efforts to facilitate action in the Holly Land and dialogue with the two nations. However, until now all the efforts have not produced much. For example, we have problems renewing visas even for clergy. 3. _____ We Palestinians know how to live together and how to understand this relationship. Christians are part of Palestinian society, and the Palestinians are Christians and Muslims. We share the same faith of one day having an independent state. We are one people, even if there are some difficulties. 4. _____ Yes, historically there have been some massacres, beginning when Europe entered the Mideast. But now nothing like this happens in Arab countries. 5. _____ Theres always that, but much of it is social pressure, thats all. Nowadays, we cannot say there is persecution. There are problems of the majority and minority, disputes of social nature. 6. _____ According to Islam, they are. Its necessary to treat each one according to his own principles. They are seen as those who are giving their lives for their country, to gain their liberty. For Christians such acts are not permissible in any case, even for your country. 7. _____ They are occupying someone elses land and find resistance. If they cease to attack and occupy the Palestinian territories, they wont suffer any further assaults.

A. Some 20% of Palestinians are Christians. Are they heeding the Holy Fathers call not to leave the Holy Land? B. Do you see suicide bombers as true martyrs? C. Do the Palestinian Muslims want to dominate and convert Christians?

D. Sharon demands a total cessation of violence before negotiating. This issue has become a primary distinction between left and right. Where do you stand? E. F. How do you feel about the attempts of the Vatican to negotiate between the Palestinians and the Israelis, and the effort to win recognition for Israel by the Vatican? But its enough to look at Vatican archives to find Christians who have been persecuted.

G. The Israelis, too, are under attack. They are being overwhelmed with continuing acts of violence. H. Not even the slightest effort at the conversion of Christians?

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Text 38
An interview with the Greek Defense Minister, Yannos Papantoniou.

1. _____ When we took over the presidency the European Rapid Reaction Force was just a paper project. There were efforts but no real achievement between 1999 and mid-2002. Later, we accelerated the constitutional procedure by exerting strong pressure on our partners, and with a very systematic effort we succeeded. 2. _____ It is to incorporate the southern countries within our security and defense perception; many security problems in this region have an international dimension and require increased cooperation. 3. _____ We will pursue an agreement of all 25 member states because we consider it the most credible scheme for European defense. If this is not achievable because of reactions: resistances or reservations of states who have a more Atlantic orientation, then we should not exclude the possibility of a group of states proceeding by itself, leaving open the possibility of participation of other states at a later date. 4. _____ I do not know if the term fits Europe, but we aim to transform the European Union into a security and defense organization with a specific political identity and a strong presence and influence in international developments. 5. _____ We all agree that it can't be competitive. We are clear on this. However, there is no partnership between countries of unequal magnitude. We must strengthen our presence, especially in defense field, in order for the Americans to view us seriously and express the willingness to cooperate with us. 6. _____ It would be a mistake to move in this direction. Competition with America must exist. It is very important for European armed forces to gain the best possible quality. 7. _____ It is associated with the current economic depression in Europe, the restrictions on the members of the euro zone, and unwillingness to spend more on defense. The reason is that after the Cold War there is no strong threat. We have to overcome this problem. The European nations must increase the percentage of their gross domestic product spent on security and defense. Most of the European defense ministers share this point of view.

A. Do you envision Europe as a military superpower someday? B. The Mediterranean Dialogue was among the EU initiatives you launched. What's the dialogue's aim? C. How should Europe develop its relationship with the United States? D. What is the final step for European defense? E. How will Europe's collective defense identity evolve? F. As you leave office, are you satisfied with the progress you've made during the past year? G. Might Europe close its market to U.S. weapons to protect its own industries? H. A credible European military capacity needs a capable armaments agency. How will it be funded?

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Text 39
An interview with John Kerry, the Democratic Party candidate in the U.S. presidential elections.

1. _____ It will, for a period of time at least. Its unavoidable because of our obligations and the systems transformation and because of the overextending of our forces. 2. _____ Im not for the rapid deployment on missile defense. I think thats a pool of money that is going to be wasted. But Im for research and development and continuing the testing, which in the long run might save billions. 3. _____ I think theres a serious question as to why Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and any of them are still around. When you miscalculate a war as badly as they miscalculated, when you dont have equipment that youre supposed to have, when you are short of the number of troops you should have, when you dont even calculate the postwar process accurately and you willfully refuse to look at plans drawn up by others in order to do this right, its beyond negligence. 4. _____ Its because of the way this administration has treated them and its disrespect. They know that this administration in all of its requests for help has never really been willing to transfer authority for reconstruction and authority for the transformation of the government. So, if you are not prepared to share decision-making with people, why should they say they will take the risks and put their people on the ground? 5. _____ Sure, but waiting for someone else to go in and do everything. They were not active enough in many roles. I mean they cover themselves and thats not what you want; you want a genuine participation that understands the stakes and the outcome. 6. _____ There are some folks around who make an awful lot of money, not all of whom can explain where all of it has gone. This is taxpayer dollars. I think we have to get a better handle on procurement expenditure processes at the Pentagon. When they cant account for a trillion dollars, America has some problems. 7. _____ I dont think its an opportune moment to start shifting. We dont have the infrastructure developed in the new NATO countries yet. My goal would be to reduce the burden on us overall by developing a greater European capacity.

A. Does that mean that you want these divisions in Europe to be strengthened? B. You referred to the military industries as fat cats. What did you mean by that? C. The defense budget has gone up to more than $400 billion this year. Do you see it going up further?

D. Whats your view of the administrations plans to re-deploy US forces to new member states? E. F. So you want to add two active divisions to the Army. How would you pay for it? Have Middle Eastern allies been co-operative?

G. Whats your verdict on the administrations handling of Iraq? H. How can you get allies to want to get involved in Iraq, especially now?

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Text 40
An interview with the candidate in the presidential elections in Zimbabwe, Morgan Tsvangirai, the main opponent to the current president, Robert Mugabe.

1. _____ In the past he would obviously have ignored it as imperialism, and he would have got away with it. But now its an international issue across race, across region, everyone has criticised and condemned him, even African heads of state. So, he cant turn a deaf ear to it. 2. _____ Mugabe opposes national and international pressure, but I think he has overstepped the line. He has a choice. If he wins the election, the outcome is, of course, illegitimate. He knows the consequences of isolation, of sanctions. This country is in economic difficulties, and he needs the outside more than the outside needs him. And he knows that. 3. _____ The lawlessness that has been encouraged and supported by the government has been damaging the countrys economy. So, we have to deal with fundamental economic equations and stop the decline. There are measures in our recovery plan to ensure that. Another issue is that the chaos in the agricultural sector, in Mugabes land-reform plan, has to be put right in a manner that gives equal support to the farmers. 4. _____ It is intolerable and we will withdraw. 5. _____ This country will not tolerate a coup. To my knowledge, the danger of them carrying out their threat is very minimal. When people have exercised their right, I cannot see anyone subverting that right and surviving. 6. _____ A very gloomy one. It will take another 20 or 30 years before people begin again to rise up and say we have to have a change. It is important to realise this is about a political culture there may be people who will outlive Mugabes current terror and still carry out his culture. 7. _____ We have two choices: to continue on, driving Mugabe to destroy the country, or reassure him, have free and fair elections and start sorting out the mess without him. We cannot have it both ways. Personally, I believe that a process of national healing and national debate is required. Charging Mugabe would only deteriorate the situation.

A. Isn't Mugabe likely to continue his policy despite this opinion? B. If Mugabe wins, by whatever means, what future does the country face? C. Do you believe the military would overturn your potential victory?

D. If you win, what will be your immediate priorities? E. F. Do you feel your life is in danger? What about Zimbabwes involvement in the war in Congo?

G. Western opinion is now strongly against Mugabe. Do you think it worries him? H. Many Zimbabweans think Mugabe should stand trial for crimes against humanity? Whats your opinion?

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Text 41
An interview with Eric Schlosser, the author of the book Reefer Madness in which he takes on the subject of the American black market.

1. _____ When you have a Western-developed country nation moving away from the rule of law into the black market, its a very unhealthy thing. Gambling is a very good example of an industry that was totally controlled by organized crime, and now has gone mainstream. Its better to have such industries within the law and taxed, rather than have organized crime control them. 2. _____ Yeah, Im optimistic. But I dont think it will happen with this administration, or even any time soon. Canada is considering legalizing it, but theyre under enormous pressure from the Bush administration not to do so. The administration essentially said that it would start slowing down exports from Canada on the pretext of looking for marijuana, and are very strongly against Canada doing it. 3. _____ I think its been a monumental failure. One of the key indicators is how easily drugs are available to anyone who wants to get them. When the real war on marijuana began in 1982, 88.5 percent of high-school seniors said it was easy to obtain marijuana. In the year 2000, it was identical. 4. _____ I dont think so. In those parts of Europe that have decriminalized marijuana, they smoke less pot than American kids. In the Netherlands, its been made legal since the mid-1970s, and kids there smoke less pot and also use hard drugs at a lower rate than American kids. 5. _____ Even if it was to be just a wage raise for the poorest people who work in America, it would still mean having more expensive labor. Whats more, to put pressure on legislatures to make change requires well-organized and well-funded groups. And when you are poor and illiterate and non-English-speaking, you dont have access to power. 6. _____ Let me give you an example. Im in a hotel right now, and when you order your porn film on pay-per-view, the hotel operator is getting a cut. Hilton and Marriott and Sheraton are the firms that are making sizable sums from this, as are AOL Time Warner and the other cable and satellite systems. 7. _____ I love my country, but we have very conflicting traditions at the heart of our culture. Thats America. Look at how we condemn porn, but we make more porn, watch more porn, have porn Academy Awards. And we have the toughest marijuana laws, but we grow more pot, smoke more pot, sing more songs about pot. This is a country that is deeply conflicted. Its at odds with itself. A. You write that pornographys greatest beneficiaries include Fortune 100 companies. How does this work? B. Will there come a time when the United States, in line with most members of the EU, will be ready to decriminalize marijuana? C. Can an illegal economy ever be beneficial to a country? D. Do draconian drug laws prevent people from smoking pot, marijuana in other words? E. If marijuana were to be legalized, would it lead to widespread abuse? F. Its been 20 years since Reagan began his famous War on Drugs. Has it worked? G. Pornography and marijuana are billion-dollar industries in America, but are publicly hated. Can you explain the absurdity here? H. Lets talk about immigrant labor for a minute. If Californias migrant workers were to be guaranteed minimum wages and other benefits, the whole industry wouldnt collapse. So why the hesitation in dealing with this?

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Text 42
An interview with Spilios Spiliotopoulos, Greeces Defense Minister, who has just taken office.

1. _____ Our revised armaments program will be ready around the end of July, and then we will be able to announce the final level of defense budget reduction. Our aim in the first phase is a reduction of 25 percent. Among the programs to be examined for termination could possibly be the armored infantry vehicle and the corvette. 2. _____ Developing armed forces ready to make rapid, decisive action through automated and strictly defined standard operational procedures based on four principles: faster, further, stronger, sharper. The process also will enable the integration of major social changes that occurred during the last decades. The transformed Hellenic Armed Forces will function as an integrated security mechanism against a wide range of threats. 3. _____ Jointness is our top priority. To meet this objective, we will preserve only one joint headquarters, the Hellenic National Defense General Staff, and create a Joint Special Operations Command in order to better coordinate the three branches special and elite forces operations. 4. _____ Active personnel will be reduced to less than 100,000. The majority will be long-term professional soldiers. Conscription will be gradually reduced to six months. The creation of a strong and well-trained reserve to supplement the main defense forces will be achieved by introducing, mainly at the frontiers, the institution of high readiness reserves, which will reach approximately 100,000 personnel. 5. _____ This government does not commit to any previous decision on any given issue, especially when a purchase of such financial value and strategic nature is involved. All issues will be reexamined from scratch. In any case, the procedure for obtaining the next fighter aircraft will start by the beginning of the next year. 6. _____ Through transparency of acquisition procedures and binding compliance with the laws in force. We will create an independent program-monitoring authority, called the Body of Financial Auditors, which will participate in the preparation of the contracts according to the NATO monitoring authority standards. 7. _____ In essence, these organizations are the two faces of the same coin, despite any problems or disputes that may occur from time to time between them. The critical terms that should characterize their relationship are: complementarity and synergy. We wish for a powerful European defense, and we will actively participate in its creation.

A. And force structure? B. Will the command structure change? C. Turkey recently said it would cut down its acquisition programs. Have you got similar plans?

D. Greece has long been a NATO member, but what role will it play in EU defense? E. F. With the Greco-Turkish relations improving, what are Greeces leading security threats? Do you remain decided on the Eurofighter procurement?

G. How will the procurement system change? H. What are your top transformation priorities?

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Text 43
An interview with Ayman Nour, the Egyptian MP and main challenger of President Hosni Mubarak in the forthcoming elections.

1. _____ We need to change the country after 24 years of military dictatorship, 24 years of deterioration on the social, economic and political level. Our generation has been banned from playing our role in society and wed like to break this monopoly that the regime holds over everything. 2. _____ Its not steadiness as much as it is a state of oppression and a state of constant pressure. Its as if they put Egypt into a freezer. 3. _____ This is a big lie, linking democracy to instability. There are many countries with both stability and democracy. Dictatorships like our country use this threat that Islamic rule will rise if democracy is advanced to frighten the West. The Islamists will not come to power in Egypt even if there is democracy. 4. _____ This is my message and they might support it. We have nothing in common with them and we wouldnt form an alliance with them but we will give rights to all Egyptians and they will also benefit from it. 5. _____ I think the United States is doing a good job but I also believe hundreds of millions of Arabs have suffered from oppression of dictatorships that were actually supported and are still being supported by the US administration. 6. _____ Bitter. We are victims of two sides the Americans who have forced us to accept dictatorships, such as our current Presidents, to preserve their dominance in this part of the world, and the leaderships here that stir up anti-Americanism to remain in power. 7. _____ The list is long and starts with cancelling the emergency laws. I would declare that Im only going to serve as president for two years. My plans include setting up a national body to draft a new constitution for Egypt as a parliamentary republic. This would open the door fully to political parties. I would also stop talking about issues that have nothing to do with Egypt, such as Iraq and Palestine and focus on domestic affairs and relationships with neighbouring countries like Sudan.

A. But dont you think that this has also been the time of relative stability? B. Why are you running? C. How do you feel about it?

D. What would you expect the United States to do about President Mubarak? E. F. What if real democracy in Egypt and in the Middle East would allow radical Muslim parties to take control? How would you describe your priorities as the countrys president?

G. What are the chances that Islamic figures would back up a liberal candidate advocating opening the political system to all? H. Whats your view on American efforts to spread democracy in the Middle East?

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Text 44
An interview with the president of Azerbaijan, Ilham Aliyev, talking about the scheduled parliamentary elections.

1. _____ I dont think so. First of all, Azerbaijan is a presidential republic. Second, the people have confidence in the government and its reforms. Third, the specific characteristics of our opposition: unlike other former Soviet republics, it was in power in 1992-93, and basically it flopped. So, there are no realistic conditions for a coup in Azerbaijan. 2. _____ A successful state cannot be built without public control, no matter how much oil the country has. That is my deep conviction and one of the priorities of my political work. But when 40% of the population is below the poverty line and a year and a half ago it was almost 50%, democratisation is not the subject that worries people the most. 3. _____ Well, everything in a country reflects that. And its impossible to establish standards in it that are premature. At present the political standards of Western Europe and North America cannot be transferred to Azerbaijan. But a policy of development must be pursued. For a person who knows the real world, moving in reverse - toward conservatism and the isolation of our country - is simply disastrous. 4. _____ It all depends on your agenda. If you just want to spend 5 or 10 years as your countrys leader, thats one thing. But if you want the country to change, you cant do it without taking major steps even if it sometimes means forcing the reforms on people. I want Azerbaijan to become a prosperous country during my tenure in office. 5. _____ I wish it hadnt happened. But the opposition, realizing that it had lost, launched an effort to take power by force. The dispersal of the demonstrators was something we had to do. I am in favour of dialogue at the table, not on the streets. But how will the opposition behave on this Election Day and afterwards? That I dont know. 6. _____ I cannot imagine that ever happening. We are pursuing a realistically independent foreign policy, and it is balanced with regard to our neighbours. In general, the most important thing in our region is to maintain a balance. So, nobody should have any fears. 7. _____ I can easily imagine it. Sometimes I even dream about it. It was my reality not long ago. I was still outside. I definitely have to think about that. Life doesnt end with the end of tenure, does it?

A. Do you envision a career outside politics? B. Do you think the upcoming parliamentary elections in Azerbaijan could spark a revolution? C. Do you think there will be violent protests of the opposition like during the 2003 presidential election? D. Would you agree that Azerbaijan has stopped short at the stage of so-called controlled democracy? E. Dont you think that carrying out reforms from the top is the same as imposing them on people? F. Might Iranian nuclear weapons program become a threat for Azerbaijan? G. Do you mean that the level of political freedoms in a country corresponds to its level of development? H. What about the concerns of Iran that Azerbaijan may become US outpost on the Caspian?

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READING READING READING READING

Part Three
Read the texts and choose the best answer A, B, C or D.

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Text 45
The Pentagons Guru
In a city where few stars shine for longer then a presidential term or two, Andrew Marshall has inhabited the same set of dingy offices in the Pentagon just down the hall from the secretary of Defense for the past 28 years. In a government where leaking is an instrument of policy, he shuns publicity. At briefings, he drones and mumbles. Yet to his many admirers, Marshall is a cult figure, the most original thinker in the defense establishment. At 79, Marshall is in some ways Washingtons last Wise Man the last senior official who was present at creation, of the nuclear age. Brilliant and inexhaustibly curious, monkishly devoted to his work, Marshall has a long record of prognosticating broad trends, like the decline of the Soviet Union Among Marshalls many fans is Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, who has asked him to help the Bush administration define Americas defense needs for the next several decades. In the perpetual race between America and its potential foes for deadlier weapons and smarter strategy, Marshalls mission for a generation has been to answer, in effect, whos winning? And, more importantly, how to get ahead and stay ahead. Now, in his deceptively quiet and non-confrontational manner, Marshall is pushing what he has termed a revolution in military affairs. Technology, Marshal argues, is transforming warfare and enabling weaker countries to challenge Americas military dominance. While Marshall has been careful not to spell out which parts of Americas arsenal should be junked, he has foreseen that the weapons of the future precision-guided missiles will turn some of the militarys most prized armaments, like the aircraft-carrier, into fat targets. Its hardly news that some of the fabled weapons of World War II, like the tank and the carrier, are vulnerable 60 years later. Smart and brilliant weapons, long-range munitions guided by satellite and seeking their own targets, have been threatening to overwhelm heavy-metal force and fleets for at least two decades. But the top brass (military leadership) has been reluctant to give up favorite toys, and congressmen fight to protect pet contractors in their districts. As one of the great bureaucratic survivors, Marshall, a civilian who never served in the military, has avoided taking on the generals and admirals who earned their stars by commanding carrier task forces and tank divisions. Rather, he has worked to create an intellectual framework aimed at making military strategists, as well as policymakers and politicians, smarter about future threats and how to meet them. His first step is to try to shift the focus from Europe, the potential battlefield of the old U.S.U.S.S.R. superpowers rivalry, to East Asia, where, Marshall believes, China is seeking hegemony. In war games staged by Marshall typically set decades into the future Chinese satellites-guided missiles invariably devastate American carriers. Marshalls track record gives him credibility. A former expert on nuclear-war-fighting at Rand Corp., the Pentagon think tank, Marshall was one of the first to see the weakness of the Soviet empire. By studying obscure demographic and economic data, he deduced that the Soviets were in crisisand spending a far bigger slice of its national income on defense than anyone had suspected. Marshalls answer: spend the Soviets into the ground. When the Soviet empire collapsed after the Reagan-era defense-spending spree, Marshall seemed clairvoyant. Bureaucratically, he has slipped up only once. In 1987 he persuaded Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger to set up a Competitive Strategies Office. It indiscreetly suggested that carriers might one day be vulnerable to long-range missiles. The Joint Chiefs of Staff had the office shut down. Marshall is unlikely to make that mistake again: a mention of carrier vulnerability was recently deleted from an early draft of his strategy review. It will be up to Rumsfeld and ultimately George W. Bush to demand hard choices. In a 1999 campaign speech largely written by a Marshall disciple, Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage, Bush pledged to skip a generation of weapons. If Bush can accomplish this goal, it will be a testament to the wisdom and staying power of Andy Marshall.

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1.

Andrew Marshall is admired for his A. B. C. D. devotion to work revolutionary ideas long service public relations skills

2.

Marshalls main mission has been to assess A. B. C. D. future changes in the world Bushs defense policy Americas comparative strength who Americas enemies are

3.

Marshall argues that countries weaker than America may A. B. C. D. acquire technological superiority acquire military superiority junk Americas arsenal destroy important objectives

4.

The threat to tanks and aircraft carriers from missiles became apparent A. B. C. D. around 60 years ago at least 20 years ago when satellites were invented when target-seeking was invented

5.

Marshall believes that China at present A. B. C. D. is more threatening than Russia has achieved hegemony in East Asia has superior satellite-guided missiles can destroy American aircraft carriers

6.

Marshall recognized the weakness of the Soviet Union by studying A. B. C. D. nuclear war fighting the Soviet Army the Soviet economy Reagans defense spending

7.

Since his mistake in 1987, Marshall has learned A. B. C. D. to retain aircraft carriers to make carriers less vulnerable not to set up unnecessary offices not to provoke the Joint Chiefs of Staff

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Text 46
The Boringness of Computers
Technologies come and go, but fame passes even more quickly. Back in the 1980s, when but a few technically-minded people were playing around with computer networks, who cared? It wasn't until technical changes made using the Internet easy enough that things really got interesting. Likewise, computers in the 1960s rarely made the evening news, but now everybody knows the story of those two kids in a garage who created the first Apple. In each case the technology had become personal. Computing and networking existed before they became popular, and they will continue to exist long after we stop thinking about them altogether. That day seems a whole lot closer now that Hewlett-Packard Corp. has announced its plan to acquire Compaq Computers. Each of these firms became recognizable by making attractive-looking products. At a time when PCs were deskbound, Compaq put them in a shock-resistant case and sold the first "portables." HP calculators had a superb design and manufacturing quality. And what pleasure could compare with operating an HP oscilloscope? Now Compaq's portables exist only in museums, and HP sold its instruments division years ago. Both companies make personal computers, but these have gotten so boring and static that they no longer inspire. By merging, HP and Compaq are trying to get away from selling hardware in favor of computer services. From a business point of view, the appeal of the services business is obvious. IBM, for instance, makes big profits on its services business which employs more than a third of its 300.000-plus work force. Analysts estimate IBM and other firms make 30 or 40 cents in profits for each dollar in services. PC makers are lucky to get a few pennies. What is a service? It is the toll-free phone number you call when your PC crashes after loading your favorite videogame. When a friend tells you whether or not you should upgrade to Windows XP, that's a service. Of course, if you happen to be the chief technology officer of a giant multinational, there's more to it than buying laptops for your sales force. These days computing and networking support every aspect of what a big company does. But only if a web of networked computers can absorb, analyze, and show the meaning of each and every datum. Off-the-shelf products cannot do this. One German auto manufacturer is going to want something very different from a bank in London or an oil company in Venezuela. Computer services also happen to require enormous pools of expertise and experience. That's what HP and Compaq are hoping their combined forces will amount to. Analysts say that the two firms' services business is made up mostly of less-profitable product support, not the fancier consulting work that IBM and other services firms do. Eventually, IBM and the combined HP-Compaq will be giant service companies with little involvement in computers and technology. So what does this mean for the future of computers? A popular notion is that computers will be everywhere in our clothes, appliances and other everyday objects, and that they will communicate wirelessly with something resembling the Internet. IBM is now trying hard to fashion a vision of the Internet as a sort of autonomic nervous system. But what will these intelligent, communicative everyday objects actually do? If we knew, we most likely would cease to think about them in terms of the computer and networking technologies that make them possible, just as we now turn on our PCs while ignoring the electrical system we plug them into. It takes some effort to imagine that people once got excited over electric power. One day soon (if not already) it will be the same for PCs and Internet-service providers.

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1. Technologies become popular when they A. B. C. D. hit the headlines involve a breakthrough become easy to use acquire romantic stories

2. At some time both HP and Compaq A. B. C. D. made exciting products acquired other companies made Shock-resistant computers sold calculator and oscilloscopes

3. Compared to PC manufacture, the computer services business A. B. C. D. is more appealing to the customer employs more people will become more profitable is already more profitable

4. Computing and Networking services can support companies if they A. B. C. D. show how to equip sales force are turned into off-the-shelf packages are tailored to the customers individual needs can indicate how to upgrade the customers software

5. HP and Compaq hope they will A. B. C. D. move into product support avoid competition with IBM get more involved with Computer technology create a large skilled team of advisers

6. Many people think that the Internet will A. B. C. D. be used everywhere by everybody replace wireless technology control everyday objects operate autonomously

7. In the future people will A. B. C. D. not think about computers and networks get excited about computers and networks not be able to imagine life without computers forget how computers work

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Text 47
The Pentagon will have to take note of the new rule for fighting America's wars you have to win in one month. Actually three weeks. Last week, about 25 days into the campaign, political commentators in Washington decided that America was losing the war. (This bold conclusion was based on virtually no evidence, but that didn't stop any one.) Political magazines argued that the military operation was obviously doomed and that the only way to salvage it was an invasion of Afghanistan with U.S. ground forces. All this because three weeks into the war the Taliban had not collapsed! In fact, the campaign in Afghanistan is going reasonably well. Of course it's a tough assignment coupled with hellish logistics. Remember that the war against Iraq was preceded by a sixmonth buildup, using state-of-the-art military bases in neighboring Saudi Arabia. Kosovo was in NATO's backyard. Both places had military and industrial targets that could be bombed. We have become conditioned to believe that American military operations should have amazing, instant success and if not, something must have gone terribly wrong. For the critics, it was the diplomacy that was all wrong. A week into the war they began complaining that Secretary of State Colin Powell's coalition-building was crippling the campaign, forcing us to make bad military decisions for political reasons. In fact, the diplomats have no incentive to slow down the military operations. Their efforts have led to logistic support from allies in the region. A senior American official told me: "The real problem is that we have no bases close by from which to fly and our allies on the ground are weak. Our aircraft are flying for several hours before they bomb, often being refuelled twice in the air. That's why we're flying fewer sorties than we did in Kosovo or the Persian Gulf." More important, the idea that political considerations should be excluded from military strategy is absurd. The central insight of Clausewitz's "On War" perhaps the most influential book on the subject is that war is an extension of politics by other means. Consider the current war. We need the support, intelligence, troops or bases of key Muslim states in the region Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey and these regimes are all fearful of public unrest. So we have been careful to minimize civilian casualties, launched a humanitarian effort and are drawing a sharp distinction between Islam and terrorism. Is this so stupid? Or take the efforts to help create a post-Taliban regime. It may look like altruistic nationbuilding but in fact it's smart strategy. The nightmare scenario for Washington is that the Pashtuns who make up 40 percent of the country, dominate the south and don't like the Northern Alliance coalesce around the Taliban to prevent an alliance victory. If the Taliban stays strong in the south, Al Qaeda will stay hidden and America will be in Afghanistan for a long time. So we are encouraging the Northern Alliance to adopt a "no reprisals" policy against the Pashtuns and other Taliban supporters. We are also trying with some success to persuade the Pashtuns that they will have an important place in a post-Taliban regime as well as offering up some economic aid. "We would be crazy not to worry about all these political considerations, the American official told me. "If we help on the political front it makes our military strategy easier." Getting this mix right, amid a fog of information and misinformation, is slow and difficult. If the pundits don't see that, Clausewitz did. "A general in time of war is constantly bombarded by reports both true and false, he wrote. "He is exposed to countless impressions, most of them disturbing, few of them encouraging. If a man were to yield to these pressures, he would never complete the operation. Perseverance in the chosen course is the essential counterweight. It is steadfastness that will earn the admiration of the world and of posterity." I think that means not losing faith in the third week.

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1. The author is being ironic about A. B. C. D. the Pentagon top brass Americas operation in Afghanistan claims that America is losing the war the Taliban collapse

2. This war is different from the previous two wars A. B. C. D. because it was completely unprepared in that only distant military bases are available because there are no targets to be bombed in that it is being fought without help from allies

3. The author thinks America is doing well A. B. C. D. politically and militarily politically, but not militarily militarily, but not politically neither politically nor militarily

4. The overall objective of political activity in the area is to A. B. C. D. draw a sharp distinction between Islam and terrorism win the assistance of certain Muslim countries make a humanitarian effort possible avoid civilian casualties

5. Efforts are being made to get the Pashtuns to join the new regime to A. stop them dominating the south B. stop them joining the Taliban C. help hunt down Al. Qaeda D. prevent an alliance victory 6. Washington fears that A. B. C. D. the the the the US commitment will be ongoing Pashtuns will have an important role US will have to provide some economic aid Pashtuns will coalesce with the Northern Alliance

7. Clausewitz thinks a good general is someone who A. B. C. D. makes firm decisions is influenced by impressions responds to political pressures can select true information

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Text 48
Assisted Suicide?
Long before 9/11, the title of Most Dangerous Terrorist in the World belonged to Abu Nidal. Unlike Osama bin Laden, he disliked being filmed chatting about his ideology over a Kalashnikov. He almost never emerged from the turbid underworld of international crime, and he had no consistent belief system. He switched allegiances with ease. Governments actually paid him just to leave their people alone. Even so, beginning in 1974, he was responsible for 900 murders in 20 nations, according to the U.S. State Department. But Abu Nidal's legend relied as much on rumor as on his brazen acts of violence. His story is so riddled with reversals and lies, it is soap operatic, almost impossible to follow unless seen one installment at a time. Indeed, his various enemies are still arguing about whether his death, announced last week by Iraqi officials, was a murder or a suicide. The Iraqis claim that he shot himself in the head in his Baghdad quarters when they came to arrest him for spying for an undisclosed Arab nation. But Arab media reports and Abu Nidal's followers insist that he died of multiple gunshot wounds. For now, the prevailing theory is that Iraqi officials killed Abu Nidal, 65, or encouraged one of his Palestinian lieutenants to do so. In ridding themselves of their former hired gun, a man who never could be trusted, the Iraqis could have been trying to undermine U.S. criticism by demonstrating a disdain for terrorism. "Abu Nidal joined the Iraqi early-retirement program," says Dan Schueftan, a lecturer at the Israeli Defense College. Sabri al-Banna (Abu Nidal was his war name) was 11 when his affluent family was forced to flee the Arab city of Jaffa, now part of Israel, ahead of Jewish forces in the 1948 war. As a laborer in Saudi Arabia in the 1960s, he latched onto politics, joining Yasser Arafat's Fatah group, which would become the backbone of the Palestine Liberation Organization (P.L.O.). Bouncing between Jordan, Sudan and Iraq, he rose through the ranks of the P.L.O. But in 1974 Abu Nidal formally broke with Arafat, protesting his old comrade's decision to consider diplomacy over violence. That year, the newly formed Abu Nidal Organization (also known as Fatah Revolutionary Council) planted a bomb on a TWA plane flying from Athens to Rome, killing all 88 people on board. Abu Nidal went on to mastermind attacks on a Jewish school in Antwerp, synagogues in Vienna and Istanbul, and a Greek tourist ship. In December 1985 his group ambushed the El Al ticket counters at Rome and Vienna airports, killing 14 bystanders. The great irony of his career was that he did more to destabilize and stigmatize the Palestinians than to cause permanent harm to Israel his declared enemy. In the mid 70s, Abu Nidal was sentenced to death by the P.L.O. for plotting to kill Arafat. Between 1978 and 1983, he was responsible for the assassination of six of the P.L.O.'s most moderate diplomats. In 1982 the attempted assassination of Israel's ambassador to Britain was attributed to his group giving the Israelis a convenient pretext to invade Lebanon, in which Arafat had set up headquarters, and kick the P.L.O. out. During the past decade, the Abu Nidal Organization, splintered by internal feuds, grew quiet. Abu Nidal was said to be seriously ill. In 1998, after proving too onerous a political burden to his host, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, he resurfaced in Egypt. The next year, he moved to Iraq, relying on his fragile alliance with Saddam Hussein. Despite the questions about how Abu Nidal died, everyone seems glad to be having the debate. Rumors of his demise started circulating 18 years ago, when he was first reported to have died in Baghdad. Now that the end seems certain, "there is a collective sigh of relief everywhere that he no longer exists," says Abdul Bari Atwan, editor of the pan-Arab newspaper al-Quds al-Arabi, based in London. He adds: Sometimes the enemy of my enemy is still the enemy.

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1. In the first paragraph, the author mainly A. B. C. D. differentiates between Abu Nidal and bin Laden introduces the terrorist, Abu Nidal, to the reader shows Abu Nidal never liked to have one boss shows that Abu Nidal was very well paid

2. Concerning Abu Nidals death, the author A. B. C. D. doesnt believe it was a suicide. believes its only a rumour doesnt express his opinion believes he died of multiple gun shots

3. The Iraqis may have killed Abu Nidal because they wanted A. B. C. D. the U.S. to lose a mercenary to get rid of a distrusted man the blame to be put on the Palestinians to reduce American objections

4. Abu Nidal started independent terrorist activities A. B. C. D. in in in in the the the the 50s 60s 70s 80s

5. The main purpose of the sixth paragraph is to A. B. C. D. show the effect of Nidals actions on the P.L.O. list the attacks Abu Nidal carried out show the variety of Abu Nidals targets show how Abu Nidal angered Israel

6. In 1998, Abu Nidal A. B. C. D. left Egypt went to Egypt arrived in Libya moved to Iraq

7. In the last paragraph, my enemy refers to A. B. C. D. Osama bin Laden Abu Nidal the Arabs the Jews

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Text 49
The German operation to arrest Osman Petmezci and Astrid Eyzaguirre in September seemed to go smoothly. Acting on a tip from America's Criminal Investigation Command (CID), police arrested the pair on suspicion of plotting to bomb a U.S. military base near Heidelberg. Investigators searched their apartment and found five rudimentary pipe bombs, raw material for 18 kilos of explosive powder, and a portrait of Osama bin Laden. Petmezci and Eyzaguirre are now in custody, awaiting trial. Another victory for German law enforcement? Not quite. CID's August 29 warning wasn't the first call from CID, but the third. The first call was delivered on July 17, another was made on July 19, not to one but two separate security agencies, both of which lost the paperwork. Only when a more frantic warning came were the arrests finally made. Because of a growing risk of terrorist attacks, a growing number of German investigators are calling for complete review of the country's internal security apparatus. Klaus Jansen, an investigator with Germany's Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA), says, "Everyone hears about the problems with the FBI and CIA, but that's because they are doing something about their weaknesses," who spent five years as a liaison officer in the U.S. "Our system is an even bigger mess than theirs is, and leads are falling through the cracks." Germany's fractured security system dates back to the aftermath of World War II, when law enforcement was broken down into isolated agencies to prevent the emergence of another Gestapo. Today, six different federal agencies have their own small areas of security to look after, while each of Germany's 16 states has its own local intelligence-gathering and enforcement organizations. The agencies are further divided by the extent of their remits - the BKA, for example, can't initiate investigations but can continue those started by others; the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BVfS) can conduct surveillance but isn't allowed to arrest anybody. And officers of the two agencies are only allowed to communicate via their bosses, who meet for weekly "information boards" to exchange notes. "It's a mess," says Wilfried Albishausen, a criminal investigator in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia. Jansen and Albishausen., officers of the Federation of German Criminologists (BDK) trade union, have been petitioning the Interior Ministry for more than two years to revamp the security apparatus. Even before September 11, the BDK recommended moving federal agents out of their centralized HQs and into regional offices, where they would work with local agents. The idea seems to have been mildly accepted. "We do have scattered islands of information," says BKA boss Ulrich Kersten, "but the answer is to build bridges, and we're doing that." He points to a planned upgrade of the BKA's computer system (circa 1972.) But some highly touted upgrades have fallen short. An effort to establish a common profiling system for suspects was scrapped because the database couldn't recognize that words like Turkish and Turkey meant the same thing. Something has to be done - and soon. The Heidelberg raid demonstrates why. The CID reported the couple to both the Heidelberg police and the BKA, and each agency filled out an investigation request stamped "urgent." The police report got lost in the mail twice - once on its way to the state attorney's office, and then again on its way back to the police - while the BKA request languished at the bottom of a stack of backlogged work in the BKA office. The couple were only caught because Eyzaguirre warned a friend to stay away from the compound, and that friend called the CID, which then violated protocol with a flurry of calls to various agencies. Otherwise Petmezci might have managed to detonate one of his pipe bombs.

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1. The text is about Germanys intelligence apparatus and A. B. C. D. the problems that it has how it has been changing Americas help to reform it effective efforts to reform it

2. The build-up to the arrest of the couple shows ... A. B. C. D. that the warnings didnt come early enough inefficiency of the German security service how well the action has been organised gaps in the professionalism of the Americans

3. Klaus Jansen is implying that the German security apparatus ... A. B. C. D. should get rid of the communist era personnel doesnt deserve all the criticism that it is facing is taking wrong example from the Americans should follow the example of the Americans

4. The fourth paragraph mainly tells the reader about A. B. C. D. the reasons for problems in the intelligence service the origins of the intelligence service in Germany how diversity contributes to increased security how the intelligence agencies communicate

5. The word remits in line 21 could be best replaced with ... A. B. C. D. abilities responsibilities resources power

6. Mr Urlich Kersten mentions a computer upgrade to show ... A. B. C. D. it is impossible to improve the system in its present shape the intelligence service cannot produce good software ineffective attempts to improve communication a desire to improve communication between agencies

7. The main purpose of the last paragraph is to A. B. C. D. suggest improvements in the security service show how the couple escaped the agents warn the public of the seriousness of the problem show how the Americans share information

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Text 50
To fight a war against Saddam Hussein, Washington needs Turkeys help. At the least, it wants access to air bases along Iraq's northern border. At best, it hopes for permission to launch a full-scale ground operation from Turkish soil involving 80,000 U.S. troops. The inducement is a $14 billion aid package to compensate Ankara for financial losses and the promise of continued support at the International Monetary Fund. The problem: Turkeys new government, elected just last November, is having serious second thoughts about joining the Bush administration's war. Turkeys surprise about-face has "stunned" Washington and could force the Pentagon to rethink its whole operations plan. U.S. diplomats and military planners thought they had a deal after the ruling AK party leader Tayyip Erdogan met with George W. Bush in December. But the Turkish government's dilemma is clear: 88 percent of its people strongly oppose war, according to a recent poll. Ducking a decision, Prime Minister Abdullah Gul has been making the rounds of Arab capitals Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Saudi Arabia - trying to forge a regional front urging restraint. "We will leave no stone unturned in finding a peaceful solution," he vows, even though most diplomats in the region rate his chances as "close to nil," as one bluntly puts it. Meanwhile, the pressures grow. Officials spent last week haggling over when 150 U.S. technicians can begin initial work on assessing Turkeys ports and airfields. If there is to be a northern front, bases need to be upgraded and troops and equipment moved in before March, when sandstorms make fighting far more difficult. To win even this limited goal, the Pentagon had to drop its usual demand that the team - like all U.S. military assigned to NATO - be subject to American rather than Turkish law. Ankara dug in its heels, insisting that an Iraq invasion would not be a NATO operation. Washington will almost certainly get the first item on its wish list - the use of Incirlik, Batman, Diyarbakir and Afyon air bases. It will also have access to the ports of Mersin, Iskenderun and Tasucu for landing heavy equipment. These facilities will be beefed up to full war-making capability in short order. But the second item on the wish list - permission to actually stage a ground invasion force in Turkey - is problematic. If Ankara vetoes opening a northern front - or simply stalls long enough to make it unfeasible - the Pentagon will have to reorganize its whole war effort around an assault from Kuwait. That could make the war longer and bloodier. A U.S. assault from the north could also quickly lead to the seizure of strategically vital oil fields in Kirkuk and Mosul, cutting off the regime from its main revenue source. The north is defended by three Iraqi Army corps totaling 75,000 troops, mostly ranged along the border with the breakaway province of Kurdistan and representing fully 40 percent of Saddams Army. Yet the Turks now say they will allow U.S. ground forces on its soil only with a U.N. resolution authorizing war. Gen. Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff goes to Ankara this week to try to speed things up, meeting with his counterpart, Gen. Hilmi Ozkok, chief of the Turkish General Staff. The visit is raising suspicions in the Turkish capital that the U.S. is seeking to bypass the civilian government by appealing to the military, which for decades was the real power in the land. Some suspect that the Pentagon would like Ozkok to push Gul and his new government to accede to U.S. demands. So far he has refused to do so, even as he acknowledges that opening a northern front could shorten the war and make it less costly in human lives. "Turkey's role could be decisive;' says Ozkok, echoing the American line. "But the decision is up to the political authorities." Ultimately, Washington can probably bully its ally into agreeing. That would mean dropping the Mr. Nice Guy act and threatening to cut off military aid, favored-trade status, intelligence ties and backing in the IMF. But support for an American attack appears to be eroding on other fronts, as well. Last week, Greek Foreign Minister George Papandreou, current holder of the rotating presidency of the European Union, announced that he would soon put together a European peace delegation to the region. In Britain, America's most stalwart ally, 100 Labour Party M.P.s delivered an ultimatum to Prime Minister Tony Blair: participate in a war without U.N. backing, and risk an open parliamentary revolt. At the United Nations itself: the Security Council has all but agreed that the arms-inspection mission to Iraq should be extended. The only unknown is how long. Turkey may be today's spoiler in Washington's war plans, but it's probably not going to be alone for long.

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1. The most preferable option for the U.S. is ... A. B. C. D. making use of Turkish air bases carrying out an attack from Turkey involving Turkish forces in the attack building new bases in Turkey

2. Turkey has withdrawn from the "deal" with the U.S. because of ... A. B. C. D. the dissatisfaction of its citizens changes to the American plan its slim chances of success the disapproval of Arab diplomats

3. The U.S. ... A. B. C. D. has has has has already got permission to use Turkish bases already carried out the assessment of the bases agreed for its military to obey the Turkish law persuaded Ankara to support the NATO operation

4. Opening the northern front could ... A. B. C. D. reduce Husseins income make the war longer engage the majority of Iraqs forces make an assault from Kuwait easier

5. Gen. Richard Myers's visit is seen as an attempt to ... A. B. C. D. make a new deal with the Turkish government discuss a new strategy with the Turkish military put pressure on the Turkish government restart negotiations with the Turkish military

6. The Turkish military ... A. B. C. D. want to make the final decision Are the real power in Turkey acknowledge the importance of the northern front want to speed up the arrival of the U.S. troops

7. If all else fails, the U.S. can make Turkey agree by ... A. B. C. D. withdrawing economic support getting support from the European Union ensuring United Nations backing delivering an ultimatum to Turkish parliament

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He has been called a Colombian version of Ariel Sharon, a democratically elected hard-liner who will fight the enemy first and extend the olive branch later. And like his Israeli counterpart, President-elect Alvaro Uribe Velez, 49, will take office, in August, with a solid mandate to declare total war on his incoming government's main adversaries, the 18,000 guerrillas belonging to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Later this week Uribe will seek a mandate of a different order when he makes his first visit to Washington since winning a landslide victory in the May 26 presidential election. By his own account, Uribe wants a lot more U.S. aid to combat the two problems of drug trafficking and terrorism that have wracked Colombia for the past three decades. Our natural ally in this area is the United States, Uribe said in an interview in March. We're talking about helicopters, trainers, technology and money because no nation can turn a blind eye to terrorist attacks against a democratic society like Colombia. And just how far is the Bush administration willing to wade into the Colombian marsh? Significantly deeper, apparently. The State Department's top Latin American affairs official, Otto Reich, flew down to Bogota after the election for meetings with Uribe and the country's outgoing Defense minister. Most of the $1.3 billion approved by the United States two years ago for its antidrug initiative, Plan Colombia, has been disbursed, but in the Bush era Washington is no longer confining itself to the war against drugs. The White House is asking Congress to send Colombia another $572 million aid package that includes military assistance specifically earmarked for Bogotas counterinsurgency efforts. In fact, the administration has already gotten the go-ahead to use helicopters and other resources furnished under Plan Colombia to fight FARC and other armed groups. It creates a demand for a dramatic expansion of our military involvement in Colombia, warns Adam Isacson of the Washington-based Center for International Policy think tank. The rising levels of U.S.military assistance have inevitably raised questions of whether the South American country could become America's next Vietnam, which American citizens fear most. American experts dismiss the notion out of hand, and Uribe himself has ruled out the deployment of U.S. combat troops for now. Even prominent critics question the likelihood of a full-blown Vietnamstyle commitment while continuing to express grave doubts about the current direction of U.S. policy. I can't conceive of us sending tens of thousands of soldiers down there, says Ron Paul, a Republican congressman from Texas. But we are down there because we're determined to get involved in their civil war, and it could become a little Vietnam. Others warn that Washington is about to pump massive sums of U.S. tax-payer dollars into a complex foreign situation without coming clean about one basic fact: there is no foreseeable military solution to the country's 38-yearold conflict. As in Vietnam, our government thinks Colombia can defend itself and all we have to do is provide the training and equipment, says Bert Ruiz, author of the book "The Colombian Civil War." No one in our government has admitted that Colombian armed forces are woefully inept and incapable of defeating the FARC. Under lame-duck President Andres Pastrana, the government has fought its civil war on the cheap, devoting a paltry 3.5 percent of Colombia's annual gross national product to military and security-related expenditures. Officials in Washington want Colombia's incoming government to spend more. Colombia has to do some things to get on top of its own security, said White House anti-drug czar John Waiters last month. It's not spending at a level commensurate with a country in a state of war. Uribe understands; he campaigned on a pledge to double the defense budget. After watching Pastrana's peace process go nowhere for three years, most Colombians who voted for Uribe concluded that might makes right. That line of thinking goes with the aggressive policy of the Bush administration. But skeptics worry that Colombia could become just another black hole that will eat up U.S. military aid without ever achieving any of Washington's goals.

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1. According to the first paragraph, it is NOT true that Mr Sharon and Mr Uribe ... A. B. C. D. carried out talks with each other won the elections with a big majority are similar in their policy want to fight their opposition

2. During his visit to the U.S., Mr Uribe will try to ... A. B. C. D. find support for his policy intensify U.S. support make a deal on military support arrange a loan for Colombia

3. The Bush administration has decided ... A. B. C. D. to to to to improve Plan Colombia decrease its support reject Plan Colombia get involved more

4. American experts ... A. B. C. D. disagree with public opinion understand public fears warn against military involvement question U.S. policy

5. According to Bert Ruiz, Colombia ... A. B. C. D. should get U.S. military support can defend itself needs a military solution has an ineffective army

6. Mr Uribe ... A. B. C. D. shares the U.S. opinion on the budget intends a 3.5% rise in defense spendings criticizes ex-president Pastrana thinks Colombian security is good

7. The majority of Colombians ... A. B. C. D. favour a peaceful solution support the hard-line approach disapprove of American involvement criticize an increase in the defence budget

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The Bad News for Boeing
Suppose you had asked, say 15 years ago, this question: what American company is most dominant in its global industry? The answer would not have been Microsoft, Dell or even IBM. It would have been Boeing. Since late 1958, when it introduced the first U.S. commercial jet (the 707), Boeing had gone from success to success. As late as 1990, Boeing sold 62% of the worlds commercial jets. Its closest rival, McDonnell-Douglas, was at 23%, and Europes Airbus trailed at 15%. No more. Boeing's eclipse is one of the most fascinating business stories of our time. Its being overtaken by Airbus in the commercial-jet market, which it once dominated, and now it seems increasingly hungry for government subsidies. In 2003, Airbus is expected to win more orders than Boeing, and the gap could widen. Airbus is developing a monster jet (the A380) that will seat 555 passengers and threaten Boeing's 747. At last week's Paris Air Show, Airbus announced 64 new orders for its planes; Boeing announced four. It seems inconceivable that the U.S. government would let Boeing slowly abandon the commercial jet business. Airlines need price competition, and jets are too important for U.S. exports and new technologies (advanced materials, electronics). Herein lie the larger implications. Already, critics say that the Pentagons willingness to lease 100 converted Boeing 767 commercial jets as midair tankers represents a disguised rescue. Moreover, Boeings trouble could intensify U.S. European tensions because Airbuss success stems partly from massive government subsidies that still continue on a smaller scale. The story of Boeings distress comes in three parts: bad luck, bad management and bad government policy. Air travel and new plane orders suffered from the bursting of the 1990s economic bubble. From 1981 to 2000, global air travel rose at a 5.1 percent annual rate. In 2001 it declined by 3% and was flat last year as a result of the September 11th terrorist attack. Airlines cancelled or delayed hundreds of orders. In 1999 Boeing and Airbus delivered 914 jets (620 for Boeing, 294 for Airbus); this year they expect to deliver 580 (280 for Boeing, 300 for Airbus). Beyond bad luck, Boeing became overconfident. It fell behind in some areas. Airbus used CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and manufacturing) to build planes before Boeing. Many Airbus planes have common cockpits - a feature highly popular with airlines because it cuts training costs. According to economist Douglas Irwin, Boeing has cut down on research and development to fatten current profits. "They decided to take a product-development holiday for the last eight years;' he says. Boeing introduced its last new plane in 1995. Finally, there's government policy. Subsidies to Airbus totalled $26 billion through 1989, estimated one U.S. study. OK, early subsidies were necessary for Airbus's survival; the Europeans didn't want to depend forever on U.S. planes. But after two decades (Airbus began in 1970) the United States should have demanded their elimination. Instead, it agreed in 1992 to permit subsidized government loans to pay for a third of the development costs of new planes. Bad move. The result is the A380, whose start-up costs couldn't have been financed privately. It will hurt sales of Boeing's biggest jet (the 747). Airbus has been incredibly aggressive in discounting the A380, offering 30 to 40 per cent off list prices. Of course, Boeing isnt in extremis. After merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997, it has a huge defence and space business. Last year Boeings profits totalled $492 million on sales of $54 billion, down from $2.8 billion and $58 billion in 2001. Can Boeing now reclaim some past glory? The answer may depend on the 7E7: a new wide-body plane that would seat more than 200 and have lower operating costs than today's planes. High development costs have reportedly stirred strong internal opposition. If Boeing proceeds, it might conceivably request subsidies comparable to Airbuss. Failing to proceed would cast doubt on Boeings long-term commitment to commercial jets. Asked about that recently, CEO Phil Condit said We are going to be in commercial aircraft for a long, long, long time. Thats an emphatic answer, but a decade ago even the question would have been absurd.

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1. Boeings position in the global commercial jet market A. B. C. D. was threatened in the past is dominant today is seriously threatened is being maintained

2. The US government A. B. C. D. wants to keep air travel prices stable is doing nothing to help Boeing wants Boeing to sell commercial jets ignores problems with US-EU tension

3. Boeings problem started ... A. B. C. D. after the September 11th attack before the September 11th attack just after Airbus entered the market before the government delayed orders

4. Boeings management A. B. C. D. refused to use computer aided design invested in training programmes neglected research and development focused on long term profits

5. Subsidies for the Airbus A. B. C. D. were opposed by the US were essential for its success covered production costs replaced private financing

6. Boeing A. B. C. D. is facing severe financial problems plans to get involved in the space industry depends on the commercial jet business is still a profitable company

7. Boeings future production of commercial jets may depend on A. B. C. D. the success of 7E7 government subsidies complete support of the board lowering operating cost

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Nothing to Hide, Nothing to Fear
The United States is now leading Europe and the rest of the world into a new age of surveillance. In the wake of 9/11, America has produced expensive and sophisticated security technologies for U.S. visitors that are being exported and adopted across the globe. But while America's libertarian, antigovernment culture may help protect its citizens from the worst excesses of government surveillance, Europeans may not be so lucky. Because of their history and culture, Europeans stand to lose more of their privacy and civil liberties than their American counterparts. As a cautionary tale, look no farther than Britain. Before 9/11, in response to fears of IRA terrorism, Britain wired itself up with so many surveillance cameras that it now resembles the set of the movie "The Truman Show." The cameras have proved extremely popular and used for very different purposes: 700 cameras now record the license plate of every car that enters Central London during peak hours to confirm that drivers have paid a traffic-abatement tax. The British public, with its instinctive trust of government, has proved indifferent to the mission creep. More concerned about feeling safe than being safe, it is unmoved by the government's own studies which suggest that the proliferation of surveillance cameras has had no effect on violent crime or terrorism. Contrast this quiet acceptance with the American resistance to a proposal, after 9/11, to bring a "British style" surveillance system to the nation's capital. The police wanted to link cameras on the Washington Mall with others mounted on police helicopters, in public schools and in the city subway. Eventually, they hoped to accept video feeds from private businesses that would allow remote monitoring of the entire city. Despite the support of community leaders, the surveillance plan was stopped by a coalition of liberals and conservatives suspicious of government power in all forms. The same coalition in America has also blocked other post-9/11 security initiatives. Congress, for instance, said no to a national identification card and imposed limited restrictions on sections of the USA Patriot Act. Criticism from privacy advocates also led the Bush administration to reduce slowly a system for pre-screening air passengers. European attitudes toward privacy vary widely, but Western Europeans tend in general to be less suspicious of centralized government authority than Americans are. When the United States announced the US-VISIT program, which will require all foreigners visiting America to be fingerprinted, photographed and placed in a biometric database, there was no official protest from France and Germany: both countries had already planned to fingerprint visitors. Brazil, by contrast, responded by fingerprinting newcomers from the USA. Europe's greater deference to government authority led countries like Germany and Britain to adopt surveillance measures after 9/11 that in some ways went further than the USA Patriot Act. In 2002, for example, Germany adopted a law that authorized the government to create a central database with personal information about foreigners, including fingerprints and religious background. The latest regulation also made it legal for German national ID cards to include biometric data, such as fingerprints or iris scans. And it explicitly endorsed data mining on a broad scale, requiring government agencies to turn over personal data to the federal police. In Britain, which is even less suspicious of government surveillance than Germany because of its different experience with fascism and communism, the increase in surveillance powers has been even more dramatic. Antiterrorism laws passed in 2000 and 2001 allow constables to arrest without a warrant anyone they suspect of being a terrorist. They can hold suspects for 48 hours without allowing access to a lawyer. They can also fingerprint, photograph and search suspects for distinctive body marks without their consent. And any noncitizen the government designates as a suspected international terrorist can be indefinitely detained without trial. The prospects for privacy and civil liberties in Europe are not entirely bleak. Because Europeans tolerate greater government regulation of the private sector, national and European laws restrict the ability of private companies to engage in data mining and surveillance more than in America. But when it comes to government surveillance, the general European attitude seems to be: nothing to hide, nothing to fear. As a result, Europe is importing powerful surveillance technology from America without the antigovernment suspicion that protects against its worst abuses.

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1. The article says the main risk connected with the growth of surveillance is ... A. B. C. D. the the the the decline in libertarian culture in the USA loss of privacy of visitors to the USA increasing cost of modern security limitation of European citizens rights

2. According to the British governments research, the use of cameras has ... A. B. C. D. affected neither the level of crime nor terror been of great help in fighting IRA troops become both unpopular and unacceptable increased the UK citizens feeling of safety

3. In Washington, the surveillance plan was supported by ... A. B. C. D. local citizens community leaders coalition politicians private companies

4. The US-VISIT program ... A. B. C. D. undermined centralised national authorities created suspicion among Western Europeans provoked protests among West European leaders led to the introduction of some similar procedures

5. Recent legislation in Germany has allowed ... A. B. C. D. the the the the inclusion of detectable data in a document extension of the current central data base completion of overseas visitors files control of data mining by the police

6. A British citizen in the UK cant ... A. B. C. D. be arrested without a judges consent be deprived of legal help indefinitely be searched without consent have all biometric data taken

7. Unlike American, European laws ... A. B. C. D. limit the access of business to data restrict import of surveillance technology violate human rights of the citizens prevent government surveillance abuse

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In July, Chinese tour groups of Korean War veterans returned to North Korea to commemorate their sacrifices on the battlefield. The conflict, which left 360,000 Chinese dead, bound the two socialist allies as close as lips and teeth. Yet when four Chinese veterans visited their old headquarters in the North, they were shocked by what they saw: a massive painting of Pyongyangs late Great Leader Kim Il Sung grandly instructing Korean officers into battle with just one Chinese officer on the sidelines. This isnt true! fumed one Chinese veteran. Kim came here only four times. Where are all the Chinese? North Korea has been teasing China for years, but what was once an irritation for Beijing is becoming a matter of serious concern. Since last October, Pyongyang has gone from restarting its old nuclear facilities to boasting about reprocessing enough plutonium to build at least half a dozen bombs. As North Korea has turned up the heat, the United States and other regional powers have begged Chinese leaders to talk some sense into Pyongyang. And for good reason. China has a powerful argument: it supplies more than three quarters of North Koreas energy needs and more than one third of its imports. Beijing is weighing all options to influence its unpredictable ally. North Koreas a real headache for us, admits one Chinese official. It keeps demanding more and more fuel and food. Weve sacrificed billions of dollars in the past 50 years. That helps explain why three weeks ago Beijing pulled Pyongyang back to the negotiating table. After heavy lobbying, North Korean officials agreed to six-way talks, hosted by the Chinese, that would include representatives from the two Koreas, the United States, China, Japan and Russia. Beijing, in fact, is expending more energy than ever on resolving the crisis. Hu Jintao, who became president of China last March, sent envoys across the region to arrange for the talks. After meeting South Korean President Roh Moo Hyun last month, Hu underlined that a nuclear North Korea would be unacceptable the closest China has come to drawing a red line with Pyongyang. If the North tests a bomb, Chinese officials may give up on their northern neighbour. Unfortunately for Beijing, North Korea often bites the hand that feeds it. Dozens of North Korean spies operate on the Chinese side of the border, stirring up trouble for local authorities from time to time. While Beijing tolerates their presence, the agents began misbehaving after China recognised South Korea in 1992. In recent years, they have resorted to terrorist acts, murdering North Korean refugees and the South Korean sympathisers who help them escape. Even some ethnic Chinese have died in the violence. In March 2001, two Seoul missionaries and four North Korean refugees were found dead, after a raid believed to have been carried out by North Korean agents. Beijing is terrified that upping the pressure on Pyongyang could trigger new incidents. Thats why China still needs to act carefully. In the past, Chinese authorities have delayed oil or aid to show their displeasure with Pyongyang. But when Chinese food assistance dropped dramatically a decade ago, Beijing may have unintentionally helped bring on North Koreas devastating famine. That move caused criticism and sympathy of many international organisations. Now Pyongyangs economy is so weak that too much pressure could result in waves of starving North Korean refugees and with it regional instability. If Beijing pushes too hard, it could trigger the very disaster its trying to prevent, says one Western diplomat in Beijing. Of course, Beijing will be one of the biggest losers if Pyongyangs nuclear ambitions prompt a nuclear-arms race between Japan, South Korea and possibly Taiwan. U.S. experts believe North Korea has enough plutonium to build between one and four nuclear devices. Chinese strategists worry whatever the state of the Norths nuclear program that Pyongyangs actions could trigger an American-led military conflict on its doorstep. Off the record, Chinese officials say their government would not fight alongside North Korea if Washington launched a pre-emptive strike. But theres the sticky issue of a Beijing-Pyongyang friendship, co-operation and assistance treaty that serves as a de facto military alliance. Beijing has been thinking about cancelling the treaty for a long time, but it hasnt done it yet, says a Chinese specialist on North Korean affairs. Taking into account Pyongyangs lack of appreciation after the last Korean conflict, its little wonder Beijing wants to prevent a repeat performance.

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1. The Chinese veterans in North Korea were ... A. B. C. D. shocked by the commemorating ceremony flattered by a picture at the headquarters impressed by the strength of the Korean army angry at the presentation of historical facts

2. Recently ... A. B. C. D. North China China North Korea has renewed its nuclear programme has exported more food and fuel to North Korea has asked other countries to influence North Korea Korea has demanded international financial help

3. The latest North Koreas actions have led to ... A. B. C. D. South Korea demanding tougher action towards North Korea China increasing its efforts to resolve the North Korean crisis China withdrawing its political support for North Korea South Korea demanding diplomatic talks with North Korea

4. North Korean spies in China became violent when ... A. B. C. D. China stopped tolerating their presence China accepted South Korea as a country South Koreans started helping refugees four North Korean citizens were killed

5. According to the text, Chinas withdrawal of help for North Korea may ... A. B. C. D. result in international protests encourage unwelcome immigration increase global political instability slow down Chinas economy

6. Privately, Chinese officials say that if the U.S. intervenes, China would ... A. B. C. D. ignore the treaty with North Korea assist North Korea logistically cancel the treaty with North Korea stick to the treaty with North Korea

7. The best title of the text would be A. B. C. D. Korea an Ungrateful Friend Korea an International Threat Korean Crisis Leads to Emigration Korean Peninsula Another Conflict?

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The very name Oxford guaranteed this scandal would resonate. Two officials of Pembroke College, one of Oxford's 39 constituent colleges, had to quit last week in disgrace when it emerged they were willing to admit a bright but not outstanding boy whose father was offering to contribute $420,000. Unfortunately for them, the "father" was a reporter for the Sunday Times. Pembroke and Oxford swiftly repudiated their supposedly disobedient officials. All Britain united in condemning the sale of university places. And who could disagree? In modem meritocracies, state-funded universities are supposed to cultivate talent, not incubate the already privileged. All the same, I find myself averse to the neatness of this morality tale. Its main villain is unconvincing. The college chaplain and former admissions tutor who told the reporter his money would talk, Rev. John Platt, is described by former students as devoted to their welfare and assiduous in touring state schools to encourage applications from bright kids without money. He wasn't seeking a bribe for himself, but worrying about Pembroke which he cheerfully described as "poor as shit." Education is noble, but it is a business, too. World-class universities must compete in a world market for top-flight professors, research grants and funds to build labs and support needy students. Oxford and Cambridge have huge advantages over less famous universities, but with the country spending a smaller portion of its GDP on universities than 20 years ago, they too must struggle. Compared to American universities in particular, they are poor and getting relatively poorer. Harvard professors earn 70% more, on average, than their Cambridge counterparts. All U.K. universities put together were able to harvest $414 million from their investments in 2000; the comparable figure for Yale alone this year is $405 million. Oxford is proud that its spin-off companies are collectively worth about $3 billion; graduates of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, had founded over 4,000 companies with revenues of $232 billion. And because Oxford remains a peculiarly federal institution, some colleges have vast holdings while others like Pembroke scrape by. Where else could Rev. Platt's colleagues scare up a few bucks? Not from the government: for the first time it is now asking students to pay some of their tuition and living costs, so it can free up funds not to lavish on elite schools, but to expand student numbers across the country. Not from increased tuition: the government won't let Oxford charge more than other universities, though many students (and their parents) would certainly pay it. Like other colleges, Pembroke already runs conferences and strives for lucrative foreign students, whom the government requires to pay close to full freight. What about graduates generosity? Here too Oxford is playing catch-up to the U.S. With the government trying to cut off many cultural and educational institutions from state funding, virtually all of them have started to approach the same limited group of donors. But middle-class Brits are a tough sell, because they graduated when government used to cover the whole cost. My wife attended Somerville College, Oxford, 20 years ago. Then the college didn't ask its graduates for gifts; it didn't even know who they were. There was no list. The principal decided to compile one and, to save money, gave the job to her husband, who labored part-time for several years without benefit of computer or even an electric typewriter. The university shifted to a professional fund-raising operation 15 years ago, but it is still, by American standards, feeble. Last month my wife received a phone call from a Somerville student fund-raiser, a welcome innovation. But the caller seemed embarrassed to ask for $20 a month. Pembroke's last master, Robert Stevens, retired early, largely because the fund-raising burdens were exhausting him. So if Rev. Platt was willing to create an extra place for a student whose entrance exam grades were (according to his "father") two As and one B instead of three As, was that so bad if future Pembrokians would benefit to the tune of $420,000? Especially when, as any admissions officer will admit over a drink, it is almost impossible to determine who in a pile of reasonably bright 17-year-olds will turn out to be the best student three years from now, let alone manifest the guts and creativity needed for a brilliant career. British students specialize early. They win university places on the basis of three written exams graded by strangers, usually teachers on holiday with a big pile to get through. To claim that the results of this process provide some self-evidently fair and complete measure of potential to excel at university, or in life, is just silly.

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1. The scandal broke out after A. B. C. D. a poor but brilliant student was refused a place at college some college officials revealed secrets to the Sunday Times a student was promised a place in return for a financial donation some Oxford officials were fired for breaking admission procedures

2. According to former Pembroke students, Rev. John Platt A. B. C. D. cared about the well-being of Pembroke College looked for ways to make himself more money favoured students from rich backgrounds talked unfavourably about Pembroke College

3. The third paragraph mainly shows that A. B. C. D. governmental help for British universities is too small universities concentrate on making money too much good professors are underpaid in British universities higher education involves a lot of money-making

4. It can be deduced from the fourth paragraph that A. B. C. D. 5. foreign students pay higher tuition than British students some universities receive higher governmental grants tuition at Oxford is higher that in other universities higher education is too expensive for British students

The authors wifes example shows that A. B. C. D. it is necessary to complete university documents graduates are unwilling to give money it is necessary to create professional fund-raising fund-raising, although imperfect, has started

6. The authors attitude towards Rev. John Platt could be described as A. B. C. D. understanding critical ironic thankful

7. The author thinks that the secondary-school leaving examinations in Britain A. B. C. D. give an inaccurate measure of students abilities successfully reveal students potential for a career should be conducted by teachers familiar to students should be held early enough to let students specialize

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Lessons of the Logan
When the French voted no to the European constitution, they were rejecting the specter of a borderless world in which foreign goods, Polish plumbers and even British politicians would be handed a growing role in French society. This sentiment was expressed most clearly by incoming Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin in June, when he declared: The French know it and say it forcefully: globalization is not an ideal, it cannot be our destiny. Yet within days, a new invader arrived in France by popular demand. It was the Logan, a boxy family sedan that Renault conceived as a world car to be built in the developing world, for sale in the developing world, at a price as low as 5,000. A founding member of the French industrial elite that has fallen on hard times, Renault saw the Logan as critical to its future, projecting sales of 1 million a year, or 25 percent of Renaults total, by 2010. But the man who championed the Logan, Renault ex-president Louis Schweitzer, never envisioned a market for the car in Western Europe, where its since become an unexpected cult hit, particularly in France. Just as the French bash America but flock to McDonalds, they reject globalization but embrace the world car. Produced by Renaults Romanian subsidiary, Dacia, the Logan looks like an auto that the Soviets might have designed. The car is so bare-bones that Renault promotes headrests as standard features. A radio is optional, and innovations are of the practical type. The side mirrors are symmetrical on the right and left, explains a Renault spokesman, so if your drivers-side mirror breaks, you can switch them yourself until you get a replacement. One reason the car was not originally offered in Europe, analysts say, is that it is so cheap, it could cannibalize sales of used Renaults. When word spread of a roomy, 5,000 five-seater on the Eastern border, however, Renault was accused of anti-French racism for not selling Logans at home. Tweaks made to meet European safety standards raised the price to only 7,500 unthinkable in its class, and with a three-year warranty. The shock announcement at the Paris Auto Show last fall sparked giddy calls to radio talk shows. French press reviews not inelegant, not vulgar, not shameful have been unanimously warm. In June, Renault released the Logan in Spain, Germany and France with little fanfare, and in limited numbers. By early August it had logged 9,900 orders in France, Spain and Germany far outpacing expectations and supply. Aspiring owners now crowd waitlists several months long. Only 1,000 have been delivered in France, 400 in Germany, and 300 in Spain. Professionals are buying Logans as third cars for their kids or country homes, but the main customers are young people and retirees. Philippe Vigier, 62, was one of Frances first Logan owners. Im happy as can be, says the semi-retiree, whose local dealer had to talk him out of bicycling to Romania to buy the 5,000 model. Its perfect, not a flaw. This morning, I filled up and was approached by the gas-station attendant to sell it. Schweitzer, who left Renault in April, and is now the chairman of AstraZeneca, made a cause clbre of building a basic car for emerging markets. He bought Dacia for that purpose in 1999. The Logan was called a Frankenstein car, patched together from other Renault models, with costs minimized at every turn. Production has spread to Russia and Morocco, and by 2007 Renault plans to be making Logans from Brazil to Iran. Indeed Renault has big plans cooking for Iran, which faces possible European Union sanctions for its renegade nuclear-energy program. Renault plans to produce as many as 300,000 Logans a year in the untapped automarket of Iran. No, resisting globalization wont be uncomplicated. French unions want Logans bound for Western Europe to be built in France, but even union reps admit they are torn: the foreign-built Logan may steal jobs, but appeals to unionists as budget-conscious consumers. This is the paradox of the outsourcing debate, says Nicolas Jabko, a European political economist at Paris think tank CERI. Workers at risk are also consumers with much to gain. Normandy retiree Jack Brunel, 57, confesses a fear of outsourcing jobs, but thats the only problem with the Logan, he says. Brunel ordered his last month for delivery in June 2006. The cheap world car may not be the ideal vehicle, but for many Europeans, it is destiny. The same is likely true of globalization.

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1. The Logan surprised its producers because A. B. C. D. it has become popular in Western Europe the production costs are lower than expected the project has turned out very important for Renault its sales account for a quarter of Renaults total income

2. Initially, Renault did not offer the Logan in France because A. B. C. D. the the the the second-hand Renaults sales would be at risk companys profits on sales would be too low Logans standard equipment was insufficient Logans safety test results were unsatisfactory

3. The fourth paragraph is mainly about A. B. C. D. the the the the criticism Renault company faced Logans reception in Western Europe improvements introduced in the Logan advertising campaign launched by Renault

4. Philippe Vigier A. B. C. D. has already bought his car is at the top of the wait-list will buy his car in Romania has decided to sell his Logan

5. According to the text, the production of Renaults Logan may be threatened in A. B. C. D. Iran Brazil Russia Morocco

6. According to Jack Brunel, the only problem with the Logan is A. B. C. D. its long delivery time from abroad the opposition of the French trade unions its effect on the French job market the growing number of cheap workers

7. The main idea of the text is that A. B. C. D. there is no escape from globalisation French fears of foreign influence are justified antiglobalistic attitudes affect consumers choices the Eastern and Western Europe have different tastes

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I dont see how Iraqs insurgency can win. It lacks the support of at least 80 percent of the country (Shiites and Kurds) and by all accounts lacks the support of the majority of the Sunni population as well. It has no positive agenda, no charismatic leader, virtually no territory of its own, and no great power suppliers. Thats why parallels to Vietnam dont make sense. But despite all these obstacles, the insurgents launched 700 attacks against U.S. forces last month, the highest number since the invasion. They are getting more sophisticated, now using shaped charges, which concentrate the blast of a bomb, and infrared lasers, which cannot be easily jammed. They kill enough civilians every week that Iraq remains insecure, and electricity and water are still supplied in starts and stops. Thats where things stand in Iraq its a conflict the United States cannot easily lose but also cannot easily win. The positive picture, however, is worth painting. Iraq has had successful elections, a new legitimate government, Sunnis included into the political process, and is working on a new constitution. The insurgents attacks on ordinary Iraqis are having the predictable effect of making them lose popular support. When I was in Iraq recently, several Iraqis (all Sunnis) told me that they were losing respect for and patience with the insurgents. And finally, Iraqi politicians have been more mature and consistent than one could have ever hoped for making compromises, arriving at consensus and moving forward under tremendous personal danger. What I worry about is not a defeat along the lines of Vietnam. It is something different. Last months leaked CIA report, which described Iraq as the new on-the-ground training center for Islamic extremists, points to the real danger. If the insurgents keep up their attacks, prevent the countrys reconstruction and continue to attract jihadists to Iraq from all over the world and if these jihadists acquire new skills in the streets and back alleys of Iraq and then return to their countries, it could mark the beginning of a new wave of sophisticated terror. Just as Al Qaeda was born in the killing fields of Afghanistan, new groups could grow in the back alleys of Iraq. Additionally, by the fall of 2006, it will be virtually impossible to maintain current troop levels in Iraq because the use of reserve forces will have been stretched to the limit. Thats when pressure to bring the boys home will become irresistible. And that would be bad news for the Iraqi government, which is still extremely weak and in many areas dysfunctional. The good news is that America has stopped blundering in Iraq. After two and a half years of errors, since late 2004, Washington has been urging political inclusion, speeding up economic reconstruction and building up local forces. But U.S. policy still lacks central direction and the energy, vision, increased resources and push that such direction would bring. Who is running Iraq policy in Washington? The intense and bitter interagency arguments of the past three years and the disastrous mistakes made by the Defense Department and the Coalition Provisional Authority have left Iraq something of an orphan. Day to day, Iraq policy is now run by the State Department and the U.S. Army, but those two chains of command never meet. On the civilian side, for example, the American effort is massively understaffed. Several Army officers in Iraq told me that their jobs would be greatly improved if they had more people from the State Department, USAID and other civilian agencies. One said to me last year, Ive had 25-year-old sergeants adjudicating claims between Turkomans and Kurds, when they dont really know how they are different. We could use political officers who could brief them. The vacuum is being filled by the U.S. Army, which has been building bridges and schools, securing neighborhoods and power plants and, yes, adjudicating claims between Turkomans and Kurds. It is doing these things because someone has to. Secretary Rumsfeld has long argued that American troops should never engage in nation building, leaving that to locals. But while we waited for Iraqis to do it, chaos broke out and terror reigned. So the Army on the ground has shrugged off Rumsfelds ideology and has simply made things work. But if we want to move beyond coping, we need a full-scale revitalization of Iraq policy, with resources to match it.

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1. The Iraqi insurgents A. B. C. D. are are are are like those in Vietnam becoming more insecure getting more support getting better weapons

2. The situation in Iraq looks more positive because of A. B. C. D. the the the the introduction of the constitution increasing support for the Sunnis Iraqi politicians transformation growing security in the country

3. The writers biggest concern about Iraqs insurgency is that A. B. C. D. it it it it can turn into a conflict like in Vietnam prevents the countrys economic renewal can lead to a rise of new terrorist groups attracts terrorists from all over the world

4. According to the text, the bad news for the Iraqi government will be A. B. C. D. the the the the decrease in the number of Iraqi troops increasing number of American reservists reduction of the American troops deepening dissatisfaction of its nation

5. In Iraq, the United States is still making a mistake of A. B. C. D. not not not not having proper centralized command co-operating well with the Iraqi local forces working on Iraqs economic development letting the Defense Department shape the policy

6. According to the American officers, in Iraq A. B. C. D. more civilian personnel should be deployed civilian-military co-operation should be closer NCOs should receive better military training civilian agencies should improve their work

7. The last paragraph says that Rumsfelds policy in Iraq A. B. C. D. was ignored by the U.S. troops should be followed in the future enjoyed the Iraqis full support caused a new wave of terrorism

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Text 58
International donors at a conference in Beijing last month pledged $1.9 billion for global efforts to control bird flu. The latest news on the spread of the disease suggests this would be money well spent. Over the past two weeks, H5N1 avian flu has breached the heart of Europe, cropping up in Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Austria, among other countries. Yet in a world where millions die every year because of diseases that could be prevented with a bit more funding, $1.9 billion is a lot of money for a virus that has so far killed fewer than 100 people. A real risk exists that a single-minded battle against a pandemic that may or may not occur soon could drain needed health resources from clear and present dangers. Nowhere is that choice more stark than in Africa. Earlier this month, authorities uncovered a large bird-flu outbreak on several poultry farms in northern Nigeria, the first time H5N1 has been found on the continent; more than 140,000 chickens have so far died from the virus or been culled. Though no human cases have been discovered yet, the news that the outbreak had gone undetected for up to a month raises concerns that the virus may already be spreading under the radar to other parts of the continent. Africa has an estimated poultry population of 1.1 billion birds, many of them sharing living space with people the same epidemiological powder keg that enabled bird flu to cause so much damage in much of Southeast Asia. Avian-flu experts see impoverished Africa, with its inefficient governments and millions of immuno-compromised HIV infectees, as a perfect breeding ground for a pandemic. Yet the sheer number and severity of Africas ills puts bird flu in perspective. Medical resources in Africa are cruelly finite death tolls rise and fall according to how well those resources are allocated. Africa has no shortage of candidates to compete for funds: an estimated 6,600 Africans die of AIDS every day, 3,000 die of malaria, 24,000 of hunger and poverty. As long as bird flu primarily remains a threat to birds, it just doesnt compare with these everyday scourges. Even South Africa, the nation best equipped to respond to bird flu, faces a lot of other health issues competing for resources, says Dr. Lucille Blumberg, head of the epidemiology and outbreak unit at the National Institute for Communicable Diseases. Referring to AIDS, she notes: We already have an epidemic here thats killing hundreds of people a day. A spokesperson for the World Health Organizations Roll Back Malaria program points out that while the need for malaria funding tops $3 billion every year, only $600 million was available in 2005. International donors need to be very sure that they arent robbing from other health programs to pay for bird-flu measures. This does not mean the world should neglect to take reasonable steps to fight bird flu a pandemic could become the greatest health catastrophe the modern world has ever faced. Avian flu is already beginning to cause real economic pain. When infected wild birds were detected last week in European countries, poultry sales across the continent fell steeply. But a handful of dead swans on the Danube and a bad quarter for chicken sellers in Rome isnt why were spending billions to fight bird flu. We want to stop the big one. A report released last week by an Australian think tank reminded us just how big that might be. The Lowy Institute estimated that a worst-case pandemic, one even deadlier than the 1918 Spanish Flu, could kill up to 142 million people and ruin economies of the poorest countries. Those are scary numbers, but theyre hardly the only frightening pandemic predictions circulating these days. Last month, two doctors in Minnesota published a modest paper in the journal Academic Emergency Medicine. The authors point out that even in a weak pandemic there would be far fewer mechanical respirators than the number of desperately ill flu patients who would need them to survive. In this situation, they write, selection of resources would be needed to offer the greatest good for the greatest number. That means that the very sick or the very old would probably be denied respirator support even removed from the machines in favor of those more likely to survive. The assumption that most people in the developed world have about medical care that everything possible will be done to help the sick would be shattered. Doctors would be left to allocate scarce resources, deciding who should live and who should die. If that happens, Africa will no longer seem so far away.

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1. The danger of bird flu stressed in the first paragraph is A. B. C. D. the the the the increasing cost of its prevention range of the spread of the disease shortage of funds for other diseases growing vulnerability of Europeans

2. The latest concern in Africa is A. B. C. D. the spread of famine due to bird culling mass bird killing on many poultry farms the suspicion of uncontrolled virus spread the detection of a new type of bird-flu virus

3. Similarly to Asians, Africans are prone to bird flu because of A. B. C. D. direct contact with infected birds growing poverty of inhabitants lack of action of governments many cases of HIV infection

4. According to the writer, the donors priority should be A. B. C. D. fighting the spread of bird flu providing more food help allocating money properly focusing on other health issues

5. The main reason for world struggle against avian flu is the danger of A. B. C. D. global economy crisis extinction of many birds predicted human losses poultry market collapse

6. If a pandemic breaks out A. B. C. D. better medical equipment will be needed difficult decisions will have to be made only the worst flu cases will be treated medical health systems will be shattered

7. The best title of the article is A. B. C. D. The Deadly Side Effects of Bird Flu Europe New Powder Keg of Avian Flu New Pandemic How to Stop It?! Beaten by Avian Flu

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Text 59
A Liberal from the Left
Frenchman Christian Blanc has spent his career doing what most people try to avoid: finding tough but necessary solutions to explosive problems. As chief government negotiator in New Caledonia, Blanc brokered a peace accord that ended years of bloody separatist violence. Later, as head of the Paris public-transport authority, he battled unruly unions and a waffling Socialist government to end an era of incessant, paralyzing strikes. As president of Air France, Blanc brought the airline from the brink of bankruptcy to profitability. Now, in a move that could culminate in a presidential bid later this year, Blanc, 59, has targeted his biggest challenge yet: France's enormous administrative and governmental structure. Last week, in the western city of Nantes, Blanc sounded his call for a "legal revolution" to "reverse France's decline and release its shackled potentials" by reducing the size, cost, and intrusiveness of the French state in daily life and business. Blanc also argues that electing more ordinary citizens to office and a greater decentralization of power to regional and local authorities would provide fresh, innovative thinking for a country currently dominated by a "close-minded political elite" and a "cult of the all-powerful state." His immediate goal is to make his radical reform program an issue of wider public debate, but he acknowledges initial success with that would oblige him to run in presidential elections. Inciting reformist revolution remains a long shot one the dedicated father of two daughters must also balance with his day job as president of Merrill Lynch France. Complicating his task is the domination of established parties in French political life a monopoly the independent Blanc will seek to break backed by an association of disparate supporters. Blanc will also rely on his usual mix of hard work, determination and occasional astonishing luck. In 1994, as he negotiated with hijackers of an Air France plane, Blanc narrowly missed being shot when the terrorists sprayed his jet with gunfire. He hopes his good fortune in 2002 will mean renewed triumph, and not narrow misses.

1. Blancs latest plan is to ... A. B. C. D. rescue Air France form bankruptcy confront state bureaucracy prevent strikes in public transport end violence in New Caledonia

2. If his ideas become widely known, Blanc will ... A. B. C. D. try for the presidency lose his job leave politics lose public support

3. His chances of political success may be limited because ... A. B. C. D. there have been attempts on his life he has repeated bad luck his supporters show little enthusiasm he doesnt lead a party

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Text 60
Rumors of War, Hints of Peace
What to make of events in South Asia? Well, after landing in New Delhi recently, I went straight to a dinner with some of Indias best strategic analysts to straighten things out in my mind. One of them looked at the tense standoff between India and Pakistan both armies fully mobilized, new terrorist attacks and, one could now add, last week's Indian missile test and concluded that "war was inevitable." Another pointed to India's tough approach since the assault on its Parliament; Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf's boldness and America's new engagement, and concluded that things were moving toward a genuine rapprochement and that "peace was inevitable." Actually, despite all the contradictory signs, most likely there will be neither real war nor real peace between India and Pakistan. The South Asian cold war will continue. India has limited military options irrespective of whether the nuclear stakes have made both sides hesitate before taking military action or not. It could destroy terrorist-training camps in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, but they are mostly empty tents that could be rebuilt within days. Musharraf's recent decisions have been bold and dangerous. The Pakistani Army and intelligence service have had only two foreign-policy "successes" in a generation: the installation of a friendly regime in Afghanistan (the Taliban) and cross-border terrorism in Kashmir, which at low cost has bled India. In the past four months Musharraf has declared that he is turning his back on both. Add to this his plans to weed out Islamic fundamentalists from schools and universities, and you have a man who has taken on many powerful enemies simultaneously. Brave and genuine though he is, can he overcome the differences between the two countries? He must certainly get New Delhi to discuss the human-rights situation in Kashmir. The only reason Pakistan's cries about Kashmir have some resonance around the world is that India has misruled the state almost from the beginning. The Army has been accused of substantial abuses of authority. It has dismissed governments, imprisoned leaders and suppressed popular movements. New Delhi should assure Pakistan and its own citizens that it will move toward real autonomy and democracy in Kashmir. Elections that have been scheduled there later this year will be a test for India.

1. The Indian analysts A. B. C. D. agreed there would soon be war thought peace was unavoidable said America would be engaged soon had different views on the future

2. India wont destroy training camps in Pakistan because A. B. C. D. it is afraid of nuclear retaliation it has limited resources there isnt much to bomb there are too many of them

3. The author thinks that Musharafs policy is dangerous because he A. B. C. D. plans to deny education to Fundamentalists has rejected militarys achievements has made too many enemies at the same time has turned his back on the intelligence service

4. According to the text, to improve relations with Pakistan over Kashmir India should A. B. C. D. give the province more freedom dismiss local authorities withdraw the military from the region hold elections in the province

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LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING

Part One
Listen to the extracts from radio news and choose the best answers A, B or C.

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Listening 1
1. Swiss Art has suspended its flights because A. they are being taken over by Sabena B. they are afraid of terrorist attacks C. they are in financial difficulties 2. The program for the redistribution of white-owned land A. is now legal B. is unconstitutional C. has been suspended 3. The recent election in Bangladesh was won by A. the Awami League B. an alliance of parties C. the Bangladesh Nationalist Party 4. The Indian Government has A. praised Pakistan for its fight against terrorism B. stated its horror at Mondays attack C. asked for US support in Kashmir 5. The British Government will not pay the extra money A. to hold the championships B. to move the games to London C. to build the stadium

Listening 2
1. The former Taliban ministers have been A. arrested by the Afghans B. released by the authorities C. handed over to Americans 2. In France two children sued their doctors because they A. didnt care for them well enough B. infected them with a disease C. allowed them to be born ill 3. The Thai army spokesman said that A. opium production outside Afghanistan has increased B. Afghan opium prices have dropped C. Afghan plantations have now recovered 4. The spiritual leader of the Anglican Church A. is moving to Canterbury B. is facing new issues C. is leaving his job 5. The airline industry in the USA A. is showing no signs of improvement B. is gradually getting better C. is still reducing flight numbers

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Listening 3
1. The information about Mr Karadic was provided by A. SFOR B. Secret Service C. local people 2. President Putin A. doesnt object to US Forces in Georgia B. wants to increase Russian forces in Georgia C. fears the loss of Russian influence in Georgia 3. 21 Cubans A. were removed from the Embassy B. were given Mexican visas C. were arrested by Security Forces 4. The new German bill A. has been rejected by the Lower House B. changes the rules for immigration C. will not affect the labour market 5. The purpose of the conference in Brussels is to A. arrange the end of the conflict B. raise money for a devastated country C. discuss arrangements for amnesty

Listening 4
1. Mr. Suharto was originally in detention for A. murder B. corruption C. possessing weapons 2. A controversy in Mexico started after the church A. refused to canonize Juan Diego B. published a misleading picture of Juan Diego C. said Juan Diego had no such vision 3. The Haida Indians A. are challenging the government in court B. have signed a treaty with the government C. will share resources with the government 4. Recent economic problems in Japan were caused mainly by A. a drop in business investment B. low consumer spending C. speculations on stock market 5. A Sierra Leone rebel leader was detained for A. opposing the peace plan B. murder and other crimes C. defying the state of emergency

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Listening 5
1. UNICEF has been accused of A. commercially abusing children B. supporting McDonalds C. refusing to co-operate 2. The aim of the kidnapping in the Philippines was A. to earn money from a ransom B. to prove the strength of Abu Sayyaf C. to threaten non-believers 3. During a recent visit by an American official to Sri Lanka A. a ceasefire was announced B. a call for peace was made C. peace talks were held 4. Beijing wants to A. sell more weapons to Iran B. stop the spread of certain weapons C. demonstrate opposition to America 5. Georgian leaders want to increase defence spending in order to A. send more troops to Chechnya B. prevent Chechen raids C. fight terrorism and crime

Listening 6
1. According to the BBC the rebel forces A. are holding the town B. have fled the town C. have signed a ceasefire 2. Victims of the attack A. are being evacuated B. are hard to identify C. are being met by their families 3. The five kidnapped Japanese A. finally met their children B. are the only survivors C. were employed as spies 4. The Brazilian currency problems result from A. a decision made by the Central Bank B. unexpected election results C. worries in the business community 5. The meeting of football clubs may result in A. lowering the players wages B. selling TV rights for more C. collapse of some football clubs

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Listening 7
1. The 11 Australian sailors A. contracted anthrax B. got ill after injections C. refused to be vaccinated 2. The French citizen wanted to A. give birth anonymously B. find out who her mother was C. keep her identity secret 3. Protesters in Bolivia were from A. the police B. the military C. trade unions 4. South Africa A. has offered its expertise to Iraq B. has sent experts to Iraq C. has withdrawn experts from Iraq 5. The president of South Korea A. paid for TV broadcasts in North Korea B. accepted money from Hyundai Company C. approved money transfer to North Korea

Listening 8
1. The new system may be used to A. detect nuclear tests B. monitor troop movements C. warn against missile attacks 2. During the meeting with Mr Aziz the Pope insisted on A. seeing proof of Iraqs cooperation B. speeding up the disarmament process C. the US giving up its war plans 3. The clashes in Bolivia resulted in A. the resignation of the president B. strengthening the opposition C. the president changing his tax policy 4. Census data in Britain show A. a decrease in the number of the ill B. improvements in health care C. an increase in the number of the old 5. North Korea has accused the US of ... A. breaking a pact on demilitarisation B. entering North Korean territory C. trying to impose economic sanctions

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Listening 9
1. The use of MSN chat rooms in the U.S. will be A. unavailable B. expanded C. restricted 2. The Archbishop of Cape Town criticises A. his African colleagues B. the American bishop C. homosexuality among priests 3. The Israeli Prime Ministers visit to India is A. aimed at arms deal B. criticised by Pakistan C. the fourth in 11 years 4. Iran A. denies having a nuclear programme B. opposes international inspection C. intends to continue its policy 5. The four Thais were accused of A. threatening embassies workers B. planning terrorist bomb attacks C. committing crimes abroad

Listening 10
1. French public is united against A. the government B. the extremists C. the ban 2. The OSCE says A. they can monitor some polling stations B. they find monitoring the elections too risky C. they are willing to monitor the elections 3. The ban on heavy assault weapons A. will be voted on B. will soon expire C. will be extended 4. The political leaders are trying to A. resolve Korean-British dispute B. get North Korea to resume talks C. improve Chinese-Korean relations 5. The American soldier is waiting for his A. release B. trial C. sentence

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Listening 11
1. The three Arab men ... A. were found not guilty B. may stand another court trial C. accuse the prosecutors of dishonesty 2. Vaccination against polio ... A. is forbidden in Nigeria B. has caused side-effects C. has been carried out before 3. The five men ... A. have been cleared of charges B. have appealed against the verdict C. have called for a demonstration 4. In Nepal ... A. a curfew has been lifted B. national mourning has started C. 12 Muslims have been murdered 5. From now on it will be easier for the Chinese to ... A. open tourist agencies in China B. visit European countries C. make business trips to the EU

Listening 12
1. The new theory deals with A. the links between Asians and Mexicans B. the first inhabitants of America C. the origins of first Australians 2. The band has A. recorded an album in three weeks B. decided to work in public view C. closed the studio in Melbourne 3. In the Hague, Milochevich A. criticised the charges against him B. asked for the hearing to be put off C. refused to present in his defence 4. During the meeting, Mr Sharon A. presented a new plan for evacuation B. persuaded the MPs to support the plan C. insisted on pushing the plan ahead 5. The talks between the two leaders concentrated on A. strengthening mutual contacts B. stopping tribal conflicts in Jordan C. the safety of the French citizens

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Listening 13
1. Drug-smuggling has moved to West Africa because A. law execution is poor there B. that channel is much cheaper C. local dealers invited cooperation 2. The meeting in Sharm-el-Sheik aims at A. discussing the situation in the Arab countries B. signing a regional co-operation agreement C. commemorating the victims of the bombing 3. The Indonesian government has decided to A. follow the advice of WHO B. kill a limited number of animals C. stop paying compensation to farmers 4. The Uzbek refugees have been A. detained in Romania B. resettled to other countries C. allowed to leave Kirghizstan 5. The Indian politicians are criticising A. police actions against Hondas workers B. Hondas plans to close the manufacture C. the way Honda coped with the protest

Listening 14
1. It has been agreed that the amount of fish caught A. will increase B. will decrease C. will stay the same 2. According to the BBC correspondent, the peace agreement was speeded up by A. the promises of autonomy for the region B. the disarmament of the rebels in the province C. the effects of the Indian Ocean tsunami 3. The Egyptian president hopes the Arab Leagues parliament A. will tighten Arab countries co-operation B. will be established in the nearest future C. will introduce new democratic laws 4. The two girls infected with bird flu died because A. the drug had lost its effectiveness B. the hospital lacked the proper drug C. they were treated with the wrong drug 5. The six men were arrested for A. carrying out terrorist attacks B. fighting against security forces C. torturing non-Arab citizens

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Listening 15
1. According to Al Jazeera, the men appealed for A. taking actions to release them B. releasing the Iraqi hostages C. starting a peace campaign 2. The news item is mainly concerned with A. illegal abortion in the United Kingdom B. travelling for abortion to Indian clinics C. increasing abortion of female babies 3. Venezuela wants oil production to be A. increased B. lowered C. left unchanged 4. According to the deal, Italy will A. get back some works of art B. ban the export of antique art C. sell a very precious vase 5. The demonstrators protested against A. the action carried out by the police B. the resignation of a minister C. the closure of a media group

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LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING

Part Two
Listen to the conversations and choose the best answers A, B, C or D.

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Listening 16
1. The woman thinks Sergeant Brown A. B. C. D. is performing well on the course is performing as expected on the course isnt attending the course should perform better on the course

2. The woman thinks Johns opinion of his soldiers is A. B. C. D. his honest view supported by evidence an exaggerated view an outright lie

3. This morning Harry couldnt A. B. C. D. be be be be found spoken to made to work contacted

4. The man believes the experiment A. B. C. D. has been successful has proved something beyond doubt needs to be continued has been a waste of time

5. During the morning meeting A. B. C. D. many useful decisions were made there was a lot of disagreement nothing useful was done some progress was made

6. The woman thinks the tank A. B. C. D. is very powerful has a long range is hard to kill has an accurate gun

7. The man thinks Harrys actions were A. B. C. D. irresponsible planned beforehand justifiable spontaneous

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Listening 17
1. The woman thinks Jerry is A. B. C. D. blindly in love with Jasmine badly treated by Jasmine very angry with Jasmine jealous of Jasmine

2. The man thinks the weather there is A. B. C. D. stable variable mild severe

3. The man thinks Johns comments were A. B. C. D. supporting his boss ignoring his boss weakening his boss attacking his boss

4. John refuses because A. B. C. D. he doesnt have any money Tom hasnt paid him back yet he doesnt lend money at all he doesnt know Tom too well

5. Brians explanation was A. B. C. D. difficult to understand clear and concise easy to listen to too long

6. Tom is A. B. C. D. ill tired angry hungry

7. Sue and Mary A. B. C. D. disagree with one another share the same views gossip about one another hate each other

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Listening 18

1. The work on the project A. B. C. D. is almost finished hasnt begun yet has already been finished will be ready next week

2. Nick remembers the paratrooper because A. B. C. D. he he he he hated vodka liked vodka was a soft man liked soft drinks

3. The politician was A. B. C. D. confusing his audience on purpose explaining his position clearly criticising the local council persuading his audiences to green policies

4. The man thinks the wedding reception was ... A. B. C. D. exhausting too formal badly organised enjoyable

5. Steve has recently become a ... A. B. C. D. private detective a policeman a secret agent an MP officer

6. The commander ordered his soldiers to A. B. C. D. continue advancing stop the attack hold their position lay down their arms

7. What has happened to Brian? A. B. C. D. He's lost his job He hasn't been promoted He's found a new job He's been told to work harder

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Listening 19

1. What does the man believe? A. B. C. D. 2. The The The The opposition will be defeated president will get stronger president could lose power country will become more stable

Why can't the woman take a holiday? A. B. C. D. She doesn't have enough money Her son's health has deteriorated She has a lot of work Her colleagues are on holiday

3. What does Ann decide to do? A. B. C. D. To To To To accuse John tell the truth take the blame write a report

4. What is Pete being asked to do? A. B. C. D. To To To To tell Joes wife keep a secret fire Joe tell the boss

5. Jane thinks the report A. B. C. D. puts forward a weak argument should be made the most use of shouldnt be used at all shouldnt have been written

6. Jerry A. B. C. D. is selling old sub-standard equipment has to work hard to make money has discovered an easy way to make money is selling goods he stole from the army

7. Frank hopes that Steven will A. B. C. D. stay in his job work less get a better job be dismissed

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Listening 20

1. What did Tom do? A. B. C. D. Asked Jane out Married Jane Broke up with Jane Argued with Jane

2. What did Simon do? A. B. C. D. Enjoyed the party Spoiled the fun Got drunk Made people laugh

3. Tom thinks A. B. C. D. they should stay five months longer the radiation will soon kill them the reports are incorrect it is time to leave the area

4. The man thinks A. B. C. D. Jane will regret her choice she made a good choice her job is easy her job is difficult

5. Tom thinks that Peter and Monica A. B. C. D. are are are are going to break up leaving for the holiday a happy couple fond of climbing

6. In the end the Matronax A. B. C. D. agreed to employ Steven didnt do business with Steven made money with Steven reached a compromise with Steven

7. Martin A. B. C. D. has finished his design doesnt know what to do has some new ideas is going to give up

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Listening 21

1. Both speakers agree that Miss Palmer needs ... A. B. C. D. assistance supervision encouragement training

2. Ann thinks Susan A. B. C. D. is very friendly can be annoying is quite attractive can be oversensitive

3. Alice A. B. C. D. has just started writing the report has already finished the report is still working on the report has extended the deadline

4. Nick thinks Jones A. B. C. D. has been accused of the theft has robbed the warehouse is in the investigation team might be involved in the theft

5. Jim hopes the project will be A. B. C. D. rejected accepted delayed improved

6. Anna A. B. C. D. secretly got married revealed a secret behaved rudely got angry at Jane and Peter

7. Rita thinks Tom A. B. C. D. will be unable to do the new task will succeed in the future is tough enough to do the new task is the cleverest guy in the office

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Listening 22

1. Toms friend A. B. C. D. has lost his job has got a new job should get the job will reject the job

2. Sue A. B. C. D. has been lazy at work keeps making mistakes doesnt want to take time off cant concentrate on anything

3. Jack says the rooms are A. B. C. D. clean and tidy well furnished dirty and untidy in good repair

4. Jerry is being criticised for ... A. B. C. D. making mistakes working too slowly missing the deadline being late for work

5. Toms car is A. B. C. D. brand new under repair beyond repair most unreliable

6. They are talking about Mark, who A. B. C. D. knows much about computers knows little about computers is to write a new programme has started a computer course

7. The company these people work for is A. B. C. D. being reorganised being extended going bankrupt reducing the staff

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Listening 23

1. According to the speakers, Paul A. B. C. D. interferes with work much is a very conceited man solves problems easily is a very popular man

2. In the street Mike ... A. B. C. D. phoned the woman ignored the woman failed to see the woman criticised the woman

3. The commander A. B. C. D. was unmoved by Jamess story took his wife to hospital felt unwell during the ceremony withdrew his punishment for James

4. According to the speaker, Rachel is A. B. C. D. loud talkative inquisitive helpful

5. The man A. B. C. D. 6. is wasting his time has lost money has taken a great risk is going bankrupt

John has been A. B. C. D. sent to prison fined heavily found not guilty sent for a retrial

7. Tom will A. B. C. D. take part in the training event never apply for a training event accept the supervisors decision discuss the situation with the boss

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Listening 24

1. Mary A. B. C. D. was very honest with Frank had no idea what Frank did treated Frank in an unfair way acted behind Franks back

2. John is A. B. C. D. a a a a very handsome person well-mannered man very punctual worker most-favoured employee

3. John has bought A. B. C. D. a a a a brand new Ford second hand Fiat car in poor condition car in perfect condition

4. Anne has been A. B. C. D. told to work overtime fighting for her job rejected for the course left without any help

5. Tom A. B. C. D. finds Jack friendly often talks to Jack avoids meeting Jack finds Jack unhelpful

6. The man A. B. C. D. complained about the boss accepted the bosss decision got angry with the boss influenced the bosss decision

7. The speakers think Tom should A. B. C. D. extend the deadline work longer on the project ask his colleague for help give up the project

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Listening 25

1. Bobs sister A. B. C. D. asked him for money turned out very helpful got into some trouble refused his request

2. Matt A. B. C. D. is popular with people has missed promotion has low opinion of himself has become self-centred

3. According to the man, the General Staff A. B. C. D. are thinking what to choose have taken the decision are discussing the price have rejected the offer

4. Kate is A. B. C. D. on the phone doing nothing working hard using a laptop

5. Both persons A. B. C. D. may be stopped from taking a leave can take their annual holiday will have to work overtime have mixed up the dates

6. Mark says he A. B. C. D. didnt know about the party wasnt invited to the party wasnt bored at the party didnt go to the party

7. Ted thinks A. B. C. D. he will not get a pay rise the boss will not see him he will get a promotion his boss will fire him

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Listening 26

1. According to Paul, Mary A. B. C. D. behaved honestly told him a lie damaged his laptop was of great help

2. Tom A. B. C. D. was discharged from hospital is suffering much pain now will be examined in hospital is recovering from a disease

3. Tom says he has been A. B. C. D. criticized given more work praised told to leave

4. The speakers think that Charles is A. B. C. D. very lazy disciplined creative disobedient

5. Sarahs new job A. B. C. D. seems to be easy is very difficult is very well paid requires much time

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LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING

Part Three
Listen to the radio pieces and choose the best answers A, B or C.

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Listening 27

1. President Jamai was giving out A. green T-shirts B. yellow T-shirts C. green and yellow T-shirts 2. The reporter thinks the Presidents security measures were A. quite normal B. more than enough C. intimidating to the electorate 3. Yaya Jamai became President by A. fairly winning the popular vote B. overthrowing the government C. banning the opposition 4. Mark Doyle accepts the point that A. Jamai had done little for the Gambia B. the old government had been corrupt C. the opposition politicians were too old

Listening 28
1. The problem with the elections was that A. not everyone could vote B. the media were denied access C. some polling stations didnt open 2. The opposition were not allowed to A. observe the counting process B. see the votes being transported C. have observers in polling stations

Listening 29
1. In Afghanistan A. Afghans are replacing Americans B. more Americans fight on the frontline C. Afghans troops are being criticized 2. The Afghans may not take over command because A. they are not yet properly trained B. they lack the necessary experience C. they refuse to consult Americans Q1

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Listening 30
1. It is believed that money from diamond trade help A. finance terrorism B. undermine UN position C. track down Bin Laden 2. The certification scheme guarantees that A. mine owners will be protected B. miners rights will be respected C. some diamonds will be excluded from the market 3. The idea to control diamond trade was first put forward by A. South Africa B. the United States C. the United Nations 4. De Beers, a diamond company, symbolises A. lack of acceptance for change B. commitment to reforms C. illegal diamond trading

Listening 31
1. A week ago Macedonia was praised for A. making a plan to end the conflict B. adopting foreign legal regulations C. letting the rebels go unpunished 2. Macedonia will spend 70 million euros on A. strengthening local government B. strengthening central government C. re-settling many refugees

Listening 32
1. The main reason why Kirgistan suffers from an overpopulation of wolves is A. lack of a national ecological policy B. there are fewer weapons these days C. weapons are illegal in Kirgizstan 2. Wolves have become a threat to the local people because A. they kill many rare species B. they kill many people C. they kill peoples livestock

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Listening 33
1. The speaker speaks from A. a prison B. a court building C. a police station 2. The anonymous article does not mention A. ways of dismissing cases B. cost of corrupting justice C. names of corrupt officials 3. The case against the Chief Justice concerns A. physical abuse B. corruption C. unfair verdicts 4. Mr. Imaniara is delighted because A. the judiciary has changed B. the Chief Justice will be prosecuted C. there will be one hundred more cases

Listening 34
1. Until recently the increase in asthma was blamed on A. household pests B. air pollution C. household pets 2. In developing countries asthma often effects people who A. have always lived in cities B. have always lived in the country C. have moved from the country to the city 3. In areas where Asthma has increased most (e.g. New Zealand) air pollution A. is very low B. has recently increased C. is very high 4. The latest idea is that Asthma is caused by A. staying indoors too long B. an allergy in the house C. staying outdoors too long

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Listening 35
1. A century ago, in the Philippines A. the teaching methods werent successful B. there werent enough English teachers C. only the elite were taught English 2. Colgate is mentioned as A. the most popular toothpaste B. a common name for toothpaste C. a toothpaste manufactured there 3. The speaker finds the name for a toilet surprising because A. it doesnt reflect reality B. it is abbreviated as CR C. it causes offence 4. A woman referred to as GRO A. is a public relations officer B. is a bar attendant C. is a prostitute

Listening 36
1. In Burma children are recruited into the military service A. after they have been sent to jail B. if their parents give permission C. when they are unsupervised 2. Military service has become unpopular in Burma because A. the military has acted against the public B. the service conditions are extremely bad C. the military has recruited a lot of children

Listening 37
1. The polls show A. the opposition party is in the lead B. the ruling party is in the lead C. the parties are neck and neck 2. Among other things, the opposition party has been promising the electorate A. to bring inflation down B. to fight against crime C. to stimulate tourism

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Listening 38
1. The purpose of the mission is to A. find out how the moon was made B. take astronauts to the moon C. try out a new propulsion system 2. Smart 1 will be A. powered by a conventional engine B. the fastest spacecraft ever used C. driven by a new kind of engine 3. The silver colour on the moon is A. the lowland area B. the highland area C. the former sea 4. Science believes that the moon A. originated from collision with the Earth B. was formed after a collision of planets C. was space rubble of unknown origin

Listening 39
1. The government is prepared to help Alitalia but A. the unions wont consider job losses B. there is little time left to do this C. its against the European Union law 2. The trade unions A. consolidated against Ryan Air B. discussed work conditions with Ryan Air C. complained to the transport federation

Listening 40
1. The new device would allow patients to A. reduce the number of hospital visits B. measure the level of insulin faster C. consult with the doctors on-line 2. Currently, patients feet are checked A. every day B. every week C. every month

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Listening 41
1. Adele Price was allowed to fly to New York after A. she had filed a complaint to a manager B. she had got a doctors permission C. she had employed a person to assist her 2. The airline said that A. they would change rules on the disabled B. their staffs conduct was discriminatory C. they were concerned about safety 3. A possible verdict in Adeles case will apply to A. American airlines only B. American and French airlines C. airlines operating in the USA 4. According to the man, in emergency Adele A. would require too much attention B. would be able to cope on her own C. would be treated like others

Listening 42
1. After the murder, Dutch politicians A. realised their ignorance of Muslims problems B. supported the anti-Muslim propaganda C. criticised the attack against Muslims 2. The Dutch government wants to A. expel radical imams from Holland B. adapt British policy towards Muslims C. change attitudes towards Muslims

Listening 43
1. Recently Burma was under pressure to A. suspend its membership in ASEAN B. boycott the meeting of ASEAN C. resign the chair of ASEAN 2. ASEAN countries have never A. interfered with each others internal affairs B. cared about contacts with outside groups C. established strong trade ties with China

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Listening 44
1. The latest study has been carried out in A. North America B. Europe C. Asia 2. Chinese dyslexics have differences in A. the front part of the brain B. the middle part of the brain C. the back part of the brain 3. In the case discussed the boy suffered from dyslexia in A. English only B. Japanese only C. both languages 4. Success of dyslexia treatment depends on ... A. the type of deficit B. the age of the child C. the language spoken

Listening 45
1. Illarionov is leaving his job because A. he has been dismissed by Putin B. he is dissatisfied with his duties C. he is unable to say what he wants 2. A year ago, Illarionov A. took part in G8 summit B. was given more duties C. criticized the Yukos deal

Listening 46
1. The corpses found were the remains of A. soldiers of Kuwaiti army B. the victims of the uprising C. international aid workers 2. After the regime fell, similar mass graves A. were difficult to find B. were left unprotected C. were found by chance

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Listening 47

1. The main issue raised at the beginning by the speaker is A. how engineers shape our perception of the world B. the reduced role of the engineering profession C. the establishment of a new science institute 2. Engineers are A. mistaken for mechanics B. less valued than mechanics C. replaced with mechanics 3. Jamie Goodman became known because she A. constructed a very fuel-efficient vehicle B. drove 6603 miles on a gallon of petrol C. created an innovative technology for a car 4. According to Jamie Goodman, women dont go into engineering because A. theyre less analytical than men B. it is against their nature C. employers prefer men

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PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

112

LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING

Part Four
Listen to the briefings and complete the notes by putting short phrases into the boxes.

113

Listening 48
You are an Officer in Company D (this is important information).

1. During the training advice and guidance will be given by

1
2. The country you will be specially prepared to operate in is

2
3. Your training will concentrate on

3
4. To hear the classroom part of your training you need to go to

4
5. Days four and five of your training will concentrate on

5
6. If you dont take training seriously you will be

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Listening 49

1. At the training area Polish forces worked with

1
2. The main objective of the exercise was to improve

2
3. The most successful part of the Purple Rain was

3
4. Two Bluefor soldiers could have been killed because

4
5. The general AAR was written by

5
6. The main area for improvement was

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Listening 50

1. The two aims of the Mice were

1
2. The Mice were able to break into the compound because

2
3. The Mice failed to complete their second aim because

3
4. The Cats were able to discover where the Mices base was because they used

4
5. The Cats approach to the base was difficult because

5
6. The hostage was killed because

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Listening 51

1. In the house the soldiers expected to find

1
2. Nobody tried to run away from the house because

2
3. To overcome the problems caused by neighbours the speaker needed to use

3
4. In the house the trooper found

4
5. The speaker told reporters

5
6. When they were approaching the Land Rover somebody from the crowd (did what?)

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Listening 52

1. The military didnt deploy enough troops because

1
2. The Italians were in the wrong place because

2
3. The duty of the civilian authorities was to give out

3
4. The medical teams successfully

4
5. At the bottom of Mount Hochstein a landslide caused

5
6. According to the speaker, anti-flood centres should concentrate on

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Listening 53

1. The main task of the force is to

1
2. The money for weapons comes from

2
3. The training will be run by

3
4. Apart from training and anti-drugs operations the force is involved in

4
5. C4 had a problem with communication because

5
6. Red Teams are responsible for

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Listening 54

1. The meeting is held to improve co-operation between

1
2. The man at the youth hostel suggested

2
3. The tutor wasnt able to give their exact location because

3
4. If they had been informed of the accident straight away the military would have

4
5. The group could not attract attention because

5
6. The military helicopter was able to locate the group because

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Listening 55

1. After repairing a vehicle, you can't move before

1
2. If locals are stealing food from a truck that has broken down, you should not

2
3. You can't leave the site of a collision that injured the civilian until

3
4. You can only shoot back at a sniper if

4
5. If you are trapped, you should get in contact with

5
6. You should avoid involvement with aggressors because

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Listening 56

1. The soldiers of A Company surprised the locals because

1
2. The Ghurkhas were chosen to patrol higher ground because

2
3. The company commander made decision to search for weapons after

3
4. The weaponry sent for analysis came from (where?)

4
5. The woman couldnt leave her house because

5
6. The womans case was helpful for D Company because

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Listening 57

1. American soldiers gave the British soldiers a special name because ...

1
2. The supply packs went to the wrong places because

2
3. The packs didnt contain the right equipment because

3
4. The Primary Equipment Packs will be ready (when?)

4
5. The PEP project will have to cope with one problem, and that is

5
6. The opponents of the PEPs say that

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Listening 58

1. To prevent intruders from entering the cockpit (what should be done?)

1
2. The safer alternative to using guns in a cockpit is

2
3. The biggest disadvantage of paper documents is that they

3
4. CAPPSs second function is to inform the crew about

4
5. To make oxygen masks and quality air detectors effective, the crew ...

5
6. A 10-kilo limit on hand luggage should allow ...

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Listening 59

1. The issue that drew most attention was

1
2. The co-operation between the forces can be improved by

2
3. The procedures for sea operations will require

3
4. More money and manpower will be used to ensure

4
5. The new element in the training events is to be

5
6. Both forces will launch

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Listening 60

1. ISAF is important because it is the first one

1
2. In September the force will secure

2
3. ISAF headquarters is responsible for

3
4. Kabul International Brigades task is

4
5. Outside Kabul patrols are carried out by

5
6. Confiscated weapons will be used

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Listening 61

1. Recently, the Coalition Forces in Fallujah have been strengthened by

1
2. In the controlled part of Falujah, there is still the need to

2
3. The new checkpoints have been established to

3
4. The speaker stresses that the detainees

4
5. To help humanitarian aid workers, the Coalition Forces will have to

5
6. The temporary rule says that

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Listening 62

1. At Drawsko Polish, forces worked with forces from

2
2. The speakers general opinion of the Drawsko operation was that

3
3. The German soldiers were attempting to delay the occupation in order to

4
4. One man was killed as he left the personnel carrier because

5
5. All the snipers were captured because

6
6. Establishing operation HQ took much longer than it should have because

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Scripts for Listening


Part 1
Listening 1 One One of Europes leading airlines, Swill Air, has suspended all its flights. The troubled company said in a statement that it was now in urgent talks with its banks to secure extra cash to continue its operations. Earlier several of Swiss Airs plains had been impounded in European Airports amid report that the airline is about to go into receivership. Swiss Airs problems are also threatening the survival of the Belgian national airline Sabina. Swiss Air had a big holding in Sabina and had promised a rescue package for it. Both companies had been in difficulties before last months attacks which caused severe a downturn in the air travel business. Two The Supreme Court in Zimbabwe has ruled that the government can continue with its controversial program for the redistribution of white-owned farm land. The interim ruling reverses last Novembers decision when a court declared the governments policy unconstitutional. Todays ruling was made by a bench dominated by new judges seen as sympathetic to president Muggabe. It follows the forced resignation of the former chief justice several months ago. Three Unofficial results from the general election in Bangladesh show that the former ruling party of the outgoing Prime Minister Shakesina has suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the alliance led by the main opposition leader Bigum Halida Zea. Many cabinet ministers have lost their seats. Their party, the Awami League, has been virtually wiped out in some traditional strongholds, including the capital Dakar. Halica Zea and her Bangladesh nationalist party are likely to have a two-thirds majority in parliament with their allies. Four The Indian Prime Minister, Atal Vaharidtch Pay, has called on the United States to extend its fight against terrorism to Kashmir where at least 38 people were killed in Mondays suicide attack on a state assembly in Srilaga. India also implicated Pakistan in the attack. The Indian foreign ministry issued a statement accusing Islamabad of taking only cosmetic steps against, what it called, terrorism. But Pakistan has called the attack a particularly reprehensible act. Five Londons venue for the 2005 world athletics championships may be scrapped. An original estimate of $128 million to develope the pickets lock site into a national athletic stadium has now reportedly risen to over $150 million. With the government unwilling to pour in the extra money the future of the project is in doubt and stadium expert Simon Engles isnt surprised.

Listening 2 One The most senior officer in the United States military, general Richard Mayers, says he expects the Afghan authorities to hand over leading ministers from the ousted Talliban who are reported to have surrendered to local officials. A spokesman for the governor of the southern Afghan city of Kandahar told the BBC that the former Talliban ministers of justice, defence and industry, had been allowed to return to their homes in the city. He said there are no charges outstanding against them but they are being kept under surveillance.

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Two French law makers are debating emergency legislation this week, after the countrys Highest Court ruled that two children born with Down syndrome can sue their doctors for having been born. The childrens parents successfully argued they would have had abortions if theyd been told the foetuses were handicapped. Three The army in Thailand says a drop in opium production in Afghanistan has doubled prices and prompted grows in the golden triangle region of Thailand, Burma and Laos to boost their output. A spokesman said satellite photographs of the area showed opium poppy plantations were expanding. Four The spiritual leader of the world-wide Anglican communion, George Kerry, has announced his retirement. Dr Kerry will step down as archbishop of Canterbury after eleven years in the post. Dr Kerry has had to deal with some vexed issues affecting the Church of England, including the ordination of women and attitudes toward homosexuality. Hes also seen church congregations grow ever smaller as British society becomes more secular. Five The airline industry in the United States is showing some sings of recovery after a huge drop in passenger numbers in the wake of the September the 11th attacks. The decline in ticket sales led to 100 000 job losses and a 20 % cut in the number of flights. But now five of the six largest carriers have released figures showing gradual increases in each month since the attacks.

Listening 3 One NATO has acknowledged that its forces have failed to capture the former Bosnian-Serb leader and war-crime suspect, Radovan Karadic, for the second time in two days. A NATO statement said troops of the SFOR peacekeeping force sealed off a village in south-eastern Bosnia early this morning after receiving an intelligence report that Mr Karadic was there. However, a search operation by combined ground and air forces revealed nothing. Two President Putin of Russia says the planned deployment of American forces in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia is, in his words, no tragedy. Speaking in Kazakhstan, at a summit of former Soviet states, Mr Putting said that if an American military presence was possible in Central Asia, there is no reason why it shouldnt be allowed in Georgia. Both areas form part of Moscows traditional sphere of influence. Three Cuban security forces have evicted from the Mexican embassy in Havana 21 Cubans who crashed a bus into the compound on Wednesday. Cuban authorities said theyd ignored several appeals to leave peacefully and their removal followed a request by the Mexican government. There is no word on the whereabouts of the 21 Cubans who were all trying to get visas for Mexico. Four After a tense debate, the lower house of parliament in Germany has approved a bill aimed at controlling immigration, while at the same time allowing highly skilled foreign workers into the country to meet specific needs in the labour market. The chancellor, Gerhard Shreder, made a last minute appeal to back the bill. Five Leaders from Macedonia and more than 40 other countries are gathering in Brussels for and international donors conference which, they hope, will raise more than $200.000.000 for the conflict ravaged country. The conference follows the adoption by the Macedonian parliament of key provisions

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of the agreement which ended the conflict with Albanian rebels last year. The BBC correspondent in Belgrade sais there was international praise for Macedonia last week when the parliament approved a law guaranteeing the rebels amnesty from prosecution. Listening 4 One Prosecutors in Indonesia have charged Tommy Suharto, the youngest son of the former president with murder. Tommy Suharto, who is already in detention, is accused of the murder last year of a Supreme Court judge, whod sentenced him to 18 months in prison in a corruption case. The trial is expected to start before the end of this month. Tommy Suharto is also charged with the illegal position of weapons and evading justice. Two A fresh controversy has emerged in Mexico over the image of a 16th century Aztec Indian, Juan Diego, who said he had a vision of the virgin Marry at Guadalupe. The Mexican Roman Catholic Churchs official poster to promote the canonisation of Juan Diego in July portrays him with European features. Three One of Canadas most prominent indigenous groups, the Haida, has began a legal battle over property rights to an oil-rich island on the Pacific coast where their ancestors have lived for thousands of years. The Haida Indians say they never signed a treaty with any government and so till own the Queen Shallot Islands. Legal observers say victory would change the way governments have to share natural resources with indigenous populations. The British Columbian government is expected later this year to lift a ban on gas and oil production in that area. Four The economy shrank for 3 consecutive quarters last year confirming that Japan is in one of its deepest and most prolonged recessions since the Second World War. A sharp decline in business investment was the biggest drag on growth in the final three months of last year. A slight increase in consumer spending was far short of what would be needed for a domestic recovery. But there are signs that the long slide in the worlds second largest economy is bottoming out. The stock market has gained more than twenty per cent in recent weeks. Thats partly because of a government crack down on short selling, or speculation on market falls by foreign brokers. Five The Sierra Leone rebel leader, Fudi Sanko, is appearing in court today to face murder and other charges. Mr Sanko had been held without trial since being arrested in 2000 after his Revolutionary Unite Front rebels defied a peace plan. On Friday president Ahmed Tiden Kaba ended the state of emergency in Sierra Leon under which Mr Sanko was being detained. The minister of Justice, Salomon Brewa, said hell ask the court to remand the rebel leader and seventy of his followers in custody until their trial. Listening 5 One An organisation campaigning against the commercial exploitation of children has accused the United Nations Childrens Fund, UNICEF, of supporting the fast food industry. The group, Commercial Alert, sent an open letter to UNICEF after the fund refused to end its co-operation with the American fast food giant, McDonalds. Two Suspected Muslim rebels in the southern Philippines have beheaded two of the six hostages they abducted on Tuesday. The kidnappers are believed to be members of Abu Sajaf, a group of armed Muslims whom the United States regards as terrorists. John McLain reports from the Philippine capitol, Manila.

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A note found with one of the severed heads said the same fate would befall all non-believers in Ala. Philippine Officials have been saying recently that the end is nigh for the Abu Sajaf. Usually the Abu Sajaf ara motivated less by radical notions of Islam but by the profit to be made out of their main occupation kidnapping for ransom. However, the latest abductions appear to be intended as a message to the government that the Abu Sajaf is far from finished.

Three A senior American government official has been touring the Jafna peninsula, the scene of two decades of conflict between the Sri Lankan army and separatist Tamil Tiger rebels. The US deputy Secretary of State, Richard Armatage, is the most senior American official to visit the island since the civil war began there in 1983. Hes called on the international community to push as forcefully as it can for a peaceful solution to the Sri Lankan conflict. A cease fire is now in force and peace talks are due to be held in Thailand next month. Four China has announced new regulations on the export of missile technology. The foreign ministry said Beijing wanted to demonstrate its opposition to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The announcement coincided with the start of a visit to China by the American deputy Secretary of State, Richard Armotage. Washington has long expressed concern about Chinese weapons technology falling into the wrong hands and recently imposed sanctions on several Chinese companies which it accused of helping Iran to obtain weapons of mass destruction. Five Parliamentary leaders in Georgia have begun a meeting to discuss increasing the defence budget. The meeting comes after thousands of troops were sent into the Pakese gorge on the orders of the Georgian president, Edward Shevardnadze, to deal with what he called criminal elements and terrorists. The Russian military has denied carrying out bombing raids on Friday against Chechen gorillas which, Moscow say, have taken refuge in the gorge. A BBC correspondent in Moscow says Georgia is determined to show Russia its serious about dealing with the problem. Listening 6 One Residents in Ivory Coasts second city Buakes say quiet has returned to the streets after fighting between rebels and government troops. A BBC correspondent in Buakes says its clear the rebels are still in control having held the city for more than two weeks. Earlier an army spokesman said the rebels had fled during a government offensive. But a rebel leader told reporters in Buakes that the government attack had been repelled. The Ivory Coast government launched its offensive on Sunday after failing to sign a ceasefire agreement. Two Medical staff in Indonesia have only been able to identify about thirty of those killed in the Bali attack. A Red Cross official said they might be able to identify another twenty-five bodies visually but the majority would require dental records or other specialist techniques. While many tourists have ended their holiday early to fly home some people are flying into Bali to hunt for lost relatives or friends. The United States has ordered non-emergency American personnel in Indonesia to leave and is urging any other U.S. citizens there to do the same. Three Five Japanese men and women who were abducted by North Korea almost a quarter of a century ago have arrived in Japan for a two-week visit. They were greeted by family members who were waiting with flowers and flags at the airport in Tokyo. The visitors from North Korea had to leave behind their children who, relatives say, are being kept as hostages by the Pion Yang government. The five were among thirteen Japanese nationals kidnapped and used to teach Japanese language and culture to North Korean spies. North Korea says eight of the detainees have since died but deny any were killed.

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Four The Brazilian Central Bank has sharply increased interest rates in an effort to stabilise the economy two weeks before the second round of voting in the presidential election. The bank said that the three percent rise, which takes the benchmark rate to 21 percent was needed because of the rapid devaluation of the Brazilian currency. The royal has lost around forty percent of is value this year because of investor fears that a victory for the Workers Party presidential candidate, Luis Cinasion Lulu Desova, could damage the economy.

Five Eighteen of Europes top football clubs are meeting in Brussels today to discuss the spiralling cost threatening the financial future of the game. Among the topics, the high wages of star players and the falling revenue from the sale of television rights a problem recently highlighted by the collapse of TV stations like ITV digital in Britain and Cash Media in Germany. The clubs taking part are likely to to agree to restrict players earnings possibly to about sixty percent of a clubs turn over.

Listening 7 One The Australian authorities have been trying to reassure sailors serving on ships bound for the Gulf that vaccinations against anthrax are safe. At least eleven sailors have been sent home after refusing to have the injections because of fears they may have negative side effects. The Australian Navy has issued a memo to servicemen and women and their families, saying that medical advice is that there are no adverse health effects from the inoculations. Two The European Court of Human Rights has rejected a request by a French citizen to learn the identity of her anonymous mother. The case had been brought by Pascal Audievr whose mother had abandoned her at birth. French law allows women to give birth anonymously to unwanted babies who were then registered as born to X. Mrs Audievr had argued that the French government had violated her right to privacy and family life. Three Clashes between striking police officers and army troops in Bolivia have left at least ten people dead and more than fifty injured. The unrest forced the Bolivian president Gonzales Sanches de Losava to withdraw plans for an income tax increase at an attempt to restore calm. About half the countrys police had taken part in a protest against the twelve and a half percent tax. Four A South African president Tabu Umbeki has announce plans to help Iraq dismantle any weapons of mass distraction based on his countys own experience of voluntary nuclear disarmament in the nineteen nineties. In his state-of-the-nation address to parliament in Cape Town, Mr Umbeki said the offer had already been passed on to Baghdad and the United Nations. He said South African experts were preparing to travel to Iraq. Five In June 2000 Kim Dej Jong won international acclaim for a visit to Pyong Yang and the first meeting between the leaders of the two Koreas. It was the centrepiece of what he called his sunshine policy of engagement with the communist state. But allegations later surfaced that president Kim had affectively bribed his northern counterpart to take part in the meeting. Kim Dej Jong has now broken his silence in a nationally televised apology to the nation. He did not admit the government had paid any money, but he said that Hunday business group had transferred a hundred and eighty six million dollars to the North with his approval. He apologised for the deep concern he caused to public and said he felt miserable.

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Listening 8 One Scientists in the United States say theyre testing a new early warning system for natural phenomena such as tornados and earthquakes based on infrasound, a form of sound waves inaudible to the human ear. The waves are emitted by powerful events including volcanic eruptions and avalanches. Theyre also produced in nuclear tests allowing the system to be used to help verify the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. Two The Vatican says the Iraqi deputy Prime Minister, Tarik Asis, has pledged Baghdads cooperation with the United Nations over disarmament during a meeting with Pope Johan Paul in Rome. A statement from the Vatican said the Pope, an outspoken opponent of American plans for military action against Baghdad, had strongly urged Mr Asis to show concrete commitment. Three Opposition groups in Bolivia and the largest trade union confederation there have called for a general strike following clashes on Wednesday between protesters and troops which left at least fourteen people dead and dozens injured. The opposition and the confederation are demanding the resignation of Bolivian president Gonsales Sanches de Losava who was forced to cancel plans for an income tax increase following the unrest. Four The results of the 2001 census published earlier today suggest population is ageing and in need of more health care. Nearly one in ten people in England and Wales reported being in poor health, and for the first time there are more unmarried than married households. Furthermore, its reported that thirty percent of us live alone. Well over seventy billion dollars worth of government spending is determined by data supplied by the census and its also a vital snapshot of British life. Five A North Korean official has accused the United States of building up its forces along the border with South Korea in violation of demilitarisation agreements. Major Kim Kuan Kil said that tanks and other armoured vehicles had been seen in the area. The statement comes amidst worsening relations between the United States and North Korea over Pyong Yangs resumption of its nuclear program. The United States said earlier it didnt intend to ask the United Nations Security Council to impose immediate economic sanctions on North Korea over the nuclear issue. Listening 9 One Campaigners for the rights of children have welcomed an announcement by the computer software giant Microsoft that its closing most of its Internet chat-rooms. The company says its taking the action to protect young people from paedophiles and unsolicited e-mails many of which are pornographic. Our science correspondent, Richard Black, reports. - Its estimated that tens if not hundreds of millions of people visit Internet chat-rooms each month a large proportion of them children. And a number of high-profile cases recently have graphically demonstrated the danger form paedophiles. MSN, one of the largest the worlds biggest providers of on-line services says the time has now arrived when unrestricted chat is simply too dangerous. In some countries, notably the United States, chat-rooms will be available on subscription only. In others, they will be continually monitored. But in most, MSN is simply closing them down. It believes the future lies in programs which allow small groups of people to message each other and invite only known users to join in. Two A South African Church leaders spoken out against other African archbishops because of what he called their arrogance over the issue of homosexuality. The Anglican archbishop of Cape Town, Winston Enjongonkulu Undungani, accuses his colleagues of intolerance following the appointment in

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the United States of Jim Robinson, the first openly gay bishop. In an interview with a British newspaper Mr Undungani said there were other issues that should be priorities for the Anglican Church, such as world hunger, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and AIDS. Three The Israeli leader, Ariel Sharon, is beginning a visit to India today for talks about strengthening military and political ties between the two countries. The four-day visit - the first by an Israeli prime minister since Israel and India established diplomatic ties eleven years ago - is expected to focus on the details of a billion-dollar contract for the sail of three Israeli early-warning radar systems to India, a move which has already angered Indias traditional rival Pakistan. Four The Iranian foreign minister, Khamal Kharazi, has denied his country has the technology to produce nuclear weapons. Mr Kharazi said that Iran would not give up its uranium-enrichment program which it maintains for civilian purposes. Speaking in New York, he said his government was willing to negotiate a process of stricter inspections with the International Atomic Energy Agency, but the problem was that the Americans believe that was not enough. The IAEA has set a deadline of the end of October for Iran to prove that its nuclear program is peaceful. Five The authorities in Thailand have charged four Thais, allegedly member of the militant group Jammah Islamia, with plotting to bomb embassies and tourist spots. A state prosecutor has said they were accused of preparing to launch crimes within Thailand from abroad and seeking perpetrators to carry them out. Prosecutors are also Singapore to hand over one of its nationals for trial on similar charges.

Listening 10 One Frances controversial law banning the wearing of Islamic headscarves and other religious symbols in state schools comes into force today. The scrapping of the law has been demanded by the kidnappers of two French journalists in Iraq, but the French government has refused. The BBC Paris correspondent says the demand has had the unintended consequence of uniting France against the hostage takers, making it much harder for radical French Muslim groups to protest against the new law. Two One of the worlds leading bodies for observing elections says the poor security situation in Afghanistan make it impossible to monitor properly the presidential election due in October. The Organisation for Security Co-operation in Europe, the OSCE, says Afghanistan is too dangerous for meaningful observation of the election. In a report obtained by the BBC, it also suggests that too much scrutiny of the election could undermine confidence in the process among Afghans. The newly formed Afghan group, the Foundation for Free and Fair Elections, says its still willing to monitor the elections. But its chairman, Muhamend Say Mayazi, says they can only visit a fraction of the polling stations. Three A ban on military style assault weapons in the Unites States is to lapse after being in force for the past ten years. The move means that ordinary citizens will be allowed to keep heavy assault weapons in their homes. The ban needed to be renewed by the next week but president Bushs supporters in Congress refused to make time available for the vote and to extend it. Four Intense diplomatic efforts are under way to try to resolve the long running stand-off over nuclear issues on the Korean Peninsula. A senior member of the Chinese leadership, Lee Chang Chung, is in Pyongyang to try to persuade North Korea to return to multilateral talks aimed at ending its nuclear program. And in an unprecedented move Britain is sending a government minister, Bill Romall, to Pyongyang for talks.

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Five A military tribunal in the United States has convicted an American soldier of trying to help Al-Kaida. Its recommended that he be sentenced to life imprisonment. Ryan Anderson, a convert to Islam, serving in the US National Guard, was arrested in February as his tank unit was about to be sent to Iraq.

Listening 11 One The American government has asked the judge to overturn the convictions of three Arab men who were tried in a major terrorism case in the United States last year. The US Justice Department said the prosecution have made serious errors in its handling of the case, including withholding information from defense lawyers. Its said the three men who are Moroccans deserved a speedy new trial that would not include terrorism charges. Two An intensive campaign has begun in Northern Nigeria to immunize thirteen million children against polio in an attempt to halt the reemergence of the disease in the region. A quarter of a million health workers are visiting homes to immunize children missed in the first round of the campaign which began last month. Four Nigerian states banned polio vaccination last August after Islamic clerics said the vaccines contained drugs which would make Muslim women infertile. Three The Prosecutors in Argentina say they plan to appeal against the acquittal of all five men accused of involvement in a bomb attack on a Jewish center in Buenos Aires ten year ago in which eighty five people were killed. A court said the men were cleared owing to a lack of evidence. Relatives of the victims rejected the ruling. Theyg called for a demonstration today to protest against the court decision. Four Nepal is observing a day of National mourning for the twelve Nepalese workers who were killed by their Islamic militant captors in Iraq. Government offices, schools, colleges and businesses are closed and the Nepalese national flag is flying at half mast on public buildings. On Wednesday, the authorities imposed an indefinite curfew after angry crowds attacked a mosque in the capitol Katmandu and the offices of some Middle Eastern air lines. Five Chinese tour groups will be able to visit almost thirty European countries from today. Until now theyve been admitted only if they applied as business delegations. Under a new agreement between China and the European Union a Chinese will be able to buy a tour to Europe from approved Chinese travel agents. European countries are looking forward to embracing a lucrative new tourist market, and the BBC correspondent in Shanghai says the Chinese media have beet whetting the appetite of potential travelers by showing pictures of gondola rides in Venice for example but also warning of possible snags mentioning the danger of pickpockets.

Listening 12 One A team of archaeologists has set out a revolutionary theory at a conference in Britain arguing that the first inhabitants of the American continent were seafarers from Australia, of the Melanesian Islands of the Pacific and not migrants from Asia it as has long been supposed. The team said studies of the sculls of a tribe who died out in the Mexican region of lower California two hundred years ago suggest that they were related to the Australian Aborigines and were not of Asian or native American descent.

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Two An Australian rock band called Regurgitater has been locked into a recording studio build of glass in the heart of Melbourne. The band will spend three weeks in the glass bubble recording a new album and, as they put it, showing the world how a creative process works. Three The former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milochevic has denounced what he called the unscrupulous lies about him at the International War Crimes Tribunal in the Hague. He was beginning a presentation of this defence against charges of genocide and war crimes. Mr Milochevichs case has been postponed five times because of his poor health. Four The Israeli prime minister, Ariel Sharon, has presented a time table to speed up his plan for the controversial evacuation of Jewish settlements from the Gaza strip. He gave the details at a meeting of members of Parliament of his Li Khud Party. The Partys wider membership has already rejected the plan but Mr Sharon is insisting hell go ahead. Five The French foreign minister, Michel Barnier, is having talks in Amman with his Jordanian counterpart on ways to secure the release of two French journalists being held hostage in Iraq. The Jordanian foreign minister has already said his country is ready to use its contacts with the Iraqi tribal leaders to try to resolve the crisis.

Listening 13 One The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime the UNODC says South American drug traffickers have started to use West African countries and their coastal waters and a conduit for their drugsmuggling operations. The Head of the UNODC in the region, Antonio Matsiteri, told the BBC that the lack of law enforcement in some West African countries was the main attraction for the traffickers who were seeking areas where impunity could be bought. Two The Egyptian president, Hosni Mubarak, has invited the Arab leaders to attend a summit next week. He said there were worrying developments in the Arab world, including the situation in Iraq and with the Palestinians. Correspondents said the venue for the summit, in Sharm-el-Sheik, was apparently chosen as a sign of government resolve, following the bombings in the Red Sea resort last Saturday in which eighty eight people died. Three The government of Indonesia has confirmed that it will not carry out a mass killing of poultry to try to prevent the spread of bird flew. It says it cannot afford to pay for this as well as the cost of compensating farmers and will instead carry out a selective culling of animals. But the World Health Organisation recommend killing all animals in affected areas. Four Four hundred Uzbeks who fled into neighbouring Kirghizstan to escape political violence in May have arrived in Romania where theyll stay temporarily before they are resettled in other countries. The group includes fourteen people who were released from detention in Kirghizstan. Five Indian police have clashed for a second day with workers and their families from a motorcycle factory in a suburb of Delhi. Television showed live pictures of women chasing and beating police officers in protest and police actions on the previous day against striking workers of Hondas Indian subsidiary. Indian MPs have complained in Parliament about the police tactics. On Monday television showed police using canes to hit hundreds of workers.

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Listening 14 One European Union fisheries ministers have reached a compromised deal to reduce the amount of fish caught in European waters next year after three days of negotiations in Brussels. They agreed a 5% reduction in the number of days cod trawlers will be allowed at see. The British Fishery Minister, Jim Night, told the BBC that significant efforts were being made to preserve cod stocks. Two The separatist movement in the Idonesian province of Ache says its now officially disbanded its military wing after twenty-six years. The move is in line with the peace agreement signed in August promising more autonomy for the region and a bigger reduction in the deployment of troops in return for the disarmament of the rebels. The BBC correspondent said it was the devastating impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami on the province a year ago that helped secure a peace settlement. Three The Egyptian president, Hosni Mumarak, has addressed the new Arab parliament which has been meeting for the first time today in Cairo. He said the body had been set up in response to wish in the Arab world for more democratic reform, and he hoped it would lead to more cooperation among Arab states. But the parliament which is made up of four representatives from each of the Arab Leagues twenty-two members will have no legislative powers. Four New evidence has emerged that bird flue has begun to develop a resistance to the main drug used to combat it. In a report in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers say that drug-resistance strains of the virus developed in two Vietnamese girls who died despite being given a currently recommended dose of the anti-viral drug Tami Flu. Medical experts say the latest research is worrying. Five A court in Kuwait has sentenced to death six Islamic militants with alleged links to Alkaida. Three of them are Kuwaiti nationals, the other three are described as stateless Arabs. They were among about thirty people captured after gun battles with the security forces last January. The Kuwaiti police said some had confessed to planning suicide attacks against the United States military targets and other Western interest in Kuwait. Their lawyers said they were tortured into confessing. Listening 15 One The Arabic television station Al Jasira has shown a video tape of three people, all Christian peace campaigners from the West, who were held hostage in Iraq. Their voices cannot be heard on the tape which carries the date February the 28th. Al Jasira said the men were appealing to their governments to work for their release. In a statement the British government again demanded the immediate release of the four peace activists two Canadians, an American, and a Briton who disappeared in Iraq in November. Two Health authorities in Britain and India have come under pressure to act against the illegal abortion of female foetuses. A senior Indian gynaecologist, Dr Punit Bedi, says increasing numbers of BritainAsian women are travelling to India to have abortions if they find theyre expecting baby girls. Dr Bedi said he believed women were being referred to clinics in India by doctors in Britain. Research published in the medical journal The Lancet last month said that bout half a million unborn females are aborted in India every year. Three Members of the Oil Exporters Group, OPOEC, are meeting are meeting in Vienna to consider whether to change production quotas. One member, Venezuela, has called for a cut of half a million barrels a day. But the BBC economics correspondent says that with prices already well over sixty dollars a

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barrel on world markets there seems to be little support for such a move among other OPEC countries. Four An Italian Culture Ministry says its reached the deal under which the Metropolitan Museum in New York will return antiquities which, Italy says, were Illegally taken out of the country after 1939. An Italian law passed that year bans the export of antique art without government permission. The antiquities include a vase from the sixth century BC which is regarded as one of the most priced treasures of its kind. As part of the agreement, Italy will supply art works to the New York museum as long term loans. Five About three thousand demonstrators have marched through the Kenyan capitol, Nairobi, to protest about the police raid last week on the premises of the Standard Media Group. The protest was organised by the opposition Orange Democratic Movement which is demanding the resignation of the Internal Security minister. The media group was briefly shut down following the raid in which hooded policemen ceased equipment and burned thousands of newspapers.

Part 2
Listening 16 One Two -

How is Sergeant Brown doing on the logistics course? Well, I think he is underachieving. Maybe you had to high expectations of him. The woman thinks Sergeant Brown.

John told me his soldiers are the best in the whole army. Dont you think thats an overstatement? Well, yes. I think the marines take some beating. The woman thinks Johns opinion of his soldiers is.

Three - Did you see Harry this morning? He was in a foul mood. He was absolutely unapproachable. - Well, he can be difficult at times. - This morning Harry couldnt. Four Five Six Whats so special about this tank? Its almost indestructible. Really? I bet it wont stand a strike from a precision weapon.

How is the experiment going? Weve reached the inescapable conclusion that its oxygen. Oh, excellent. Now you can take that holiday that you need. The man believes the experiment

How was the meeting this morning? Oh, the meeting! Totally unproductive. Well, the finance group can never decide on anything? During the morning meeting.

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Seven -

The woman thinks the tank.

What do you think of Harrys actions? I think they were predetermined? Do you think hes capable of doing that? The man thinks Harrys actions were.

Listening 17

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven -

How is your son Jerry? Oh, hes completely infatuated by his new girlfriend Jasmine. Oh, teenage boys can go mad at times. But Jerry is very sensible, so I dont think it will last long. No need to worry. The woman thinks Jerry is.

So, how do you like the weather here? Very nice, in general. Except that its totally unpredictable. Youre right. But at least its never boring. The man thinks the weather there is.

Did you hear what John said? Yes, terrible. He was undermining his bosses authority. Yes, but I think he was right. The man thinks Johns comments were.

John, can you lend me a couple of quid? Whats wrong? Its the third time this month. Well dont ask. I just need it. Ok. no more questions, but I am afraid youll have to ask someone else. I am really hard up at the moment. You know new wife and a new flat. John refuses because.

You know I really feel stupid. After Brians explanation I am afraid I am still unenlightened. Dont worry. You are not the only one who couldnt follow. Brians explanation was.

Whats the matter Tom? You really look like hell. Oh thanks. I m really knackered, I need to rest. Make sure that you get good rest today. Tom is.

Its getting more and more difficult to get any work done with Sue and Mary. Oh them! No wonder they have been at odds with one another for ages. But it s getting nowhere now. They have completely different opinions about everything. Sue and Mary.

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Listening 18 One Two -

Hows your work on project going on? Oh, its on the last lap. You know, it just needs some final improvements. Great. So I can have it tomorrow. The work on the project.

Nick, do you still remember Harry? Harry? Harry who? Harry the paratrooper. You know the one who had a soft spot for vodka. He couldnt put the staff down. Oh that Harry! Yes, sure I do. Nick remembers the paratrooper because.

Three Did you hear that politician talking on the radio last night? Yes, I thought he was supposed to talk about the environment, but he kept referring to the local council. Yeah, he was just trying to cloud the issue. Politicians! Its hard to know what they really think. The politician was Four -

Five Six -

Did I tell you that there was my sisters wedding last weekend? No, you didnt! Come on, tell me about it. Well, the wedding was very traditional, but at the reception everyone had a ball. Everyone was dancing and singing. I mean the couple, both families, friends, acquaintances. Even the neighbours. The man thinks the wedding reception was.

I havent seen Steve for ages. Neither have I. Ive just hear rumours hes been involved in cloak and dagger operations now. Youve got to be kidding. He doesnt seem the James Bond type to me. Neither clever nor brave. Steve has recently become a.

Seven -

I remember everything vividly. Everything was going well at first. We were advancing up the hill, meeting little opposition Yeah, and then things got worse. We started coming under heavy fire from their defensive positions. We were suffering heavy casualties. It got so bad that the commander decided to pull the plug. Yeah, yeah, thats what we did. Yeah. And even as we were withdrawing we came under heavy machine-gun fire. We lost smith and Johnson then. The commander ordered his soldiers to.

Has Brian got the axe? Im afraid he has. Hes devastated. Can t understand why. He used to work such long hours. I know, but after he was promoted he argued with his boss all the time. I didnt know that. Anyway, I wouldnt like to be him now that there are so many people unemployed. What has happened to Brian?

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Listening 19 One Two Three Four Five Six Have you heard? Jerry is making money for old robe. Really? How is he doing that? Well, he buys old army surplus equipment and sell it to young teenagers. Apparently, theres a new fashion for all things military. All he does is load his truck, take it down to the market, and a couple of hours later everything is sold. Lucky guy. Sounds like he is onto a good thing. Jerry

Ive read that the trouble in Angola seems to be over. Yeah, Ive heard that too, but the Presidents control over the country is still precarious. The opposition leaders havent been arrested and theyre still planning further attacks. So, the country is still not very stable. What does the man believe?

Its been really hot lately. I wish I could take a few days off. Why cant you? Ive got a lot of work at the office right now, so my holiday is out of the question. What about you? Your sons been feeling better after the operation, hasnt he? Yes, he has. But my account is in the red. The insurance covered only half the costs. Why cant the woman take a holiday?

So, another report. Lets show to the boss. We cant. John hasnt prepared it. Oh, God! And now what? Well, Im going to carry the can. What?! But its not the first time John has failed. Hard to blame him this time. Youve heard about his wife. Yeah, what a tragedy. So, its better to say I was supposed to write the report. What does Ann decide to do?

Listen, Pete! Do you know what? Joe didnt attend the meeting. His wife told me. Really?! Lazy bugger! I think the boss should be told about this. Well, youd better keep it under your hat. I know you dont like him. But the consequences might be too serious. OK. Maybe youre right. Joe does t deserve to be sacked. What is Pete being asked to do?

Listen, James. How are you going to get the boss to give us a pay rise? Well, there is that report that said we were doing a good job. Well, yeah. There are a lot of people doing a good job. Its not a very strong argument, Jane. I know, but we have to use it for all its worth. Jane thinks the report

Seven -

Have you seen Steven lately? He looks really stressed. I hope he doesnt jump ship. Well, Frank, he might. He is very talented, so he could get a job anywhere. Yeah, and hes been under a lot of pressure recently. It would be really tough, though. We really need him here. Yeah, especially with the new order coming up. Frank hopes that Steven will

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Listening 20 One Two Three -

Whats the matter, Tom? Oh, well, nothing serious. I just had another beef with Jane. What?! But you are getting married in two moths time. Yeas, thats what exactly worries me. I sometimes think we shouldnt be together at all. Dont say that. Just try to settle things in a peaceful way. What did Tom do?

Hi, Steve. How did the party go? Well, it was great, but for Simon. You can say. Hes a wet blanket, isnt he? Definitely, yes. The things he said and the way he said them. Well, at least he left early and everybody started enjoying themselves. Well, dont invite him anymore. What did Simon do?

Four -

Tom, have you read the latest report? No, what did it say? It said that the radiation in this area is thirty times higher than the allowed levels. Really?! Weve been here five months now. Im sure the report are wide of the mark. Otherwise we would be dead by now. Tom thinks

Five -

You know what? My sister, Jane, told me about her new job in the factory. Sounds like easy work to do. Hmm, I think that theres more to it than meets the eye. I know, Ive worked there for a few years. Hope she doesnt regret her choice. The man thinks.

Six -

Tom, how are you spending the holiday? Ive heard that Peter and Monika are going to the mountains climbing. Hmm, I love climbing, but Peter and Monika? Ive been seeing them quite regularly these days. Their marriage is on the rocks. Theyve been quarrelling all the time. I think it wont last long. Well, apparently I misunderstood something. I thought they were doing quite well though. Tom thinks that Peter and Monika.

I met Steven in the City Centre this morning. He was rushing to work. Oh, how is he? Well, yesterday was tough for him. He met with Matronax, you know the photocopier company, to sign a final deal. Last week the couldnt agree on many details and had a row, but they met half way in the end. I should suppose so. After all the business will be very profitable for both sides? In the end the Matronax.

Seven Yesterday, I visited Martin. As you know hes taking part in this competition to design a new bridge. Well, you know, hes got a few drafts but he isnt pleased with any of them, and time is running out. So what is he going to do?

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Well, he is looking for new ideas, but he hasnt found anything suitable. And he really is at his wits end. And, you know, time is running out. I wouldnt like him to give up on this. It is a real chance for him. Martin.

Listening 21 One -

Two -

Good morning Sally. Morning Frank. Hows it going? OK. Thanks. And you? Not bad. Listen, what do you think of that new trainee accountant? Whats her name? Ahh, Sue Palmer. We employed her last month. Oh, her. I dont really know. She seems to be doing all right for someone new in the department. Yeah, but shes still very inexperienced, so wed better keep on her back. We sure will. I have already asked her supervisor, Nancy, to make sure she gets clear instructions and to check on her work. Both speakers agree that Ms Palmer needs.

Hello Ann. Hi Ted. Good to see you. Have you seen Joe and his crowd? They were just leaving when you arrived. Yeah, briefly. Who was that tall red-haired girl next to him? Oh, it must have been Suzan. Dont you know her? Shes Joes new girlfriend. She seems all right at first, you know, friendly and nice, but then it turns out she can easily drive you up the wall. Really? Yeah, Ive never met such a fussy and egocentric person in my life. Well, Im glad shes not my girlfriend. Ann thinks Suzan

Three Hi Pete. Hi Alice. Tell me are you ready with that report for Maj. Watson? Well, Im afraid Im not. I mean not yet. Ive been wrapped up in it for three days. And still need some time to be done with it. I see. And whats the deadline? Tomorrow morning. Well, youd better hurry up and get it written then. Alice Four -

Listen Nick, this is serious. Weve discovered that several items are missing from the storehouse again. Yeah Kate, so Ive heard. The commander has already set up the investigation team. There are several suspects, including Jones. Jones? That fat bloke from company A? Do you think he took part in the theft? I wouldnt put it past him. He seems to be that kind of guy, you know. Always lurking around corridors, looking for opportunities. Yeah, you could be right. Ive heard hes already had some problems of similar kind in the past. Nick thinks Jones

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Five -

Six -

Hello Brenda. Is there any chance of talking to Max about the new project? Oh, hello, Jim. You mean that big project that hasnt been approved yet? Yes. Youll have to come later. Max is busy, still in the meeting, you know. Yeah, they have been there for hours now. I hope they will finally decide to give it a green light. Yes, it would mean a promotion for you. I wouldnt be so sure. This project seems to be very expensive and the company is short of money. Thats why it takes the board of managers so long to discuss it. Jim hopes the project will be.

Hey, listen to this: last night at my party, Anna spilt the beans on Jane and Pete. So, what did she say? Well, she told everyone that theyd got married two weeks ago. I didnt know that. No, you were not supposed to. It was supposed to be a secret. Ah, Jane and Peterll be really angry when they find out. Anna

Seven Hi Rita, have you heard? Toms been given a new assignment. Do you think hell cut the mustard? Well, Ive been watching him for some time. Hes not the cleverest guy in the office and the new assignment is very tough. He hasnt been looking too well recently either. To tell you the truth, I dont think he can. Rita thinks Tom

Listening 22 One Two Three -

I hear they fired the Chief Executive Officer, know anything about it Tom? Ah not really, but a friend of mines already applied for the job and hes on the inside track for the position, Are you sure? Therell be a lot of people applying for this job. I know, but hes very well qualified and got lots of experience. Whats more, I know the Chairman really likes him. Well, you could be right then. Toms friend

Listen. I cant get this report in on time. I just cant keep my eye on the ball. Well, why dont you take a rest Sue? Youve been working too hard recently. May be I should. I dont seem to be able to do any thing recently. I start to read a book and put it down almost straight away. I cant listen to music for more than a few minutes. Youd better take a day off. Sleep a lot and when you get back youll be able to focus on the job much better. Sue

Wow! The barracks look really spic and span. Yea Jack. There was an inspection today. It must have been a lot of hard work. Well, you know what the commanders like: cant stand any dirt or untidiness. Yea.. well its a pity he doesnt allow any money to refurnish the place.

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Four -

Mmm true, and the radiators need repairing as well. Jack says the rooms are

Five Six -

Jerry, I cant tolerate your slip-ups anymore. Nothing serious but still. Its a waste of time if somebody else has to look at your work again. Sooner or later it might lead it us being late with the final work. Yeah. I do understand but weve never had to extend the deadline so far. But I see your point I promise to work more carefully even if it means slowing down. Then nobody will have to correct my work. All right then thats settled. Jerry is being criticised for.

Have you heard? Toms Toyotas a write-off. Yeah I know what happened. Tom called me yesterday and told me about it. Tom is really disappointed. He was so proud of its reliability. He kept boasting that it didnt need a single repair. Yes, and now it can only be towed away to the scrap yard. Well, at least it wasnt brand-new. Toms car is.

Have you met Mark, the new guy from the logistics department? Yeah. I heard hes a computer buff. Yes, he seems to be, although he says he hasnt finished any courses. Yes, I know he learnt all on the job. He used to be a programmer for a transportation firm. And in our office hes become the one to turn to if something goes wrong. They are talking about Mark who.

Seven Have you heard the news? Everybody says were just about to go bust. What? They had such big plans for expansion. What happened? Well, the new accountant told me that the reorganisation carried out last year didnt work out at all. The balance sheet shows only losses, so there isnt any other way out. Oh, dear. We will all have to look for other jobs now. And with all companies reducing employment its not gonna be easy. The company these people work for is.

Listening 23 One Two -

You know, thats interesting that whenever people talk about Paul, they go into raptures about him. Yes, thats true. And I remember the day he came to our department, so self confident. And I found him very conceited. Yeah, and the rest of the staff were afraid hed interfere with their work too much. The beginning wasnt fortunate. Luckily it was only our first impression. He is so different, so approachable. Contrary to our previous boss he listens when we have a problem. According to the speakers, Paul.

Guess what! I nearly bumped into Mike in the street but he cut me dead. No! Thats not like him. He might not have seen you. Was he on the phone again? No, and I waved my hand to say hello, but he pretended to look in the shop window. Thats rude. Do you know why?

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Well, he may still be angry that I criticized his speech at Dianas wedding. I the street Mike.

Ive heard James was punished for his absence during the ceremony. Can you believe it? Awful, indeed. But Jamess excuses just left our commander cold. Did James tell him his wife had a car crash and was taken to hospital? I should think so. But you know our colonel. Nothing will move his feelings. Besides, hes made the decision and will never take it back. The commander

Five Six Seven -

Have you heard? Shshsh! Dont talk so loud. Keep your voice down. Rachel, this nosy parker is coming. I dont want her around asking all those silly questions. Why? Whats the matter? Well, shes the one who helps the boss to learn our secrets, and she will talk to everybody about what she has heard. I didnt know about it. Wed better keep quiet, then. According to the speaker, Rachel is

So, Mike, Ive heard you decided to go for broke. Yes, it wasnt an easy decision. But I was wasting my time working for my previous boss. What a brave decision. Werent you afraid to loose everything, quit your job and take such a big loan? Well, bankruptcy is always a real threat. But Im actually enjoying the challenge. The man

Ive just got back from court? You wouldnt believe it, but Johns got off Scott free. You must be joking! No, his lawyers put up a great defense. But I thought hed get at least five years. Not even a fine. That cant be right! What about a re-trial? Not a chance. Christ. John has been

Hi, Tom. So have you been accepted for the training event you told me about? No, I havent. Just my luck. Im just going to bite the bullet. And leave it like that? I think you should try to talk to the boss. Well, he was the one who rejected me. And you can see there is nothing I can do. So it seems. But if I were you I would apply for the next one anyhow. I dont think so. Not this year. Tom will

Listening 24 One -

Marry, Ive heard you were a real square shooter with Frank. Yeah, everybody says so. But why is it always me who has to say unpleasant thinks to people? Why didnt you do that? Look, I knew Frank wasnt helpful. But I had no idea hed acted against his own colleges. Well, I just couldnt stand it anymore. It was high time somebody had done something. Well, hopefully Frank will never do anything like that again.

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Hed better not. And if he does Ill sack him. Marry.

Look at John, hes late again nobody says a word. Mary, the secretary would report me to the boss immediately. But you know John is the bosses blue-eyed boy. Even if Mary said anything the boss just would not believe it. So, she isnt bothered. And besides, Mary is the one who thinks John is so cute and handsome. I wish she liked me so much. She would if only you gave her chocolates every now and then. John is.

Three Oh my God, I just cant believe my eyes. John has bought another rattletrap. See that blue one over there? Thats his. You must be joking. After all the bad experience with the old ford and the second had fiat he had? Yeah, some people never learn their lessons, do they? Well, youre right. Looks like they dont. John has bought. Four Five Six So, did you get a pay rise finally? No, I didnt and Ill have to lump it. But didnt you deserve it? I thought you were working hard. Yes, I was. But the boss said Id had a few slip ups and he couldnt give me the pay rise. I admire your calmness, Id be furious! But he was right, you know. Id failed several times so I wouldnt have given the pay rise to myself. I hope this wont last for ever. The man.

Have you heard? The boss wants to dismiss his secretary. You mean Ann? Shes been trying to grab at straw. But it seems to me Mr Big has already made up his mind. Really? I thought that after the course she took she would stay. Is there anything we can do to help her? No, I dont think so. Weve done our best. And Ann has even agreed to work overtime. Damn, what a pity. I really liked this girl. Yeah, me too. Ann has been.

Tom, how are you getting on with Jack? Well, to be honest, I give him a wide berth now. Really? Why? When I came here, he seemed so friendly, but then it turned out he was making stories about me and telling them to the boss. You must be kidding! No, I nearly got fired. Now I dont want to have him near me and he cant count on my help in any way. Tom.

Seven How is Toms new project going? Well, I think he should throw in the sponge.

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Why? Even if he works days and nights, he has no chance of meeting the deadline. Shouldnt someone help him or give him some advice? It wont do any good. Its just beyond his ability. So, what to do? Well, one of his colleagues should take it over. Yes, youre probably right. The speakers think Tom should

Listening 25 One Two Three Four Five -

So, Bob, what are you going to do about it? Im so happy its over now. My sister came up trumps. Really what did she do? I phoned her yesterday and told her about my situation. And?! She said shed have big trouble coming here but she'd transfer the money. Hmm. It's good to have someone to turn to. If I asked my sister for help, she'd certainly say no! Bob's sister.

Have you seen Matt lately? Yeah, sure. He behaves as if he were the cock of the walk. Matt!? You must be joking. Was it the promotion that changed him so much? It looks like it. What a shame. He used to have so many friends but now theyre all gone. They just couldnt bear the way he started treating them. Really?! Im surprised. He never used to think high of himself. Matt.

So, have they made up their minds at the General Staff which piece to get us? Well, it seems to me its still a toss-up. No wonder. Both items are good and worth their price. True, but we desperately need that equipment. And the sooner the better. According to the man the General Staff.

Kate, why are you twiddling your thumbs! Shouldnt you be working hard? I need this analysis by the end of the day. I know, but my computer wont work. I called the guy from the service department an hour ago and hes on his way. Cant you use my laptop in the meantime?. I could, but all the data is only on my computer. Well, do something! Why dont you call the computer guy again? Kate is.

Monica! Wheres the report? Well, its not ready yet. Youve got to be kidding! If I dont show it, well both be for the high jump. But the deadline is tomorrow! No, it isnt. Its today and you know that very well. If the boss doesnt find the report on his desk soon, we can forget about our holiday leave. Look, its almost ready. Ill do my best to finish it, but I cant work overtime. Both persons.

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Six Seven Mark? So, how was it? What? The party. Which party? Toms of course! You wouldnt believe it! Everybody had a whale of a time. See, I was right! . And you didnt want to go. True, silly me. Mark says he.

Well, Ted, are you going to ask the boss for a pay rise? Of course I am, but its just pouring a quart into a pint pot. Is it? You really deserve a higher salary after your last success. I know, I should have been promoted. Frankly, its no use talking about it to my boss. If I could I would quit immediately. Ted thinks.

Listening 26 One Two Three Four -

Whats between you and Mary, Paul? Well, you wont believe it but she pulled the wool over my eyes. How come? Its not like her. Last week I asked her to lend me her laptop. I needed it for that important presentation I had. Dont tell me she refused to help? Well, she didnt. She only said it was out of order but then I saw her using it in her office. Impossible! Mary is the most honest person I know. According to Paul, Mary.

Hows Tom? Well, Ive been told hes on the mend. So, the disease wasnt that serious. It seemed to be at the beginning, Tom was in such great pain. Yet, in hospital they said it was only some kind of infection Is he still there? Well, the pain wore off but they decided to keep him until Monday. Why so long? Is he getting worse? No, he just has better care there. Tom.

Tom, how was the class yesterday? Well the instructors bawled me out. Really! Yeah ... actually, it came as no surprise. Hes hardly ever satisfied with me. Maybe you should do some extra homework. It wont do any good. Actually, if he keeps doing that, Ill leave. Think it over. The instructor certainly doesnt want you to drop out of the course. Tom says he has been

Lets go on to another candidate. Its Charles Brown. What do you think about him? Well, as for his qualities he definitely toes the mark, and you cannot call him lazy. Thats

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good, isnt it? Yeah its good but we need someone that shows initiative, has ideas. Obedience and following orders isnt enough. True, Charles is not very creative. OK. So shall we talk about the next one. The speakers think that Charles is.

Have you heard Sarah is working again? Yeah her new job sounds like a right cushy number. Thats good . when she worked for Philips she did overtime almost every day Yeah . and they gave her such difficult tasks. At least now she doesnt have to make much effort. True, but she isnt happy about the money Well, the harder work, the higher salary. What did she expect? Sarahs new job.

Part 3
Listening 27 Hello, this is Francis Line. In todays programme: presidential elections in the Gambia, in West Africa. Our West Africa correspondent, Mark Doyle, is in the Gambian capital, Ban Jue. The president of the Gambia was clearly enjoying himself. He was standing with head and shoulders through the sunroom of his four-wheel-drive, tossing T-shirts to the crowd. The people, poor rural villagers for the most part, were scrabbling and fighting for one of the precious garments which, of course, had a smiling picture of president Jaja Jami printed front and back. Going by T-shirt poll, its difficult to call this election. It could be close. The greet T-shirts of the ruling party are evident wherever president Jami goes. But the yellow T-shirts of the opposition are bound in the places they hold their meetings. Just before the president arrived at his election rally in a welter of flying green Tshirts, I was surprised to see a truck with a large anti-aircraft gun drive through the crowd. The soldiers on board that truck and about a hundred other troops who subsequently arrived were the presidents security men. Presidential aids told me these were quite normal security measures. Well yes, up to a point. But even in unstable parts of Africa, its only normal to bring out the big guns if theres a military threat. And in the Gambia there arent any known armed opponents to the Jamy regime. The opposition parties in this election say the display of military hardware is designed to intimidated the electorate. President Jaja Jamey came to power in 1994 in a bloodless military coup when he was a young army lieutenant. Two years later he civilianised his rule in elections widely seen as unfair because he banned a number of his opponents from standing. And so there are question marks in Thursdays election about how level the plain field is between the various candidates. His supporters say, and they have a point, that he overthrew a lazy and corrupt civilian government which had done little for the Gambia. And they add that the opposition coalition is just the old guard in disguise trying to return to power. And so what we have in this election is the challenges of democracy in Africa but in miniature. About half a million voters will decide if they like the dynamic, though blunt and sometimes brutal, former military man, or perhaps they will prefer the quietly spoken lawyer, Usni Dabo, who heads the main anti-military opposition coalition. The BBCs West Africa correspondent Mike Doyle.

Listening 28 With counting getting on the way in Zimbabwes presidential election increasing concerns are being expressed about the conduct of the poll. The head of the Southern African observer mission, Ducle Focal, said that when the polls closed people who still wanted to vote have been prevented form

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doing so, which did not bode well for the election process. As the BBC is restricted in south Zimbabwe, Graham Ferry, reports form the South African border. Counting begins this morning even though local independent local election observers say thousands of would-be voters were unable to cast their ballots in the capital Harare. The government flatly denied that there were any queues at the close of poling and said everyone who wanted to vote had done so. Overnight, the sealed ballot boxes have been held in one counting centre in each of Zimbabwes 120 constituencies. The opposition is allowed to observe the counting process but was not permitted to accompany the ballot boxes as they were moved from the poling stations. Its already indicated that it will challenge the results if its candidate, Morgan Changoray, doesnt win.

Listening 29 Military sources in Afghanistan say the Joint US-Afghan forces have made significant advances in the east of the country, despite the withdrawal of 400 American troops. The joint force launched an offensive more than a week ago against pockets of Al Kaida and Talliban fighters hold up in the mountains there. From Kabul, Susana Price reports. For the past week and a half, the American have been battling against hundreds of Al Kaida and Talliban fighters, dun deep into the mountains if Eastern Afghanistan. And theyre sounding increasingly confident of success. The Americans have withdrawn 400 soldiers a quarter of their forces from the front lines, saying one phase of the conflict has been completed. But at the same time, a thousand Afghan reinforcements have been arriving in the area. Some Afghan commanders have been highly critical of the American operations, saying their troops have made mistakes. Others point out the Afghans have more than 20 years experience of war in this rugged terrain and are far better suited to fighting there. Whatever the reason for Americas decision to scale down, it means the Afghans will now make up the bulk of the force, and this has raised questions over who should be leading it. An advisor to the governor of the Pach Tier Province has said the local administration is not being informed or consulted. The Americans have provided training, clothing and equipment to many of the Afghan soldiers, but it seems unlikely theyll hand over complete control of the operation to them. The Afghans have great experience in gorilla warfare, but far less in organised large-scale ground offences, which might be required to ensure all the Al Kaida fighters are captured or killed.

Listening 30 African countries such as Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola are all rich in diamonds. But the gems have had a deadly legacy there. In all these countries, the profits from trading in diamonds have funded major wars. The United Nations has taken action against what are known as conflict or blood diamonds but that hasnt stopped illegal trading. Most recently there have been allegations that sales of diamonds from Sierra Leone have funded Osama Bin Ladens Al Kaida network. Now there are efforts to set up an industry wide certification scheme which will control diamonds not just in the countries they come from but also in the countries where theyre sold. Andrew Morry has this report. Under pressure from the United Nations the government of Sierra Leone has set up a certification scheme. Miners must have licences and dealers must have exports certificates. The scheme is intended to ensure that the diamonds mined in rebel-held areas dont find their way onto the world market. But its alleged that illegal trading continues. Recently a government minister was arrested on charges of involvement in illegal diamond mining. And Abu Brima of the Just Mining campaign in Sierra Leone says the rebels are continuing to trade in diamonds. Over the past 18 months some 35 governments, germ industry representatives and campaigning groups have been meeting to come up with a practical system to keep conflict diamonds out of the international germ trade. They were originally brought together by the South African government in whats become known as the Kimberly process. Their plans will be presented at the next meeting of the United Nations general assembly scheduled for early December. Mark Ramsey of the World Diamond Council which represents the diamond trades interests say the industry would accept legal restraints. The World Diamond Council has indorsed model legislation which is before the U.S. Congress and we are prepared also to back calls for international law enforcement at a more aggressive level as a way of trying to identify those who are violating laws worldwide and put them behind bars where they belong. The industry is

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completely committed to the elimination of this trade. Here, diamonds are sorted at the worlds most powerful diamond company De Beers a member of the World Diamond Council. Its the high end of the diamond business, a world away from the impoverished diamond miners and illegal behind-thescenes deals. But its also a symbol of the vast wealth of an industry which up to now has resisted interference, and campaigner Ian Smily recognises that despite the talks process, things will be hard to change.

Listening 31 After almost a decade of civil war the Balkans, are in dire need of foreign cash. Thats the message Macedonian government officials will be trying to get across today when they meet would-be investors this morning at a donor conference in Brussels involving forty countries. Our correspondent in Belgrade, Paul Anderson, reports now of what the possible benefits are for Macedonia. Macedonian leaders say they want pledges from the conference amounting to more than 250 million euros, or 220 million dollars. All of it aiding an economy which has struggled to recover from last years conflict with Albanian rebels. They may well get much of it. There was universal praise for Macedonia last week after parliament approved a law granting the rebels an amnesty from prosecution. The Americans said they would make what they called a significant contribution to the pledges of aid. With the adoption of the amnesty law, the foreign powers which drew up the plan ending Macedonias seven-month conflict believe the country is well on the road to peace. Supporting its damaged economy is part of the process. Of the money the Macedonians hope to raise, the lion share is earmarked for budgetary support. The rest, around 70 million euros, would pay for the implementation of specific proposals within the peace agreement, particularly the business of devolving power to local authorities and for the reconstruction of damaged housing. Thousands of Albanian and Macedonian houses were shelled or torched in the conflict. Many of the 80 000 or so people who fled the fighting live now among the ruins of their homes or havent been able to get back at all. The donors conference may also help restore the confidence of investors who bolted the country when the conflict broke out. Macedonia desperately needs foreign-backed industrial projects to boost its job market. Officially, just under 40 per cent of the work force is unemployed. Unofficially, its close to 50 per cent. Paul Anderson.

Listening 32 In many parts of the world the wolf is either an endangered animal or has died out as a result of mans activities. But not so in the Central Asian republic of Kirghistan, where the wolf population has grown so dramatically that the cull is now being considered. The deputy head of the State Forestry Service, Musa Kucikow, says there are now so many wolves that other wild animals such as mountain goats are being endangered with serious implications for the countrys ecological balance. Here is our Central Asia correspondent, Katharine Davis. Three times the number of wolves are roaming this remote mountainous state now compared with a decade ago and, according to Mr Kucikov, thats are too many. Two thousand used to be the population in Soviet times when there were also more shepherds to keep numbers down. In addition, few farmers have rifles these days. Many weapons were confiscated after violence in the countrys south some years ago. The search for food over the winter can drive wolves closer to human settlement, but officials say attacks on people and domestic animals have increased over all, almost doubling in the past nine months. One man died after being bitten. 150 wolves have been killed by hunters so far this year. Now, a special funds being set up to pay anyone doing so. Wolf pelts will be made into coats and hats and, Mr Kuciakov says, proceeds from their sale will finance the fund. The state will also pay for a mass cull. Experts want it to happen as soon as possible, while the wolves remain in large packs. The situation has serious economic implications for local people too. For rural Khirgis their livestock is their livelihood. Every animal loss to a wolf makes the struggle to survive even harder. Our Central Asia correspondent, Katharine Davis.

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Listening 33 Kenyas new government says its planning to set up a South African style truth and reconciliation commission to deal with thousands of alleged crimes committed under the old government of President Moi. The new administration led by president Moa Kabaki is also promising to stamp out corruption starting with the countrys widely despised judiciary. Our East Africa correspondent, Anderw Harding, has be down to the law courts in the capital Nairobi to see how the clean up campaign has been progressing. The holding cells beneath Nairobis law courts are dark and narrow, the wormer rich with the scent of urine and sweat. Its Wednesday morning and all the cells are full. Busy times, says the policeman, kicking a door shut with a polished boot. Noises trickle down from the courts, upstairs shouts and footsteps the muffled shouts of Kenyan justice. What justice, says Gitubu Imaniara looking defiantly around the beige, sun speckled corridors. This place is the epicentre of corruption in Kenya. You buy justice here at all levels. Mr Imaniara should know, hes a lawyer on his way to court. Most Kenyans hold the judiciary in utter contempt rotten to the core. A lawyer recently published an anonymous article in which he listed the exact processes and price of corruption. Three thousand dollars to fix a murder case, the money collected by the prosecutor and split with the magistrate. In a civil case the going rate is ten percent of any damages claimed. Smaller sums will ensure that files are lost or moved. But today there are tantalising signs that things may be about to change here. For the first time in forty years Kenya has a new government promising to clean things up. Mr Imaniara and I arrive outside the chief magistrates court. A middle aged man in a frayed shirt is waiting for us. Kornels Akielo Oniango looks nervous. Hardly surprising. Hes just launched a private prosecution against the most senior law officer in the country the Chief Justice, Burna Chunga. The case deals not with corruption but with torture. In the nineteen eighties, Kenya was a repressive, one-party state. It was not uncommon for defendants, opponents of the regime, to be carried out from the cells on stretches too bruised to walk, and then be tried and convicted in a matter of minutes. Cornels Oniango says thats what happened to him as a student leader in 1982, and again in 1986. The prosecutor, in both cases, was Burna Chunga, now the chief justice. So, todays private prosecution is a test case, a ground-braking attempt to put the legal system itself on trial. In the end, not much happens in the sombre wood-panelled court. The magistrate says he needs another week to consider whether or not to proceed with the case. But outside, Cornels and his lawyer dont seem at all bothered. Mr Imaniara is delighted its come this far. Under the old government, he says, we wouldnt even have got past the from door. Besides, if this one fails, weve got a hundred more torture cases ready to go. A can of worms is being opened up in Kenya right now. There cant be many people from the old regime who were sleeping that well. One high court judge is already facing corruption charges along with half a dozen senior civil servants.

Listening 34 Over the last few years, cases of asthma have been on the increase world wide. Accepted scientific wisdom pointed the finger at air pollution in urban areas. But this year, scientists have changed their minds. They now say the culprits may be closer to home. In fact, in the home. Household pests and even household pets. Graham Easten of our science unit explains why the solution for sufferers to get a breadth of fresh air. As any one who has asthma will know, even a mild attack can be a frightening experience, despite the effectiveness of modern treatments. Severe asthma can be fatal. So, mounting evidence that asthma is on the increase is certainly a cause for concern. In developing countries, a pattern has emerged which provides a clue as to whats causing all the trouble. Here, asthma often affect people whove moved into the city from rural areas. From this many scientists had concluded that outdoor air pollution in city centres was to blame. But experts meeting in London in June overturned that view. And, as professor Steven Holgate from the University of Southampton explains, the results are very clear. Theres no doubt that in people who have asthma bad air pollution episodes can make their disease worse. But whether the question of increasing new asthma is caused by air pollution, the answer is almost certainly is no. This is very careful evidence, looking at air pollution trends in relation to asthma trends. For example, the highest increase in asthma occurs in New Zeland, in [], in some parts of Australia where air pollution is minimal if not present at all. And certainly in the United

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Kingdom, some of the highest figures for asthma are in the [] islands where, of course, air pollution is fairly minimal. Such evidence has forced scientists to look at elsewhere for the cause, inside the sufferers home, where other asthma-causing substances are found. Tomas Plats Mills, professor of medicine at the University of Virginia, explains. I think that important phenomena are that people are living indoors much more than they ever were before. In the United States, we think people are indoor for twenty-two or twenty-three hours a day. And, when you study these patients, the ones who are getting asthma, most of them are allergic to something in their house. The scientists have now found suspects indoors.

Listening 35 According to our correspondent in the Philippines, John McLain, one of the more dubious assertions made by some Philippinos is that their country is the third biggest English speaking nation in the world. But in fact, says John, the language is spoken only by a minority of the eighteen million people in the Philippines. And the way they speak it doesnt guarantee that they would be understood by the rest of the English speaking world. A diplomat from a Western country newly posted to the Philippines complained to me the other day. I thought this was supposed to be an English speaking country, he said. When the United States supplanted Spain as the colonial power here at the end of the nineteenth century, the Americans sent shiploads of teachers across the Pacific to educate the Philippino masses, and that included teaching them English. They had a difficult start. The American teachers insistence that A is for apple, was of little help for children of a tropical land whod never seen one. A century later, the masses still have little grasp of English. But its become the language of the elite who speak it fluently and confidently. And scorn is poured on those who aspire to join the elite yet who fail to master English. Ive heard the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court upbraiding a witness who gave an ambiguous answer under cross examination. Thats like saying, yes, we have no bananas, the Chief Justice told the witness. Even so, English in the Philippines has developed its own peculiarities which puzzle the unwary foreigner who learned the language elsewhere and which can sometimes lead to misunderstanding. Many brand names have entered Philippine English as common nouns. Toothpaste here is called colgate no matter who the manufacturer is. In the same way a video cassette player is always a bitamax. Never mind that here and elsewhere the video standard is VHS and hardly anybody uses bitamax. So if you want to buy a video cassette recorder you must ask for a bitmax. Otherwise you wont be understood and in the end youll get a VHS recorder. Theres also a tendency to employ euphemisms. Its an international phenomenon to use some circumlocution in talking about the toilet, for example. But here they go to the extreme of calling it the comfort room. Its a ludicrous name. Anybody whos experienced the horrors of a typical Philippine lavatory will tell you that there is very little comfort to be found there. Perhaps, thats why Philipinos take their coiness even further by abbreviating comfort room as CR. A similar process is involved in the creation of GRO. GRO stands for guest relations officer. Guest relations officer? Its a euphemism for hostess in the sense of a woman employed in a bar to chat up male customers, persuade them to buy her drinks for extortional prices and them persuade them to go to bed with her for the usual fee. Its hard to see the point of all this. If you call somebodys mother a GRO, and Ive heard it done, is just as insulting as using a blunter word.

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Listening 36 Human rights workers have, in a new report, accused the Burmese army of rounding up men and boys for forced military service. The report by the New York based human rights watch Asia says over a fifth of Burmas armys under the age of eighteen. One of the reports authors Jo Backer explains how the children are recruited. - Children, as young as eleven, are typically picked up from public places. They are on the street, theyre at festivals, market places, at railway stations, at bus stations. Theyre typically approached by recruiters and essentially threatened with going to jail or joining the army. Sometimes they are physically beaten if they try and resist. Theyre given no opportunities to contact their families, and theyre sent off to training camps where they learn to handle guns, lay land mines and learn military strategy. Miss Backer says the Burmese armys estimated to have 350 thousand troops. She says its expanded rapidly, doubling in size since 1998. At the same time, the military has been committing increasing human rights abuses against civilians making it a increasing unpopular choice for young men seeking a career. As a result, the Burmese military has had to resort to forced recruitment for most of its soldiers. And recruiters have found that children are most vulnerable, and least able to withstand threats and intimidation. - Jo Backer who says, in effect, that children are easy prey for recruiters.

Listening 37 Jamaicans go to the polls today with the ruling Peoples National Party hoping to win a fourth successive term in office. Most of the latest polls show that the Peoples National Party led by P.J. Pateson has a narrow lead with Edward Seagas Jamaica Labour Party gaining ground in recent days. Our correspondent, Nick Miles, reports from the Jamaican capital Kingston. Some of the recent polls have given hope to the Jamaica Labour Party which has been in opposition since 1989. Two gave the ruling party the PNP a wafer-thin lead, but a further poll published just hours before the start of voting showed the gap starching to ten points. Prime Minister P.J. Paterson has campaigned on what he sees as the achievements of his partys three terms in office. He says hes managed to bring inflation down and create the right environment for investors. Hes also pointed to recent successes in the fight against crime. This year, the murder rate, while still high, has fallen by fourteen percent on the same time last year. The Jamaica Labour Party leader, Edward Seaga, who was Prime Minister for two terms during the nineteen eighties, has offered the electorate the character-free secondary education, if his party is voted into power. His campaign focussed on what he says is the stagnation of the countrys tourism and manufacturing sectors under PNP rule. Security is tight ahead of todays vote. Jamaica has a history of fighting between rival political supporters. The Jamaican police and armed forces are out on the streets, particularly in five Kingston constituencies which are seen as potential flash points. Meanwhile, residents in many areas have set up barricades on roads entering their communities to reduce the risk of intimidation or attacks from rival factions.

Listening 38 Youre listening to Science in Action on the BBC World Service. Im Garreth Mitchel. And on the programmes in recent moths weve talked about missions to Mars and last week we mourned demise of the Galileo prove thats told us so much about Jupiter. But theres still much to be found out about our closest neighbour in space the Moon, which is the reason why theres a mission due to launch for there this weekend. Unlike those early Apollo missions when astronauts walked on the Moon, there will be no one on board this time. But in many ways it will be a giant leap for space-craft kind as the craft includes an innovative propulsion system and an instrument thatll map the lunar surface. If it all goes to plan, this first European mission to the moon should finally enable scientists to determine how our nearest neighbour was formed, as Richard Holingam now reports. Hear, at the Relafoot Apleton laboratory, near Oxford in southern England, engineers have been making their final preparations for the launch of Smart 1. This is one of the labs, and Im surrounded by assorted electronics in various states of construction, and deconstruction. Theres a model here of

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an instrument which will shortly be on its way to the Moon. The real thing is packed up and ready to go. Professor Manuel Granday heads up the British part of the project. This is Europes first smaller, faster mission. And its also its first mission to the Moon, and its also its first solar-powered space-craft. So this is really a lot of firsts. Although Smart 1 will be launched on a conventional rocket, once in space, itll travel to the Moon using the power of the Sun to generate electricity for the so-called ion-propulsion system. A beam of charged particles or irons will push the space-craft forward. Itll take fifteen months to reach lunar orbit. But once there, itll be able to examine previously unexplored areas. If you look up at the Moon at night, you see two colours you see a silvery colour and you see a grey colour. The grey colour is the moria the seas and those are the flat places where the Apollo astronauts landed. The original material of the Moon is the silvery staff the highlands. And that was much less well sampled by the Apollo astronauts. And that, of course, if you want to answer the question where the Moon came form, is one of your targets. Its perhaps surprising that the question of the Moons formation remains unresolved. But Robin Catchpool from the Royal Observatory in Greenwich says even the accepted explanation is only a theory. We now believe that the Moon was once part of the Earth, and that very early in the history of the solar system there was an enormous collision with a planetary body that threw enough of the material off the Earth into space, that it eventually coagulated to form the Moon that we see today.

Listening 39 Time is running for the Italian state-controlled airline, Alitalia. Its making big losses and management says the airline only has enough cash to keep operating until the end of September. With me now is Manuela Saragosa, of our business staff. Well, is Alitalia in bad trouble? Its in very bad trouble and its unlikely to survive in its present form. Its gonna have to really slim down its operation and change pretty dramatically. There are suggestions that up to a third of the airlines 20 000 employees could be declared surplus by management. At, in its latest plan to reorganise the company. That plan is what is being discussed with the unions today. And for the first time it has to be said there are signs that union leaders might be prepared to consider job losses. In the past the government might have stepped in. That cant happen this time, can it? No, the government has offered a 400 million euro bridging loan. But that loan is contingent on management and union agreeing on a cost-cutting plan by September 15. That has to be done under European Union laws on helping a company out. If anything, what the government is doing at the moment is putting pressure Alitalia and the unions there because its threatened to put the whole company into administration, effectively bankruptcy proceedings if management and the unions dont come up with an agreement, a plan out of this mess, by the middle of September. Its not the only airline that has had similar problems and there are many throughout Europe that have been suffering. But Ryan Air, the low-cost European carrier, has come up with a different way of dealing with things, hasnt it? Yes, Ryan Air just doesnt talk to the unions. It doesnt negotiate with them. And whats happened as a result of that is that unions from several countries across Europe are now joining forces to, in their words, protect the rights of workers at Ryan Air. The International Transport Workers Federation is launching a website today where Ryan Air staff can discuss their work conditions and post their complaints. Ryan Air in response has said it pays its employees more than most other airlines.

Listening 40 Oh! No problem. How have you been over the last week or so? I feel much better.

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See? I would like to have a look at whats going on now. So, well just remove the bandage. Can you just help me a bit there? Thank you. Pauls doctor is Niels Iskie, chief physician at the centre for the diabetic foot whose research laboratory is working on a digital alternative to the face to face consultation. Just having moved away from Paul and the clinical setting, its important to say that it would be ideal for Paul, would he not have to come into hospital quite as often as hes doing now. And with this time working at modern technologies that would help us to monitor him at home and to let us know how his condition is. And what are you working towards? Ideally, this will come in years. I think were working towards an intelligent bandage. An intelligent bandage? Bandage, as we know it now but with sensors built into it that would allow us to get information about temperature, humidity, and perhaps even bacteria and types of bacteria in the bandage. This would allow the bandage to stay on for much longer and that would save quite a bit of money not having nurses come out to change bandages and the patient would perhaps not even have to come into hospital as often as now. How important is it for people with diabetes to monitor their foot health constantly? Very important for any person with diabetes of some duration. And its, of course, extremely important for the diabetic person with an ulcer to have his or her foot monitored daily, ideally. But as it is now, we do it perhaps once a week or every other week. And if they dont monitor their feet? The great danger is still nowadays amputation although the frequency of amputation has dropped to about half of what it was fifteen, twenty years ago. So, its that serious? Its very serious.

Listening 41 Four years ago, a British woman named Adel Price check in at Manchester Airport in the north of England for an Air France flight to New York. Shed flown many times, so it was no big deal. But it turns out it was. Adel happens to have been born without limbs because her mother took the drug Validamy before she was born and she uses a wheelchair. But she had a doctors certificate saying she was fit to fly and the airline had been warned in advance. So imagine her shock when she was told by an airline employee validamiders are banned because they would fall out of their seats. Well she says sae was told she needed to find a paramedic to fly with her. She did and, eventually, flew next day but at a large financial cost to herself. There were more problems when she finally got to New York. Adel is now suing the airline in the States and is calling on the aviation authorities to impose common standards for disabled passengers around the world. Well, Air France have given us the following statement. They say Adel was not sufficiently physically independent to comply with basic safety regulations on the aircraft such as unfastening her seatbelts and putting on an oxygen mask, and therefore couldnt be accepted to travel. The general manager in the States, Marie Josef Mall, said Air France took seriously and investigated any claims of discriminatory or improper conduct by their staff. Well, joining me now David Liemount of the aviation magazine Flight International. - David, Adel wants, among other things, common rules on disabled passengers around the world. Is that possible? Is she gonna get that? - Unfortunately, I dont think she is to start with. I have to struggle to put aside, sort of, natural human reactions to this particular case in order to try and be dispassionate. But no. If she takes this to court in the USA, any ruling that US court comes to will actually will only be applicable in the USA. Thats assuming it rules in her favour. And it would not necessarily be enforce, enforceable by the USA on foreign airlines like Air France that operate there. Thats just the way that, you know, world air transport system works. Theres a treaty that all countries that have airlines sing up to have common standards. But this actual area has not really been broached. Its, sort of, rules of the air and safety standards for aircraft that really they cover. - Its quite different. Is there likelihood that airlines might be perhaps shamed into treating disabled passengers better through publicity? - I think its very important actually that, you know, that if shes successful in this particular case this will be influential. It wont change, you know, it wont change much to start with. But it will,

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nevertheless, set a precedent which other countries will take note of. And, as I just said, although America couldnt actually enforce any positive judgment on Air France, it could put an awful lot of pressure on France and on other countries if it adopts this kind of standard for its own airlines. And very briefly. I mean, would carrying someone like Adel on a flight conflict with safety standards? Well, yes. There is an argument for that. And that is that in the event of an emergency evacuation, and there are all sorts of non-fatal situations or situations which shouldnt be fatal where you do have to get out very fast, and she would take away one member of cabin crew who should be helping everybody. David, thank you for that. David Liemount of Flight International in the case of the disabled woman whos suing an airline.

Listening 42 The murder of a Dutch film maker Tail Vangog, last November alerted Europe to the danger of homegrown Islamic extremism. Today, the man who confessed to killing him, a 27-year old Muslim radical, Mohamed Bujeri, was given a life prison sentence for the murder of Tail Vangog. John Line examines the lessons of the attack. The murder of Tail Vangog was all the more shocking coming in one of Europes most liberal countries. The immediate response was a backlash against Islam with a number of attacks on Muslim buildings across the country. But Holland also began a more measured reassessment of relations with the approximately 1 million Muslims who live there. For years Dutch politicians had failed to address issues of concern to Muslims. We had ignored the social-cultural issues and in that sense we left the Islamic minorities to the radical Muslims and to the exposure of radical propaganda from the MiddleEast through the Internet, through the Satellite dishes. And I think that something that we now should change or thats going to change. And you hear now from the Liberal Party but also from other political parties that more emphasis is put on education and especially socialisation through education. Specifically, the Dutch government has begun to look more closely about what is taught in Mosques. Its trying to limit the number of foreign imam and encourage those in Holland to speak Dutch and preach moderation. Dutch universities, even some with close links to the protestant Church have began new courses in Islamic theology. Its an approach that has brought ridicule from some Islamic groups who warn itll take years to train new imams and change attitudes. But exactly this debate is starting in Britain, following the London bombings, also apparently carried out by homegrown Islamic radicals.

Listening 43 Burmas decision to defer its turn as head of the association of Sough East Asian Nations, or ASEAN , next year ends a period of awkwardness for the regional group which has been divided about how best to address the issue. Our Asia analyst, Joe McGivery, looks at the dilemma ASEAN faced and the effectiveness of growing pressure on Burmas military regime. For many months disagreement about Burmas chairmanship has put ASEANs harmony under strain. Some senior officials such as Singapores foreign minister started weeks ago to plant the seeds of a solution by saying publicly they expected Burma to volunteer to forgo its turn. That seemed a way of spearing Rangoon humiliation whilst helping ASEAN out of an awkward dilemma. Traditionally, ASEAN always prided itself on being pragmatic not interfering in its member political affairs and arguing that economic engagement not boycott was the route to change. New members like Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos seemed eager for that principle of non-interference to be applied in this case, too, seeing it as an undesirable precedent. In fact, ASEANs ability to stay apolitical has increasingly been challenged as key members have become maturing democracies themselves and ASEANs formal ties with outside groups have grown in importance. The U.S. and E.E.U. had both threatened to boycott meetings next year if Burma took the chair. But to some ASIENs decision shows a lack of consistency. On the one hand, its rejection of Rangoon as a suitable chair is an implicit censor of its human rights record. On the other hand, Burmas military regime is surviving thanks, in part, to its strong trade with South-East Asian nations as well as China which continue to undermine the economic sanctions imposed by the West.

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Listening 44 Children in a British primary school, just at the age when they start learning to read. Most of them will learn fairly easily, but a significant minority will struggle. Not because theyre stupid, but because they have dyslexia. The condition means its hard for them to make connections between the way words look and how they sound. Until very recently, most of the research looking into the causes of dyslexia has been done in North America and Europe, on children whose native tongue is English or other alphabet-based languages such as French or Spanish. And this body of evidence suggested that an underlying malfunction in one particular part of the brain was to blame, no matter what the language the reader. But a new study published in the journal Nature shows that things arent quite so simple. Doctor Lee Hi Taan and his team at the University of Hong Kong performed brain imaging scans on both dyslexic and non-dyslexic children whose mother tongue is Mandarin Chinese. The school children were asked to read texts written in Chinese characters while the scientists watched their brains working. Guenothe Eden also investigates the brain areas involved in dyslexia at Gorge Town University in Washington DC, and shes intrigued by these new findings on dyslexia in Chinese. The areas in the brain that differed between the Chinese dyslexic compared to the nondyslexic children were in the front of the brain, which is a surprising finding because in English and other languages that use the Roman alphabet the finding has been somewhat different and focused really on the back of the brain. Whats so interesting about this paper is that it is in part a confirmation with an interesting twist, and that is that weve known for some time now that the reason some children struggle in learning to read is because some of the differences in their brains which they probably likely have due to genetic differences as well. But what weve learned from this paper is that in the Chinese language which uses different written representation the biological basis is quite different from whats been observed in English speaking dyslexics. So, would a child who is dyslexic in Chinese also be dyslexic in English? Well, thats, of course, an interesting problem. There is the case report of a boy who grew up in Japan being a Japanese and an English speaker who only had dyslexia in English but not in Japanese, and the conclusion was that it was the differences in the writing systems that induced only dyslexia, so to speak, in English, whereas he was resistant to having dyslexia in Japanese. I think we need many more studies of, than one case report, to really understand this. Whats the practical importance for children in China and Chinese populations elsewhere? After all, China itself is the most populous country in the world. Well, I think these results are extremely important for treatment of the children in China who have dyslexia, because you have to understand what the underlying deficits are to really come up with the best treatment approach. And, obviously, in Chinese, we need to know much more about the detailed deficits before an appropriate intervention can be devised. But even more important is that we know, I am sure that this is something that will translate into other languages and other writing systems, that if the intervention is offered early on when, the child is younger, that it tends to be more successful. And therefore, if we know exactly what to look for in a Chinese dyslexic and we can uncover them when theyre six or younger, we can go much further in helping them than if we wait until theyre in third of fourth grade. Guenothe Eden on the all-important issue of timing.

Listening 45 An outspoken aid to Russian president, Vladimir Putin, has offered his resignation. In a typical outburst last December, Andriej Ilationov broke ranks to criticize the false sale of the oil giant Jukos. For such outspokenness he was stripped of most of his duties. Now hes announced hes leaving his job as economic affairs advisor because hes no longer able to express his opinions publicly. I asked our Moscow correspondent, Steven Rosenberg, if Mr Ilarionow any longer exercised any influence over government policy. No, I dont think he had much influence at all really. I mean, on his business card it may have said advisor to the Russian president but in reality he didnt influence the day-to-day economic policies. Hed become something of a maverick. He was the most vocal critic of

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the Kremlin within the Kremlin, and he didnt mind attacking the government policy, president Putin as well, a year ago. He was very strong in his criticism to the Russian authorities pressure on the oil giant Jukos, and said that that was the scam of the year. He was punished for that not by sacking but had some of his duties taken away from him including his role as Russias G8 representative. But, amazingly, when everyone expected him to be sacked or for him to resign a year ago he stayed on. Any only now, one year later, has he decided that he cant do any more to influence government policy and hes decided to go.

Listening 46 I Iraq, what appears to be a mass grave has been uncovered in the Shiah holly city of Karbala. Reports say police and doctors called to the site have uncovered have uncovered the bodies of men, women and children. The remains are said to date back to the 1991. A restaurant owner in the city Ajed Marshall describe what was found. Yesterday night, while workers of the Karbala sewage system were rehabilitating sewage in the city, one of the workers told me that they found bags filled with decomposed corpses and bones. Human rights committee came and took the bags. And Im joined now on the line by the BBCs Krill Lawrence in Baghdad. And Krill, what more can you tell us? Only that local government officials have told us that theyre certain these bodies came from the 1991 uprising. After Saddam Husseins army was expelled from Kuwait, there was an uprising both in the Shiah south and in the north. And this was put down quite violently. And as many as 30 000 people might have been killed in the repression and the reprisals against Shiahs who had rebelled against Saddams government. And similar mass graves have been discovered, uncovered elsewhere in Iraq since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. Thats right, some of them didnt really need to be discovered. Of course, when these thousands of people were put into graves back in 1991, the survivors, the people in these cites new where it was happening, they heard the bulldozers. And as soon as the regime fell, there was quite a chaotic scramble when people came out to these mass-grave sites and looked for any signs that perhaps their disappeared family member might have been there. There was no real security and people were going through the remains. Human rights lawyers and human rights groups have criticised that there was no security for the crime scene and its made it quite complicated to come up with evidence since Saddam Husains trial.

Listening 47 Engineers no longer seem to be at the centre of power in the way that they were in Britain a hundred and sixty years ago and the railway pioneer, John Stevenson, founded the still existing Institute of Mechanical Engineers. I asked the president of the Institute, Andrew Wives, about this apparently diminished modern day status of engineers and why it matters to us all. - You look at the miracles flying in an aeroplane or driving in a modern car. Can you imagine how you can possibly put all that technology into a car that cost twenty thousand pounds. It is incredible. And a modern aeroplane people just taken for granted but its a miracle of engineering. Its not a miracle of anything else, not a miracle of economics or law. Its a miracle of engineering. And we are surrounded by examples of that that people take no note of whatsoever. - Except that engineers are now backroom boys called out to fix things or to do projects and then put back in their boxes. They are no longer bestriding the world in the heroic way, resolving maybe unfixable problems such as they were in the nineteenth century when British engineering was in its prime. - You have touched on something there which, of course, is the public image of engineers. And here we lie in the UK with a very serious problem. The schools in particular do not indicate to their young children what engineering is cause, quite honestly, I dont think they know. And

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the media, too, refers to engineers very often as being the people who come to fix your washing machine or your plumbing. And that is just not what engineers do at all. Engineers are visionary. Theyre creative and they drive things forward in a way which the person who comes to fix your washing machine is merely a mechanic. Andrew Wives, president of Institute of Mechanical Engineers. Well, if there are now more students signing up to study engineering, may be more women will too. Janie Goodman is studying for an engineering science doctorate of Oxford. She wants to specialise in renewable energy technology, but shes already made a name for herself driving an extraordinary petrol driven vehicle, so economic its almost like driving on thin air. - I drive a car that is capable of doing six thousand six hundred and three miles per gallon. - Thats not possible. - Well, I should start by saying its not roadworthy. We drive it in a competition, and we actually drive it for ten miles, and they extrapolate that into how many miles per gallon it could therefore do. However, it is perfectly possible, and were not actually using any massively innovative technology, and its designed and its build on a shoestring. Jamie Goodman, a student engineer with an eye on huge fuel efficiencies to change the way we move about in the future. By her presence in Oxford shes also addressing another big problem the vast gender gap still evident in the engineering profession. - In my lab, we have got about thirty of us in all, and there are currently two female engineers. - That says something about women and engineering, doesnt it? - It certainly does. I mean at the moment were still hovering around the twelve percent mark taking engineering degrees. And unfortunately, by the time you get into industry that reduces quite a lot. - Why? - There really is no reason why women cant go into engineering, and theyre trying desperately to get more and more of us to do it. I think its actually partly because women in a way dont always want to do an engineering job because of our nature. Were interested in helping other people, and sometimes that doesnt come through that thats what an engineer does. - I shall put this rather delicately, but theres nothing about a womans mind that makes her less able to be precise and systematic enough, and imaginative enough to be an engineer, is there? - There certainly isnt as far as I understand it. Im told that often engineering girls make the best engineers. The way we think is often very systematic, and we are often much more detailed, which is what you need in engineering. Jamie Goodman, engineer.

Part 4
Listening 48 Gentlemen! On behalf of the central training units, I would like to welcome you to the Alpha training centre. I hope you find your accommodation satisfactory and you were able to have a good nights sleep. Now, the reason that youre all gathered here in this hall this morning is so that I can give you a short briefing before we begin this training programme which we have decided to call Exercise Clouds and Rain. Now, as you know, the purpose of Exercise Clouds and Rain is to prepare you and your unit for deployment oversees. First, I have to tell you that we have the great honour of receiving advice and guidance from the United Nations Training and Advisory Team know as UNTAT. Thats U-N-T-A-T. UNTAT, as you probably know, is under the direction of HQ land command. In the course of the many years theyve been in operation, the team have prepared more than 30 000 regulars, reservists, and members of the territorial army for potential missions abroad. So, as you can see, they are very experienced and, no doubt, very proficient in their field. While the exercise lasts they will do their best to give you their valued and much appreciated advice. Now, the fist thing that you have to know and this is very important, so please listen carefully is that you will be split into two groups for this training exercise. And those groups depend on which company youre in. You do know which company youre in, dont you? So, the first group, made up of officers from Company A and Company

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B, will be called Thunder. Now the Thunder group will be paired to operate in general peace support operations. And the second group, made up of officers form Company C and Company D, will be called Lightening. Now, the Lightening group will be specially prepared to operate in Kosovo. Is that clear? Good. Ill continue. The main differences between the training packages for the two groups is that the Thunder group, that is those being trained for general peace support operations, will concentrate on interaction with civilians, particularly negotiation skills. Whereas the second group, Lightning group, will concentrate on personal safety and protection, things like mine awareness and how to deal with booby traps. Now. Let me deal with some practical issues. This, of course, as you know, is a 5-day course. Each day will start at 07.00 hours, and training will continue until 19.00 hours. Oh, except for day three, when there will be night training. On that day training will start at 19.00 hours and continue until 03.00 hours, Thursday morning. All meals will be taken in the units canteen which is where you had breakfast this morning. Oh, yes! As there will be two groups, there will be two separate places for training. The Thunder group will have most of the classroom part of their course here in this hall. Lightening will receive their classroom part in room G in sector A of the ground hall. Thats room G in sector A of the ground hall. Now. Let me go through the programme for the two groups. Lets begin with day one. Day one, which is, of course, today, everyone will stay together here in this hall and everyone will be given a general introduction to peace support operations. Lieutenant Colonel Brewer, based in Heidelberg, will be in charge of those briefings. For the rest of the course, days two to five, you will be split into your two groups, Thunder and Lightening. On day two and three, Thunder will learn how to interact with peaceful civilians, learning how to give them confidence and reassurance. The group will take part in scenarios where civilians may come to you to report incidents or handing weapons. Things such as this. On these days, Lightening will learn how to recognize and deal with the various types of mines that they may come across. On days four and five Thunder will learn how to deal with hostile civilians. They will take part in scenarios which will involve demonstrations and riots. During these same days, four and five, Lightening will concentrate on carrying out house searches a very important thing to learn how to do correctly, as unfriendly forces can set lots of different types of booby traps in houses. So, thats the programme. Now, I must tell you one thing before we begin this exercise. This exercise has been created at great expense. A lot of time, money and effort has gone into providing this training opportunity for you. You must make the most of it by giving it your full attention. I will not tolerate any indiscipline during this exercise. Any one not taking this training seriously will be thrown off the course immediately. And a report of your behavior will be sent to your commanding officer. Well, that seems to be all. I hope you enjoy this training and make the best use of it. There will now be a short recess of 20 minutes, after which Lieutenant Colonel Brewer will begin his general introduction to peace support operations.

Listening 49 Ladies and gentlemen! And there are a few ladies present I see. Welcome to this session which is concerned with exercise Purple Rain which, as you know, was held in October between the 15th and 17th in the training area at Drawsko Pomorskie. Now, this was a pretty big exercise and in all over 300 troops took part and, on the whole, it went quite well. Now, one of the things we were looking at during this exercise, though it wasnt our main concern, was how close our operating procedures are to those of other NATO members. To help us to do that, a U.S. reserve chemical corps joined us for the exercise. Our troops closely cooperated with these American specialists and the Americans worked very well with their Polish counterparts. We were able to learn quite a lot from them and, I am happy to say, there were no language problems, which is something we really should be proud of. Our thanks to the language schools for their great effort. Of course, I dont need to remind you what the main purpose of exercise Purple Rain was, do I? Do I?! Oh, well, just in case you have forgotten it, it was to improve our readiness for the possible threat of an NBC attack, that is a nuclear, biological and chemical attack. Something that is pretty relevant at the moment as we all remember the events of September the 11th, and we have to be ready for all possibilities. Well, there are many ways of dealing with NBC attacks and, of course, we couldnt deal with all of them in one exercise. In fact, we concentrated on tree areas; the decontamination of vehicles, FIBUA, that is fighting in built-up areas, and dealing with chemical attacks dispersed from enemy aircraft. Now, the roaring success of exercise Purple Rain was, without doubt, the FIBUA training. Ive received a number of complements about your professional conduct during this part of the training, particularly from our American colleagues,

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so you should be proud of yourself because of this. And that wasnt the only part that went well. The decontamination exercises were carried out with a good deal of efficiency. You remember those tanks exposed to [] a particularly nasty chemical agent? Well, they were washed down smoothly and efficiently. And Im glad to say that the specialists report that there would have been absolutely no cases of cross-contamination. Well, you could have done this exercise a little quicker, but not a bad effort. Well done. But, as with everything, there were some failures and we need to move on to look at those. The main failure came in the part of the exercise dealing with chemical attacks dispersed from enemy aircraft. There could have been a real tragedy here. A real tragedy for two Bluefor soldiers, that is. Now, they were positioned in Charlie trench and didnt not even hear an approaching enemy aircraft. This aircraft dropped chemicals which, had this been real and not just an exercise, would have killed them. And why did this happen? They were so tired after a long nights digging that they slept through the advanced warning of the attack. Being exhausted after a long night is understandable. But, please, remember! One of you has to be wide awake at all times. Make sure that you are that you are not all engaged in heavy physical work so one of you doesnt get so exhausted. But luckily, this is the only incident of that type and otherwise everything went pretty smoothly. If you want to get some more detailed information about the outcome of the exercise, please, read the AAR the after action review. This is really advisable as this report was written by independent MOD NBC observers, and they were very objective in their comments. Lots of useful things can be learned from reading that report. Its available at HQ. Just ask sergeant Pursel for a copy. And you can get hold of it at our website. You should know the address by now. But just in case you dont Ive written it on the board behind me. Generally speaking, their comments were favourable. They admired the organisation and the facilities at the training area. They complemented the quality of our officers English and they were particularly complimentary about the conduct of our soldiers during the exercise as a whole. But, of course, they also pointed out areas for improvement. After they analysed the data stored on computer concerning how often and how accurately a weapon was fired, they werent too happy with the results. So, thats something to concentrate on in the future improving the accuracy of weapon firing. So, please keep this in mind. Soon we will have another exercise organised to deal with this and other problems. We will notify you about the dates and places for the exercise in due time. All in all, a good job gentlemen, or and ladies, of course! Keep up the good work, and thank you for attending this session.

Listening 50 Good morning ladies and gentlemen. Today is the last day of your course in planning and conducting Special Forces Operations. Today we are going to turn our attention to one specific kind of operation and that is counter terrorism. The operation we are going to look at today, Operation Mice and Cats, was conducted in two parts. Part One, carried out by the Mice, was an attack on a base which specialised in research into top-secret military weapons. Part Two, carried out by the Cats, was a pursuit and capture of the Mice. Now the attack on the secret weapons base, which was carried out by the mice, had two aims. The first was to steal a prototype of a new weapon. This new weapon, a product of a great deal of effort by those working on the base, was designed to seek out and destroy incoming missiles. The second aim was to capture two top scientists. These two scientists are the only two scientists in the world that know the secret guidance system that makes this new weapon so effective. On the night of the attack they arrived at the weapons research base at 02.00 hours in the morning. At the perimeter fence that surrounds the compound they managed to disable a video camera and dig underneath. The fact that a video camera covering the perimeter fence wasnt working should have been noticed by the duty guard. Now, the Mice quickly made their way to the laboratory where the prototype secret weapon is kept. They used micro explosives to blast open the main door, used a paralysing gas to overpower the people inside and cracked the safe where the prototype weapon was kept. Then, they made their way to the accommodation block where the two scientists lived. Fortunately, one of the scientists was on holiday, so they only managed to kidnap one. So that was the end of part one. A quick easy raid on a secret military base with no casualties to the Mice. Good professional job. Pity only one of the scientists was kidnapped. Onto Part Two of the operation. Part Two, as you remember was carried out by the Cats and was a pursuit of the mice in an attempt to recapture the secret weapon and free the scientist. Now, finding the Mices base wasnt too difficult. Modern technology makes locating people and places possible. Using satellite photographs, the Mices base was discovered. This proved a little difficult; the photographs had to be

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studied very carefully by the reconnaissance team. Thought the base looked like a simple farm, with a farmhouse and a barn, fortunately they were able to spot one or two details which clearly indicated that this was a terrorist camp. Unfortunately, the mices base was situated in mountainous terrain. This meant the Cats couldnt get too close. The landing point for the helicopters transporting the Cats was ten kilometres away. Having landed, the Cats set off on an approach march to the base. The march was very difficult as it was uphill all the way. They were quite tired by the end of it. They spent two hours resting and carrying out reconnaissance of the base. They made a detailed study of the farmhouse and the barn. Several men came out of the farmhouse and kept looking into the back of a jeep. The Cats guessed that this was where the prototype weapon was kept. They also saw food being taken to the barn and assumed that that was where the scientist was being held. At 20.00 hours, having gathered this vital information, the Cats made their move. They quietly approached and surrounded the farm buildings. On a given signal, all the guards were attacked and quickly and quietly eliminated. The Cats split into two groups. One group made directly for the jeep. Another headed for the barn. Unfortunately, they had ignored the farm dogs. The dogs came charging out and started to bark furiously at the Cats. This alerted the Mice, who came rushing out of the farmhouse and started shooting. It was during this firefight that the hostage was killed. The barn door opened and a terrorist came out. One member of the Cat team turned and fired. Unfortunately, the terrorist was using the hostage as a human shield. The bullet hit the scientist and he was killed instantly. The fire fight finished soon after that with the Cats as the victors. They reclaimed the prototype weapon and recovered the body of the scientist. So, ladies and gentleman, that was Operation Mice and Rats. Your task for this morning is to study this operation very carefully, decide what went wrong, why it went wrong and how to avoid such problems in the future.

Listening 51 Major Fairfax reporting, Sir. Reporting on todays cordon and search mission. Well, the mission was carried out by 50 soldiers of the Queens Royal Hussars with myself in command. The house we were to search was in a village 15 km north east of Podujevo. I think thats how you pronounce it. Now we decided that this house would be a good place to search because local people had tipped us off, saying it might contain a bomb factory. Now, we set out at 06.00 hours travelling in Land Rovers and tracked vehicles. The journey took about an hour and nothing much happened on it. One of the Land Rovers did get a flat tire but that was soon fixed. Now we arrived at the village at 07.00 hours. We were met by a company of soldiers from the 2nd Battalion of the Czech army who were going to form the cordon. We quickly located the target house and the Czechs started deploying their cordon around it. Now, if somebody had tried to escape they would have been immediately stopped. The inhabitants of the house knew abut it and they didnt try to do it. It was then that we had the first problem. A lot of the local people came out of their houses. Neighbours to the family in the targeted house, and started to shout and complain. They were getting in the way and the Czechs were having difficulty doing their job. Now, my knowledge of the local language is not very good so I had no idea what they were saying or what the problem was. So, I called up the linguist and asked for his help. He quickly told the local people what we wanted to do and handed out a few leaflets explaining how search operations are carried out. All the time I smiled and tried to look as friendly as possible. Well, the locals seemed to calm down and they allowed us to continue. I got my sergeant to give four or five good loud bangs on the door, and after a while, when I could clearly hear lots of rapid activity going on inside the house, the door was opened. We first let in the sniffer-dogs in make sure there were no explosives anywhere. They didnt find any so we started going through the cupboard and drawers. Not that they had much furniture. They are not that rich in that part of the country. Well, after about ten minutes Trooper Jones called me over saying that he thought hed found something. From the expression of his face you could tell he had found a mortar, or a machine gun, something like that. In fact, tucked behind some clothes in a wardrobe, was a bag containing twelve rounds of ammo. Jones was so pleased by this. It was the first find he had made during his tour of duty. It was then that we heard a lot of noise outside. Lots of shouting and swearing. I went out to have a look what was going on. Outside I saw that one part of the cordon set up by the Czech soldiers was under siege by all these blokes with cameras and notebooks. I went over to find out what was going on and was told that these blokes were reporters and they wanted to get into the house to take pictures and to interview the family that lived there. Now, I was having none of this. I didnt want my search to be messed up by lots of nosy reporters. I just told them nice and politely that the house might contain

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booby traps. That soon quietened them down. They didnt want to get into the house too quick after Id told them that. Well, I went back into the house. By this time the search had been completed. I had to decide what to do with the head of the house. Well, as hed been caught breaking the law I decided to arrest him. He didnt put up a struggle. In fact he was quite willing to come. The trouble started when we got outside. I dismissed the cordon and we went to our Land Rover. It was then that a rock was thrown from the crowd that was still gathered outside the house. Luckily, it missed. I sent in a snatch squad into the crowd to try and catch the rock thrower but he got away. The trip back to base was uneventful. We charged the man, put him in a cell and made sure he was safe. Thats about all I have to report. Just a straight forward cordon and search operation.

Listening 52 Good morning ladies and gentlemen. Im happy to announce that this is our last meeting after the great flood in Austria. To begin with Id like to thank you and your people for the incredibly hard work of the last three weeks. The combined operation of multinational military rescue forces from Italy, France, Denmark, Holland and Germany, which helped the civilian authorities of Austria, turned out extremely successful. However, we encountered several difficulties which should be avoided in the future. Therefore, Ive been asked to make some comments and recommendations concerning the operating methods for different rescue services both military and civilian. Now. As you know, the torrential rains which caused many of the small streams in the Alps to turn into wild and dangerous rivers created floods in both mountainous and low-land areas of the country, and even in big towns such as Linz, which resulted in severe damage such as the undermining of roads, railways and bridges, and the flooding of all kinds of buildings in villages and towns. Ladies and Gentlemen. Speaking of the deployment of the various rescue teams during our operation. To begin with, we didnt deploy enough troops to cope with the floods. Why was this? Well. The first estimate the civilian authorities gave us was that ten thousand people had to be evacuated. In truth, there were twenty thousand people who needed to be evacuated. Consequently, we didnt have enough troops to deal with this. The authorities underestimated the problem. We quickly called up reserves, so we overcame this problem. Continuing on the theme of deployment. I must say that in general all the orders for all the teams deployed to specific places were clear, easy to follow, and our people knew where to go, what to do, and how to act. For example, the French and Germans reached their designated areas with great speed. However, there was a problem with the deployment of the Italian troops. They were mistakenly sent to the least threatened place, and because of this they were literally jobless for several hours. And it was a real waste because they would have been more useful elsewhere. Now, why did this happen? They were given the wrong map. Such mistakes should never happen again. Now. The civilian authorities also made mistakes. Not to wonder, given the hectic circumstances of those first few days. One such mistake affected the people of Kreuzfeld. Several families of farmers were cut off by the floods and had to remain in their households. They managed to survive the highest point of the food by climbing on the roofs of their houses from where they were evacuated by rescue teams and helicopters. What went wrong? The authorities were supposed to give out the emergency evacuation warnings and somehow Kreuzfeld was neglected. Moving on to other units. Looking at the medical teams. There was one major problem. Due to lack of accuracy in sending data concerning the number of victims, not enough places have been prepared at hospitals. Therefore, in the future, co-operation between the teams operating in the field and the hospital emergency units must be improved so as to avoid driving patients long distances. On the good side, I must admit that, because they were well supplied with vaccinations, they prevented epidemics. Ladies and gentlemen, well done indeed. As for the teams of engineers. They worked really hard to strengthen many bridges, roads and railways in the country and in the cities. They also protected several factories including three chemical plants which, if flooded, could have polluted a large area of Austria and some neighbouring countries. All these jobs proved extremely successful. Sadly though, the team of engineers neglected one place - the road by the foot of Mount Hochstein. Let me remind you that the place undermined by water turned into a trap for a family of four in a car driving along the mountain foot at night. A sudden landslide buried it. Despite fast rescue action all of them suffocated in the sludge. Now, a few words about logistics teams. The, errr.., supply of water, food, sleeping bags and blankets was very well organized. Also, shelters were full of necessary things in large quantities. Unfortunately, they were not able to supply clean dry clothes for the food victims, which soon turned out to be a real nuisance, especially for females who kept on complaining about the problem a lot. To

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sum up, ladies and gentlemen, lets remember that this rescue operation did save many lives and protected a lot of property. However, there were problems which should be addressed. The most significant of these was our inability to deal with the deteriorating conditions of roads. All of them need strengthening and protecting. Neglecting this can lead not only to transport problems but may also cause loss of lives. Therefore they should become a priority for the local anti-flood centres. Once more I would like to express my appreciation for your effort and help in the job and thank you for your attention.

Listening 53 Ladies and gentlemen, let me introduce myself. My name is col. Brown and Im chief of the peace support mission in Angola. First of all, let me welcome you all to the Luanda and congratulate you on being selected for this mission. This is going to be just a short briefing to make you acquainted with the problems we face here in our area of responsibility and to tell you what tasks we carry out here. After this briefing, you will be deployed to various places around the country and, once you are there, you will receive a detailed briefing about your individual tasks and responsibilities. So, let me start by telling you a few general things about our peace mission here in Angola. Our mission started six years ago. Our main task is, and Im sure youve received information about this already before leaving the country, is to increase stability in the region. And Im happy to say that we are being quite successful in our mission. I am sure that your support and your experience will help us work even more efficiently. Even though we have managed to achieve quite a lot, unfortunately not all the problems have been solved, and we still face new ones which keep cropping up all the time. At the moment, the biggest threats we have to deal with are from trafficking in drugs and trading in arms. Let me tell you a little bit first about drug trafficking and arms trading and how they are linked. About six months ago, we broke up the biggest drugs cartel in the region. A great success! Well, thats what we thought. Unfortunately, it only resulted in an increased number of smaller drugs trafficking organisations. And these are now looking for protection. And who do they turn to? The paramilitary organisations. So now these organisations are earning a lot of money protecting the drug traffickers. And what do they do with this money? They buy guns. I hope you can now understand why we are concerned with these two interrelated problems. Now that you have some insight into two of our main concerns, here lets move on to things that we do to help ease the tension. The most essential thing we do is training. We offer our expertise to the local armed forces in the hope that one day they will be able to take over from us. In fact, an exercise jungle fever is going to be held in Angola soon. We cant give you the full details yet as these things are still under negotiation. However, one thing is certain and that is we will be responsible for organisational matters and an outside party will provide the actual training. We have been trying to arrange this for quite a long time now and finally I can share the good news with you. We have received a formal confirmation from the CEA, the Counter-drug Enforcement Agency, that they will be happy to provide us with their professional help. We are all very much looking forward to their assistance. So, thats fighting the drugs trade and training the local forces. What else do we do? Peace-support missions have a long history of providing humanitarian assistance, and we are happily continuing that tradition. Last year, we provided emergency assessment and fire-fighting assistance to help the Angolan forces extinguish nearly 250 wild fires. In the most recent disaster, which was only last month, we provided emergency assistance that included the movement of 560 personnel and 160 tons of supplies by helicopter. During this last intervention, a serious problem emerged. Some service members [were] left high and dry far away in the jungle and were not able to get back to the units for a few days. There was a problem with our command, control and communications. Thats our C4. What went wrong? The answer is simple. We didnt know were they were. They radioed in their position, but unfortunately they were using the wrong codebooks. We couldnt decode their message. We subsequently discovered that half the unit were using one set of codebooks and the other half a completely different set. Fortunately, we sorted that problem out. That is a very important lesson for us, as for us here in this distant country our own security is of paramount importance. And I must say, we are committed to providing the best possible protection to our forces. One such measure is the establishment of Red Teams. This action was taken after a terrorist attack on one of our observation positions. To avoid a similar situation, security assessment will be carried out on a continuous basis and the Red Teams will be responsible for this. So, be prepared for people snooping around and questioning your guards. So, ladies and gentlemen, I hope that you know what to expect and I hope your stay here will be safe and peaceful and very

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productive for our hosts. If you have any queries, please dont hesitate to contact your immediate CO, and thank you very much for you attention.

Listening 54 Ladies and gentlemen. Welcome to the Army Mountain Rescue Operation Centre. My name is Major Edwards and I am the commander of a company specialising in search and rescue in mountainous terrain. I will be giving the first talk. May I first thank you for attending this meeting, and may I extend special thanks to those representatives of the Polish, Czech and Slovakian mountain rescue teams, who have made great efforts to get here. As you know, the purpose of this meeting is to improve co-operation between army and civilian mountain rescue teams. This is very important since, as you know, there have been times when we, in the army, have been asked to help out the civilian rescue teams and we havent been working too well together. We must improve this situation. Well, in order to illustrate the problems we have been having and possible methods of overcoming them I will refer to a real rescue operation that happened recently in which the army were called in to give assistance. Now, on the morning of January the 25th, a group of over 20 students accompanied by their tutor left the youth hostel they were staying at and set off to hike in the mountains. They were all experienced hikers and were very well prepared and equipped for the trip. Now, the weather conditions when they set off were quite good. However, it had been snowing heavily the night before, and there was a risk that the upper part of the mountain path wouldnt be clear. Additionally, so much fresh heavy snow high in the mountains increased considerably the danger of avalanches in the area. The resident guide from the youth hostel had mentioned the threat to the group and had suggested changing the route. However, the group ignored the warning and decided to keep to the original plan. All went well for the first three hours of their walk. Then, it started to snow. Walking got more difficult and visibility worsened. However, they continued on for over two hours until reached the highest point of their descent. It was then that they decided to turn back. As they were doing so, they heard a loud rumbling noise behind them. Instinctively, they started running. A moment later an avalanche overcame them and several of the group disappeared into the snow. Those still standing started searching for the missing members, while the tutor used his mobile to call the nearest civilian mountain rescue team and ask for help. Unfortunately, he was unable to give their exact location because all the land marks were hidden by snow. The Central Civilian Mountain Rescue Centre alarmed all its sections to form a rescue party. This was soon assembled and the rescue operation soon got on the way. Unfortunately, they didnt inform the military rescue teams. This was a big mistake. If they had done, we could have sent out one of our specially equipped helicopters to help. Instead, they decided to use their own helicopter. This set out twenty minutes after the emergency call was received and began its search. What was happening with the group of students had been overcome by the avalanche? Well, thankfully they did some training in mountain survival techniques and they were able to locate the missing friends by using probes to push down through the snow. However, several of the group were injured and not able to move. They decided to stay where they were and wait for rescue. However, during the avalanche, they had lost their flares and werent able to signal where they were. This was especially difficult as a civilian rescue helicopter had to rely on sight only. It was only at nightfall when they civilian helicopter had to return to base that the civilian rescue team called in us, the military search and rescue team. We were able to send out our helicopter within ten minutes from receiving their call. Within half an hour, we had located the missing group. And how had we done that, even though it was dark? Well, we used our thermal indicators. The human body gives out heat all the time and the heat profile is very easy to spot against the cold background of a freezing cold mountain. We were able to airlift the whole group to safety in less than one hour. I think the civilian rescue teams should really invest in thermal indicators. Ladies and gentlemen, this was just one example of what can happen when civilian rescue services dont cooperate with their military counterparts. Luckily, in this example, no lives were lost. However, we may not be so lucky next time. So, I hope you pay attention to the series of talks you are going to hear today, that will help us to work more closely together.

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Listening 55 Ladies and Gentlemen. Thank you for coming here so early in the morning. As you are going to escort a convoy to our two bases in the mountains, I will give you some of the rules and regulations concerning escorting convoys and some advice in case of unexpected difficulties. Now, the first problem you may encounter is a breakdown of one of the vehicles. There are two possible solutions. If the failure is beyond repair, you cannot do much. Just secure the site, report and wait for the evacuation team. If it is determined that the vehicle can be repaired within one hour, you just secure the site, repair it and continue your task. However, even if the vehicles are operational again, you can't carry on before checking one thing which is essential in such cases. That is communication. Remember, communications between the trucks and our headquarters here must be maintained all the time the mission is being carried out. Secondly, the halt of the convoy owing to some technical failures like engine overheating or a flat tire can bring about problems with local people. Unavoidably, when the convoy stops, a crowd of people immediately assemble around the vehicles. Initially, they are just curious but seeing large amounts of food, locals may become violent and aggressive, and they may begin taking containers from the vehicles and fleeing the area. If something like that happens to you, the convoy commander should withdraw the other vehicles from the area as quickly as possible. You should also use possible means to prevent people from looting material and supplies. Youre allowed to show weapon, fire into the air. Yet, remember, you arent allowed to use deadly force. Another problem which may need a solution during the operation is a way of conduct in case of collisions. If a lead vehicle collides with another car or truck, there are two procedures which you are obliged to follow. The first one concerns the case where there are no injured people. You just continue the convoy without stopping. However, if there are victims you are forced to stop, secure the site and provide first aid. Next, you place the injured on the convoy and complete the mission. The commander should arrange for medical treatment at the convoy destination or the nearest safe area. Yet, one thing to be remembered - if a civilian suffers injuries, you are only allowed to go on, provided you have found a family member who can accompany the victim. What I also want to emphasise in my briefing is the fact that providing security to a convoy is a dangerous mission and the threat of enemy attacks cannot be disregarded. The ones which frequently occur during such operations are sniper fire and ambushes. In case a sniper fires on the convoy, seek cover in the vehicles, drive as fast as safety allows out of the area. You must refrain from shooting back unless you are forced to stop the convoy. You can ask what if one of you is wounded by a sniper? I know instinctively you would like to fire back. But remember this is not your priority, the safety of the convoy is. So speed up, leave the site fast and avoid shooting. If there is an ambush, the procedure is similar, you should also continue to move if possible. Yet, you have permission to immediately return controlled fire to break contact. What's more, the ambush may force you to employ ground and aviation Quick Reaction Forces. When youre trapped and cant move on, dont hesitate - call QRF. And then use all necessary force, including deadly force, to defend the convoy against an attack or threat of an attack. In conclusion, I have just briefed you on some possible dangers during convoy missions and on expected ways of handling them. Youve been informed how to act if there are breakdowns, collisions, sniper fire and ambushes. On the whole, we avoid engagement with aggressors. Only in case of an ambush, we may be forced to stop in order to get involved in direct fighting with the enemy. Otherwise, do not stop and try to provide security through speed. Your job is to deliver the supplies, not to become engaged with the enemy. And now, at the end, let me give you some detailed information. Your convoy will consist of three cargo vehicles

Listening 56 Good morning, gentlemen. Nice to see the press again. For those of you who dont know me, Im Lt Col James Campbell, commander of the 1st Battalion of the Royal Scots, The Highlanders. This press briefing shouldnt last too long. So, lets move on. Now, the purpose of this briefing is to bring you up to date on our Battalions actions during the first 72 hours of our presence in Bosnia. First, I will focus on the actions undertaken by A Company, and then I will move on to D company. But, I must say that the troops of A Company caused quite a stir when they arrived in Bosnia. Not that the locals were surprised at seeing SFOR soldiers. Theyve had many opportunities to see soldiers before. No, it was because of their appearance. They are Ghurkhas. And I think that they didnt expect soldiers in the British Army to look the way they do. A Company the Ghurkhas have started

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patrolling remote and isolated rural areas that can be found on higher altitude. They are paying particular attention to the mountain passes. Now, theyve been allocated this patrol, not because we want to punish them by sending them out into the cold, but because they are used to higher altitudes. So, thats A Company. What about D Company? Well, D Company have been involved in a search-forweapons action. The decision to take this action was taken by Company commander Maj Jamie Brody after hearing shots north of their SFOR base at Prijedor. He thought these shots, and those who had fired them, were a possible threat to the security of the base and he had to investigate. Maj Brody sent 2nd Lt James Steward leading the men of 13 Platoon and a sniffer-dog team out on patrol. As soon as they hit the area where the shots had been fired, the dogs sniffed something in a barn. This turned out to be anything but ordinary. It took the Royal Engineers all night to dig up a cache of weaponry which included let me just refer to my notes included 100 large-caliber artillery shells, mortar rounds, anti-tank missiles, sniper rifles, hand grenades and small arms ammunition. All buried under the floor of a barn. Well, this particular cache of arms is of interest to intelligence. So, we sent the whole lot of to the weapons specialists for them to find out where the weapons came from. I cannot tell you their final result. However, I am authorized to tell you that they were not from the former Soviet Union. All I can tell you is that they came from Central Europe. Id like to tell you of another action by D Company, and that involved the rescuing of a woman. The woman, 70 years of age, was found when the soldiers were making a sweep of the area north of Prijedor. She was found on a small farm in the mountains, curled up on a makeshift bed. She had fractured her leg eight days before while tending her animals. The woman had no electricity and no running water. Neither did she have money to pay for treatment at the nearest hospital a 15-mile-walk away. Well, the Company commander called for a helicopter, and the old woman was evacuated to hospital in Prijedor. Doctors in the casualty department treated the wound and put her leg in plaster. No money exchanged hands. Now, the soldiers naturally became very interested in what would happen to the old woman. Most of them could be her grandsons. They declared that until Nevenka, thats the womans name, could fend for herself again, they would help her in her household duties. I personally have no objections to this. On the contrary, Im all in favor of it. I think the old womans case has helped increase morale in D Company. They are much more involved in their work now. I think the whole story is a great example of how we are helping out here in Bosnia. Well, thats about all for now, so, any questions?

Listening 57 Ladies and gentlemen, let me welcome you to my seminar on supply problems in the British Army and attempts to solve them. So, let me introduce myself, Im Lieutenant Colonel Hopkins and, as I said, today I will talk about supply problems in the British Army and about some research that has been done to find ways of solving these problems. Let me start by giving you a little background. Troops in Iraq complained about problems with supplies. Basically, there were two main problems, and these were packs werent going to the right places and even when the packs arrived, they often contained the wrong equipment. Let me tell you a little story to illustrate one embarrassing consequence of this problem. In Iraq, the American soldiers called our British troops the borrowers, which didnt go down too well with our soldiers. And why did they give them this name? Well, quite simply, they borrowed things. Obviously, something had to be done about this, so a research team, based in the Logistics Department of the MoD and under my command, started to investigate the reasons for these problems. And obviously to find a solution to the problems. So, what was the reason for supply packs going to the wrong places? Well the answer is quite simple, and should really have been predicted. Troops and bulk supplies of kits are sent to war zones independently. This practice was found to be much cheaper and therefore very appealing to the top command. Unfortunately, it is fraught with difficulties when it comes to delivering equipment to units. You can imagine the situation at the dockside, trying to sort out which pack goes to which unit? Now, what was the reason for the second problem the packs not containing the right equipment? To answer that we have to look at how supply packs are sent to troops. Well, they are prepared by a Quarter Master back in the UK. Time is not a problem. He has enough time to make up the kits, but he doesnt have enough information. He has to ask himself what to put in the kits and quite often he comes up with the wrong answer. And because of this a lot of useless things get shipped off and the kits, when they finally meet up with the troops, dont contain the things that they really need. So these are the main reasons why the shortages of wartime kit happen. But they could soon be a thing of the past if we adopt a radical new supply system. And this is where our solution to the problem comes into its own. Our solution is

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primary equipment packs PEPs for short. These PEPs would contain a months-worth of combat equipment and would be prepared on the basis of solid research. Of course, there will have to be different kinds of packs for different situations. We plan to have individually tailored packs for jungle, desert, mountain, and arctic conditions. Now, when will all this be ready? Well, this is an innovative approach and it will be some time before the project gets to a final stage. We had had hopes that we would be able to present first kits of this kind by the end of the year. The research however proved to be more complex than we at first thought. In order to predict the contents of the kits we have had to make detailed studies of soldiers requirements with precise data gathered during previous wars and training exercises. Unfortunately, this research has not finished yet and will involve much more effort .so, not earlier than the spring of next year. I know that this is long. But I cant see a way of getting there earlier. We mustnt forget that this plan, if endorsed, is going to face a number of problems. However, there is one major problem, one that will take a complete change in ways of thinking if it is to be overcome. And that is the military attitude to supplies. And what is that attitude? Well, the big army chiefs have always said, Well, our supply system may not be all that good, but we always win the war anyway. This is an attitude that we will have to change. Of course, this new approach to supplying our troops does have its opponents. But we are prepared for criticism. And what do they say? Well, as I said, our system depends on predicting what a soldier will need when he arrives in an area of operation. That way we can prepare his PEP, thats his preliminary equipment pack, in advance. Our critics, however, argue that it is impossible to predict what a PEP should contain. Well, I disagree. As I have already mentioned we are going to scientifically determine what the contents of the kit should be for a range of battle settings by carrying out extensive research. So, there we are. Those were the problems in supplies to the British Army and that was our solution to those problems. Now, I would be very happy to take any comments you may have on this solution.

Listening 58 Good morning Ladies and Gentlemen, let me introduce myself. I am colonel William Word from the US Air Force Security Committee, and I have been asked to brief you on the subject of aviation security following the events of 9/11. Before the tragedy, both the aviation security authorities and the public opposed using extreme security measures. However, knowing that any aircraft can now be turned into a weapon, we must create advanced security systems for aviation. I am going to present to you today several intended actions which are to improve safety standards in air travel. First of all, the recent hijackings happened because the intruders gained easy access to the aircraft cockpit. Therefore, we have to secure it much better. The idea of posting an armed guard who would watch the cockpit door throughout the flight could be a solution, but unfortunately, not a very realistic one. But the thing we can certainly do is install stronger locks on the inside of the cockpit doors. They should stop potential terrorists from entering the cockpit or at least make it more difficult. Nowadays, these doors are weak and flimsy, and can be easily forced open by a determined adult. The strengthened doors should be of help, but no one can guarantee that a terrorist will not find a way to enter the cockpit. For this reason, we must make sure the pilots inside it have a chance to react and protect themselves. Before 9/11, no one could imagine pilots armed with weapons in the cockpit. Since then, many people have demanded the introduction of such extreme measures. However, there are opponents of arming pilots. They say that the use of guns may cause damage to the cockpit equipment and put the planes safety at risk. Instead of traditional weapons, they suggest introducing an electric paralyzer. Apart from the obvious advantage of not damaging the cockpit they wont cause the death of the intruder. Another issue we will have to focus on is the fact that the airline industry must change the procedures of employment of their staff. All personnel seeking employment should undergo a criminal record check. Moreover, there should be a careful examination of all paper documents they submit. Currently, all such documents are a real threat to security. They can be easily stolen or lost, however their weakest point is that widely available scanning and photocopying technology makes them easy to forge. Such false documents can be easily detected if the documents are verified electronically. In the IT era, there are many electronic means of identity verification. One of them is the ComputerAssisted Passenger Prescreening System or CAPPS. The system provides two kinds of information. First, it determines whether the individual passenger boarding an aircraft poses a security threat. Theres also a second advantage of CAPPS. In case of an emergency situation on board, the captain will know if there are doctors, policemen, bomb specialists, et cetera, on the flight who could be asked for assistance. In other words, the system includes data about passengers special abilities. We

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recommend that CAPPS be used on all domestic and international flights in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Another form of attack that the aircraft can be subjected to is a chemical/biological agent attack and we must prepare our planes for that possibility as well. There are two things we can do. First, the aircraft must be equipped with air quality monitors that can activate an alarm in the cockpit if the presence of chemical/biological agents is detected. Secondly, once danger is clear, it is important that personnel is safe and lands the aircraft. To make that happen they must be provided with new full-vision oxygen masks. However, if people do not know what to do, these two safety measures can be useless. To prevent it, airlines should first of all provide adequate security training for the crew. As for baggage security, we recommend that the Federal Aviation Authority impose standard limits on carry-on baggage, for example 10 kilos per person only. This should be done in order to let security screeners, now usually working in a hurry and often not checking the luggage contents carefully enough, provide more detailed examination of items. We also strongly support increasing the number of bags subjected to search and recommend using explosive detection systems. We believe incorporating all these measures into routine procedures will considerably increase air-travel security. Thank you very much for your attention today. I would be pleased to respond to any questions that you may have.

Listening 59 Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. My name is captain Brown and Im the Public Information Office representative. I would like to welcome you to the press briefing following talks between the chiefs of the Navy and the Coastguard. I would also like to apologise to you for the delay, but, as you know, the meeting lasted much longer than planned. Ladies and gentlemen, todays talks were focused on tightening the cooperation between the Navy and the Coastguards in view of increasing dangers to the national security both on land and at sea. The chiefs discuss some threats the forces have been familiar with for years. Namely, smuggling contraband, drugs and illegal immigrants. However the heads of the Navy and the Coastguard devoted most time and attention to another aspect of security violation, particularly dangerous nowadays smuggling portable missiles. This is due to the increasing involvement of terrorists in trading and purchasing them after September the 11th. To be able to fight the terrorists more effectively, the Navy and the Coastguard need to improve many things. One of the main issues to concentrate on is better and more affective use of communication means. Although the navy and the Coastguards are well equipped with modern communications systems that are reliable and work with great speed, in most cases the information obtained stays within the branch which should not be the case. So, what can be done to cooperate successfully both off-shore and on land. Well, both forces should exchange the information as quickly as possible. No wonder the chiefs have decided to give this idea priority and green light to improve it immediately. Of course, this isnt the only area for improvement. After lengthy discussions, it has been discovered that some procedures used by both forces in sea operations differ considerably. This unnecessary stretches the time of each intervention. It is essential that the Navy and Coastguard deal with the problems as quickly as possible. And it has been agreed that the only way to achieve this aim is to sort out the differences in see procedures. It will take some time, but the unification has to take place. Moreover, it has to happen soon. A board of experts form both forces will be set up to deal with this in the nearest future. Another problem which requires further changes is connected with cooperation on the coasts, namely in the area of monitoring cargo ships and crews in harbours and maintain their security. Unlike airports, much bigger seaports are more vulnerable to unwanted activates including terrorist attacks. This is due to easier access to the ports from both land and the open see. This improvement cannot be achieved without allocating additional funding and manpower by both forces. Only this will insure more effective harbour protection. The chiefs of both forces also discuss the frequency of joint exercises. So far, they have been conduced twice a year. However, this has been considered insufficient. Therefore, since June 2005 their numbers will increase. However, the details still need to be specified. Theres more new things to be implemented to the training events organised by both the Navy and Coastguards, that is inviting external experts to contribute. The new ideas from them will definitely be very beneficial and they will help to improve the efficiency of both forces even further. Ladies and gentlemen, we are happy to announce that the ongoing process of testing a new ship for the forces has been successfully completed. Groups of joint forces specialists were working on two independent projects. A new deep water ship, in short DWS, and a modern patrol boat PBX5. Eventually, the decision has been made to launch only one of them, and

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that is the patrol boat. Due to the lack of funding, the introduction of the DWS will be delayed. As you can see, the meeting was a very fruitful one, indeed, and many solutions have been reached on various issues. So, ladies and gentlemen, lets keep our fingers crossed that everything runs smoothly. Thank you very much for your attention. If you have any questions, please, do not hesitate to ask them now.

Listening 60 Ladies and gentlemen let me welcome you to Natos mission in Afghanistan. Before you are given detailed instructions about your tasks I would like to give you some information about our mission here. As you already know the Nato mission here in Afghanistan is called ISAF, which stands for International Security Assistance Force. Nato took over command and coordination of ISAF in August 2003 and has been quite successful in its achievements here. I have to stress that this is a very important mission as it is the first one outside the Euro-Atlantic area in NATOs history. Initially, the mission was restricted to providing security in and outside Kabul, but the Area of our responsibility has been gradually growing and at present the Alliance provides security assistance in 50% of Afghanistans territory. The main role of our mission is to assist the government in Afghanistan in maintaining security and finally in providing safe environment for the event which is to take place in September that is a free and fair parliamentary election. We all know that this cannot be achieved without spreading the rule of law and doing anything we can to reconstruct the country. Right now you probably need some information about the structure of the force here in Afghanistan. It consists of three main components. The first one is the Isaf headquarters. It is situated in Kabul and its main task is operation-level direction. It also plans the support to the Kabul Multinational Brigade. I guess that, I dont have to add that, as the headquarters, it liaises with the United Nations assistance mission in Afghanistan. The headquarters also assist this organisation in its work. The second component of the force is the Kabul International Brigade which is ISAFs tactical headquarters. It is responsible for planning and conducting patrol operations on a day-to-day basis. And finally, the last component is the provincial reconstruction teams called PRTs. Nato is currently leading nine PRTs in the north and the west of the country but their number will increase when the mission spreads to southern provinces of the country in 2006. As I have already told, you assisting the government and providing security is our primary goal. Now, let me tell you how we do it. To ensure security in the country ISAF troops conduct 20 to 50 patrols in Kabul and its surrounding areas each day. Over a third of patrols is carried out jointly with Kabul City Police. However Outside Kabul patrol activities are provided by NATOled PRTs. Another very important task for the troops here is helping the Afghan Government in the removal and storing of over 7000 heavy weapons such as tanks and artillery which belonged to different armed factions in the country. Storing them safely in government-controlled sites is of grave importance, as in the long run they can be used to equip the Afghan army. This is a very important step towards the further development of a capable National Army. In addition to all those activities, ISAF is helping to train the units of the new Afghan national army. We also help in rebuilding schools or restoring water supplies and many other civil-military projects. I hope that you found this short introduction useful. Now, take a short break and proceed to further briefings during which you will find out all the necessary details concerning your deployment and tasks. Thank you for your attention.

Listening 61 Good morning Ladies and Gentlemen. Welcome to Iraq, the city of Fallujah. I hope you've already got used to your new living conditions and you're ready to take over your duties. However, before you move in action, I'd like to summarise briefly the overall situation in Fallujah. First of all, I would like to express our great satisfaction regarding the very effective co-operation of the coalition forces fighting to stabilise the situation in the city. Initially, we had here two battalions of Iraqi forces fighting alongside US soldiers. Yet, as you know, after the recent increase in bomb and IED, called improvisedexplosive-devices attacks, which resulted in a big number of casualties, one more international battalion has been deployed. So, thats why youre here and once more Id like to welcome you. As I said, we co-operate smoothly and, on the whole, the operation here is going well. We will continue to press the enemy until we have, in fact, returned Fallujah to its inhabitants. Now, I can say, we occupy

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80% of the city. It may sound very optimistic; however, therere still places in that part of the city where there could be caches of weapons and ammunition. So, there is still the need, and we will keep doing it for the next month, to search each house. So, as you can see, the inside of the city is almost under control. Yet, there is another much more serious danger we must not ignore. Recently, there have been some indications that the rebels are trying to reinforce the fight from the outside of Fallujah. Weve already taken some measures to counteract this. First of all, we have set up additional checkpoints on the outskirts and we believe that it will be a good solution to prevent the rebels from getting inside the city. In case it fails, were planning to increase the frequency of reconnaissance patrols outside the city. The next issue Id like to inform you about is the detainees. Their number is changing from day to day, and it can be higher any minute. Anyway, for the time being, we have captured a hundred and fifty-one people who are kept in our detention camps. Unfortunately, there has been criticism that the American forces arrest people and keep them in custody without reason. Well, I would like to stress that in this case this information is groundless as all the detainees, who will have to be fully checked later, were stopped by Iraqi forces only. Another problem which is also of our concern here is the humanitarian situation. Im happy to say that in this respect some things have already been done as well. Fourteen well-equipped trucks with medicine and blood have already reached the destination here in Fallujah. We guaranteed their absolute safety. Also, a team of doctors and other medical personnel are setting up a hospital in the centre. They will need specilized equipment and here comes the task of our forces. The equipment is waiting at the airport in Baghdad and it will be transported in a special convoy, which we must secure. Finally, you must remember one important fact. The Iraqi prime minister has put some restrictions into effect for the town of Fallujah. One is the curfew which lasts from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. The other, which is a temporary rule and hopefully will be lifted soon, is the one that says that civilians must not leave the city. If they need to do so, they are obliged to have special permission. We dont want to intimidate the locals in any way, we just want to make sure that theyll stay at home and wont become victims of suicide attacks. Our task is to ensure the rule is obeyed by all inhabitants. So, this is just a brief outline of the situation in Fallujah. Now that youve got familiar with it, let me tell you what your duties will involve in detail.

Listening 62 Thank you, gentlemen. I know some of you have travelled a long way and I appreciate that. First of all, Id like to apologize for being late. I had to attend a disciplinary hearing. Some silly bugger decided to attack the cook. As you know, Im here to debrief you on the operation we held recently at Drawsko. The one where the Polish forces were joined by their counterparts from Britain and Germany. As you know, this was a follow-up to the joint French-Italian-Polish operation we held in March on Solsbery Plain. Now, that was a complete disaster. Fortunately, the one weve just held was much better. A great improvement. Now, the object of the exercise, as you well know, was for the Polish and the British forces to combine, enter, and secure a village which had been deserted by the enemy. Sort of clear away booby traps and look for snipers, that sort of thing. The Germans were to play remnants of the opposition army that had been left behind to delay the operation, so that their troops had a chance to escape. Now, we were blessed with a typically freezing Polish day, which meant that ground conditions were nice and hard none of that horrible mud we get in England and the advance went well. The first problem we encountered was, of course, the snipers. Now, you really must have your wits about you when you get out of the personnel carriers. We lost one man because he thought he was out on a Sunday stroll, just got out too slowly. Now, you must remember to get out quick and dash straight for cover. We dont want casualties when soldiers are leaving personnel carriers. Well, the snipers were dealt with extremely well. Everyone of them was captured after a very well carried out house to house search. And Im quite glad to say that no civilian was accidentally killed by some trigger-happy Tommy, or Tomek either. The village was completely secured by 10 am. Nice work. But, what happened with the setting up of operational Head Quarters. It tool twice a long as it should have done. The location was decided on quick enough. Getting the officers into the building was no problem. But, were was the communications? Whats the use of operational HQ without contact with the outside world? That must be done quicker next time. So, the village was captured, operational HQ set up and the operation was over with in good time. Very well done. An excellent show. Right. Well, thats about it. As I said much better than last time, but still room for improvement. Thank you.

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Answer Key
Reading
Text 1 Text 2 Text 3 Text 4 Text 5 Text 6 Text 7 Text 8 Text 9 Text 10 Text 11 Text 12 Text 13 Text 14 Text 15 Text 16 Text 17 Text 18 Text 19 Text 20 Text 21 Text 22 Text 23 Text 24 Text 25 Text 26 Text 27 Text 28 Text 29 Text 30 1B 2A 3A 1A 2B 3B 1A 2C 3C 1C 2C 3A 1A 2C 3B 1A 2A 3B 1B 2C 3B 1C 2B 3C 1A 2B 3B 1B 2B 3A 1C 2B 3B 1B 2C 3A 1C 2C 3B 1A 2C 3C 1A 2C 3B 1C 2C 3A 1B 2A 3A 1A 2B 3B 1C 2A 3B 1C 2B 3C 1A 2C 3C 1B 2B 3B 1C 2B 3C 1A 2A 3B 1C 2B 3A 1A 2C 3C 1C 2C 3B 1C 2A 3A 1B 2B 3A 1A 2A 3C Text 31 Text 32 Text 33 Text 34 Text 35 Text 36 Text 37 Text 38 Text 39 Text 40 Text 41 Text 42 Text 43 Text 44 Text 45 Text 46 Text 47 Text 48 Text 49 Text 50 Text 51 Text 52 Text 53 Text 54 Text 55 Text 56 Text 57 Text 58 Text 59 Text 60 1C 2A 3F 4E 5H 6B 7G 1H 2B 3E 4C 5A 6G 7D 1C 2B 3F 4G 5H 6E 7A 1B 2C 3F 4G 5A 6E 7H 1C 2E 3H 4F 5G 6A 7D 1C 2F 3B 4A 5D 6H 7G 1A 2E 3C 4F 5H 6B 7G 1F 2B 3E 4A 5C 6G 7H 1C 2E 3G 4H 5F 6B 7D 1G 2A 3D 4F 5C 6B 7H 1C 2B 3F 4E 5H 6A 7G 1C 2H 3B 4A 5F 6G 7D 1B 2A 3E 4G 5H 6C 7F 1B 2D 3G 4E 5C 6H 7A 1B 2C 3D 4B 5A 6C 7D 1C 2A 3D 4C 5D 6D 7A 1C 2B 3A 4B 5B 6A 7A 1B 2C 3D 4C 5A 6B 7D 1A 2B 3D 4A 5B 6D 7C 1B 2A 3C 4A 5C 6C 7A 1A 2B 3D 4A 5D 6A 7B 1C 2C 3B 4C 5B 6D 7A 1D 2A 3B 4D 5A 6B 7A 1D 2A 3B 4B 5B 6A 7A 1C 2A 3D 4A 5D 6A 7A 1A 2A 3B 4A 5A 6C 7A 1D 2C 3C 4C 5A 6A 7A 1C 2C 3A 4C 5C 6B 7A 1B 2A 3D 1D 2C 3C 4A

Listening
Listening 1 Listening 2 Listening 3 Listening 4 Listening 5 Listening 6 Listening 7 Listening 8 Listening 9 Listening 10 Listening 11 1C 2A 3B 4C 5C 1B 2C 3A 4C 5B 1B 2A 3A 4B 5B 1B 2B 3A 4A 5A 1B 2B 3B 4B 5C 1A 2B 3B 4C 5A 1C 2C 3A 4A 5C 1A 2A 3C 4C 5A 1C 2A 3A 4C 5B 1B 2B 3B 4B 5C 1B 2C 3A 4B 5B Listening 12 Listening 13 Listening 14 Listening 15 Listening 16 Listening 17 Listening 18 Listening 19 Listening 20 Listening 21 Listening 22 1B 2B 3A 4C 5C 1A 2A 3B 4C 5A 1B 2C 3A 4A 5B 1A 2C 3B 4A 5A 1D 2C 3B 4B 5C 6C 7B 1A 2B 3C 4A 5A 6B 7A 1A 2B 3A 4D 5C 6B 7A 1C 2A 3C 4B 5B 6C 7A 1D 2B 3C 4D 5A 6D 7B 1B 2B 3C 4D 5B 6B 7A 1C 2D 3A 4A 5C 6A 7C

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Listening 23 Listening 24 Listening 25 Listening 26 Listening 27 Listening 28 Listening 29 Listening 30 Listening 31 Listening 32 Listening 33 Listening 34 Listening 35 Listening 36 Listening 37 Listening 38 Listening 39 Listening 40 Listening 41 Listening 42 Listening 43 Listening 44 Listening 45 Listening 46 Listening 47

1D 2B 3A 4C 5C 6C 7C 1A 2D 3C 4B 5C 6B 7D 1B 2D 3A 4B 5A 6C 7A 1B 2D 3A 4B 5A 1A 2B 3B 4B 1A 2B 1A 2B 1A 2C 3A 4A 1C 2A 1B 2C 1B 2C 3A 4A 1B 2C 2A 3B 1A 2B 3A 4C 1C 2A 1B 2C 1A 2C 3B 4A 1B 2A 1A 2B 1C 2C 3A 4A 1A 2C 1C 2A 1C 2A 3A 4B 1C 2C 1B 2B 1B 2A 3A 4B

Listening 51 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. bomb factory they knew they would be stopped (by the Czechs) a linguist / diplomacy a bag of (12 rounds of) ammo the house might contain booby traps threw a rock

Listening 52 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. civilian authorities underestimated the situation they were given the wrong map emergency evacuation warnings prevented epidemics a car to be buried/the death of a family repairing roads

Listening 53 7. 8. 9. increase stability in the region protecting drug traffickers / paramilitary organizations an outside party / CEA / Counter-drug Enforcement Agency 10. humanitarian assistance 11. soldiers were using the wrong code-books 12. security assessment

Listening 54 1. 2. 3. civilian and military rescue teams changing the route / the path / the track / the plan of heavy snow / poor visibility / they couldnt see landmarks ( marks) / sings were hidden (covered) by snow / there was a lot of snow sent out a specially equipped helicopter they had lost their flares / their signal / signaling equipment / it used thermal indicators / indicators showing body heat (body temperature) / if the answer only includes the word indicators it isnt good enough

4. 5. 6.

Listening 48 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. UNTAT / United Nations Training and Advisory Team Kosovo personal safety and protection Room G, Sector A, Ground Hall (all pieces of information are important) carrying out house searches thrown off the course

Listening 55 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. checking communications use deadly force you have found a family member (to accompany the victim) you are forced to stop the convoy QRF (Quick Reaction Force) this is not your job / your job is to deliver supplies

Listening 49 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Americans / American specialists readiness for an NBC attack FIBUA training they slept thorough the warning of the attack independent observers accuracy of weapon firing

Listening 56 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. of their appearance / they didnt see Ghurkhas before / they were Ghurkhas / they looked different they are used to higher altitudes / they came from high altitudes / can operate in higher ground hearing shots (north of the base) Central Europe of her fracture/broken/injured/ leg / she had broken/fractured her leg / she had problem with her leg it helped increase morale

Listening 50 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. to steal a new weapon and to capture two top scientists they managed to disable the camera / nobody noticed the camera wasnt working one of the scientists was absent satellite photographs the base was in the mountainous terrain / the landing point for the helicopter was 10 kilometres away / the march was uphill all the way he was used as a human shield

6.

Listening 57 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. they borrowed things ( from American soldiers) they were sent independently there wasnt enough information spring next year military attitude/mentality

6.

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6.

it is impossible to predicts the contents of PEPs

Listening 58 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. locks should be installed electric paralyser can be forged / falsified passengers special abilities should be trained more careful search/examination

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

parliamentary election operation level direction planning and conducting patrol operations (NATO led) PRTs (Provincial Reconstructions Teams) to equip the Afghan army

Listening 61 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. one more international battalion search each house prevent the rebels from getting inside the city were stopped by Iraqi forces secure the convoy (with medical equipment) civilians must not leave the city

Listening 59 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. smuggling portable missiles improving communication / exchanging information unification / will need to be unified / sorting out the differences more effective (better) harbour protection (inviting) external experts a patrol boat / PBX5

Listening 62 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Britain and Germany it was much better (than the previous one) give their troops a chance to escape he got out too slowly 1there was a (thorough) house to house search of communications / communications werent ready / there was no contact with the outside world

Listening 60 1. outside Euro-Atlantic area

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