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Dual citizenship is involuntary and arises when, as a result of the concurrent application of the different laws of two or more

states, a person is simultaneously considered a national by the said states. For instance, such a situation may arise when a person whose parents are citizens of a state which adheres to the principle of jus sanguinis* is born in a state which follows the doctrine of jus soli.** Such a person, automatically and without any voluntary act on his part, is concurrently considered a citizen of both states. Dual allegiance, on the other hand, refers to the situation in which a person simultaneously owes, by some positive act, loyalty to two or more states. While dual citizenship is involuntary, dual allegiance is the result of an individuals volition his active participation in thenaturalization process.

Between the power of inquiry in aid of legislation and question hour

No. Section 21 (inquiry in aid of legislation) and Section 22 (question hour) of Article VI of the Constitution are closely related and complementary to each other, but they do not pertain to the same power of Congress. One specifically relates to the power to conduct inquiries in aid of legislation, the aim of which is to elicit information that may be used for legislation, while the other pertains to the power to conduct a question hour, the objective of which is to obtain information in pursuit of Congress' oversight function. While attendance was meant to be discretionary in the question hour, it was compulsory in inquiries in aid of legislation.

The first group of presidential appointments, specified as the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the Armed Forces, and other officers whose appointments are vested in the President by the Constitution, pertains to the appointive officials who have to be confirmed by the Commission on Appointments. The second group of officials the President can appoint are all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint.[27]The second sentence acts as the catch-all provision for the Presidents appointment power, in recognition of the fact that the power to appoint is essentially executive in nature.[28] The wide latitude given to the President to appoint is further demonstrated by the recognition of the Presidents power to appoint officials whose appointments are not even provided for by law.