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CIRCUIT IDEAS

Sensitive LPG Leakage Alarm

SANI THE

D. MOHAN KUmAR

ere is an ultra-sensitive LPG sensor that generates loud beeps when it senses any gas leakage. It detects vapours of liquefied petroleum gas anywhere between 200 and 10,000 ppm and drives a piezobuzzer to catch attention for immediate action. The buzzer beeps until the concentration of gas in the air decreases to a safe level. The circuit uses an MQ6 gas sensor, which is designed to sense LPG, propane and isobutane gases.

a few discrete components. GS1 is a six-pin gas sensor that can detect very small traces of LPG in the air and has a swift response time. However, it has very less sensitivity to alcohol and smoke. The sensors output is in the form of resistance. As indicated in Fig. 1, the pins of GSI are H, A and B, two each on either side. H pins are for the heater with no

Test Points
Test point TP0 Details 0V, GND TP1 12V TP2 5V TP3 TP4 0V when sensor is exposed to LPG and LED1 blinks 5V square pulse

Circuit and working


Fig. 1 shows the circuit of the LPG sensor. The circuit is built around 5V voltage regulator 7805 (IC1), gas sensor MQ6 (GS1), counter IC 4060 (IC2) and

TP4 TP1 TP2 R1 100E R3 10K H T1 BC547 R6 1M


9 CEXT 16 VDD Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 REXT Q11 Q12 Q13 7 5 4 6 14 13 15 1 2 3

PZ1 PIEZO BUZZER R7 1K

TP3
12 MR

IC1 7805
2

VR1 4.7K

C1 100u,25V BATT.1 12V TP0

A A GS1 MQ6 SENSOR B HB

11

RS

IC2 4060

R2 1K

T2 BC547 R4 1K LED1

C2 0.22u
10

GND

R8 20K

R5 100K
8 GND

Fig. 1: Circuit of the sensitive LPG sensor

polarity. Input pins A or B and output pins A or B can be connected either way round. The coil heater inside the sensor can be easily heated with 5V DC. If pin A is connected to 5V DC through variable resistor VR1, use pin B as the output or vice versa. Both A and B pins can be shorted. In short, H pins are connected to positive and negative rails, A or B pin to 5V DC, and B or A for output. The resistance value of GSI is different for various kinds and concentration of gases. So when using this sensor, sensitivity arrangement is very important. For accurate detection, it is necessary to calibrate the sensor for 1000 ppm of LPG concentration in the air with load resistance of about 20 kilo-ohms. (In the datasheet, the load resistance range of MQ6 is mentioned as 10 kilo-ohms to 47 kilo-ohms.) Preset VR1 is used to adjust the sensitivity of the sensor to a particular gas concentration. Output from the sensor is connected to the base of transistor T1, which acts as a switch to trigger the alarm generator built around IC2. IC2 is a binary counter IC that oscillates using capacitor C2 and resistor R5. Transistor T1 controls the reset pin (pin 12) of IC2. When

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CIRCUIT IDEAS
Working of the circuit is simple. When the sensor detects LPG in the air, its output becomes high and transistor T1 conducts to make reset pin of IC2 low. This triggers IC2 to oscillate, which is indicated by LED1. After a few seconds, the buzzer starts beeping to indicate gas leakage. The circuit works off 12V DC from a battery (BATT.1) or you can use an adaptor. IC1 provides regulated 5V DC supply for the sensor and IC2. PARTS LIST
Semiconductors: IC1 - 7805, 5V regulator IC2 - 4060 ripple-carry binary counter T1, T2 - BC547 npn transistor LED1 - 5mm red LED Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon): R1 - 100-ohm R2, R4, R7 - 1-kilo-ohm R3 - 10-kilo-ohm R5 - 100-kilo-ohm R6 - 1-mega-ohm R8 - 20-kilo-ohm VR1 - 4.7-kilo-ohm preset Capacitors: C1 C2 Miscellaneous: BATT.1 PZ1 GS1 - 100F, 25V electrolytic - 0.22F ceramic disk - 12V battery - Piezobuzzer - 6-pin MQ6 LPG sensor

Fig. 2: An actual-size, single-side PCB for sensitive LPG sensor

Construction and testing


An actual-size, single-side PCB for sensitive LPG sensor is shown in Fig. 2 and its component layout in Fig. 3. After assembling the circuit on a PCB, enclose it in a suitable case with an opening to allow the gas to enter. Place the unit near the LPG cylinder or gas stove within a distance of one metre. Vary preset VR1 to adjust the sensitivity of the sensor. To test the circuit, check 12V at test point TP1 with respect to TP0 to

Fig. 3: Component layout for the PCB

the reset pin is high IC2 does not oscillate, and when this pin goes low IC2 starts oscillating.

verify the correct power supply. Place the unit near the gas stove burner and turn on the burner for a few seconds without igniting. Then, turn the burner off and adjust VR1 until you see LED1 glowing. TP3 should be low at this moment.
The author is an associate professor at Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala

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