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VAPOUR COMPRESSION SYSTEM

1. What is the significance of multistage vapour compression system and what are its advantages over simple vapour compression system? Also explain the purpose of flash gas removal and flash intercooler in multistage compression system. 2. Discuss the effect of variation of evaporator and condenser temperatures on the COP of Carnot cycle. 3. Plot the pressure drop at the compressor valves on P-h or T-s diagram. 4. What is "Flash Chamber"? Explain its significance in refrigeration system, especially multi pressure system. vapour compression

Problem Sheet- 01

5. With the help of P-H diagram, show the effect of Sub-cooling of condensate Superheating of refrigerant vapours Change in suction and discharge pressure,

on the performance of a simple vapour compression refrigeration system. Which of the above parameters are used to improve the COP of the cycle? What do you understand by 'Superheat Horn'? Show it on T-S diagram. 6. Enumerate different methods of producing refrigeration and define the terms, 'Refrigerating effect', 'unit of refrigeration' and 'COP', as related to refrigeration systems. 7. What is the significance of multistage vapour compression system and what are its advantages over simple vapour compression system? Also explain the purpose of flash gas removal and flash intercooler in multistage compression system. 8. Plot the pressure drop at the compressor valves on P-h or T-s diagram. 9. Using schematic and P-h diagram, explain the working of Cascade refrigeration system. Compare it with multi-stage system. 10. Derive a relation between the COP of refrigerator and heat pump. 11. Plot Carnot vapour compression refrigeration cycle on T-s and P-v curves. 12. Explain the purpose of "Capillary Tube", "Filter", Drier", and Receiver in a vapour compression refrigeration system. 13. What is the importance of refrigeration and which are the different methods of producing refrigeration?

14. What do you understand by removal of flash gas what is the function of a flash intercooler in a multistage compression system? Also explain the basic difference

between a multistage vapour compression system and a cascade refrigeration system.

15. Describe all the processes (on a T-s and P-h diagram) which constitute a simple Carnot refrigeration system. What are the limitations of this cycle and how is the cycle modified to get a vapour compression cycle? 16. Show the actual vapour compression cycle on P-H and T-5 diagrams, and explain, in brief, the effects of variation of different parameters and also the important points of deviations, from a simple vapour compression refrigeration system. 17. What are the advantages of compound or multistage compression system over a single-stage compression system? Explain, in brief, a two-stage compression system with flash intercooler. 18. What is the purpose of refrigeration and which are the different systems commonly used in refrigeration? How will you define COP. of a refrigeration cycle and what is its value for a refrigerator working on a Carnot refrigeration cycle in terms of lower and higher temperatures? 19. Explain the differences between throttling and isentropic expansion? Although some work can be extracted from the isentropic expansion process after the refrigerant leaves the condenser, an irreversible isenthalpic process is generally preferred. refrigerants? 20. What are the principal factors which make the actual vapour compression cycles deviate from ideal cycle? With the help of a P-h diagrams, explain the effect of the following parameters on the performance of a vapour compression refrigerant cycle: a. Evaporator pressure b. Condenser pressure c. Suction vapour superheat d. Liquid sub-cooling 21. Derive an expression for COP of Carnot refrigeration cycle. How the value of COP of a Carnot refrigeration cycle varies with higher and lower temperatures? A scientist claims to have developed a Carnot refrigerator which maintains a freezer temperature of -l 5C in a room whose temperature is 35C and have a COP of 6.5. Justify, whether his claim is true or false. Explain the reasons. Briefly describe the term 'flashing' of

22. A vapour compression refrigeration system of 5 ton capacity operates at 40C condenser and -l 6C evaporator temperatures. The vapour is superheated by 5C at the entry to the compressor. Determine COP and power requirement. Use the following properties of the refrigerant (do not use other property tables as refrigerant is not known to you):

23. The pressure in the evaporator of a refrigerator is 1.9 bar; the pressure in the condenser is 12.4 bar. Dry saturated vapour delivered to the condenser after isentropic compression, and no under cooling of the condensed liquid. Calculate the refrigeration effect per unit mass of the refrigerant and the COP. Use the following properties for the refrigerant: At 1.9bar, Tsat = -20C Sg =5.623kJ/kgK, hg=1420.0kJ/kg, hf =89.8kJ/kg

At 12.4 bar, Tsat = 32C Sg =4.962kJ/kgK, hg =1469.9kJ/kg, hf = 332.8kJ/kg

24. A refrigeration system is working on reversed Carnot cycle between higher and lower temperatures of 40C and -30C respectively. Determine its COP. It is desired to increase the COP. of the cycle to 4.75 by changing the temperatures of the cycle. If the increase (or decrease) in higher temperature is equal to the decrease (or increase) in lower temperature, calculate the new temperatures of the cycle.

25. The condenser and evaporator temperatures of a 20 T capacity, simple saturated vapour compression refrigeration system, are 40C and -20C respectively. The refrigerant used in the system is R-22. Draw the cycle on P-H diagram (assuming isentropic compression) and calculate (i) the mass of refrigerant to be circulated (ii) Power required in the compressor and (iii) the COP of the cycle. "If the system employs 5C subcooling of refrigerant liquid and a superheating of 10C of refrigerant vapour, what will be the new COP of the cycle? Whether it will increase or decrease? 26. In a 15 Ton ammonia refrigeration plant, the condensing temperature is 25 C and evaporating temperature is -10 C. The refrigerant is subcooled by 5C before

reaching the inlet of the throttle valve. The vapour leaving the evaporator is dry saturated. Find the COP and mass flow rate of the refrigerant. Use the following properties of the ammonia:

27. A lOO TR system using R-12 is to operate on a two stage vapour compression refrigeration system with a flash chamber. The refrigerant is evaporating at -40C (0.641 bar), flash chamber works on an intermediate temperature of 0C (3.08 bar), and condensation takes place at 30C (7.45 bar). Low pressure compressor and expansion valve operate between 0.641 bars and 3.08 bars, and the high pressure compressor and expansion valve operate between 3.08 bars and 7.45 bar. Saturated vapour enters both the compressors and saturated liquid enters each expansion valves. Determine : the flow rate of refrigerant handled by each compressor the power requirement of compressors COP of the system.

28. In a vapour compression refrigeration system working between 0C and 30C, the refrigerant (R-12) enters the compressor at the saturated vapour state. The refrigerant is saturated liquid at the beginning of the throttling process. Determine the COP of this cycle and compare it with the COP of Carnot cycle working between the same temperature limits. Solve without using P-h chart, use property values given in above problem. 29. In a simple vapour compression refrigeration system using R-12 as refrigerant, the evaporator and condenser temperatures are -10C and 35C respectively. If the capacity of the system is 15 tons, and the compression is isentropic, calculate the following with the help of P-H chart for R-12 : a. Mass of refrigerant to be circulated. b. Power required in the compressor c. Total heat rejected in the condenser, and COP. of the cycle

Also calculate the Carnot COP. and show the percentage difference between the two. Draw the cycle on P-H chart for R-12. 30. A Carnot refrigerator has working temperatures of - 30C and 35C. If it operates with R-12 as a working fluid, calculate : isentropic compression work refrigeration effect heat rejected per unit mass of the refrigerant COP of the cycle

If an actual refrigerator has a COP which is 75% of that of the ideal Carnot cycle, calculate the power consumption and heat rejected to the surroundings per ton of refrigeration. 31. The pressure in the evaporator of an ammonia refrigerator is 1.902 bar the pressure in the condenser is 12.37 bar. Calculate the refrigeration effect per Unit mass of the refrigerant and the refrigeration COP for the following cycles. The ideal reversed Carnot cycle, Dry saturated vapour delivered to the condenser after isentropic compression and no undercooling of the condensed liquid. Given:

32. 30 tons of 'Fish' are required to be stored in a cold storage plant at a temperature of -10C. The temperature of the fish when supplied is 30C. The specific heat of the fish above freezing point is 2.94 kJ/kg - C and below freezing point is 1.25kJ/kg 0

C. The freezing point of the fish is -3C and its latent heat is 233kJ/kg. If the

cooling is achieved in 10 hours, calculate the capacity of the refrigerating plant and the Carnot cycle COP. between this temperature ranges.

33. Draw a single stage simple vapour compression refrigeration cycle on TemperatureEntropy and Pressure-Enthalpy diagrams and show how its COP. can be calculated by making thermodynamic analysis of the cycle. Also draw the actual vapour

compression refrigeration cycle on P-H diagram showing important deviations from the theoretical cycle. 34. A Freon 12 (R-12) simple vapour compression refrigeration system operating between condenser temperature of 40C and evaporator temperature of -5"C, develops 20 tons of refrigeration. The refrigerant vapour is superheated to 0C before entering the compressor and the liquid refrigerant after the condenser (i.e. condensate) is subcooled to 30C. Assuming isentropic compression, draw the cycle on P-H chart of R-12 and determine : a. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant b. The power required by the compressor c. The theoretical piston displacement of the compressor d. The heat rejected in the condenser e. COP of the vapour compression refrigeration cycle 35. A two stage vapour compression refrigeration system working on R12 refiigerant is operating between pressure limits of 0.1and1.0 MPa. The refrigerant leaves the condenser as saturated liquid and is first throttled to a flash chamber operating at 0.32 MPa. Vapour from the flash chamber is mixed to the refrigerant leaving the L.P. compressor. The mixture is then compressed to condenser pressure by HP compressor. The liquid in the flash chamber is throttled to the evaporator pressure and vap01ises in evaporator. Assuming refrigerant leaves the evaporator as a saturated vapour and both compression being isentropic, calculate: (i) (ii) (iii) Mass fraction of vapour leaving the flash chamber Refrigeration effect per kg of refrigerant Cop of the system

36. A refrigerating system operating on Carnot refrigeration cycle, is having higher and lower temperatures of 30 C and -10 C respectively. If the capacity of the system is 10 tons, calculate the COP., the power required by the system in kW and the total amount of heat rejected by the system. 37. A simple vapour compression refrigeration system, using R-22 as refrigerant, is working between evaporator and condenser temperatures of -30 C and 40

C respectively. The liquid refrigerant after the condenser is subcooled upto 30C

before it enters the expansion valve, and the refrigerant vapour is superheated upto 20 C before entering the compressor. The capacity of the system is 30 tons and the compression is isentropic. Draw the above cycle on P-H chart of R- 22 and determine : a. The refrigerating effect (in kJ/kg), b. The mass of refrigerant to be circulated per min., c. The power required in the compressor (in kw), d. The heat removed through condenser, and e. The COP. of the cycle.