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Interpreting SPSS Output for T-Tests and ANOVAs (F-Tests)

I. T-TEST INTERPRETATION: Notice that there is important information displayed in the output The Ns indicate ho! many participants are in each group (N stands for "num#er$)% The #olded num#ers in the first #o& indicate the '(O)P *+ANS for the dependent ,aria#le (in this case- 'PA) for each group (. is the No Preschool group- / is the Preschool 'roup)%
Group Statistics preschool 0 1 N 11 29 Mean Std. e!"at"on .35328 .37537 Std. #rror Mean .10652 .06970


3.2055 3.2866

No! in the output #elo!- !e can see the results for the T-test% 0oo1 at the enlarged num#ers under the column that says "t$ for the t-,alue- "df$ for the degrees of freedom- and "Sig% (2-tailed) for the p-,alue% (Notice that the p-,alue of %345 is greater than our "%.3$ alpha le,el- so !e fail to re6ect the null hypothesis% (if your p-,alue is ,ery small (7%.3)- then you !ould reject the null hypothesis% If you !ere to ha,e run the follo!ing analysis for a study- you could descri#e them in the results section as follo!s The mean 8ollege 'PA of the Preschool group !as 4%25 (S9 : %4;) and the mean 8ollege 'PA of the No Preschool group !as 4%2/ (S9 : %43)% According to the t-test- !e failed to re6ect the null hypothesis% There !as not enough e,idence to suggest a significant difference #et!een the college 'PAs of the t!o groups of students- t(4;) : -%</5- p = %.3%
Independent Samples Test Le!ene,s -est .or #'(al"t/ o. 0ar"ances t-test .or #'(al"t/ o. Means 955 Con."dence 6nter!al o. the "..erence Lo3er 4pper -.$&611 -.$&7&0 .1%$91 .1%520

* GPA-COL E ual !ariances assumed #'(al !ar"ances not ass()ed .$$$

S"+. .567


S"+. 12-ta"led2

Mean "..erence -.0%110 -.0%110

Std. #rror "..erence .1$091 .127$0




NOTE: 9on>t #e confused if your t-,alue is %</5 (a positi,e num#er)- this can happen simply #y inputting the independent ,aria#le in re,erse order% II. ANOVA INTERPRETATION: The interpretation of the Analysis of Variance is much li1e that of the T-test% ?ere is an e&ample of an ANOVA ta#le for an analysis that !as run (from the data#ase e&ample) to e&amine if there !ere differences in the mean num#er of hours of hours !or1ed #y students in each ethnic 'roup% (IV : +thnic 'roup- 9V : @ of hours !or1ed per !ee1)
"#$%" hrs73or8 S() o. S'(ares 150&.926 5116.97& 6621.900 d. Mean S'(are 501.6&2 1&2.1$% * S"+.

9et3een Gro(ps :"th"n Gro(ps -otal

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If you !ere to !rite this up in the results section- you could report the means for each group (#y running 9escripti,es A see the first 0a# for these procedures)% Then you could report the actual results of the Analysis of Variance% According to the Analysis of Variance- there !ere significant differences #et!een the ethnic groups in the mean num#er of hours !or1ed per !ee1 F(4- 4<) : 4%34 p 7 %.3%