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CHAPTER C I II THE G GASEOUS AND GAS G

Volu ume Tem mperature Pres ssure mas ss no. of o mole V T

STATE

LAW W

cm m3, dm3

C, C F, K (Kelvin)
mm mHg, atm g ,kg mol

P m n

The part ticles of the gas g are wide ely spaced an nd free to mo ove in any direction. It sp pread itself un niformly througho out any direc ctions.

The forc ce acting on the t unit area a is known as s the gas pre essure. At any lo ow temperatu ure, the parti icles of a gas s are moving g with a slow w speed. If the e temperatur re is increase e, they move faster res sulting in the more freque ent collision on o the contai iner.

n of tempera atures can aff fect the pres ssure and vol lume of the gas. g Variation When the te emperature of o a given ma ass of gas is s kept consta ant, the volum me of the gas s is inversely y

Boyles law

prop portional to it ts pressure. (Pressure ( volume v beha avior) mathematical expression e V 1/P

V = constant 1/P P PV = constan nt P1V1 = P2V2 The dec crease of the gas volume accompanie es the increa ase of the gas s pressure. Boyles law show the e relation of gas g volume (V) ( and pres ssure (P).

A volume of certain mass s of gas occu upies 925 cm m3 at 561 mm mHg. What is s the volume under 760 mmHg m at the eg .A sam me temperatu ure.  A certain mas ss of gas occ cupies 300cm m3 at 760 mm mHg pressur re what will be b the volume e at 750mmH Hg. A A volume of a certain mas ss of oxigen gas g occupies s 500 cm3 at room tempe erature under r 760 mmHg pressure. What W is the volume un nder 800mmH Hg pressure at the same temperature e. A A volume of a certain mas ss of hydroge en gas occup pies 100 cm3 at room tem mperature under 762mmH Hg. What will be the pressure p at 5 500cm3 the same s temper rature? When th he given mas ss of gas is heated h at con nstant pressu ure the volum me will expan nd with respe ect to the increase e in temperat ture. Cha arles law When the pressure of a given mass of gas is kep pt constant, the t volume of o the gas is directly V T V = constant T V V/ T = const tant

prop portional to it ts temperatur re on the Kelvin scale. (V Volume tem mperature be ehavliour)

V1 V2 T1 T2
1 atm = 760mmHg = 1.013 10 5 Pa Kelvin temperature = Celsius temperature + 273 Absolute zero temperature = - 273 C [or] 0 K eg. The certain mass of gas occupies 617cm3 at 9 C. What is the volume at 0 C under the same pressure? A certain mass of gas occupies 942cm3 at 22 C. At what temperature in C will the gas occupies 311cm3 under the same pressure? A certain mass of gas has a volume of 546 cm3 at 0 C. What will be the volume at 27 C under constant pressure? A certain mass of gas occupies a volume of 100 cm3 at 0 C. The gas is heated under constant pressure.(a)What temperature on the Kelvin scale does the volume become 200cm3?(b) At what temperature on the Celsius scale does the volume triple?

Standard temperature and pressure(STP) STP means standard temperature and pressure. standard temperature is 0 C or 273 K. standard pressure is 760 mmHg or 1 atm. Absolute zero temperature The volume of all gases should become zero at 273C. This temperature is assumed to be zero point of a new scale temperature (Kelvin temperature) and also known as absolute zero temperature.

Temperature pressure relation When the volume of a given mass of gas is kept constant, the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to its temperature on the Kelvin scale. P T P = constant T P / T = constant

P P 1 2 T1 T2
When the volume of given mass of gas is heated, the pressure of the gas increase with the increase of temperature. eg .A certain mass of gas occupies 750 mmHg at 22 C. At what temperature will the gas occupies 258 mmHg.

Combination of Boyles law and Charles law According to Boyles law According to Charles law V 1/P (constant mass and temperature) V T (constant mass and pressure)

V T/ P(ma ass is consta ant) V = constant T/P T

V P cons tan t T V1 P1 V 2 P2 T2 T1
This s relation is known as combine c gas s law equati ion. Q. Derive the e equation

V1 P1 V 2 P2 for the co ombination of o Boyles law l and Cha arles law. T1 T2

T The volume of o a given ma ass of gas is 500 cm3 at 750 7 mmHg and a 2C .What will be the e volume at 740mmHg 7 an nd 100C?
3 A At 27C and u under 750mm mHg pressur re,the volume e of a certain n mass of gas occupies 380cm 3 ,what t is the volum me at

stp? ? The volume of a given ma ass of gas at STP is 819c cm3. What is the volume at a 25C and 765mmHg? Mola ar volume o of gases
3

One O mole of every e gas occupies 22.4 dm3 at STP.

The amount of th he gas expre essed as rela ative molecular mass in gram g is equiv valent to one e mole and oc ccupies 22.4 4 dm at STP. eg .W What is the m mass of hydr rogen gas en nclosed in 5.6 6dm3 at STP P(H = 1) You are provid ded with 11.2 2 dm3 of hyd drogen gas at STP. Find the t amount of o hydrogen in (1)mole (2 2) molecule (3)gram (4) amu u (H = 1) What is the m mass of CO2 gas g enclosed d 5.6dm3 at STP S (C = 12 , O = 16) W

y- Lussacs la aw of combaining volume e of gases Gay At the same tem mperature an nd pressure the t volume of o reacting ga ases and gas seous prod ducts are in simple s ratio of o small whole number. hyd drogen + nit trogen 3H2 3volume + N2 + 1vo olume

ammonia a 2NH3 2volume

Wha at will be the volume of hy ydrogen chlo oride gas when 100 cm3 of hydrogen and chlorine e are mixed? ? (All gases are a mea asured at the e same condi ition).

gadros theo ory Avog of molecules. m V

At th he same temperature and d pressure eq qual volumes s of all gases s contain the e same numb ber

n (t temperature and pressur re are consta ant)

n = number of f molecules. Rela ative density of gas Rela ative density of gas can be b defined as s the ratio of the mass of f a volume of f gas at a cer rtain tempera ature and pres ssure to the m mass of equa al volume of hydrogen at t the same te emperature and a pressure e.

mass of a volume of f the gas mass m of an eq qual volume e of hydroge en

mass of n molecules m f the gas of ma ass of n molecule of of f hydrogen mass m of one e molecules of o the gas ma ass of one molecule m of of hydroge en ma ass of one molecules m f the gas of ma ass of two at toms of of hydrogen

mass of one molecules of m o the gas 2 x mass of one e atoms of of hydrogen n m of one e molecule of o the gas 1 mass x 2 mass of on ne atom of hydrogen h

= =

= x relative r mol lecular mass of the gas s

Relative density of a ga as = x rel lative mole ecular mass s of the gas dens sity of gas (u unit) gdm-3 eg Arrange A the following f gas s in order of increasing re elative densit ty of gas. NH3 ,HCl, CO, C2H6 (N = 14 ,H = 1, O = 16 1 , C = 12 , Cl = 35.5) W is the m mass of N2 en nclosed in 2.8 dm3 at stp ? (N = 14)  What  What W will be t the molecule e are there in n 5.6dm3 of hydrogen h at STP? S A A gas with rela ative density y of 22 is give en (1)Find th he relative mo olecular mas ss (2) what is s the mass of one mole of o gas (3)what volu ume at STP would w the ga as occupies 22g 2 of that ga as. gadros num mber Avog The number of particles p as th here are atom m in 12 g of 12C is known n as Avogadr ros number.Avogadros number N = 23 x 1023 6.02 Daltons law of partial p pressu ure When the tempe erature is kept constant, the total pressure of a ga as mixture is s the sum of the t partial pr ressures of erent gases. diffe Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ...... Ptotal = to otal pressure of gas mixtu ure P1,P2,P3 = partial pre essure of diffe erent gases over water collect o Ptotal = Pd + P H2O dry Pdry = Ptotal - PH2O O

egThe pressure of Hydrogen collect over water at 27 C is 776.7mmHg. The vapour pressure of water at 27C is 26.7 mmHg. What is the pressure of dry hydrogen? rate of diffusion of gas = V / t (dm3 s-1) A gas occupies 500cm3 at 27C and 785mmHg when it is collected over water. The vapour pressure of water at this temperature is 15mmHg. What is the pressure of dry gas? Total pressure of oxygen and acetylene gas mixture in a gas storage tank is 37520mmHg.The partial pressure of oxygen is 3400mmHg. What is the partial pressure of acetylene? Diffusion of Gases Particles of gases are always in constant and rapid motion. The process by which the molecules of one gas spreads through the spaces created between the molecules of another gas is known as diffusion. Grahams law of rate of diffusion of gas As the same temperature and pressure the rate of diffusion of gas is

inversely proportional to the square root of the density of the gas. r

1 d
r M 2

r constant
r d cons tan t

1 d

r1 r2

M2 M1

d r1 2 r2 d1
M = molar mass (g mol-1) lighter gas diffuse faster than heavier one.

eg. What is the relative molecular mass of gas that diffuse 4 time as fast as oxygen?(O = 16)  What is the rate of diffusion of hydrogen and oxygen (O = 16 , H = 1)

 Helium gas diffuse 4 times as fast as an unknown gas .What is the relative molecular mass of an unknown gas?  If it take 1 min for 50cm3 of oxygen to diffuse through a pin hole how long will it take for the same volume of hydrogen to diffuse through the same hole? EXERCISES 1. Which law represents each of the following statements? (a) (i) The same volume of different gases at constant temperature and pressure contains the same number of molecules. (ii) A lighter gas diffuses faster than a heavier one. (b) (i) A volume of gas expends when it is heated. (ii) The same volume of different gases at constant temperature and pressure contains the same number of molecules. (c) (i) The pressure of a gas will increase when it is heated. (ii) The pressure of the mixture of gases is due to the sum of the partial pressures of individual gases. (d) (i) When the volume of a gas is increased, its pressure decreases under constant temperature.

(ii) The volumes of reacting gases and gaseous products are in simple ratio of small whole number. 2. Which law represents the given statement? Write down its mathematical equation. (a) When the temperature is kept constant, the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressure of different gases. (b) At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules. 3. What will be the volume of hydrogen chloride gas when 100cm3 of hydrogen and 50 cm3 of chlorine gas are mixed? (all gases are measured at the same condition) 4. What will be the volume of hydrogen chloride gas when 100cm3 of hydrogen and 75cm3 of chlorine are mixed? 5. A gas with volume of 5.6 dm3 weight 7g. What is the relative molecular mass of the gas? 6. Helium gas diffuse twice as fast as a gas X. Calculate the molar mass and relative density of the gas X. (He = 4) 7. What is the molecular mass of the gas that diffuses two times as fast as oxygen? (O= 16). 8. Find out the relative molecular mass of the gas that diffuses 4 times as fast as suphur dioxide. (O = 16, S= 32) 8. If is take a 1 minute for 50cm3 of oxygen to diffuse through a pinhole, how long will it take for the same volume of hydrogen to diffuse through the same hole? (O = 16, H=1) 9. If it takes 100 cm3 of SO2 gas through a pin hole for 20 minutes how long will it take for the same volume of helium to diffuse through the same hole? (S = 32, O=16) 10. 100 cm3 of CO2 diffuse through a pin hole in 1 minute. How long will it take for the same volume of propane (C3H8) to diffuse through the same pin hole? (H = 1, O =16, C =12) 11. How many grams of zinc will have to be liberated with dilute hydrochloric acid to liberate 1.85dm3 of hydrogen at 27C and 750 mmHg? (Zn = 65) 12. How many grams of sodium carbonate will have to be treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to liberate 1.15 dm3 of carbon dioxide at 22C and 755mmHg? (C =12, O = 16, Na = 23) 13. l0 g of calcium carbonate is treated with dilute hydrochloric acid. The liberated gas measured at 27 C

and 750 mmHg is 1.85 dm3. Find the percentage purity of calcium carbonate. (C= 12, 0=16, H= 1, Ca= 40)