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February 4

th


COMPUTATIONAL FLUID
DYNAMICS (MKM411)
mohsen.sharifpur@up.ac.za
Dr. M. Sharifpur
Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering
University of Pretoria

2014
General Information
Study Guide ClickUP
My consulting (office) hours:
Mondays; 12:30-13:30
Tuesdays; 12:00-13:00
or any other time by booking an appointment
mohsen.sharifpur@up.ac.za

Calculation of Semester Mark:
Semester test 1 35%
Semester test 2 35%
Assignments 20% Randomly selected questions
Unannounced class tests 10% one will be dropped




Practical Sessions for the Course
On the timetable;
Mondays; 10:30 to 12:30 (Eng III 4)
Lectures and Assignments will be posted on clickUP on Fridays

Examples are within the lectures while we have Unannounced
class tests.

On Mondays , from 10:30 to 11:30 , two Teaching Assistants will
be available for your queries about assignment.

Instead of Practical , CFD Software Training Courses
(ANSYS-FLUENT, STAR CCM+ and FLoEFD)
The Schedule will be announced


Semester Project
(ANSYS-FLUENT, STAR CCM+ or FLoEFD)

The project mark will not be involved in the
semester or final mark, but ECSA outcome.

Achieving 50% of the assessment matrix for ECSA
exit level outcome 5 is one of the requirements in
order to pass the course.

Assessment matrix for ECSA exit level outcome 5
Description
Reference
Able to apply verification and validation to
an engineering problem
Homework
(20%)
Able to list and apply the various
steps in a computational fluid
dynamics simulation
Semester tests
(20%)

Able to analysis, solve and post processing
an engineering problem using a
commercial computational fluid dynamics
package
Semester Project
(60%)



Mark 50
Prescribed text books
An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics:
The Finite Volume Method,
Versteeg, H.K. and Malalasekera, W., 2007

Heat and Mass Transfer: fundamentals &
applications (SI Unit),
engel, Yunus A.;Ghajar, Afshin J.

Lecture and module structure
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD)
Conservation laws, Initial and Boundary Conditions
MKM320, MTV310
Finite Difference Method (FDM)
Finite Volume Method (FVM)
CFD Software Training Courses
(ANSYS-FLUENT, STAR CCM+ and FLoEFD)
Any questions about the course?
Why Continuum Mechanics?
The subject of mechanics deals with the study of
motion and forces in solids, liquids and gases
by simplifying assumption , for analysis
purposes, that the matter is distributed
continuously, without gaps or empty spaces.

Why do we need to assume matter is distributed
continuously for analysis purposes?
Continuum Mechanics;
For analysis we need to formulate with
mathematics
A problem/idea which you can't formulate with
mathematics is useless!
How can you make predictions with it if you cant formulate it ?

How can you test an idea if you can't make predictions?
In Engineering and Science
M=?
Example (example 1-10, Fluid Mechanics by White)
A=r
THERMOFLUIDS MTV310
We cant derive a Derivative for a
discontinuous function
We cant take integration from a
discontinuous function
A=r
Therefore, we already assumed
that the matter is distributed
continuously, without gaps or
empty spaces in different
courses
Predictions
If we formulate a fact we can predict for different conditions
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Even in two-phase flow we can assume Continuous
Media, but by applying a conversion factor
Computers and Humans
"Computers are incredibly fast,
accurate, and stupid;
humans are incredibly slow,
inaccurate and brilliant;
together they are powerful
beyond imagination."
1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for photoelectric effect. In 1999 Einstein
was named Time magazine's "Person of the Century", and a poll of
prominent physicists named him the greatest physicist of all time.
First order linear differential equation
Exact Analytical Solution;
Example;
Simple
Engineering
Problem
Problem
Solution
t is a variable
Analytical Solution
When do we use computer to solve an Engineering problem?
Complex
Engineering
Problem
Problem
Solution
1- Approximate Solution

2-Numerical Solution

When do we use computer to solve an Engineering problem?
) (
) ) , ( (
i
i
T T
T t x T

u
2
2
1 T T
x t o
c c
=
c c
t
u u
c
c
=
c
c
2
2
X
L
x
X =
For example; One-dimensional transient heat conduction (and no
heat generation)
After changing the variables to
non-dimensional form
t
T
c e
z
T
k
z y
T
k
y x
T
k
x
gen
c
c
= +
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c

( )
( )
2
1
4sin
cos
2 sin 2
n
n
n
n
n n
e X
t

=
=
+

General Solution for


t
u u
c
c
=
c
c
2
2
X
c
hL
Bi
k
=
A set of solution
Complex
Engineering
Problem
Problem
Solution
Approximate Solution
OR
Numerical Solution

t
T
c e
z
T
k
z y
T
k
y x
T
k
x
gen
c
c
= +
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c

What about Three-dimensional transient heat conduction with heat


generation
Wrong Info
Wrong Initial & BC
Wrong Output
The important issue is:
The problem The answer
Did you solve the right problem?
Numerical Solution
Programing (writing a code)
Using Software
OR
Engineering
Problem
Finding;
- Governing (Differential) Equations
- Initial & Boundary Conditions
Therefore, we must find the Governing Differential Equations,
After that, Simplifying the Governing Differential Equations
regarding the physics of problem
and also choosing right Initial & Boundary Conditions
-Analytical Solution
-Numerical Solution (Programing)
- Using a Software
Mathematics Review
Continuum Mechanics
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
30
Mathematics Review
How many Derivatives do we have?
Partial Derivative
Material Derivative
Lagrangian Derivative
Eulerian Derivative
Substantial Derivative
Total Derivative
Particle Derivative
What are the differences between them?

|
.
|

\
|
c
c
t
U
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
dt
dU
Dt
DU
?
?
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
dt
dU
or
Dt
DU