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Disconnectors: general presentation


Gianfranco CANEO Area Sales Manager AREVA T&D Spa Italy

Oslo, Norway 21st October 2008


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Disconnectors: general presentation


Main purpose: 1. Introduction of Areva Disconnector Product line 2. Why do we use disconnectors on substations? 3. General disconnector design! 4. Complete portfolio of Areva DSC PL 5. Something unique: Ultra High Voltage Equipment

Oslo, Norway 21st October 2008


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Disconnectors: general presentation


Main purpose: 1. Introduction of Areva Disconnector Product line 2. Why do we use disconnectors on substations? 3. General disconnector design! 4. Complete portfolio of Areva DSC PL 5. Something unique: Ultra High Voltage Equipment

Oslo, Norway 21st October 2008


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Areva Disconnector Manufacturers


World leader for disconnector activity

Laprairie, Canada Tizayuca, Mexico

Kassel, Germany Noventa di Piave, Italy Madrid, Spain P.R. China: Guanzhu, Suzhou, Benjin,

Itajub, Brazil

Development and manufacturing centers Assembly centers

Noventa di Piave, Italy, is the competence center for the DSC PL


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Air Insulated Switchgear History of Noventa di Piave Site


1963: CEME group was founded in Noventa di Piave - Venice (ITALY) 1984: licence agreement with Sprecher + Schuh, with more than 650 breakers manufactured and sold in Italy until 1998 1988: first co-operation with Gec Alsthom; 72/245 kV disconnectors licence agreement for EDF 1991: GEC ALSTHOM buys CEME 1994: ISO 9001certified 1998: Flotation and implementation of the name ALSTOM 2003: ISO 14001certified 2004: January 9, the T&D group is purchased by Areva. The factory, 29,000 m2, of which 7,500 is covered, employs 145 people

the customer doesnt find only theory, but 40 years of experience!!!


AREVA T&D VIA Meucci, 22 30020 Noventa di Piave Venezia Italy Tel.:+39 0421309511 FAX.: +39042165254 Unit Code: 3297

High Voltage Testing Laboratory


Erected in 1973 Dimensions 32 x 32 x 25 m high Dielectric tests: 50 Hz up to 1000 kV 1,2/50 s up to 2,400 kV 250/2500 s up to 1,300 kV RIV & Corona testing facility Temp. rise test up to 16,000 A Mechanical tests: Mech. Endurance tests Terminal load tests Routine tests Others lab => CESI, KEMA, FGH, STRI

R&D + HV Laboratory + Engineering dpt = strong developing capability of new design


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Disconnectors: general presentation


Main purpose: 1. Introduction of Areva Disconnector Product line 2. Why do we use disconnectors on substations? 3. General disconnector design! 4. Complete portfolio of Areva DSC PL 5. Something unique: Ultra High Voltage Equipment

Oslo, Norway 21st October 2008


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Why do we use disconnectors? As.. circuit breakers divert loads and protect all the other equipment, Instrument transformers ensure voltage current metering and information flow, &

Disconnectors guarantee safety for the people working on the high voltage network, providing visible and reliable air gap isolation of line sections and equipment.

Nobody is perfect
Most companies are safety conscious, taking responsibility for their electrical personnel. Procedures are clear, training is well performed. Yet, informal polls show that electrical personnel involved with commissioning, maintenance or repair indicate that some employees have violated safety rules on more than one occasion. Statistics show that thousands of workers are involved in electrical incidents every year, resulting in electrocution and/or death.
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Circuits are complex, routings unclear, people tired

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Safety must be clear, people trust what they see

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A risk simply not worth taking


Most of the fatal incidents are originated by human error, when working on energized components, supposed to be disconnected. The fitters should be sometimes tired, or stressed, or simply late. For over a century, disconnectors have been deployed on all substations world-wide to ensure safety to human operators. The reason being simple: Nothing can grant better safety and confidence to the HV personnel than a reliable and visible air gap.

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Low quality design common failures


Most of the failures on low quality disconnectors are originated by badly designed operating mechanisms. Other common failures are related to sliding contacts oxidation or material corrosion (especially on industrial and coastal sites). AREVA has deeply analysed all possible causes, developing failure-proof solutions for all critical components.

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Its proved: reliability can be extremely high


Italian Network power transformers Circuit-breakers (SF6) Disconnectors current transformers voltage transformers surge arresters (ZnO) control systems Protections auxiliary systems Failure rate FR2 0,57 0,19 0,04 0,003 0,003 0,002 2,00 0,053 1,00 2285 9421 44292 39720 34922 9955 1002 22027 999 170-420 kV components N1

lectrical substations. Critical analysis and considerations on its applicability


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N1: component population over the 4 years of reference (1996-99) FR2: failure rate (average on the 4 years) Source: Cigr An integral evaluation approach for bidding new components for hv
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AREVAs quality solutions

Industry, not craft


- AREVAs strong standardisation policy, using the same parts for different type of disconnectors, allows the production of high volumes of identical components. - All AREVA disconnectors production sites worldwide are concentrating their efforts to ensure the standardization of the complete product portfolio. - A single R&D competence centre ensures coordination and innovation.

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AREVAs quality solutions


- Stainless steel cabinet carefully designed to provide IP55 protection, ensuring air circulation and avoiding condensation. -Low voltage components chosen and tested to ensure the highest reliability. -Mechanical parts designed to withstand, without damage, the max motor torque (or crank force). -Irreversible reduction gear, avoiding the use of motor brakes, and ensuring the disconnector will not move from its position due to any external force. -Greased gears tested down to 55 . Potential leakages of oil lubricated reduction gears are therefore impossible.
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AREVAs quality solutions


-All current carrying parts, excluding main contacts, are made of high strength corrosionproof aluminium alloy. -Copper made contacts are tinned on the bolted side and silver plated on the contact side. This to avoid galvanic corrosion between different metals. -A specific silver plating (additional graphite) procedure ensures low friction on main contacts. Mechanical endurance tests prove silver does not disappear even after 10.000 operations.

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AREVAs quality solutions


- Aluminium flexible connections are deployed as a standard on moving live parts. Areva is not using anymore sliding contact on disconnector. -Reverse loop fingers, with limited contact area, are used whenever applicable (centre and double side break, vertical break, knee type). Jaw contact pressure increases as current rises due to the reverse loop finger design. Magnetic forces due to fault currents tend to push the blade deeper into the jaw rather than out.

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AREVAs quality solutions


-Independent springs, insulated at one end, create the necessary contact pressure. In this way the contact pressure is not depending of the elasticity of the material that change with the temperature, so during the short circuit current. -Corona free products are designed using modern electric field calculation tools. -Switch bases shall be of galvanized high strenght steel construction with ball bearings designed to operate without lubrication or maintenance.
Our Customers expect at least a 30-40 years trouble-free lifetime with very limited maintenance
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Disconnectors, Why ?
Through:
Reliable isolation in open position Opening or closing an electric circuit Making and breaking small currents (IEC1128, IEC1129)

Safety for people working on deenergised lines

Disconnectors ensure :
Without:
Making and breaking nominal or higher currents

Power derivation

Earthing of circuit elements

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Disconnectors, Where?

Bus bar disconnector Line disconnector Earthing switch

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Disconnectors: general presentation


Main purpose: 1. Introduction of Areva Disconnector Product line 2. Why do we use disconnectors on substations? 3. General disconnector design (dielectric!) 4. Complete portfolio of Areva DSC PL 5. Something unique: Ultra High Voltage Equipment

Oslo, Norway 21st October 2008


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Disconnector design

International Standard

CEI, IEC 694

Common specification for High-Voltage Switchgear and controlgear standards


defines on table 1a and 1b The withstand voltage values across the isolating distance are valid only for switching device where the clearance between the open contact are designed to meet the safety requirements specified for disconnectors
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3,6kV<Ur<245kV

Disconnector design
Ur (rated Voltage) = 145kV P.F. (power frequency withstand voltage)= 275kV common values* 315kV across the isolating distance L.I. (lighting impulse withstand voltage, 1,2/50s)= 650kV commons values* 750kV across the isolating distance

*common values: applied to phase-to-earth and phase-tophase.

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300kV<Ur<800kV

Disconnector design
Ur (rated Voltage) = 420kV P.F. (power frequency withstand voltage)= 520kV common values* 610kV across the isolating distance S.I. (switching impulse withstand voltage,50/2500s)= 1050 phase-earth 1575 between phases 900(+450) across isolating distance L.I. (lighting impulse withstand voltage)= 1425kV commons values* 1425(+240)kV across the isolating distance *common values: applied to phase-to-earth and phase-tophase.

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Dimensions of 800kV disconnectors

The parameter that rules the sizing of High Voltage switches is the Swithing Impulse withstand. The dimension of the open gap can be calculated by means of the Gallet formula:

3400 U 50 = k 8 1+ d

U10 = U 50 (1 1,3 ) = 0.922 U 50

d = clearance; k = shape factor;

= 0,06 (=0,03 in case of L.I.)

U50 = value of SI for which the probability of a discharge is 50% U10 = value of SI for which the probability of a discharge is 10%
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Dimensions of 800kV disconnectors

International Standard IEC 62271-102


High Voltage Alternating Current Disconnectors and Switchgear
defines the criteria how to carry out the test.

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420kV Areva disconnectors. Dielectric tests results

Analysis of open gap Switching Impulse withstand of different disconnectors. Research for the limits with Up & Down method. 420kV switches for use in Europe grid. Double Side Break S3CD UK Semipantograph SPV ENEL

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S3CD 420kV UK tested at the CESI lab., Milan, 1996

Gallet formula

U 50

d = 3.73 m k = 1.18

3400 =k 8 1+ d

U50,eq = 1271 kV peak U10 = 1171 kV peak

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SPVL 420kV ENEL tested at the CESI lab.

Gallet formula

U 50

3400 =k 8 1+ d
d = 3.5 m U50 = 1417 kV peak k = 1.37 U10 = 1306 kV peak

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Each kind of DSC has to be type tested according to the IEC standard 62271-102
Main purpose: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Lighting Impulse Switching Impulse RIV-Radio Interference Voltage Temperature Rise Test Short Circuit Current Test Mechanical Endurance Test Mechanical Terminal Load Operation under several coating condition Operating at the temperature Limits

10. Bus transfer current switching References: IEC 694 IEC 62271-102 High Voltage Switchgear IEC 865-1 Short Circuit currentCalculation and effects
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Disconnectors: general presentation


Main purpose: 1. Introduction of Areva Disconnector Product line 2. Why do we use disconnectors on substations? 3. General disconnector design (dielectric!) 4. Complete portfolio of Areva DSC PL 5. Something unique: Ultra High Voltage Equipment

Oslo, Norway 21st October 2008


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A Complete Range of Disconnectors

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Disconnectors by type: horizontal insulation

Side break S2CR Centre break S2DA - VCB Double side break S3C S3CD S3VD

Vertical break S3CV - CGVB


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Knee type SPO - SPOL


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Disconnectors by type: vertical insulation

Pantograph SX
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Semi-pantograph SPV - SPVL


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Earthing switches (T or 2T) by position


Parallel to the base, Right and Left L R Vertical to the base, Right and Left (special) L R

Front side of operating mechanism

Front side of operating mechanism

Parallel to the base, Mobile arm or fixed contact side Vertical to the base, Mobile arm or fixed contact side (special)
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Earthing switch (T) by position

Parallel to the base

Vertical to the base

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HV Disconnector Design Choice

Substation layouts usually require a vertical and/or horizontal insulation:


Pantograph and semipantograph disconnectors for vertical insulation 2 and 3 columns, vertical break and knee type disconnectors for horizontal insulation

Each customer prefers a different design depending on


substation layout experience the need to reduce purchasing costs the phase to phase distance total height of the equipment the overall dimensions

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AREVA disconnectors map


kV 72,5 100 123 145 170 245 300 362 420 550 800 1000
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Centre break (S2DA)

V centre break (VCB)

Double side Semi p. Semi p. hor. break vert. (SPO-SPOL) (S3C-S3CD) (SPV-SPVL)

Pant. (SX)

VB (CGVBS3CV)

E.S. (STB-STA)

Disconnectors: general presentation


Main purpose: 1. Introduction of Areva Disconnector Product line 2. Why do we use disconnectors on substations? 3. General disconnector design (dielectric!) 4. Complete portfolio of Areva DSC PL 5. Something unique: Ultra High Voltage Equipment

Oslo, Norway 21st October 2008


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AREVA EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE equipment

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AREVA references on EHV equipment

1980: PANTOGRAPH 1050/6000 (Italy) 2000: SPOL(T)(2T)-800/3150 (Russia) 2003: SPVL-800/3150 (Brasil, USA) 2005-8: SPO and SPOL-765/3150 (South Africa, India, Venezuela) 2007: SPOL 800kV 5000A DC (China) 2008: SPO 515kV DC disconnector and STA DC earthing switch for Valve Hall (SAPEI project)
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References on EHV equipment

1980: PANTOGRAPH 1050/6600 (Italy) 2000: SPOL(T)(2T)-800/3150 (Russia) 2003: SPVL-800/3150 (Brasil, USA) 2005-8: SPO and SPOL-765/3150 (South Africa, India, Venezuela) 2007: SPOL 800kV 5000A DC (China) 2008: SPO 515kV DC disconnector and STA DC earthing switch for Valve Hall (SAPEI project)
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SPOL 800kV DC: main data (*)

Manufacturer: Type: Nominal direct voltage: Max direct voltage: Nominal current: BIL: SIL:

AREVA T&D SpA SPOL-800/4000 or 5000A 800 kV DC 824 kV 4000 A or 5000 A 1950 kV 1700 kV

Direct voltage withstand, wet: 1236 kV

(*) from technical specifications of Yunnan Guangdong and Xiangjiaba Shanghai projects
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Dielectric tests

From March to July 2007 Dielectric, Corona and RIV tests have been carried out in FGH laboratory of CESI group, in Mannheim, Germany.

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Pictures from the tests in FGH lab, Germany

Equilateral Triangle Insulator Support Solution (Insulator H=10m Structure H=5m)

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Pictures from the tests in FGH lab, Germany

Test with different shield configurations

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Pictures from the tests in FGH lab, Germany

Open gap testing

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Long Term tests

Since November 2006, in order to verify the long term behaviour of the switch, AREVA disconnector, together with many other pieces of UHVDC equipment, has been put in a circuit in STRI laboratory in Ludvika, Sweden, and energized at 855kVDC.

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Test field in STRI lab, Sweden

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Pictures from the test preparation in STRI lab, Sweden


Composite insulators

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References on EHV equipment

1980: PANTOGRAPH 1050/6600 (Italy) 2000: SPOL(T)(2T)-800/3150 (Russia) 2003: SPVL-800/3150 (Brasil, USA) 2005-8: SPO and SPOL-765/3150 (South Africa, India, Venezuela) 2007: SPOL 800kV 5000A DC (China) 2008: SPO 515kV DC disconnector and STA DC earthing switch for Valve Hall (SAPEI project)
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SPO 515kV DC and STA Valve Hall E.S.

SAPEI (SArdinia PEnisola Italica): the largest HVDC link in the Mediterranean Sea

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SPO 515kV DC and STA Valve Hall E.S.: main data

Manufacturer: Type, disconnector: Type, earthing switch: Nominal direct voltage: Direct voltage withstand: Nominal current (DSC): BIL: SIL:

AREVA T&D SpA SPO-515/3150 STA-515 515 kV DC 773 kV 3150 A 1110 kV 1015 kV

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SPO 515kV DC with double ES: mechanical test

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STA 515kV DC Valve Hall E.S.: mechanical test


Counterweights balancing system

Anti-corona shields

Direct entry E.S. with tulip contact on fixed part Standard CMM operating mechanism
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STA 515kV DC Valve Hall E.S.: mechanical test

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XiangJiaba Shanghai Project STA Valve Hall E.S. of Fengxian and Fulong Stations

The experience of SAPEI project has been very useful for the design of the wall mounted and semipantograph Earthing Switches for Fengxian and Fulong Stations.

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SPO 515kV DC and STA Valve Hall E.S.

HVDC Valve Hall - Delta Winding


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Future: 1200kV project, India

10m

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