Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 1455

Upload

Log in Sign up
Log
in
Sign
up

Search

the

world

's

digital

Browse

Books

BiographyBusinessCookbooks

&

FoodFiction

&

LiteratureHistoryHobbies,

Crafts,

&

HomeKids

&

TeensMysteryReligionRomanceScience

Fiction

Content

BrochuresCourt FilingsCreative WritingLegal formsInstruction

manualsMapsGraphic

ArtPresentationsRecipes/MenusSchool

ArtPresentationsRecipes/MenusSchool Work

Work

Welcome

Download

to

Work Welcome Download to Scribd, the world 's digital library. Read, publish,

Scribd,

the

world

's

digital

library. Read, publish,
library.
Read,
publish,

and

share

books

and

documents.

See

more

Standard view

Full view

Re

753

ad Unlimited Books for $8.99 per month

of 928

Add note

Start Save your to My free Library month

Sync No to mobile

commitment.Cancel

anytime.

 

section

Netflix, music lovers

or

have

Spotify

and

book

lovers

(whether

they

read

literary

fiction

now have

Scribd.”– NPR

you

can browse

and skim

and

read

whatever

strikes

your

fancy…”–

Wired

of buying

one

new book a

month

(e-

or

otherwise),

you can

wander

through

more

the

next

best

thing to

sliced

bread. I can

finish

reading one

book

and

go

grab

another

sending

reader

you

an

sms.

Check

your

phone

number

or

try

again

later.

“Movie Look up lovers keyword have

or

than

Like this

best-selling potboilers)

“[Scribd] Share on social is a place networks where

“[Scribd] Share on social is a place networks where “For 0Activity less than the price ×

“For 0Activity less than the price

×

50,000 books.”– Entrepreneur

“This has got to be

There was a problem

Wendy Brooks, a Scribd

Close

To get Scribd mobile enter your number and we 'll send you a link to the Scribd app for iPhone & Android.

instantly”–

You're Re

We

've

sent

a

link

ading a Fre

to

the

Scribd

app.

e Previ

If you

didn't

receive

ew

Fre to the Scribd app. e Previ If you didn't receive ew it, try again. Download

it,

try

again.

Download (xxx) xxx-xxxx Text me Submit We Like 'll never 335 share your phone number.
Download
(xxx)
xxx-xxxx
Text
me
Submit
We
Like
'll
never
335
share
your
phone
number.
About
iTunes
App
Store
|
Google
Play
Store

×

About Scribd Team
About
Scribd
Team

Share to your social networks.

Blog

Join

our

team

!

Tweet

Embed Contact

Us

Search

in

this

document

Subscriptions

Table Of Contents

Subscribe

today

 
 
  Your subscription  

Your

subscription

 
 

1.1

Gift

cards

Telecommunications

Network

Architecture

 
 

1.2

Services,

 

Circuit Switching,

and

Packet

Switching

 
 

Adve

1.2.1

 

rtise

with

The Changing us

 

Services

Landscape

 
 

1.3

 

Optical Networks

 
 

1.3.1

  1.3.1 Get started Techniques  

Get

started

Techniques

 

Multiplexing

 

1.3.2

  1.3.2   Second-Generation AdChoices Optical Networks  
 

Second-Generation AdChoices

Optical

Networks

 
 

1.4

The

Optical

Layer

 
 

1.5

Support

Transparency

and

All-Optical

Networks

 
 

1.6

Optical

Help

Packe

t Switching

 
 

1.7

Transmission FAQ Basics

   
 

1.7.1

 

Press

Wavelengths, Frequencies,

and

Channel

Spacing

 

1.7.2

 

Wavelength

Purchase

 

Standards

Help

 
 

1.7.3

 

Optical

Power

and

Loss

 
 

1.8

Partners

Network

Evolution

 
 

1.8.1

 

Early

Days—Multimode

Fiber

 
 

1.8.2

  1.8.2 Single-Mode Publishers Fiber  

Single-Mode Publishers

Fiber

 
 

1.8.3

  1.8.3 Optical Developers / API Ampli fi ers     and WDM  

Optical

Developers / API

Ampliers

   

and WDM

 
 

1.8.4

 

Beyond

Transmission Links

 

to

Networks

 

Summary Legal

 
Further Reading
Further
Reading

Terms References Privacy Technology Copyright

Reading Terms References Privacy Technology Copyright 2. 1 Loss and Bandwidth Windows 2. 1.1 Bending Loss
2. 1 Loss and Bandwidth Windows 2. 1.1 Bending Loss Get Scribd Mobile 2. 2
2.
1
Loss
and Bandwidth
Windows
2.
1.1
Bending
Loss
Get
Scribd
Mobile
2.
2 Intermodal Dispersion
2.
2.1 Geometrical
Optics
Approach
2.
2.2 Bit
Rate–Distance
Limitation
2.
2.3 Controlling
Intermodal
Dispersion
: Graded-Index
Multimode
Fiber
2.
2.4 Multimode
Fiber in
Practice
2.
3
Optical Fiber
as
a Waveguide
2.
3.1 Wave
Mobile Theory
Site
Approach
2.
3.2 Fiber Modes
2.
©
3.3
Copyright 2014 Scribd
Polarization Modes
and Inc.
Polarization-Mode
Dispersion
Language
2.
3.4
Other
:
Waveguides
English
2.
4
Chromatic
Dispersion
2.
4.1 Chirped
Gaussian
Pulses
2.
4.2 Controlling
the
Dispersion
:
Dispersion-Shifted
Fibers
2.
5
Nonlinear Effects
2.
5.1 Effective Length
and
Area
2.
5.2 Stimulated
Brillouin
Scattering
 

2.5.3

 

Stimulated

Raman

Scattering

 
 

2.5.4

 

Propagation

in

a

Nonlinear

Medium

 
 

2.5.5

   

Self-Phase

Modulation

 
 

2.5.6

     

SPM-Induced

Chirp

for

 

Gaussian

Pulses

 

2.5.7

     

Cross-Phase Modulation

 
 

2.5.8

 

Four

-Wave Mixing

   
 

2.5.9

 

Fiber

Types

to

Mitigate

Nonlinear

Effects

2.6

 

Solitons

 
 

2.6.1

 

Dispersion-Managed

 

Solitons

 

2.7

 

Other

 

Fiber Technologies

 
 

2.7.1

 

Photonic Crystal

 

Fiber

 
 

2.7.2

 

Plastic

Optical

Fiber

 

Problems

Components

3.1

 

Couplers

 
 

3.1.1

 

Principle

of Operation

 
 

3.1.2

 

Conservation

of

Energy

 

3.2

Isolators

and

Circulators

 

3.2.1

 

Principle

of Operation

3.3

 

Multiplexers

and

Filters

 
 

3.3.1

 

Gratings

 
 

3.3.2

 

Diffraction

Pattern

 
 

3.3.3

   

Bragg Gratings

 
 

3.3.4

 

Fiber

Gratings

 
 

3.3.5

   

Fabry-Perot

 

Filters

 
 

3.3.6

 

Multilayer

Dielectric

Thin-Film

 

Filters

 
 

3.3.7

   

Mach-Zehnder

Interferometers

 
 

3.3.8

 

Arrayed

Waveguide

Grating

 
 

3.3.9

 

Acousto-Optic

Tunable

Filter

 
   

3.3.10

 

High Channel

Count

Multiplexer

Architectures

 

3.4

Optical

Ampliers

 
 

3.4.1

 

Stimulated

Emission

 
 

3.4.2

 

Spontaneous

Emission

 
 

3.4.3

 

Erbium-Doped

Fiber

Ampliers

 
 

3.4.4

 

Raman

Ampliers

 
 

3.4.5

 

Semiconductor

Optical

Ampliers

 
 

3.4.6

 

Crosstalk

in

SOAs

 

3.5

 

Transmitters

 
 

3.5.1

 

Lasers

 

3.5.2

   

Light-Emitting

Diodes

 
 

3.5.3

 

Tunable

Lasers

 
 

3.5.4

 

Direct

and

External

Modulation

 
 

3.5.5

 

Pump

Sources

for

Raman

Ampliers

 
 

3.6

Detectors

 
 

3.6.1

 

Photodetectors

 
 

3.6.2

 

Front-End

 

Ampliers

 

3.7

 

Switches

 
 

3.7.1

 

Large

 

Optical Switches

 
 

3.7.2

 

Optical

 

Switch Technologies

 

3.7.3

 

Large

Electronic

Switches

 

3.8

 

Wavelength

Converters

 
 

3.8.1

 

Optoelectronic

Approach

 
 

3.8.2

 

Optical

Gating

 
 

3.8.3

 

Interferometric

Techniques

 

3.8.4

 

Wave

Mixing

 

Demodulation

4.1

 

Modulation

 
 

4.1.1

 

Signal

Formats

 

4.2

 

Subcarrier

Modulation

and

Multiplexing

 
 

4.2.1

 

Clipping

and

Intermodulation

Products

 

4.2.2

 

Applications

of

SCM

 

4.3

 

Spectral Efciency

 
 

4.3.1

 

Optical Duobinary

Modulation

 
 

4.3.2

 

Optical Single

Sideband

Modulation

 
 

4.3.3

   

Multilevel Modulation

 
 

4.3.4

 

Capacity

Limits

 

of Optical

Fiber

 

4.4

 

Demodulation

 
 

4.4.1

 

An

Ideal

Receiver

 
 

4.4.2

 

A

Practical Direct

 

Detection

 

Receiver

 
 

4.4.3

 

Front-End

 

Amplier

Noise

 
 

4.4.4

 

APD

Noise

 
 

4.4.5

 

Optical

Preampliers

 
 

4.4.6

 

Bit

Error

Rates

 
 

4.4.7

   

Coherent Detection

 
 

4.4.8

 

Timing

Recovery

 
 

4.4.9

 

Equalization

 

4.5

 

Error

Detection

and

Correction

 
       

4.5.1 Reed-Solomon

Codes

 
     

4.5.2 Interleaving

 

5.1

   

System Model

 
 

5.2

Power

Penalty

5.3

 

Transmitter

 

5.4

 

Receiver

 

5.5

   

Optical Ampliers

 
 

5.5.1

 

Gain

Saturation

 

in EDFAs

 
 

5.5.2

 

Gain

Equalization

in

EDFAs

 
 

5.5.3

 

Amplier

Cascades

 
 

5.5.4

 

Amplier

Spacing

Penalty

 
 

5.5.5

 

Power

Transients

and

Automatic

Gain

Control

 

5.5.6

 

Lasing

Loops

 
5.6 Crosstalk 5.6.1 Intrachannel Crosstalk 5.6.2 Interchannel Crosstalk 5.6.3 Crosstalk in Networks 5.6.4
5.6
Crosstalk
5.6.1
Intrachannel
Crosstalk
5.6.2
Interchannel
Crosstalk
5.6.3
Crosstalk
in
Networks
5.6.4
Bidirectional Systems
5.6.5
Crosstalk
Reduction
5.6.6
Cascaded
Filters
5.7
Dispersion
5.7.1
Chromatic
Dispersion
Limits
:
NRZ
Modulation
5.7.2
Chromatic
Dispersion
Limits
:
RZ
Modulation
5.7.3
Dispersion
Compensation
5.7.4
Polarization-Mode
Dispersion
(PMD)
5.8
Fiber
Nonlinearities
5.8.1
Effective
Length
in
Amplified
Systems
5.8.2
Stimulated
Brillouin Scattering
5.8.3
Stimulated
Raman
Scattering
5.8.4
Four
-Wave
Mixing
5.8.5
Self-/Cross-Phase
Modulation
5.8.6
Role
of Chromatic
Dispersion
Management
5.9
Wavelength Stabilization
5.10
Design
of
Soliton
Systems
5.11
Design
of
Dispersion-Managed
Soliton
Systems
5.12
Overall
Design
Considerations
5.12.1
Fiber
Type
5.12.2
Transmit
Power
and
Amplifier
Spacing
5.12.3
Chromatic
Dispersion
Compensation
5.12.4
Modulation
5.12.5
Nonlinearities
5.12.6
Interchannel Spacing
and
Number
of Wavelengths
5.12.7
All-Optical Networks
5.12.8
Wavelength
Planning
5.12.9
Transparency
6.1
SONET/SDH
6.1.1
Multiplexing
6.1.2
VCAT
and
LCAS
6.1.3
SONET/SDH
Layers
6.1.4
SONET
Frame
Structure
6.1.5
SONET/SDH Physical
Layer
6.1.6
Elements
of
a
SONET/SDH
Infrastructure
6.2
Optical
Transport
Network
6.2.1
Hierarchy
6.2.2
Frame
Structure
6.2.3
Multiplexing
6.3 Generic
Framing
Procedure
6.4 Ethernet

6.4.1

Frame

Structure

 

6.4.2

Switches

 

6.4.3

Ethernet

Physical

Layer

Gigabit

Ethernet

Physical

Layer

 

6.4.4

 

Carrier

Transport

 

6.5

 

IP

     

6.5.1 Routing

and

Forwarding

 
     

6.5.2 Quality

 

of Service

 
 

6.6

Multiprotocol Label

 

Switching

 

6.6.1

 

Labels

and

Forwarding

 
 

6.6.2

 

Quality

 

of Service

 
 

6.6.3

 

Signaling and

 

Routing

 
 

6.6.4

     

Carrier Transport

 

6.7

 

Resilient

 

Packet

Ring

 
 

6.7.1

       

Quality of Service

 
 

6.7.2

     

Node Structure

 
 

6.7.3

 

Fairness

 

6.8

 

Storage-Area

 

Networks

 
 

6.8.1

 

Fibre

Channel

 

WDM

Network

Elements

 
   

7.1 Optical

Line

Terminals

   

7.2 Optical

Line

Ampliers

 
   

7.3 Optical

 

Add/Drop

Multiplexers

 
 

7.3.1

 

OADM

Architectures

 
 

7.3.2

 

Recongurable

OADMs

 

7.4

 

Optical

Crossconnects

 
 

7.4.1

   

All-Optical

OXC

Congurations

Control

and

Management

8.1

 

Network

Management

Functions

 
 

8.1.1

 

Management

Framework

 
 

8.1.2

 

Information

Model

 
 

8.1.3

 

Management

Protocols

 
 

8.2

   

Optical Layer Services

and

Interfacing

 

8.3

 

Layers

within

the

Optical

Layer

 
 

8.4

 

Multivendor Interoperability

 

8.5

 

Performance and Fault

   

Management

 
 

8.5.1

   

The Impact

 

of Transparency

 
 

8.5.2

   

BER Measurement

 
 

8.5.3

 

Optical

Trace

 
 

8.5.4

 

Alarm

Management

 
 

8.5.5

 

Data

Communication

Network

(DCN)

and

Signaling

 

8.5.6

 

Policing

 
 

8.5.7

 

Optical

Layer

Overhead

 
 

8.5.8

 

Client

Layers

 
 

8.6

Conguration

Management

 
 

8.6.1

   

Equipment Management

 
 

8.6.2

   

Connection Management

 

8.6.3

 

Adaptation

Management

 

8.7

 

Optical

Safety

 

8.7.1

 

Open

Fiber

Control

Protocol

Network Survivability 9.1 Basic Concepts 9.2 Protection in SONET/SDH 9.2.1 Point-to-Point Links 9.2.2
Network
Survivability
9.1
Basic
Concepts
9.2
Protection
in
SONET/SDH
9.2.1
Point-to-Point
Links
9.2.2
Self-Healing
Rings
9.2.3
Unidirectional
Path-Switched
Rings
9.2.4
Bidirectional
Line-Switched
Rings
9.2.5
Ring
Interconnection and
Dual
Homing
9.3
Protection
in
the
Client
Layer
9.3.1 in
Protection
Resilient Packet
Rings
9.3.2 Protection
in
Ethernet
9.3.3 Protection
in
IP
9.3.4 Protection
in
MPLS
9.4
Why
Optical Layer
Protection
9.4.1
Service
Classes
Based
on
Protection
9.5
Optical
Layer
Protection
Schemes
9.5.1
1 Protection
+
1
OMS
9.5.2
1 :1
OMS
Protection
9.5.3 OMS-DPRing
9.5.4 OMS-SPRing
9.5.5
1
:N
Transponder
Protection
9.5.6
1
+
1
OCh
Dedicated
Protection
9.5.7
OCh-SPRing
9.5.8
OCh-Mesh
Protection
9.5.9
GMPLS
Protection
9.6
Interworking
between
Layers
WDM
Network
Design
10.1 Cost
Trade-Offs
:
A
Detailed
Ring
Network
Example
10.2 LTD
and
RWA
Problems
10.2.1
Lightpath
Topology
Design
10.2.2
Routing
and
Wavelength
Assignment
10.2.3
Wavelength
Conversion
10.3
Dimensioning
Wavelength-Routing
Networks
10.4
Statistical
Dimensioning
Models
10.4.1
First-Passage
Model
10.4.2
Blocking Model
10.5
Maximum Load
Dimensioning
Models
10.5.1
Offline
Lightpath
Requests
10.5.2
Online
RWA
in
Rings
Access
Networks
11.1 Network Architecture Overview 11.2 Enhanced HFC 11.3 Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) 11.3.1 PON
11.1
Network
Architecture
Overview
11.2
Enhanced
HFC
11.3
Fiber
to the
Curb
(FTTC)
11.3.1
PON
Evolution
12.1
Optical
Time
Division
Multiplexing
12.1.1
Bit
Interleaving
12.1.2
Packet
Interleaving
12.1.3
Optical AND
Gates
12.2
Synchronization
12.2.1 Tunable
Delays
12.2.2 Optical
Phase
Lock
Loop
12.3
Header
Processing
12.4
Buffering
12.4.1
Output
Buffering
12.4.2
Input
Buffering
12.4.3
Recirculation
Buffering
12.4.4
Using
Wavelengths
for
Contention
Resolution
12.4.5
Deflection
Routing
12.5
Burst
Switching
12.6
Testbeds
12.6.1
KEOPS
12.6.2
NTT’s
Optical
Packet
Switches
12.6.3
BT
Labs
Testbeds
12.6.4
Princeton University
Testbed
12.6.5
AON
12.6.6
CORD
13.1
The
Evolving
Telecommunications
Network
13.1.1
The
SONET/SDH
Core
Network
13.1.2
Architectural
Choices
for
Next-Generation
Transport
Networks
13.2
Designing
the
Transmission
Layer
13.2.1
Using
SDM
13.2.2
Using
TDM
13.2.3
Using
WDM
13.2.4
Unidirectional
versus
Bidirectional
WDM
Systems
13.2.5
Long-Haul
Networks
13.2.6
Long-Haul
Network
Case
Study
13.2.7
Long-Haul
Undersea
Networks
13.2.8
Metro
Networks
13.2.9
Metro
Ring
Case
Study
13.2.10
From Opaque
Links
to
Agile
All-Optical
Networks

Acronyms

Symbols

and

Parameters

Standards

C.1

 

International

Telecommunications

Union

(ITU-T)

 

C.1.1

 

Fiber

C.1.2

   

SDH

(Synchronous

Digital

Hierarchy)

 

C.1.3

   

Optical

Networking

 

C.1.4

   

Management

 

C.2

 

Telcordia

 

C.2.1

   

Physical

and

Environmental

 

C.2.2

   

SONET

 

C.2.3

   

Optical

Networking

 

C.3

 

American

National

Standards

 

Institute

 

(ANSI)

C.3.1

   

SONET

 

C.3.2

   

Fibre

Channel

 

Wave

Equations

 

E.1

   

Propagation

 

of Chirped

Gaussian

Pulses

 

E.2

   

Nonlinear

Effects

on

Pulse

Propagation

E.3

   

Soliton Pulse

Propagation

 

Nonlinear

Polarization

 
 

G.1

Wave

Propagation

at

Dielectric

 

Interfaces

 

G.2

 

Filter Design

 
 

H.1

Random

Variables

 
 

H.1.1

 

Gaussian Distribution

 
 

H.1.2

 

Maxwell Distribution

 
 

H.1.3

 

Poisson Distribution

 

H.2

Random

Processes

 
 

H.2.1

 

Poisson

Random

Process

 
 

H.2.2

 

Gaussian

Random

Process

 

Receiver Noise

 

Statistics

 

I.

1 Shot

 

Noise

 

I.

 

2 Amplier

Noise

 

J.

1

Functions

 

of ATM

 

J.

1.1

Connections

and

Cell

Forwarding

 

J.

1.2

Virtual

Paths

 

J.

2

Adaptation

Layers

 

J.

 

2.1 AAL-1

 

J.

 

2.2 AAL-5

   

J.

 

3 Quality

 

of Service

 

J.

 

4 Flow

Control

 

J.

5

S

ignaling

and

Routing

 

0

of .

 

Results

 

No

for : results
for
:
results

containing

your

search

query