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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter contains the descriptions, theories, concepts, discussions and other related studies of the present study.

2.1 Embedded Generation Distributed or embedded generation is a concept of installing and operating small electric generators connected directly to the distribution network or at the customer side, typically less than 15 MW, but sometimes up to 100 MW
[1]

. Embedded generation

technologies include photovoltaics, wind turbines, fuel cells, small and micro gas turbines, Stirling-engine based generators, and internal combustion engine-generators.

2.2 Power System Modelling All analysis in the engineering sciences starts with the formulation of appropriate models. A model, and in power system analysis we almost invariably then mean a mathematical model, is a set of equations or relations, which appropriately describes the interactions between different quantities in the time frame studied and with the desired accuracy of a physical or engineered component or system. Hence, depending on the purpose of the analysis different models of the same physical system or components might be valid [2].

2.2.1 Generator Model A synchronous generator is modeled as current injections, shown in Figure 2.1, during load flow analysis. In steady state, a generator is commonly controlled so that the active power injected into the bus and the voltage at the generator terminals are kept constant [2].

Figure 2.1 Generator Model

2.2.2 Transformer Model Transformers are basically a static electrical machine which has a magnetic core on which windings are placed. It is the integral part of any electrical network. The equivalent circuit of the transformer would be a single reactance in the case of positive sequence and negative sequence for a two-winding transformer, but highly dependent on the winding connection for the zero sequence. The transformer would be a combination of single windings. The magnetising impedance is taken as open circuit for fault studies [3].

Figure 2.2 Positive and negative sequence equivalent circuit of a transformer

Figure 2.3 Zero sequence equivalent circuit of a transformer

2.2.3 Transmission Line Model The circuit in Figure 2.3 represents a short transmission line, usually applied to overhead 60-Hz lines less than 0 km long. Only the series resistance and reactance are included. The shunt admittance is neglected. The circuit applies to either single-phase or completely transposed three-phase lines operating under balanced conditions [3].

Figure 2.4 Equivalent circuit of a short transmission line

2.3 Fault Analysis In practice, any disturbance in the normal working conditions is termed as a fault. The effect of fault is to load the device electrically by many times greater than its normal rating and thus damage the equipment involved. Hence all the equipment in the fault lines should be protected from being overloaded. Faults can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical faults.

2.3.1 Symmetrical Fault Balanced or symmetrical three phase fault occurs roughly 5% of all faults in the power system [4]. To calculate the subtransient fault current for this kind of fault, the following assumption were considered: 1. Transformers are represented by their leakage reactances. Winding resistances, shunt admittances, and DY phase shifts are neglected. 2. Transmission lines are represented by their equivalent series reactances. Series resistances and shunt admittances are neglected. 3. Synchronous machines are represented by constant-voltage sources behind subtransient reactances. Armature resistance, saliency, and saturation are neglected [3].

2.3.2 Unsymmetrical Fault Most of the fault that occur on power systems are unsymmetrical faults, which may consist of unsymmetrical short circuit, unsymmetrical faults through impedances, or open conductors [3][4]. Unsymmetrical faults occur as the following:

1. Single line-to-ground faults In a single line-to-ground fault, one phase is directly connected to the earth as shown in Figure 2.5.

Figure 2.5. Single line-to-ground fault

2. Line-to-line fault In a Line-to-line fault, two phases are shorted together as shown in Figure 2.6.

Figure 2.6. Line to line fault

3. Double line-to-ground fault In a double line-to-ground, two phases are shorted together to the earth as shown in Figure 2.7.

Figure 2.7 Double line to ground fault

2.4 Power System Reliability The ability of the system to provide an adequate supply of electrical energy is usually designated by the term of reliability. It was subdivided into concern as shown in the figure below.

SYSTEM RELIABILITYf

SYSTEM ADEQUACY

SYTEM SECURITY

. Figure 2.12 Subdivision of System Reliability Figure 2.12 represents two basic aspects of a power system: system adequacy and security. Adequacy relates to the existence of sufficient facilities within the system to satisfy the consumer load demand. These include the facilities necessary to generate sufficient energy and the associated transmission and distribution facilities required to transport the energy to the actual consumer load points. Security relates to the ability of the system to respond to disturbances arising within that system. Security is therefore associated with the response of the system to perturbations [5].

2.4.1 Definitions of Performance Indices SAIDI (system average interruption duration index) is the average interruption duration per customer served. It is determined by dividing the sum of all customer interruption durations during a year by the number of customers served.

SAIDE =

CAIDI (customer average interruption duration index) is the average interruption duration for those customers interrupted during a year. It is determined by dividing the

sum of all customer interruption durations by the number of customers experiencing one or more interruptions over a one-year period.

CAIDI =

These two performance indices express interruption statistics in terms of system customers. A customer here can be an individual, firm, or organization who purchases electric services at one location under one rate classification, contract or schedule [5].

2.4 Related Studies The following are existing studies which has the same focus as this study, the effects of embedded generators. 2.4.1 Effect of Embedded Induction Generators on Short-Circuit Detection According to the paper of P. Vermeyen, J. Dreisen and et.al[9], The application of embedded generators in distribution grids has consequences for the protection systems. In order for them to investigate the impact of induction generators on the detected short-circuit current in a distribution feeder, a general approach is described. It consists of modeling a simple distribution system, as shown in figure 2.8, and calculating a series of possible values for the parameters of this system. By changing the values of the parameters, a wide range of configurations is investigated. Within this system, short circuits are simulated.

Figure 2.8 Outline of the system that is simulated

The simulated system is described and the calculation and choice of the parameters of this system are discussed. The parameters of concern are: 1. short-circuit power of the grid 2. cross-sectional area of the cable conductors 3. location of the generator 4. power of the generator 5. minimum short-circuit current

2.4.2 Impact of embedded generation on distribution networks According to the study of M. Bello and Dr. C. Carter Brown [8], the magnitude of generation that can be connected to the network is determined by many factors, including for example, the voltage level at the point of connection, distance from the voltage source, size of the conductor, load demand on the network, interaction of other generation connected to the network and type and operating regime of the generation. They also discuss in their paper the possible cause if an embedded generator will be connected to the transmission network. Generators may cause the loading level of individual elements (transformers and lines) to increase, specifically in cases of maximum generation and minimum load. Thermal ratings could be exceeded. Step voltage changes may be caused by inrush currents, which occur when transformers and/or induction generators are energized from the network. A sudden voltage reduction can be experienced when a generator is disconnected. Connecting a generator to a network has the effect of increasing the fault levels in the network close to the point of embedded generator connection. This may result in the violation of equipment fault levels ratings.

2.4.3 Investigating the Impact of Embedded Generator on Relay Settings of Utilities Electrical Feeder This paper report an investigation to determine the impact of the integration of embedded generator on the settings of the protective devices of electrical feeders ema

REFERENCES [1] T. Vu Van A.; Woyte J.;Soens S J.; Driesen R. Belmans: Impacts of Distributed Generation on Distribution System Power Quality Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Leuven, Belgium, September 2003 [2] Goran Andersson Modelling and Analysis of Electric Power Systems Power Flow Analysis Fault Analysis Power Systems Dynamics and Stability ETH Zurich, September 2008, page 5 [3] Glover,J.D.; Sarma, M.;Overbye, T.:Power System Analysis and Design Fifth Edition, Cengage Learning, USA, 2012. [4]Stevenson, W.D.;Elements of Power System Analysis 4rth ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984 [5] Dan Zhu Power System Reliability Analysis with Distributed Generators Blacksburg, VA, May, 2003

[1]Jenkins, N.; Allan, R.; Crossley, P.; Kirschen, D.; Strbac, G.: Embedded Generation, [3] PB Associates, A National Code of Practice for Embedded Generation, Consultation Paper, February 2006 [5] J R Lucas, Power System Analysis: Faults October 2005 . [7] El-Hawary, M. E. ; Electrical Energy System, CRC Press, LLC,USA, 2000, pp. 1-3 [8] Barker, P., De Mello, R.W. Determining The Impact of Distributed Generation on Power System: Part 1 Radial distribution System ES Summer Meeting, IIEE, 2000, Vol. 3, pp 1645 -1656 [9] P. Vermeyen, J. Dreisen and et.al; Effect of Embedded Induction Generators on Short-Circuit Detection Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. 2006