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Thermodynamics Homework 10 Solutions

1. A two-stage compressor is used to compress air. The air is first compressed from 100 kPa to a medium pressure of 600 kPa. Its initial temperature is 15C. Some of the air (20%) is then fed to a process requiring air at 600 kPa, and the remaining air is further compressed to a high pressure of 800 kPa. The compressor requires 32 kW of power. (a) Draw a process diagram, (b) draw the process on a T-S diagram, (c) determine the temperatures of the medium- and high-pressure air streams, (d) determine the mass flow rate of air into the compressor. The compressor is adiabatic and reversible.

Assumptions: Ideal Gas Constant Heat Capacity Isentropic (reversible, adiabatic) compression

(15+273)*6^(0.375/1.375) = 469 K

Pressure increased by a factor of 8 in high-pressure stream.


(15+273)*8^(0.375/1.375) = 508 K

Energy balance around the whole unit:

Define to be the fraction of air used as medium-pressure air.

32 / (0.8*1.1*(235-15) + 0.2*1.1*(196-15)) = 0.137 kg/s

2. Steam expands reversibly and adiabatically in a turbine at a rate of , entering at and and leaving at . After exiting the turbine, it flows through a throttling valve, exiting the process as a saturated vapor at . Assume kinetic energy changes are negligibly small. a. Draw the flow diagram. b. Draw the process on a T-S diagram and a P-H diagram, what phase is the stream exiting the turbine? c. What is for the turbine? d. What is rate of entropy generation for the entire process?

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -1.0

Water

T [C]

8000 kPa

1000 kPa

100 kPa

0.1

1.2

2.3

3.4

4.5

5.6

6.7

7.8

8.9

10.0

s [kJ/kg-K]
10
5

10

1
270C
7.1

10

200C

2
150C

7.8

k kJ/

g-K

P [kPa]

10

110C

10

1
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

10

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

h [kJ/kg]

The valve is not adiabatic (heat must have been lost from the valve to reduce its enthalpy from 2 to 3).

3. Air flows into a throttling valve and turbine at a rate of 55 L/s at a temperature of 200C and a pressure of 5 MPa. It is exhausted from both devices at atmospheric pressure. 20% Turbine Throttling of the air flows through the throttling valve. The turbine is Valve adiabatic and has an isentropic efficiency of 76%. a. What is rate of entropy generation for the entire process? b. Draw the state transitions across the valve and the turbine on a T-S diagram and on a P-H diagram. c. Determine the power generated by the turbine. d. Determine the rate entropy is generated by the valve and by the turbine.

valve

turbine

b. c.

(5000*0.055) / (0.2870*(200+273)) = 2.03 kg/s

(200+273.15)*(101.3/5000)^(0.4/1.4) = 155 K 155 - 273.15 = -118 C

0.76*0.8*2.03*1.005*(200+118) = 394 kW

-0.2*2.03*0.2870*ln(101.3/5000) = 0.45 kW/K

0.8*2.03*(1.005*ln(231.8/473.15) - 0.2870*ln(101.3/5000)) = 0.65 kW/K

200 - 394 / (0.8*2.03*1.005) = -41.4 C -41.4 + 273.15 = 231.75