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# Frequency Response and Bode plot

Dr. S.V. Modak Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Frequency Response
G ( j ) = y ( j ) x ( j )

x = X sin t

y = Y sin(t + )

Y = G ( j ) X

Y = G ( j ) + X

Frequency Response
Transfer Function

K G ( s) = (1 + Ts )
K G ( s) = (1 + Ts )
K G ( j ) = (1 + jT )

## Sinusoidal Transfer Function

G ( j ) =

K 1 + (T ) 2

G ( j ) = tan 1 T

Y = G ( j ) X =

K 1 + (T )
2

Y = G ( j ) + X = tan 1 T + 0 = tan 1 T

## Application of Frequency response

1. Frequency response can be used to study stability of the closed loop system 2. Design of Compensators to achieve transient and steady state response specifications can be carried out using frequency response

## Open loop transfer function is required for above two tasks

Bode Plot

Consists of two plots: 1) Magnitude plot: Logarithmic Magnitude (dB) v/s Frequency on a log-scale 2) Phase plot: Phase v/s Frequency on a log-scale Both plots are made on a semi-log paper with - log-scale for frequency on x-axis and - linear-scale for dB on y-axis

## Advantages/ characteristics of Bode Plot

1) Multiplication of magnitudes is converted to addition. 2) A simple method for sketching roughly these plots is available based on asymptotic approximations. 3) This gives a quick rough idea of frequency response characteristics. 4) The accuracy can be improved by applying corrections. 5) Due to log scale the low frequency region is expanded 6) zero frequency cannot be shown as log(0)= - infinity

Sketching of Bode plots for a given open loop TF of a closed loop system

## Can we roughly sketch Bode diagram?

K1 (1 + T1s ) G( s) = 2 s (1 + T2 s ) s 2 + 2n s + n

K (1 + jT1 ) G ( j ) = j 2 j j (1 + jT2 ) + + 2 1 n n
:

Magnitude of

G( j)

M 1e j1 M 2e j2 G ( j ) = M 3e j3 M 4 e j4 M 5e j5

G ( j ) =

M1 M 2 M3 M4 M5

G ( j ) =

K (1 + jT1 ) j 2 j 2 1 j (1 + jT2 ) + + n n

## Can we roughly sketch Bode Mag. diagram?

Magnitude of G ( j ) in dB

:

## j 2 j + + 20 log10 (1 + jT2 ) 20 log10 2 1 n n

How to plot Bode Magnitude plot: - Plot individual factors on the RHS on a dB scale. - Algebraically add all to get the final plot (Note: Factors in the numerator are added, while the ones in the denominator are subtracted.)

## How to roughly sketch Bode Phase diagram?

Phase of
G ( j )

e j1 e j2 G ( j ) = j3 j4 j5 = e j (1+2 3 4 5 ) = 1 + 2 3 4 5 e e e
K + (1 + jT1 ) j 2 j j + (1 + jT2 ) + + + 2 1 n n

G ( j ) =
:

j 2 j G ( j ) = K + (1 + jT1 ) j (1 + jT2 ) + 2 + 1 n n

## Four basic Factors

K1 (1 + T1s ) G ( s) = 2 s (1 + T2 s ) s 2 + 2n s + n

)
K (1 + jT1 ) j 2 j + + 2 1 j (1 + jT2 ) n n

G ( j ) =

Four basic factors are: 1) Gain 2) Integral or derivative factor 3) First order factors 4) Second order factors K

( j ) 1

(1 + jT2 )1
j j 2 1 + + n n
2 1

## Bode plot of Gain K

K=1

dB = 20 log10 K = 20 0 = 0dB

If gain K is increased by factor of 10, then the bode plot of K shifts up by 20dB.

## dB = 20 log10 (10 K ) = 20 log10 10 + 20 log10 K = 20 + 20 log10 K

:

If gain K is increased by factor of 10n, then the bode plot of K shifts up by 20dB

## Bode plot of Integral factor

Integral factor ( j )
1

dB = 20 log10

1 1 = 20 log10 j

## = 20 log10 1 20 log10 = 20 log10

If frequency is increased by a factor of 10,

## dB = 20 log10 (10 ) = 20 log10 10 20 log10

:

= 20 20 log10

Therefore, on log-frequency scale the magnitude plot is a straight line with a slope of -20dB/decade..

Phase:

Phase: of -900

## Bode plot of Integral factor

Integral factor ( j )
1

## Bode plot of Derivative factor

Integral factor ( j )
+1

On the log-frequency scale the magnitude plot is a straight line with a slope of +20dB/decade and a phase of +90 degrees

## Bode plot of Intergral/ Derivative factor

factor

( j ) + / n

On the log-frequency scale the magnitude plot is a straight line with a slope of +/-20n dB/decade and a phase of +/-90n degrees

## Bode plot of First order factor

First order factor

(1 + jT )1
Phase

Magnitude

## 1 1 0 1 T = tan tan 1 1 + jT 1 = 0 tan 1 T = (tan 1 T ) 0

1 jT 1 dB = 20 log10 = 20 log10 1 + 2T 2 1 + jT
:

= 20 log10

1 + 2T 2 1 = 20 log 10 1 + 2T 2 1 + 2T 2
2 2

<<

## Bode plot of First order factor

First order factor

(1 + jT )1

## Approximation of Bode plot of First order factor

First order factor

(1 + jT )1
Asymptotic approximations (Limiting cases) High frequency asymptote

## 1 >> T dB 20 log10 2T 2 20 log10 T dB ( slope of 20dB / decade)

1 Corner frequency c = T

## Bode plot of First order factor

First order factor

(1 + jT )1

Corrections: a) -3dB at the corner frequency b) -1dB at the frequencies one octave below and above the corner freq.

## Bode plot of First order factor

First order factor

(1 + jT )+1

## Bode plot of Second order factor

j 2 j Second order factor: 2 1 + + n n
1

Magnitude

dB = 20 log10
Phase

1 j 2 j + 2 + 1 n n
2 2 2 1 2 + n n

1 j j + 2 + 1 n n
2

= 20 log10

0 = tan 1 tan 1 1

n
2

2 = tan 1

n
2

1 n

1 n

## Bode plot of Second order factor

j 2 j Second order factor: 2 1 + + n n
1

Corner frequency c = n
High Freq. Asymptote Low Freq. Asymptote
:

<< n
dB 20 log10 1 = 0dB
at = n 1 G ( j ) = 2

>> n
dB 20 log10 2 n
2 2

## (Note: for the numerator factor it is -2 (i.e. a valley)

40 log10 dB n
( slope of 40dB / decade)

## Bode plot of Second order factor

j 2 j Second order factor: 2 1 + + n n
Wn=10 Zeta=0.01 (g) Zeta=0.1 (b) Zeta=0.7 (r)
1

Corrections: Depend on Zeta. More difficult to accurately plot second order factor

## General procedure to roughly sketch Bode plot

1) Rewrite sinusoidal TF as a product of basic factors

2) Identify corner frequency for each factor 3) Draw the magnitude plot for each factor (using asymptotes and the corrections) 4) Algebraically add all magnitude plots. (Note that the slope changes at the corner frequency) 5) Similarly draw phase plot.

Problem
Draw Bode magnitude plot

1000( s + 1) G ( s) = (s + 10)2
10( s + 1) (s / 10 + 1)2

## Convert to time constant form

G (s) =

10( j + 1) G ( j ) = ( j / 10 + 1)2

Bode Mag