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Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An
International Journal of Computation and Methodology
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CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED OVAL TUBE
PART B: HEAT TRANSFER BEHAVIORS
Y. Chen
a
, M. Fiebig
a
& N. K. Mitra
a
a
Institut fr Thermo- und Fluiddynamik, Ruhr-Universitt Bochum , D-44780 Bochum,
Germany
Published online: 28 Mar 2007.
To cite this article: Y. Chen , M. Fiebig & N. K. Mitra (1998) CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED OVAL TUBE PART B:
HEAT TRANSFER BEHAVIORS, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and
Methodology, 33:4, 387-401
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10407789808913945
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CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED
OVAL TUBE PART B: HEAT
TRANSFER BEHAVIORS
Y. Chen, M. Fiebig, and N. K. Mitra
Institut jUr Thermo- und Fluiddynamik, Ruhr-Uniuersitdt Bochum,
D44780 Bochum, Germany
Conjugate heat transfer in a high-performance finned oval tube heat exchanger element has
been calculatedfor a thermally and hydrodynamicaUy developing three-dimensional laminar
flow. Theinfloence ofReynolds number in the range 100-500 and ofafin parameter Fi, the
product of the dimensionless fin thickness and its thermal conductivity, on the heat transfer
behavior have been studied. In part I, the computed velocity field was presented. Here we
present the heat transfer behavior, including heat flux on the tube, fin temperatures, fin
Nusse/l numbers and heat flux distributions, fm efficiencies, Colburn j factor, and apparent
friction factor f"". For the investigated configuration, the ratio ofheat transfer on the tube
to that on thefin remains under 10%. Thefin temperature and fin efficuncy depend weakly
on Fi.
INTRODUCTION
Analysis of the flow field in part 1 of this article [1] shows the weak horseshoe
vortex in front of the tube, the recirculating zone in the form of a hyperbolic
paraboloid where the helical vortex is found. The introduction to the heat transfer
in a finned tube, the mathematical formulation, and the solution method are
presented in part A of this article. In this part B, heat transfer distribution on the
fin and on the tube will be presented. Besides the Reynolds number, the parameter
Fi has been varied. For typical finned tube heat exchangers, Fi generally lies be-
tween 10
2
and 10
3
For example, if air [thermal conductivity k" = 0.026 W/(m K)
at 20C] is used as the fluid and 8/H is assumed to be 0.1, fins of aluminum
[thermal conductivity k:" = 221 W/(m K) at 20C] have Fi = 850; fins of steel with
0.6% carbon content [thermal conductivity k" = 50 W/(m K) at 20C] have
Fi = 192; and fins of stainless steel [k* "" 15 W/(m K) at 20C] have Fi = 58 [2].
In this study, Reynolds numbers of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 and fin parameters
of 100, 500, 1000, and 00 are used. The flow medium is air (Pr = 0.7). The fluid
temperatures at the entrance and on the tube surface are To = 0 and TT = 1,
respectively.
Received 22 May 1997; accepted 7 October 1997.
Dr.vlng, Y. Chen thanks DLR-IB for granting a scholarship of the German Federal Ministry of
Education, Science and Technology.
Address correspondence to Prof. N. K. Mitra, Institut fiir Thermo- und Fluiddynamik, Ruhr-Uni-
versitiit Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany. E-mail: mitra@alf.iws.ruhr-uni-bochum.de
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 33:387-401, 1998
Copyright 1998 Taylor & Francis
1040-7782/98 $12.00 + .00 387
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388 Y. CHEN ET AL.
NOMENCLATURE
a thermal diffusivity, coefficient fl fluid
A area frt frontal
B width ht heat transfer
D diameter, characteristic length i, j, k index
h convective heat transfer coefficient m meanvalue
H channel height nb neighboring
I flux p central control volume
J Jacobian sp spanwise averaged
k thermal conductivity T tube
L length w wall
p pressure 0 reference value
r,R radius, ratio
I time Superscript
T temperature
u,v,w Cartesian velocity components
,
dimensional
V volume
x,y,z Cartesian coordinates Dimensionless Parameters and Variables
a central angle
f3 cofactor Bi Biot number (= h'6' /k;l
6 fin thickness
f.pp
friction factor
'I
fin efficiency [=
v kinematic viscosity Fi fin parameter I (ki X6' /H')]
,'1,C
generalized coordinates Ft fin parameter 2 [= (at
p density j Colburn j factor (= Num/Re Pr
1/ 3
)
4>
general variable Nu Nusselt number
{= (h'W = [tj/2(T, - T
a
)]}
Subscripts Pe Peeler number (= Re Prj
Pr Prandtl number I = v6laV
B bulk q fin heat flux
cs cross section [= <.aT/azl,_o) - (aT/azl,_,)]
f fin Re Reynolds number I = /v6)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
From the computed temperature and pressure field, local heat flux q, Nusselt
number Nu, apparent friction fapp, etc., were calculated. The heat flux on both
sides of the fin q is defined in Eq. (8) of part 1. The local Nusselt number is
defined with the local heat flux, the local fin temperature, and the bulk tempera-
ture of the respective cross section:
q(x,y)lz_oD
Nu(x,y)l
z_ o
= Tr(x,y) - TB(x)
where D is the dimensionless characteristic length. D is unity when the same
characteristic length H as in the definition of Re is used. The bulk temperature is
defined as
JJlu(x, y, z)IT(x, y, z) dydz
Jflu(x, y, z)1 dydz
(2)
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HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED OVAL TUBE, PART B
The local mean fluid temperature over the height of the channel is defined as
jlu(x, y, z)IT(x, y, z) dz
Tm(x,y) = jlu(x,y,z)ldz
389
The spanwise averaged Nusselt number Nus/x) and heat flux 4s
p(x)
are used to
compare different Re and Fi. They are defined as
and
1 1Bo( .<)
Nus/x) = -(-) Nu(x,y)dy
B
n
x 0
. ( ) 1 1
Bo
( .<) . ( ) dy
qsP X = Bn(x) 0 q x,y
(4)
(5)
where Bn(x) refers to the wetted width of the duct in that x plane.
The span-averaged heat flux ihY(xT) along the circumference of the tube is
defined as
(6)
The ratio of heat transfer on the tube to that on the fin is defined as
j j4T(X
T,
z ) dxdz
RQ = -j-j-4('--x-,y""")-dx-d-y-
The fin efficiency TIc is defined as the ratio of the total amount of heat transfer of a
real fin to that of an isothermal fin (Fi --> 00):
jj4(x,y)dxdy
TIc = -:-:-:-0--.,....--:,-::-;--
j /4(x, y) dxdylFi_oo
The Colburn j factor and the friction factor lapp 'are defined as
. NU
m
] = RePr
1
/
3
A
f = 2 t:..P--.!!:..
app A
ht
(8)
(9)
(10)
where NU
m
is the mean Nusselt number over the fin, A
Crt
the minimum frontal
area, A
ht
the wetted area of the duct, and t:..p the pressure drop over the tube-fin
element. t:.. p is multiplied by 2 because the pressure is nondimensionalized by
P
*u*2
o 0 .
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390 Y. CHEN ET AL.
(a)
2
3
4

2
o 2 4 6
(b)
(c)
6 10 X 12 14
2

o 2 4 6 8 10 12
X
14
(d)
Figure I, Distribution of (a) the fin temperatures, (b) the mean fluid
temperatures, (c) the fluid temperatures adjacent to the fin, (d) the
fluid temperatures on the middle plane of the channel for Re 300,
Fi = 500.
Temperature Distributions
Figure 1 compares the fin temperature, the local mean fluid temperature
Tm(x,.y) defined in Eq. (3), the fluid temperature adjacent to the fin (z = o.on,
and the fluid temperature on the midplane of the duct (z = 0.5) for Re = 300 and
Fi = 500. Generally, the lowest temperatures of the fin or the fluid are located at
the point (x = 0, y = 0). The temperature increases with increasing x and y
except in the tube wake. Comparing Figures 10 and 1b, it is evident that the
temperature distribution in the fin is smoother than that in the fluid. Near the
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HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED OVAL TUBE, PART B 391
tube, the temperature gradient of the fluid is much larger than that of the fin.
From Figure 1b, the fluid temperature field can be briefly divided into four regions
with different distribution:
the entry flow region from the entrance to a short distance upstream of the
tube where the temperature field develops something like in a flat duct;
the area near the tube (the heat source) where there are large temperature
gradients normal to the tube surface; the isotherms run almost parallel to
the x direction, i.e., the temperature gradient in the y direction dominates;
the area away from the tube where temperature gradients in the main flow
direction dominate, as in a flat duct; and
the tube wake where the fluid temperatures are high because of the
recirculation and the temperature gradient in the x direction is very small.
Comparing Figures 1e and 1d, we find a clear difference of the temperature
distribution between the fluid near the fin (z = 0.01) and that in the middle of the
duct (z = 0.5). The temperature distribution near the fin resembles the fin temper-
ature (see Figure l.c), while that in the middle of the duct resembles the mean fluid
temperature (see Figure 1b), except in the entrance of the duct in both cases. Also,
there are large temperature differences between the fluid near the fin and that in
the middle of the duct, except in a small area around the tube. From Figures
1b-1d, we notice that the fluid temperature remains at a low level in a large area
of the duct. Beginning with x '" 5 the minimum mean fluid temperature in a cross
section with x = const turns out to be in y '" 2-2.5, not in y = 0, and so does the
fluid temperature in the midplane of the duct from x '" 3. This does not appear for
the fluid temperature adjacent to the fin.
The mean fluid temperature at any cross section increases with decreasing Re
and increasing Fi. Figure 2 compares the mean fluid temperatures for different Fi
with constant Re (Figures 2a and 2b) and for different Re with constant Fi
(Figures 2e and Zd). For a constant Re (= 300) the temperature gradient in the y
direction for Fi = 100 is larger than that for Fi = 1000. The global difference of
the mean fluid temperature between Fi = 100 and Fi = 1000 is small (Figures 2a
and Zb). This is also true for other investigated Re. From Figures 2e and 2d, it is
evident that for a constant Fi (= 500), the mean temperature level for Re = 100 is
much higher than that for Re = 500. The mean temperature depends strongly on
Re and only weakly on Fi. The temperature gradient in the y direction for
Re = 500 is much larger than that for Re = 100, especially in the area near the
tube.
The fin temperature distribution is much smoother than that of the fluid
temperature. Figure 3 compares the fin temperatures for different Fi with constant
Re (see Figures 3a and 3b) and for different Re with constant Fi (see Figures 3c
and 'sd). Evidently, the largest temperature difference between different parame-
ters appears in the region near the point (x = 0, y = 0), while the smallest
difference exists in the wake region. A change of Re from 100 to 500 with Fi = 500
(Figures 3e and 3d) influences the fin temperature much more than a change of Fi
from 100 to 1000 for Re = 300. With increasing Re, the fin temperature level
decreases quickly, especially in the area near (x = 0, y = 0).
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392 Y. CHEN ET AL.
(a)
o
o
o
2
2
8
8
(b)
(c)
(d)
8
8
10 X 12
10 X 12
14
14
2
3
2
3
3
2
Figure 2. Comparison of the mean fluid temperature for different
Re and Fi. (a) Re = 300, Fi = 100; (b) Re 300, Fi = 1000;
(c) Re = 100, Fi = SOO; (d) Re = 500, Fi = 500.
Figure 4 shows the temperature distributions in eight y-z cross section with
x = 1.5, 3.5, 5.6, 7.7., 9.7, 11.8, 13.8, and 15.4, respectively. Near the tube the
temperature gradients perpendicular to the tube dominate, while .in other regions,
the temperature gradients normal to the fin dictate. The lowest temperature of the
fluid does not appear in the plane of y = 0 (the farthest from the tube, the heat
source), but around y" 2-2.5 with z = 0.5 (see Figures 4b, 4e, and 4h, for
instance). The high temperature near the tube leads to the poor heat transfer of
the fin in that area, as will be discussed below.
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HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED OVAL TUBE, PART B
(0)
14
2
3
4
4
3
2
'----'-_---''--__...l- ~ _ _ __' 0
393
o 2 4 6
(b)
(c)
8 10 X12 14
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
2
3
4
4
3
2
L-----'-.......;l-........-_:L- ~ o
o 2 4 6
(d)
8 10 X 12 14
Figure 3. Comparison of the fin temperature for different Re and Fi.
(0) Re = 300, Fi = 100; (b) Re = 300, Fi = 1000; (c) Re = 100,
Fi = 500; (d) Re = 500, Fi = 500.
Heat Transfer on the Tube
Heat transfer on the tube is often ignored because it can be very small
compared to that on the fin. Figure 5 compares heat transfer on the tube for three
Re with constant Fi, Heat transfer near the middle of the tube (z = 0.5) is much
larger than that near the fin. In the junction of the tube and fin, the flow is
dominated by the combined boundary layer of fin and tube. The velocity and
temperature gradient is much smaller than that near the middle of the tube. The
maximum heat transfer appears on the front arc and decreases sharply with the
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394
4 3 2 o
Y. CHEN ET AL.
Figure 4. Temperature distribution on
eight y-z planes with constant x for
Re 300, Fi = 500.
beginning of the side arcs. On the front are, heat flux for Re == 500 is more than
twice that for Re = 100. Heat flux in the rear part of the tube is very small for
all Re.
If the heat fluxes on the tube are averaged over the height, the span-averaged
heat flux along the circumference of the tube ih defined in Eq. (6) is obtained; see
Figure 6. Clearly, heat fluxes on the front arc of the tube are much larger
compared to those of the rear part, which are negligibly small. Also, the maximum
difference of heat flux for different Re appears on the front of the tube, while the
absolute difference of heat flux in the rear of the tube is negligible. The averaged
maximum heat fluxes do not occur directly at the front stagnation point (XT = 0),
but in the neighborhood of that point (x
T
"" 0.4). This phenomenon becomes more
evident with increasing Re. Heat flux decreases abruptly after the peak values until
an inflection point is achieved, which shifts to larger XT for larger Re. The
inflection point is located at XT "" 1.2 for Re = 100 and at X
T
"" 1.8 for Re = 500.
After the inflection point, iiT decreases slowly but remains low.
Integrating the heat flux on the tube and dividing this by the total amount of
heat transfer on the fin yields the ratio of heat transfer on the tube to that on the
fin R
Q
defined in Eq. (7) (see Figure 7). R
Q
increases with increasing Re and
decreasing Fi. In practical application (Fi = 100-1000), the dependence of R
Q
on
Fi is small ( < 0.5%). For the configuration and Reynolds number range used here,
R
Q
remains < 10%. It is possible from the tendency of the curves that R
Q
exceeds
10% at higher Re (Re > 500) and smaller Fi (Fi < 100).
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HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED OVAL TUBE, PART B 395
upper fin t flux on the lube, Re=100, FI=5001
Z 0.5 0.5
lowerfi"
0.0
Iheat flux on the lUbe, Re=300, FI=500I
1.0
0.1
Z
0.5
0.0
\heatfluxonthe tube, Re=500, Fi=500 I
1.0
Z
0.5
0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
XT
Figure 5. Heat flux on the surface of a half tube for three Reynolds
numbers. Here x
T
= 0 corresponds to the front stagnation point,
XT= 13.7 the rear stagnation point, XT = 0.9 the junction of the
front and the side are, and x
T
= 12.8 the junction of the side and
the rear arc; z is the coordinate in the channel height direction
(the z coordinate is 4 X enlarged).
Heat Transfer on the Fin
Heat transfer on the fin is determined by the flow structure in the duct and
heat conduction in the fin. Figures 8 and 9 compare heat fluxes and Nusselt
numbers for different Fi with constant Re (Figures 8a, 8b, 9a, and 9b) and for
different Re with constant Fi (Figures 8e, 8d, ge, and 9d). Generally, heat transfer
in the leading edge of the fin is very good, while in the tube wake it is very poor.
The differences of q(x, y) and Nutx, y) between Fi = 100 and Fi = 1000 for
Re = 300 are much smaller than those between Re = 100 and Re = 500 with
Fi = 500. Comparing the vector plots (Figure 7 in part 1 [1]), the mean fluid
temperature Tm(x, y) (Figure 2), and the q(x, y) and Nutr, y) distribution, we see
that the area of maximum velocity (Figure 7 in part 1) or minimum Tm(x, y)
(Figure 2) in a cross section (x = const) in the range of the tube corresponds to the
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Y. CHEN ET AL.
spanaveraged heat fluxonlIle tIlba
14 12 10
lrear junetlJra of lila arcs
8 6 4
--
Re=500
-
Re=400
-
Ra=300
--
Re=200
--
Re=100
2
396
20
16
<h
12
8
4
0
0
Figure 6. Span-averaged heat flux along the circumference of a half tube
(all with Fi = 500). Here XT = 0 corresponds to the front stagnation point,
x,- = 13.7 to the rear stagnation point, XT = 0.9 to the junction of the front
and the side are, and x
T
= 12.8 to the junction of the side and the rear arc.
maximum of tj(x, y) and Nuf,r, y), In any cross section downstream of x '" 4,
minimum heat transfer on the fin occurs in the vicinity of the tube. Two factors
lead to this occurrence: (1) the combined boundary layers of the fin and tube result
in a weak transport ability of the fluid, and (2) the fluid temperature in that area is
high due to heat transfer on the outer surface of the tube. The span-averaged heat
fluxes q,P and Nusselt numbers Nu,p defined in Eqs. (4) and (5) for different Re
are shown in Figures 10 and 11. There are very large gradients of heat flux and Nu
in the leading edge of the fin. The disturbance of the tube with the formation of
horseshoe vortices slows down this tendency. Small local peaks of q,P and Nu.,
between x = 1 and x = 2 result from the horseshoe vortices. However, the amount
and area influenced by these vortices are very small in comparison with those of a
circular tube fin [3, 4]. Heat flux decreases slowlyin the range of the tube. The Nu
for Re = 100 is almost constant in the range of the tube (Figure 11). A further
decrease of the heat transfer occurs in the wake of the tube, where fluid recircu-
lates, and thus heat transfer is very weak. Because of the very small "dead water
zone," decrease in the span-averaged value is not evident.
Figure 7. Dependence of RQ' ratio of
the total heat transfer on the tube to that
on the fin, on the Reynolds number Re
and the fin parameter Fi.
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HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED OVAL TUBE, PART B
(a)
397
UL.._-'----' -..L ......__---'__..... 0
o 2 4 6
(b)
(c)
10
6 10
X
12
12
14
14
3
4
4
3
2
3
4
4
3
2
LU..---'---'""------'-----'------..... o
o 2 4 6
(d)
8 10
X
12 14
Figure 8. Comparison of heat flux distribution on the fin showing
that the heat flux has (a, b) a weak dependence on Fi for a
constant Re of 300 and (c, d) a stronger dependence on Re for a
constant Fi of 500. (a) Re = 300, Fi 100; (b) Re = 300,
Fi = 1000; (c) Re = 100, Fi = 500; (d) Re = 500, Fi = 500.
The fin efficiency 'lJf defined in Eq. (8) becomes unity for Fi --> 00, i.e., infinite
fin thermal conductivity or an infinitely thick fin. Both cases correspond to an
isothermal fin having the same temperature as the tube. Figure 12 shows that 'lJf
decreases with decreasing Fi and increasing Re. For the investigated configuration
and parameters, 'lJf remains high. For Fi = 1000, 'lJf remains almost >90%. The
difference of 'lJf between Fi = 100 and Fi = 1000 is surprisingly small ( <4%). Two
factors lead to this result: (1) the use of an oval tube, which ensures a relatively
homogeneous temperature distribution of the fin, and (2) the use of a moderate
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398 Y. CHEN ET AL.
(a)
12 14
4
3
2
u......J..L.....l..-__-'- "'--- --J
o
o 2 4 6
(b)
(c)
6 10 X 12 14
o 2 4 6 6 10 12 14
Ll-.....L-..L__--'-- ~ -" 0
o 2 4 6
(d)
8
X
10 12 14
Figure 9. Comparison of Nusselt number distribution on the fm
showing that the Nusselt number has (a, b) a weak dependence
on the Fi for a constant Re of 300 and (c, d) a stronger
dependence on Re for a constant Fi of 500. (a) Re = 300,
Fi - 100; (b) Re - 300, Fi = 1000; (c) Re = 100, Fi = 500;
(d) Re = 500, Fi = 500.
ratio of fin to tube area, which is common in practice. Areas with local fin effi-
ciencies larger than unity, which is called "heat transfer excess," are observed [5].
Heat transfer and flow characteristics of a compact heat exchanger are
typically presented with two correlations: the Colburn j factor defined in Eq. (9)
and the friction factor f defined in Eq. (10) [6]. Figure 13 shows that j and f
decrease with increasing Re. Their gradient in the range Re = 100-300 is larger
than that in the range Re = 300-500. The ratio of j If is 0.27 for Re = 100 and
0.20 for Re = 500.
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HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED OVAL TUBE, PART B
Tlb
Spanaveragedheat flUl(
399
20
'0
Re=500,A
--- Re=300, A
Re=100,Fi
o 2

8 8 10
x
12
,.
Figure 10. Spanwise averaged heat flux on the fin for three
different Reynolds numbers.
Span.veraged Nusselt mmber
20
Nu",
Re=500.
--- Re=300,
Re=100,Fi
,
o 2 8 8
'0
x
12
,.
Figure n. Span averaged Nusselt number on the fin for three
different Reynolds numbers.
100 ,------------..,
-+-- fI=o1000
-- flo5OO
--- R-100
95
'It (%)
90
100 200 300
Re
500
Figure 12. Dependence of the fin effi-
ciency on the Reynolds number and the
fin parameter Fi,
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400 Y. CHEN ET AL
0.20 ,..--,..--........ -T"""-.,--...--,...--,..--,...--,...----,
0.18
0.12
0.08
~ F i = 5 ~
0.04 ~
------
0.00 ......- ......-"'--"'--"'--"'---'--'--'---'-----'
100 200
Re
300 400 500
Figure 13. Dependence of apparent friction factor f.
pp
and Col-
burn j factor of a finned oval-tube element on Reynolds number.
Heat transfer reversal as found in a finned circular tube [3J was not found in
the FOT. '
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Flow and conjugate heat transfer in an FOT element have been investigated
by three-dimensional simulation with finite-volume method in curvilinear coordi-
nates. Air with Pr = 0.7 is used as a working medium. Parameter variation of Re
and Fi has been performed. Thermal analysis reveals that the fin temperatures
remain high in the investigated range of parameters, and so do the fin efficiencies,
which depend weakly on Fi. This means that material can be saved by making
thinner fins without a significant decrease in fin efficiency.
Heat transfer on the outer surface of the tube increases with decreasing Fi
and increasing Re, For the investigated configuration and Re range, the ratio of
heat transfer on the tube to that on the fin R
Q
remains under 10%. Judging from
the tendency of the curves, it is possible that R
Q
may exceed 10%, at higher Re
and smaller Fi.
With an oval tube, heat transfer on a large area of the fin is primarily
determined by the fin boundary layers. It is therefore necessary to improve the
heat transfer in that area, which is in the scope of another article, where a wing
type vortex generator is used as a tool for heat transfer enhancement.
REFERENCES
1. Y. Chen, M. Fiebig, and N. K. Mitra, Conjugate Heat Transfer of a Finned Oval Tube,
Part 1: Flow Patterns, Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, this issue.
2. VDI-Wiirmeatlas, 7. Auflage, VDI Verlag, Dusseldorf, 1994.
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HEAT TRANSFER OF A FINNED OVAL TUBE, PART B 401
3. M. Fiebig, A. Grosse-Gorgemann, Y. Chen, and N. K. Mitra, Conjugate Heat Transfer of
a Finned Tube, Part A: Heat Transfer Behavior and Occurrence of Heat Transfer
Reversal, Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, vol. 28, pp. 133-146, 1995.
4. M. Fiebig, Y. Chen, A. Grosse-Gorgemann, and N. K. Mitra, Conjugate Heat Transfer of
a Finned Tube, Part B: Heat Transfer Augmentation and Avoidance of Heat Transfer
Reversal by LVG, Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, vol. 28, pp. 147-155, 1995.
5. Y. Chen, M. Fiebig, and N. K. Mitra, Numerical Investigation of the Fin Efficiencies in a
Finned Oval Tube, in Proc. 15th lMACS World Congress on Scientific Computation
Modelling and Applied Mathematics, Berlin, Germany, vol. 5, pp. 761-766, August 24-29,
1997.
6. W. M. Kays and A. L. London, Compact Heat Exchangers, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hili, New
York,1984.
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