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INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION

TO CNC TO CNC
4 Axis Turning and 5 Axis Milling 4 Axis Turning and 5 Axis Milling
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DEVELOPMENT OF CNC DEVELOPMENT OF CNC DEVELOPMENT OF CNC DEVELOPMENT OF CNC
CONTROL CONTROL
Mass Mass production production
the the need need to to automate automate machinery machinery
greater greater precision precision greater greater precision precision
competition competition in in the the marketplace marketplace
These These needs needs have have pushed pushed us us to to search search for for ways ways so so
that that production production depends depends more more on on machines machines than than on on
human human capabilities capabilities..
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DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATION
OF CNC CONTROL OF CNC CONTROL
1949 1949 to to 1952 1952J ohn J ohn Parsons Parsons and and Massachusetts Massachusetts Institute Institute
ff T h l T h l i t d i t d bb th th UU SS Ai Ai FF tt of of Technology Technology were were appointed appointed by by the the UU..SS.. Air Air Force Force to to
develop develop aa machine machine in in which which the the positioning positioning of of the the
machine machine axis axis would would be be directly directly controlled controlled by by aa computer computer machine machine axis axis would would be be directly directly controlled controlled by by aa computer computer..
1952 1952 MMII TT d li d d li d th th fi t fi t i ll i ll t ll d t ll d 1952 1952 MM..II..TT.. delivered delivered the the first first numerically numerically controlled controlled
machine machine tool tool with with aa vertical vertical spindle spindle known known as as Cincinnati Cincinnati
Hydrotel Hydrotel The The machine machine could could move move in in 33 linear linear axes axes Hydrotel Hydrotel.. The The machine machine could could move move in in 33 linear linear axes axes
obtaining obtaining binary binary coded coded data data stored stored by by means means of of punch punch
paper paper tape tape
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paper paper tape tape..
DEVELOPMENT &INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT &INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATION
OF CNC CONTROL OF CNC CONTROL
1954 1954 Bindix Corp. bought the patent and built the first Bindix Corp. bought the patent and built the first
industrial NC machine industrial NC machine industrial NC machine. industrial NC machine.
1957 1957 U S Air Force installed the first NC milling U S Air Force installed the first NC milling 1957 1957 U.S. Air Force installed the first NC milling U.S. Air Force installed the first NC milling
machine at their premises. machine at their premises.
1958 1958 The first programming language The first programming language Advanced Advanced
Programming Tool (APT) Programming Tool (APT) together with an IBM704 together with an IBM704 Programming Tool (APT) Programming Tool (APT) together with an IBM 704 together with an IBM 704
computer was used in NC programming. computer was used in NC programming.
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DEVELOPMENT &INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT &INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATION
OF CNC CONTROL OF CNC CONTROL
1968 1968 Development in the field of integrated circuits Development in the field of integrated circuits
made the control smaller and more reliable made the control smaller and more reliable made the control smaller and more reliable. made the control smaller and more reliable.
1972 1972 The era of CNC began with the regular use of a The era of CNC began with the regular use of a 1972 1972 The era of CNC began with the regular use of a The era of CNC began with the regular use of a
mini computer where microprocessors replaced the older mini computer where microprocessors replaced the older
generation of diodes computers. generation of diodes computers. generation of diodes computers. generation of diodes computers.
1972 1972 -- NOW NOW Advancement in the CNC technology Advancement in the CNC technology 1972 1972 NOW NOW Advancement in the CNC technology Advancement in the CNC technology
follows closely the rapid progress in the computer field. follows closely the rapid progress in the computer field.
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NUMERICAL CONTROL NUMERICAL CONTROL
The numerical control (NC) machine tool may be The numerical control (NC) machine tool may be open open--loop, loop,
NUMERICAL CONTROL NUMERICAL CONTROL
( ) y ( ) y pp p, p,
closed closed--loop or a combination of open loop or a combination of open- -and close and close--loop loop. In the . In the
open open- -loop machine a command is sent to the tool or table. That loop machine a command is sent to the tool or table. That
command causes the tool or table to move a certain distance command causes the tool or table to move a certain distance command causes the tool or table to move a certain distance command causes the tool or table to move a certain distance
rapidly or slowly. Then it will stop. After the movement is made, rapidly or slowly. Then it will stop. After the movement is made,
the tool or table waits for the next command. the tool or table waits for the next command.
OPEN-LOOP SYSTEM
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NUMERICAL CONTROL NUMERICAL CONTROL
Since the input signal is in open Since the input signal is in open- -loop system, there is no feed loop system, there is no feed--
b k i l Th f th i th t b k i l Th f th i th t
NUMERICAL CONTROL NUMERICAL CONTROL
back signal. Therefore, there is no way the system can back signal. Therefore, there is no way the system can
determine if the signal was executed as intended. The system determine if the signal was executed as intended. The system
cannot verify whether the command did or did not, commit an cannot verify whether the command did or did not, commit an
error. error.
Cams and stops may control the motion of the turret but there is Cams and stops may control the motion of the turret but there is
no way that the system can tell whether, or not, the tool has no way that the system can tell whether, or not, the tool has
performed the desired operation. To find out, the machinist must performed the desired operation. To find out, the machinist must
measure the workpiece. measure the workpiece. pp
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NUMERICAL CONTROL NUMERICAL CONTROL
The closed The closed--loop system has a feedback line from a sensor. When the loop system has a feedback line from a sensor. When the
NUMERICAL CONTROL NUMERICAL CONTROL
table reaches its desired position, the sensor will detect this and stop table reaches its desired position, the sensor will detect this and stop
the table. NC machines are controlled by a pre the table. NC machines are controlled by a pre- -punched paper tape or punched paper tape or
through manual input. The punch tape uses letters, numbers or through manual input. The punch tape uses letters, numbers or
b l t t ll th hi h t i t b d Th l i i f b l t t ll th hi h t i t b d Th l i i f symbols to tell the machine what is to be done. The closing opening of symbols to tell the machine what is to be done. The closing opening of
a circuit is related to the presence or absence of a hole in the tape. a circuit is related to the presence or absence of a hole in the tape.
CLOSE-LOOP SYSTEM
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to CNC Introduction to CNC 88
COMPUTER COMPUTER COMPUTER COMPUTER
Computer is only an electrical logic device that can handle data Computer is only an electrical logic device that can handle data
t t l hi h d Thi d h t i ti i f d t t l hi h d Thi d h t i ti i f d at extremely high speed. This speed characteristic is of good at extremely high speed. This speed characteristic is of good
use in most applications. use in most applications.
A l l f thi i th li ti f t t A l l f thi i th li ti f t t A clear example of this is the application of computers to A clear example of this is the application of computers to
numerically controlled machine tools which involves essentially numerically controlled machine tools which involves essentially
the difficult and time the difficult and time--consuming task of continuously consuming task of continuously
processing large amounts of digitized data, a function ideally processing large amounts of digitized data, a function ideally
suited to the modern computer. suited to the modern computer.
It is characteristic of computers used to control machine tools It is characteristic of computers used to control machine tools
that they produce voluminous output data from only a small that they produce voluminous output data from only a small
amount of input data. amount of input data. pp
99
COMPUTER COMPUTER
Example, the large number of generated path coordinates Example, the large number of generated path coordinates
t li i l ti i th t li i l ti i th
COMPUTER COMPUTER
necessary to express a linear or circular motion in three necessary to express a linear or circular motion in three
simultaneous machine axes. simultaneous machine axes.
Th t it th t i t t th Th t it th t i t t th The computer programmer writes the programs to instruct the The computer programmer writes the programs to instruct the
computer what it should do by using a set of pre computer what it should do by using a set of pre- -defined defined
commands, placed in a certain order (the syntax). These commands, placed in a certain order (the syntax). These
command lists make up the programming language; typical command lists make up the programming language; typical
examples are BASIC, FORTRAN and PASCAL. examples are BASIC, FORTRAN and PASCAL.
In NC technology, manufacturing In NC technology, manufacturing--oriented programming oriented programming
languages, such APT, EXAPT, and COMPACT II, have been languages, such APT, EXAPT, and COMPACT II, have been
developed, which are particularly suited to describing workpiece developed, which are particularly suited to describing workpiece p p y g p p p y g p
geometry and specifying technological information to machine geometry and specifying technological information to machine
tool controllers. tool controllers.
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FROM NC TO CNC FROM NC TO CNC
A commonly used formula for explaining the relationship A commonly used formula for explaining the relationship
between NC and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is: between NC and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is:
FROM NC TO CNC FROM NC TO CNC
between NC and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is: between NC and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is:
CNC = (NC + Computer), but this is not entirely correct. CNC = (NC + Computer), but this is not entirely correct.
It was perhaps more true for the first CNC systems developed, as It was perhaps more true for the first CNC systems developed, as
they were actually made from NC systems linked to standard they were actually made from NC systems linked to standard
microcomputers However todays CNCs differ totally from microcomputers However todays CNCs differ totally from microcomputers. However, today s CNCs differ totally from microcomputers. However, today s CNCs differ totally from
these prototypes in that they incorporate these prototypes in that they incorporate specifically designed specifically designed
processors and CPUs. processors and CPUs.
The growth from NC to CNC technology has been rapid. Only 40 The growth from NC to CNC technology has been rapid. Only 40
years after Parsons developed the first NC for a machine tool, years after Parsons developed the first NC for a machine tool,
over 1000 different controllers are now developed worldwide over 1000 different controllers are now developed worldwide over 1000 different controllers are now developed worldwide over 1000 different controllers are now developed worldwide
every year. The major advances in microelectronics have every year. The major advances in microelectronics have
contributed considerable to this situation. contributed considerable to this situation.
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FROM NC TO CNC FROM NC TO CNC
For example, a NC developed in 1968 embodied about 400 For example, a NC developed in 1968 embodied about 400
circuit boards each bristling with transistors whereas a modern circuit boards each bristling with transistors whereas a modern
FROM NC TO CNC FROM NC TO CNC
circuit boards, each bristling with transistors, whereas a modern circuit boards, each bristling with transistors, whereas a modern
CNC requires only one circuit board to perform the same tasks. CNC requires only one circuit board to perform the same tasks.
CNC development has also had a large impact on machine tool CNC development has also had a large impact on machine tool p g p p g p
design. The large and voluminous external controllers of the design. The large and voluminous external controllers of the
past have disappeared as much of the electronic circuitry is now past have disappeared as much of the electronic circuitry is now
integrated within the machine tools structure integrated within the machine tools structure integrated within the machine tool s structure. integrated within the machine tool s structure.
Cutting tool and pallet changers have also now been introduced, Cutting tool and pallet changers have also now been introduced,
as well as automatic loading and unloading of workstations, and as well as automatic loading and unloading of workstations, and g g g g
the latest inspection systems and sensors now offer the latest inspection systems and sensors now offer
measurement dimensional checks within milliseconds. Thus measurement dimensional checks within milliseconds. Thus
there is little doubt that the enormous advances in computer there is little doubt that the enormous advances in computer there is little doubt that the enormous advances in computer there is little doubt that the enormous advances in computer
design and their incorporation into modern CNCs have made a design and their incorporation into modern CNCs have made a
major contribution to the realization of high efficient major contribution to the realization of high efficient
manufacturing at reasonable costs manufacturing at reasonable costs
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manufacturing at reasonable costs. manufacturing at reasonable costs.
DATA CARRIER DATA CARRIER
PROPERTIES
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HOWDO COMPUTER HOW DO COMPUTER
WORKS
CNC CNC systems systems include include a a computer computer which which consists consists mainly mainly of of one one
several several microprocessors microprocessors and and storage storage facilities facilities.. The The
microprocessor microprocessor is is used used to to process process the the operators operators program program data data microprocessor microprocessor is is used used to to process process the the operator s operator s program program data data
input input and and these these are are converted converted into into control control pulses pulses for for the the
machine machine tool tool. . The The program program data data consists consists of of the the NC NC program program and and
the the set set up up data data ee gg tool tool dimensions dimensions the the set set--up up data, data, ee..gg.. tool tool dimensions dimensions..
The The NC NC program program includes includes an an instruction instruction to to the the effect effect that that a a p g p g
milling milling machine machine is is to to traverse traverse the the milling milling cutter cutter along along a a distance distance
of of 100 100 mm mm.. When When the the microprocessor microprocessor reads reads this this instruction, instruction, it it
initially initially calculated calculated the the target target position position and and then then starts starts the the initially initially calculated calculated the the target target position position and and then then starts starts the the
appropriate appropriate feed feed drive drive. . The The traverse traverse measuring measuring system system
continuously continuously feeds feeds back back the the position position at at which which the the milling milling cutter cutter
is is at at any any particular particular time time
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is is at at any any particular particular time time..
HOWDO COMPUTER HOW DO COMPUTER
WORKS
The microprocessor makes the comparison to see whether this The microprocessor makes the comparison to see whether this
position agrees with the target position: position agrees with the target position:
** when it does not agree, the feed drive continues to run; ** when it does not agree, the feed drive continues to run;
** when it does agree the feed drive is stopped and the next ** when it does agree the feed drive is stopped and the next g pp g pp
instruction in the NC program is read. instruction in the NC program is read.
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HOWDO COMPUTER HOW DO COMPUTER
WORKS
The difference between NC and CNC The difference between NC and CNC
AANC System NC System has a control has a control A A NC System NC System has a control has a control
incorporated into the machine tool incorporated into the machine tool
which allows input of external prepared which allows input of external prepared
NC programs, e.g. by punched tape. NC programs, e.g. by punched tape. NC programs, e.g. by punched tape. NC programs, e.g. by punched tape.
These NC programs can be started and These NC programs can be started and
interrupted but cannot be modified by interrupted but cannot be modified by
the operator. the operator. pp
Dimensions of tooling and workholding equipment have already been taken Dimensions of tooling and workholding equipment have already been taken
i t id ti i th th hi t h t fit t l d i t id ti i th th hi t h t fit t l d into consideration in the programs. the machine operator has to fit tools and into consideration in the programs. the machine operator has to fit tools and
working holding equipment in strict accordance with information given in the working holding equipment in strict accordance with information given in the
set set--up sheet. up sheet.
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HOWDO COMPUTER HOW DO COMPUTER
WORKS
The difference between NC and CNC The difference between NC and CNC
AA CNC system CNC system incorporates a incorporates a
computer which enables the operator computer which enables the operator
not only to start NC programs but also not only to start NC programs but also
to to write and input programs himself and write and input programs himself and
t dif ft i t d t dif ft i t d to modify programs after input or read to modify programs after input or read--
in. in. The dimensions of tooling and The dimensions of tooling and
workholding equipment can be input workholding equipment can be input
into the CNC systemduring set into the CNC systemduring set up up into the CNC system during set into the CNC system during set--up up
independent of the NC program. independent of the NC program.
These dimensions are automatically taken into consideration in automatic These dimensions are automatically taken into consideration in automatic
ti F thi th t d l li i i f ti ti F thi th t d l li i i f ti operation. For this reason, the operator needs less preliminary information on operation. For this reason, the operator needs less preliminary information on
the set the set--up sheet. He can, when necessary, select tools and workholding up sheet. He can, when necessary, select tools and workholding
equipment himself. equipment himself. There are no fundamental differences There are no fundamental differences between NC and between NC and
CNC systems with regard to CNC systems with regard to the programming language and the machining the programming language and the machining
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CNC systems with regard to CNC systems with regard to the programming language and the machining the programming language and the machining
technology of the machine tool. technology of the machine tool.
COMPUTER NUMERICAL COMPUTER NUMERICAL
CONTROL
In computer numerical control (CNC), the memory is a computer. In computer numerical control (CNC), the memory is a computer.
Essentially, a computer is the control system applied to CNC Essentially, a computer is the control system applied to CNC
Machinery. This makes it possible to store information in the Machinery. This makes it possible to store information in the
computer instead of punching holes in a tape. Should conditions computer instead of punching holes in a tape. Should conditions
change, it is also easier to access the computer memory and to change, it is also easier to access the computer memory and to g , p y g , p y
make changes than to make corrections and cut a new tape. make changes than to make corrections and cut a new tape.
CNC machines have manual data input (MDI) capabilities that CNC machines have manual data input (MDI) capabilities that CNC machines have manual data input (MDI) capabilities that CNC machines have manual data input (MDI) capabilities that
make it possible to override existing programs. This makes it make it possible to override existing programs. This makes it
possible to change, or insert, new dimensions feeds, speeds, and possible to change, or insert, new dimensions feeds, speeds, and
so on CNC machines are soft wired This means that the voltage so on CNC machines are soft wired This means that the voltage so on. CNC machines are soft wired. This means that the voltage so on. CNC machines are soft wired. This means that the voltage
output is wired directly to electromechanical devices such as output is wired directly to electromechanical devices such as
solenoids. A computer that is soft wired to the controller is used solenoids. A computer that is soft wired to the controller is used
to s pport a machine tool or a series of machine tools to s pport a machine tool or a series of machine tools
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to support a machine tool or a series of machine tools. to support a machine tool or a series of machine tools.
DIRECT NUMERICAL DIRECT NUMERICAL DIRECT NUMERICAL DIRECT NUMERICAL
CONTROL CONTROL
Direct Direct numerical numerical control control (DNC) (DNC) eliminates eliminates the the need need for for tapes, tapes, or or disks, disks, to to
store store information information. . The The program program is is typed typed directly directly from from aa terminal terminal to to an an NC NC
hi hi t l t l ff hi hi If If th th hi hi t l t l ii CNC CNC th th machine machine tool tool or or group group of of machines machines. . If If the the machine machine tool tool is is aa CNC, CNC, the the
signal signal may may run run the the machine machine directly directly or or be be stored stored in in the the memory memory of of the the
machine machine computer computer. .
Because NC machines do not have a computer, the prevailing view some Because NC machines do not have a computer, the prevailing view some
years ago was that a central computer would supply the needed signals years ago was that a central computer would supply the needed signals
in real time directly to the NC machines while the machining operations in real time directly to the NC machines while the machining operations in real time directly to the NC machines while the machining operations in real time directly to the NC machines while the machining operations
were in process, thus servicing many machine tools at once. Since may were in process, thus servicing many machine tools at once. Since may
machines would be serviced by one central computer, it soon became machines would be serviced by one central computer, it soon became
apparent that if anything went wrong, all machines connected to the apparent that if anything went wrong, all machines connected to the apparent that if anything went wrong, all machines connected to the apparent that if anything went wrong, all machines connected to the
central computer would shut down. With the advent of CNC, it became central computer would shut down. With the advent of CNC, it became
possible to feed information from the large computer directly into the possible to feed information from the large computer directly into the
memory of each CNC computer. memory of each CNC computer.
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y p y p
DIRECT NUMERICAL DIRECT NUMERICAL DIRECT NUMERICAL DIRECT NUMERICAL
CONTROL CONTROL
Now Now if if the the large large central central computer computer failed, failed, the the separate separate machine machine tools tools
could could rely rely on on their their own own computers, computers, and and production production could could continue continue
i t t d i t t d Th Th ti ti b t b t th th ll t l t l tt dd uninterrupted uninterrupted.. The The connection connection between between the the large large central central computer computer and and
the the CNC CNC computer computer was was necessary necessary for for the the length length of of time time required required to to
process process the the NC NC information information into into the the CNC CNC computer computer. .
DNC has advantages when a great deal of control information is to be DNC has advantages when a great deal of control information is to be
processed and used to operate many machine tools, or when the processed and used to operate many machine tools, or when the
programs are lengthy and complex It is also useful in flexible programs are lengthy and complex It is also useful in flexible programs are lengthy and complex. It is also useful in flexible programs are lengthy and complex. It is also useful in flexible
manufacturing situations where many machine tools are linked in a manufacturing situations where many machine tools are linked in a
production line. The ability of a central computer to distribute production line. The ability of a central computer to distribute
information to many machine tools has caused the acronym DNC to information to many machine tools has caused the acronym DNC to information to many machine tools has caused the acronym DNC to information to many machine tools has caused the acronym DNC to
mean distributed numerical control. mean distributed numerical control.
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INTRODUCING CONTROL INTRODUCING CONTROL INTRODUCING CONTROL INTRODUCING CONTROL
MODES MODES
In In accordance accordance with with the the control control mode, mode, CNC CNC systems systems are are subdivided subdivided into into
three three basic basic categories categories that that differ differ in in their their performance performance..
point to point controls
straight-cut controls contouring controls
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INTRODUCING CONTROL MODES INTRODUCING CONTROL MODES INTRODUCING CONTROL MODES INTRODUCING CONTROL MODES
Distinguish Distinguish between between gg
22--D, D, 22 11//2 2--DD and and 3 3--DD
contouring contouring controls controls
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to CNC Introduction to CNC 23 23
TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION
Linear Interpolation
During positioning all programmed axes move simultaneously at the specified During positioning, all programmed axes move simultaneously at the specified
feed rate until each axis has reached its destination. All drives start together,
but without an interpolator, individual destinations are reached successively
according to the path traveled. However, an interpolator coordinates these according to the path traveled. However, an interpolator coordinates these
axis motions in such a way that the programmed path is constantly maintained
fromthe beginning to the end of the movement. Interpolation may be achieved
in several ways.
Th ti ll ll th t l
y
Theoretically, all path control
problems can be solved by
continuous path
approximationvia linear approximation via linear
interpolation, but circular,
parabolic, and spline
interpolationresult in a major
Continues Path
Approximation
interpolation result in a major
reduction in the volume of
data to be processed, and
simpler programming is
24 24
simpler programming is
thereby facilitated.
TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION
Circular Interpolation p
This type of interpolation is limited to the plane of the principal machine
surface. Inclusion of rotary axes in circular interpolation is not feasible for
spatial interpolation. That means for simultaneous movement of three or more
axes, circular interpolation is not used.
If a profile in the XY, XZ, YZ planes is
composed of circular arcs, only the end
points and the arc center need be p
programmed. All required intermediate
points are circulated by the interpolator
via circular interpolation.
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TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION
Parabolic Interpolation p
A spatial parabola is made up of three points. Point P2 is the midpoint
between P4 and P5, and P5 is the midpoint between P1 and P3. P1 is known
fromthe preceding block of data P2 and P3 which are entered together in two from the preceding block of data P2 and P3 which are entered together in two
successive data blocks. The transition between two successive parabolas
blends well if their tangents at P3 are identical.
Basically parabolic interpolation is useful
only with four or five axes machining, since
the data required for simultaneous multiaxis the data required for simultaneous multiaxis
movement are only reduced significantly
compared to linear interpolation, when
profiles are highly complex. p g y p
26 26
TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION TYPES OF INTERPOLATION
Spline Interpolation p p
The blending of mathematically definable curves is called spline fitting,
the transition between curves are being formed tangentially. With this
type of interpolation complex geometries can be programmed using far
fewer program-data blocks than would be the case with linear
interpolation, but the precise procedure can be mathematically complex.
27 27
APPLICATION OF COMPUTER APPLICATION OF COMPUTER APPLICATION OF COMPUTER APPLICATION OF COMPUTER
NUMERICAL CONTROL NUMERICAL CONTROL
Metal cutting Metal cutting
Woodworking Woodworking
Welding Welding
Fl tti Fl tti Flame cutting Flame cutting
Sheet metal forming Sheet metal forming
Sheet metal punching Sheet metal punching Sheet metal punching Sheet metal punching
Water jet cutting Water jet cutting
Electrical discharge machining Electrical discharge machining
Laser cutting. Laser cutting.
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ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER
NUMERICAL CONTROL NUMERICAL CONTROL
CNC is economical for mass, batch, and, in many cases, CNC is economical for mass, batch, and, in many cases,
single single--item production. Many factors contribute to this item production. Many factors contribute to this
economic viability, the most important of these being as economic viability, the most important of these being as
f ll f ll follows: follows:
(a) (a) high productivity rates high productivity rates
(b) (b) if it f th d t if it f th d t (b) (b) uniformity of the product uniformity of the product
(c) (c) reduced component rejection reduced component rejection
(d) (d) reduced tooling costs reduced tooling costs (d) (d) reduced tooling costs reduced tooling costs
(e) (e) less operator involvement less operator involvement
(f) (f) complex shapes machined easily complex shapes machined easily
29 29
( ) ( ) p p y p p y
Application of 4 Axis CNC Lathe Application of 4 Axis CNC Lathe Application of 4 Axis CNC Lathe Application of 4 Axis CNC Lathe
Threading Threading
Squaring Squaring Squaring Squaring
Spiral Spiral
Boring Boring
Contouring Contouring Contouring Contouring
Slotting Slotting
Ect Ect.. ..
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