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(July 2013 Edition) Prepared by


Professor of Law #NIVER$ITY O% T&E COR!ILLERA$ Baguio City


(Political Law & Constitutional Law)

C P R $ 'AR REVIEW CENTER Cagayan de Oro City, Zamboanga City, Davao City, Ozamis City, Iloilo City, Bag io City,and !a"loban City, POWER&AW$ 'AR REVIEW CENTER Bag io City, #antiago City, Isabela, #an $ernando City, %a &nion, 'anila, (aga City, !a"loban City, Di)olog City and !agbilaran City CO$(OPOLITAN REVIEW CENTER (CRC) &niversity o* t+e Cordilleras, Bag io City E)CELLENT 'AR REVIEW CENTER Bag io City, Ceb City and !a"loban City &OLY TRINITY COLLE"E PRE-'AR REVIEW CENTER ,eneral #antos City #NIVER$ITY O% PAN"A$INAN 'AR REVIEW CENTER Dag )an City

-AR! I

POLITICAL LAW Define Political Law It is t+at bran"+ o* ) bli" la. .+i"+ deals .it+ t+e organization and o)erations o* t+e governmental organs o* t+e #tate and de*ines t+e relations o* t+e #tate .it+ t+e in+abitants o* its territory/ (PEOPLE V$ PER%ECTO* +3 P,il --.) What are included in Political Law? Constit tional %a.0 Administrative %a. %a. o* - bli" O**i"ers %a. on - bli" Cor)oration Ele"tion %a. 3. What is the doctrine of constitutional supremacy? &nder t+e do"trine o* "onstit tional s )rema"y, i* a la. or "ontra"t violates any norm o* t+e "onstit tion t+at la. or "ontra"t .+et+er )rom lgated by t+e legislative or by t+e e1e" tive bran"+ or entered into by )rivate )ersons *or )rivate ) r)oses is n ll and void and .it+o t any *or"e and e**e"t/ !+ s, sin"e t+e Constit tion is t+e * ndamental, )aramo nt and s )reme la. o* t+e nation, it is deemed .ritten in every stat te and "ontra"t/ (Manila Prince Hotel Corporation Case !. What are the re"uisites for the #alid e$ercise of %people&s initiati#e' to propose amendments to the Constitution? It is )rovided nder #e"tion 2, Art/ 3VII o* t+e Constit tion .+i"+ )rovides t+at 4Amendments to t+is Constit tion may li5e.ise be dire"tly )ro)osed by t+e )eo)le t+ro g+ initiative )on a )etition o* at least 627 o* t+e total n mber o* registered voters, o* .+i"+ every legislative distri"t m st be re)resented by at least 87 o* t+e registered voter t+erein/9 !+e Congress s+all )rovide *or t+e im)lementation o* t+e e1er"ise o* t+is rig+t:::.+i"+ means t+at t+ere m st be "om)lete and ade; ate la. *or t+e said ) r)ose/ (. )s there a law which would pro#ide for the mechanism for the people to propose amendments to the Constitution *y people&s initiati#e? W+ile Congress +ad ena"ted RA <=8> ) r)ortedly to )rovide t+e me"+anisms *or t+e )eo)le?s e1er"ise t+e )o.er to amend t+e Constit tion by )eo)le?s initiative, t+e # )reme Co rt in (IRIA( !E%EN$OR-$ANTIA"O* /t 0l V1 CO(ELEC* " R No 12.322* (034, 15* 155. 6 Jun/ 10* 155., t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at RA 7.32 i1 in4o89l/t/* in0d/:u0t/ o3 ;0ntin< in /11/nti0l t/381 0nd 4ondition1 in1o=03 01 initi0ti>/ on 08/nd8/nt1 to t,/ Con1titution i1 4on4/3n/d It1 l04un0/ on t,i1 1u?1t0nti>/ 80tt/3 03/ =0t0l 0nd 40nnot ?/ 4u3/d ?y @/89o;/3in<A t,/ CO(ELEC to 93o8ul<0t/ 1u4, 3ul/1 0nd 3/<ul0tion1 01 80y ?/ n/4/1103y to 4033y t,/ 9u39o1/1 o= t,i1 04t &o;/>/3* in LA('INO V$ CO(ELEC* t,/ $u93/8/ Cou3t on No>/8?/3 21* 2007* in t,/ (inut/ R/1olution o= t,/ 9/tition/3B1 (otion =o3 R/4on1id/30tion* ,/ld t,0t RA No 7.32 i1 0d/:u0t/ 0nd 4o89l/t/ =o3 t,/ 9u39o1/ o= 93o9o1in< 08/nd8/nt1 to t,/ Con1titution t,3ou<, 9/o9l/B1 initi0ti>/ ?y 0 >ot/ o= 10 8/8?/31 01 per Certification of the +n ,anc&s Cler- of Court.

(.a. May the "uestion %Do you appro#e the amendment of /rticles 0) and 0)) of the 1234 Philippine Constitution chan5in5 the form of 5o#ernment from Presidential.,icameral to Parliamentary.6nicameral' *e allowed to *e su*mitted to the people for their ratification or re7ection as a means of amendin5 the Constitution *y people&s initiati#e if the re"uisite num*er of si5natories (189 nationwide and at least 39 for e#ery le5islati#e district are met? No* =o3 t;o (2) 3/01on1/ 6/ !+e said 4)ro)osal9 did not indi"ate .+i"+ )rovisions o* Arti"les VI and VII are a"t ally being amended .+i"+ is a m st nder #e"tion 2, Art/ 3VII/ Ot+er.ise, .+o s+all ma5e t+e amendments i* t+e )eo)le in a )lebis"ite a))rove t+e same@0 2/ C+anging t+e *orm o* government *rom )residential to )arliamentary is an a"t o* REVI#I(, t+e Constit tion .+i"+ is not allo.ed nder Art/ 3VII, #e"tion 2/ -eo)le?s initiative may only be allo.ed to )ro)ose amendments to t+e Constit tion, not revision/ :. What are the re"uisites *efore an amendment to the Constitution *y %people&s initiati#e' is sufficient in form and in su*stance? In t+e "ase o* RA#L L LA('INO 0nd ERICO ' A#(ENTA!O * to</t,/3 ;it, 7*32.*522 3/<i1t/3/d >ot/31 >1 T&E CO((I$$ION ON ELECTION$* " R No 1.+123* O4to?/3 22* 2007* 202 $CRA 170, t+e *ollo.ing re; isites m st be )resentA !+e )eo)le m st a t+or and m st sign t+e entire )ro)osal/ (o agent or re)resentative "an sign *or and on t+eir be+al*0 As an initiative )on a )etition, !BE -RO-O#A% '&#! BE E'BODIED I( !BE -E!I!IO( I!#E%$/ T,/1/ /11/nti0l /l/8/nt1 03/ 93/1/nt only i= t,/ =ull t/Ct o= t,/ 93o9o1/d 08/nd8/nt1 i1 =i31t 1,o;n to t,/ 9/o9l/ ;,o ;ill /C93/11 t,/i3 011/nt ?y 1i<nin< 1u4, 4o89l/t/ 93o9o10l in 0 9/tition !+ s, an amendment is 4DIREC!%C -RO-O#ED BC !BE -EO-%E !BRO&,B I(I!IA!IVE &-O( A -E!II!O( 4 O(%C I$ !BE -EO-%E #I,( O( A -E!I!IO( !BA! CO(!AI(# !BE $&%% !E3! O$ !BE -RO-O#ED A'E(D'E(!#/ 4. Distin5uish %;e#ision' from %amendment' of the Constitution. @R/>i1ionA is t+e alterations o* t+e di**erent )ortions o* t+e entire do" ment DConstit tionE/ It may res lt in t+e re.riting .+et+er t+e .+ole "onstit tion, or t+e greater )ortion o* it, or )er+a)s some o* its im)ortant )rovisions/ B t .+atever res lts t+e revision may )rod "e, t+e *a"tor t+at "+ara"terizes it as an a"t o* revision is t+e original intention and )lan a t+orized to be "arried o t/ !+at intention and )lan m st "ontem)late a "onsideration o* all t+e )rovisions o* t+e Constit tion to determine .+i"+ one s+o ld be altered or s ))ressed or .+et+er t+e .+ole do" ment s+o ld be re)la"ed .it+ an entirely ne. one/ @A8/nd8/ntA o* t+e Constit tion, on t+e ot+er +and, envisages a "+ange or only a *e. s)e"i*i" )rovisions/ !+e intention o* an a"t to amend is not to "onsider t+e advisability o* "+anging t+e entire "onstit tion or o* "onsidering t+at )ossibility/ !+e intention rat+er is to im)rove s)e"i*i" )arts o* t+e e1isting "onstit tion or to add to it )rovisions deemed essential on a""o nt o* "+anged "onditions or to s ))ress )ortions o* it t+at seem obsolete, or dangero s, or misleading in t+eir e**e"t/ ( $INCO* Vi4/nt/* P&ILIPPINE POLITICAL LAW* 01 4it/d in $0nti0<o >1 CO(ELEC 6 LA('INO V$ CO(ELEC)

3. May Con5ress propose amendments to the Constitution while at the same time enactin5 a law callin5 for a Constitutional Con#ention to propose amendments to the Constitution? Yes, there is no prohibition for Congress to propose amendments to the Constitution and at the same time call for the convening of a Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. The word or in the provision Congress, upon a vote of of all its members; ! "#$ % constitutional Convention under &ection ', %rt. ()** also means %+,. (<=>?/L+@ 0@. C=M+L+CA 21 $CRA ..+ . )> @H=;BA )B /PP+/;@ BH/B BH+;+ )@ >= P;=H),)B)=> C=; C=><;+@@A / C=>@B)B6B)=>/L C=>0+>B)=> />D BH+ P+=PL+ M/D)>< / P;=P=@/L B= /M+>D BH+ C=>@B)B6B)=> /B BH+ @/M+ B)M+ @)>C+ BH)@ )@ / P=W+; @+P/;/B+LE <;/>B+D B= BH+M ,E BH+ C=>@B)B6B)=> 6>D+; /;B. F0)) =C BH+ 1234 C=>@B)B6B)=>. 2. What is the %Doctrine of Proper @u*mission' in connection with proposed amendments to the Constitution? ,octrine of -roper &ubmission means all the proposed amendments to the Constitution shall be presented to the people for their ratification or re.ection at the same time, not piecemeal. /B=L+>B)>= 0@. C=M+L+CA !1 @C;/ 4G8 1G. What is the archipela5ic doctrine or archipela5o theory? It is t+e 2nd senten"e o* #e"tion 6, Art/ I o* t+e Constit tion .+i"+ states t+at %the waters aroundA *etween and connectin5 the islands of the archipela5oA re5ardless of their *readth and dimensionsA form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.' 11. What are the elements of a %state'? As +eld in C 001CT ! )&. C%2- & !31,%, 4# &C!% #5, the elements o* a state are/ 6/ )eo)le 2/ territory 8/ sovereignty F/ government 18. /re the two.fold function of 5o#ernment as enumerated *y the @upreme Court in ,/C/>) 0@. >/C=C=A 1GG Phil. !:3 (Ministrant Hmerely directoryI and Constituent HMandatoryI Cunctions still applica*le today? +o more as held in /CCC/ 0@. C6<C=A 3G @C;/ :!2. This is d e to "om)le1ities o* t+e "+anging so"iety, t+e t.o:*old * n"tion o* t+e government as "lassi*ied by -resident Wilson is no longer relevant as a res lt o* t+e "+anging so"iety .+erein .+at are "onsidered merely ministrant * n"tions o* t+e #tate be*ore are no. "onsidered "onstit ent , or vi"e versa/ 13. What -ind of 5o#ernment was the %/"uino <o#ernment' after former President Marcos left Malacanan5 for Hawaii due to the +D@/ ;e#olution in Ce*ruary 123:. %s held in *n !e6 $AT#RNINO 'ER(#!ED* 1+2 $CRA 170* t+e same is de G re/ A government *ormed as a res lt o* a )eo)le?s revol tion, is "onsidered de G re i* it is already a""e)ted by t+e *amily o* nations or ot+er "o ntries li5e t+e &nited #tates, ,reat Britain, ,ermany, Ha)an, and ot+ers/ 1+ W,0t 03/ t,/ t,3// (3) Eind1 o= d/ =04to <o>/3n8/ntF

As +eld in CO KI( C&A( V$ VAL!ED TAN KE&* .2 P,il 113* t+e t+ree (8) 5inds o* de *a"to governments areA The first, or government de facto in a proper legal sense, is that government that gets possession and control of, or usurps, b7 force or b7 the voice of the ma.orit7, the rightful legal governments and maintains itself against the will of the latter, such as the government of 1ngland under the Commonwealth, first b7 -arliament and later b7 Cromwell as -rotector. The second is that which is established and maintained b7 militar7 forces who invade and occup7 a territor7 of the enem7 in the course of war, and which is denominated a government of paramount force, as the cases of Castine, in 2aine, which was reduced to 8ritish possession in the war of '9'#, and Tampico, 2e:ico, occupied during the war with 2e:ico, b7 the troops of the 3nited &tates. %nd the third is that established as an independent government b7 the inhabitants of a countr7 who rise in insurrection against the parent state of such as the government of the &outhern Confederac7 in revolt not concerned in the present case with the first ;ind, but onl7 with the second and third ;inds of de facto governments. IB t t+ere is anot+er des"ri)tion o* government, "alled also by ) bli"ists a government de *a"to, b t .+i"+ mig+t, )er+a)s, be more a)tly denominated a government o* )aramo nt *or"e/ Its disting is+ing "+ara"teristi"s are (6), t+at its e1isten"e is maintained by a"tive military )o.er .it+ t+e territories, and against t+e rig+t* l a t+ority o* an establis+ed and la.* l government0 and (2), t+at .+ile it e1ists it ne"essarily be obeyed in "ivil matters by )rivate "itizens .+o, by a"ts o* obedien"e rendered in s bmission to s "+ *or"e, do not be"ome res)onsible, or .rongdoers, *or t+ose a"ts, t+o g+ not .arranted by t+e la.s o* t+e rig+t* l government/ 1(. What is the postliminy theory or 7us postliminium? W+en a *oreign )o.er o"" )ies a state and e1er"ises t+e )o.ers o* government, t+e )oliti"al la.s o* t+e said state are deemed a tomati"ally s s)ended b t t+e *ormer government a tomati"ally "omes to li*e and .ill be in *or"e and in e**e"t again )on t+e re:establis+ment o* t+e *ormer government/ (BaylorA )nternational LawA p. :1(. 1:. What is the doctrine of so#erei5nty as %auto limitation'? In t+e s ""in"t lang age o* Helline5, it Iis t+e )ro)erty o* a state:*or"e d e to .+i"+ it +as t+e e1"l sive "a)a"ity o* legal sel*:determination and sel*:restri"tion G A 1t0t/ t,/n* i= it 4,oo1/1 to* 80y 3/=30in =3o8 t,/ /C/34i1/ o= ;,0t ot,/3;i1/ i1 illi8it0?l/ 4o89/t/n4/ G !+e o)inion .as at )ains to )oint o t t+o g+ t+at even t+en, t+ere is at t+e most dimin tion o* G risdi"tional rig+ts, not its disa))earan"e/ (Cited in Reagan vs/ Commissioner, P+=PL+ 0@. <=?=A (3 @C;/ !4: and C=MM)@@)=>+; 0@. ;=,+;B@=>A 1!3 @C;/ 324

14. What is the %incorporation theory' or the %)ncorporation Clause' of the Constitution? It is t+e )rin"i)le embodied in #e"tion 2, Arti"le II o* t+e Constit tion .+i"+ states t+at 4 T,/ P,ili99in/1 0do9t1 t,/ </n/30lly 044/9t/d 93in4i9l/1 o= int/3n0tion0l l0; 01 903t o= t,/ l0; o= t,/ l0ndA ((EJO%% V$ !IRECTOR O% PRI$ON$* 50 P,il .0* K#RO!A V$ JALAN!ONI* -3 P,il 1.1, and A"#$TIN V$ E!#* -- $CRA 152) 13. )n case of conflict *etween a constitutional ri5ht of a citiJen and a 5enerally accepted principle of international lawA which shall pre#ail? In t+e "ase o* REYE$ V$ 'A"AT$IN"*122 $CRA 223, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at t+e "onstit tional rig+t s+all )revail/ !+o g+ Arti"le 22 o* t+e Vienna Convention on Di)lomati" Relations )ro+ibits rallies .it+in >JJ *eet o* any *oreign embassy, t+e same s+all give .ay to t+e "onstit tional rig+t o* t+e "itizens to %peacea*ly assem*le and to petition the 5o#ernment for redress of their 5rie#ances'. 12. May a citiJen refuse to render personal military ser#iceKtrainin5 *ecause he does not ha#e military inclination or he does not want to -ill or *e -illed? (o as +eld in P+=PL+ 0@. L/<M/>A :: Phil. 13. The appellant<s argument that he does not want to .oin the armed forces because he does not want to ;ill or be ;illed and that he has no militar7 inclination is not acceptable because it is his obligation to .oin the armed forces in connection with the defense of the &tate provision of the Constitution. 2J. )s the %separation of church and state' a myth or a reality? It i1 0 3/0lity as s+o.n by t+e *ollo.ing )rovisions o* t+e Constit tion/ ART III* $/4 2 (o la. s+all be made res)e"ting an establis+ment o* religion, or )ro+ibiting t+e *ree e1er"ise t+ereo*/ !+e *ree e1er"ise and enGoyment o* religio s )ro*ession and .ors+i), .it+o t dis"rimination or )re*eren"e, s+all *orever be allo.ed/ (O RE%I,IO&# !E#! #BA%% BE REK&IRED $OR !BE E3ERCI#E O$ CIVI% OR -O%I!ICA% RI,B!#/ ART VI* $/4 2- (3) C+aritable instit tions, "+ r"+es, mos; es, non:)ro*it "emeteriesLa"t ally, dire"tly and e1"l sively sed *or religio s, "+aritable, or ed "ational ) r)oses s+all be e1em)t *rom ta1ation/ ART VI* $/4 25 (2) (o ) bli" money or )ro)erty s+all be a))ro)riated, a))lied, )aid, *or t+e bene*it, dire"tly or indire"tly, *or t+e se, bene*it, or s ))ort o* any se"t, "+ r"+, denomination or religion, e1"e)t .+en s "+ )riest, minister// is assigned to t+e armed *or"es, or to any )enal instit tion, or government or)+anage or le)rosari m/ ART I)* C* 2(2) Religio s denominations and se"ts s+all not be registeredLas )oliti"al )arties/ ((O!EA Religio s organizations are also )ro+ibited ion "onne"tion .it+ se"toral re)resentatives nder Art/ VI) ART )IV* $/4 3(3)/ At t+e o)tion in .riting by )arents, religion s+all be allo.ed to be ta g+t to t+eir "+ildren in elementary and +ig+ s"+ools .it+in t+e reg lar "lass +o rs by instr "tors designated or a))roved by religio s a t+orities to .+i"+ said "+ildren belong, .it+o t additional "ost to t+e government/

81. What are the factors to *e considered *y the Philippines in dealin5 with other nations? As )rovided in #e"tion = o* Art/ II, !+e -+ili))ines s+all ) rs e an inde)endent *oreign )oli"y/ In its relations .it+ ot+er states t+e )aramo nt "onsideration s+all be H1I n0tion0l 1o>/3/i<nty* H2I t/33ito3i0l int/<3ity* H3I n0tion0l int/3/1t* 0nd H+I t,/ 3i<,t to 1/l=-d/t/38in0tion* 88. )s there a*solute prohi*ition for the Philippines to *e e"uipped with nuclear weapons? (o, as stated in #e"tion M, Art/ II, 4t+e -+ili))ines, consistent with the national interest, ado)ts and ) rs es a )oli"y o* *reedom *rom n "lear .ea)ons in its territory/9 As s "+, i* it is "onsistent .it+ national interest, t+e same is not )ro+ibited/ 83. )s %di#orce' prohi*ited *y the 1234 Philippine Constitution? A $at+er Bernas o)ines t+at t+e )rovision o* t+e Constit tion (#e"tion 62, Art/ III) .+i"+ )rovides in )art t+at t+e 4#tate s+all 1t3/n<t,/n t+e *amily9 does not ta5e a stand on divor"e t+o g+ it a))ears t+at a divor"e la. .o ld 4brea59 t+e *amily instead o* 4strengt+ening9 it/ As s "+, a Divor"e %a. to be )assed by Congress may or may not be n"onstit tional/ 83. )s a*ortion allowed in the Philippines? #e"tion 62, Art/ II )ro+ibits all *orms o* abortion e1"e)t 4t+era)e ti" abortion9 or .+en t+e li*e o* t+e mot+er is in danger/ ((oteA In t+e &nited #tates, abortion is allo.ed b t only ) to t+e 2 nd trimester o* t+e )regnan"y DROE >1 WA!EI) 2F. )s a law prohi*itin5 the sale of %5irlie (*old ma5aJines' to minors #iolates the ri5ht of parents in rearin5 their children for ci#ic efficiency? (o, as +eld in t+e "ase o* "IN$'ER" V$ NEW YORK* 350 #$ 725 (1575), a la. )ro+ibiting t+e sale o* 4girlie magazines9 Dbold@) is "onstit tional and does not violate t+e above )rovision/ !+is is so be"a se )arents "o ld b y said magazines *or t+eir "+ildren i* t+ey believe t+e same is already s itable to t+e nderstanding o* t+eir "+ild/ !+is is in a""ordan"e .it+ t+is )rovision .+i"+ states t+at t+e )arents +ave t+e %natural and primary ri5ht in rearin5 their child for ci#ic efficiencyL' 8(. May the @tate prohi*it the teachin5 of a particular lan5ua5e in any school? (o as +eld in (EYER V$ NE'RA$KA* 270 #$ 270 (1522) be"a se t+e "+ild is not a mere "reat re o* t+e #tate and t+e )arents +ave t+e nat ral rig+t and d ty o* rearing t+eir "+ildren *or "ivi" e**i"ien"y/ 8:. May the @tate re"uire parents to enroll their small children only to pu*lic schools #alid? As +eld in PIERCE V$ $OCIETY O% $I$TER$* 27- #$ 210 (1522) , a la. re; iring small 5ids to be enrolled in ) bli" s"+ools only is n"onstit tional sin"e it inter*eres .it+ t+e rig+t o* )arents in rearing t+eir "+ildren/ !+ey +ave t+e rig+t to "+oose .+i"+ s"+ool is best s ited *or t+e develo)ment o* t+eir "+ildren .it+o t inter*eren"e *rom t+e #tate/ !BI# I# #O BECA&#E !BE CBI%DRE( ARE (O! 'ERE CREA!&RE# O$ !BE #!A!E/ 84. Do we practice the free enterprise system in the Philippines or is it the welfare state concept? Distin5uish the two.

As +eld in ACC$A V#/ C&,CO, 8J #CRA <FN t+e -+ili))ines never )ra"ti"ed t+e *ree enter)rise system/ It is t+e ;/l=03/-1t0t/ 4on4/9t ;,i4, i1 ?/in< =ollo;/d 01 1,o;n ?y t,/ 4on1titution0l 93o>i1ion on 0<303i0n 3/=o38* ,ou1in<* 93ot/4tion to l0?o3L ((O!E, +o.ever, t+at t+e 6NM= Constit tion +ave )rovisions .+i"+ )rovide *or 4*ree enter)rise)/ !+e said do"trine .as reiterated in P&ILIPPINE COCON#T !E$ICCATOR$ V$ P&ILIPPINE COCON#T A#T&ORITY* 2-7 $CRA 105 .+ere it .as +eld t+at t+e -+ili))ine Constit tions, starting *rom t+e 6N8> do" ment, BAVE RE-&DIA!ED laisse= faire (or t+e do"trine o* *ree enter)rise) as an e"onomi" )rin"i)le, and alt+o g+ t+e )resent Constit tion ens+rines *ree enter)rise as a )oli"y, it nevert+eless reserves to t+e government t+e )o.er to intervene .+enever ne"essary to )romote t+e general .el*are/ As s "+, *ree enter)rise does not "all *or t+e removal o* 4)rote"tive reg lations9 *or t+e bene*it o* t+e general ) bli"/ !+is is so be"a se nder Art/ 3II, #e"tions < and N, it is very "lear t+at t+e government reserves t+e )o.er to intervene .+enever ne"essary to )romote t+e general .el*are and .+en t+e ) bli" interest so re; ires/ 84.a. )s the Brade Li*eraliJation /ct of 8GGGA ;/ >o. 34:8 which allows forei5ners to en5a5e in retail trade in the Philippines #iolati#e of @ecs. 2A 12 and 8G A /t. )) of the Constitution which mandates that the national economy shall *e effecti#ely controlled *y Cilipinos? (o, said la. is "onstit tional/ As +eld by t+e # )reme Co rt in REP "ERAR!O E$PINA ET AL V$ E)EC $EC RONAL!O DA(ORA* " R No 1+3-22* $/9t/8?/3 21* 2010 (!+e !rade %iberalization A"t o* 2JJJ, RA (o/ M=<2) .+i"+ allo.s *oreigners to engage in retail trade in F "ategories is not n"onstit tional *or alleged violation o* #e"s/ N, 6N and 2J o* Art/ II .+i"+ mandates t+at t+e national e"onomy s+all be e**e"tively "ontrolled by $ili)inos/ !+e "onstit tional )rovisions does not )ro+ibit *oreign investments B&! O(%C !O RE"#LATE T&E $A(E/ As s "+, t+e "laim t+at as a res lt o* t+e la., WA%'AR! and O'AR! retailers "o ld "ome to t+e -+ili))ines and .o ld OI%% $ili)ino retailers +as no basis be"a se *oreign )arti"i)ation in retail b siness is limited/ 84.*. May the PC<< Commissioners refuse to appear *efore a conductin5 alle5ed irre5ularities committed *y them while sittin5 PH)LC=M@/BA a pri#ate firm se"uestered *y the 5o#ernment on account >o. 1 pro#idin5 that they should not *e the su*7ect of any in#esti5ation their acts in connection with the performance of their duties as such? @enate Committee in the ,oard of of +$ecuti#e =rder in connection with

(o/ # "+ a"t .o ld violate #e"tion 2M, Art/ II o* t+e Constit tion mandating di14lo1u3/ o= 0ll 9u?li4 t30n104tion1 in>ol>in< t,/ 9u?li4 int/3/1t # "+ a"t .o ld also violate t+e 43i<,t to in=o380tion on 80tt/31 o= 9u?li4 4on4/3n 9 as .ell as t+e 49u?li4 044ount0?ility o= 9u?li4 o==i4i0l19 as embodied in #e"tion 6, Art/ 3I o* t+e 6NM= Constit tion, not to mention t+at s "+ .o ld render n gatory t+e )o.er o* Congress nder #e"tion 26, Art/ VI/ I( $AC!, ,OVER('E(! O$$ICIA%# BAVE O(%C A %I'I!ED RI,B! !O -RIVACC/ (#ABIO V#/ ,ORDO(, >JF #CRA =JF) 83. What /re the limitations to the Con5ress power to e$ercise le5islati#e power? !+e limitations areA 6/ it "annot )ass irre)ealable la.s 2/ )rin"i)le o* se)aration o* )o.ers 8/ non:delegability o* legislative )o.ers 82. What are the constitutionally allowed %dele5ation of le5islati#e power' *y Con5ress? !+e )ermissible delegation o* legislative )o.er are/ 6) $/4 23 (2) o= A3ti4l/ VI (E8/3</n4y 9o;/31 to t,/ P3/1id/nt in 401/ o= ;03 o3

ot,/3 n0tion0l /8/3</n4y, *or a limited )eriod and s bGe"t to s "+ restri"tions as Congress may )rovide, to e1er"ise )o.ers ne"essary and )ro)er to "arry o t a de"lared national )oli"y/ &nless sooner .it+dra.n by Resol tion o* Congress, s "+ )o.ers s+all "ease )on t+e ne1t adGo rnment t+ereo*/ 2) $/4 2- (2) o= A3ti4l/ VI !+e Congress may by la., a t+orize t+e -resident to =iC ;it,in 19/4i=i/d li8it1* 0nd 1u?J/4t to 1u4, li8it0tion1 0nd 3/1t3i4tion1 01 it 80y i89o1/* t03i== 30t/1* i89o3t 0nd /C9o3t :uot01* tonn0</ 0nd ;,03=0</ du/1* 0nd ot,/3 duti/1 o3 i89o1t1 ;it,in t,/ =308/;o3E o= t,/ n0tion0l d/>/lo98/nt 93o<308 o= t,/ <o>/3n8/nt / 8) !/l/<0tion to lo40l <o>/3n8/nt1 F) !/l/<0tion o= Rul/-80Ein< 9o;/3 to 0d8ini1t30ti>/ ?odi/1 >) !/l/<0tion to t,/ P/o9l/ (#e"tion 2, Art/ 3VII o* t+e Constit tion and #e"tion 82, Arti"le VI:::!+e Congress s+all, as /03ly 01 9o11i?l/* 93o>id/ =o3 0 1y1t/8 o= initi0ti>/ 0nd 3/=/3/ndu8* 0nd t,/ /C4/9tion1 t,/3/=3o8* ;,/3/?y t,/ 9/o9l/ 40n di3/4tly 93o9o1/ 0nd /n04t l0;1 o3 0993o>/ o3 3/J/4t 0ny 04t o3 l0; o3 903t t,/3/o= 9011/d ?y t,/ Con<3/11 o= lo40l l/<i1l0ti>/ ?ody 0=t/3 t,/ 3/<i1t30tion o= 0 9/tition t,/3/o= 1i<n/d ?y 0t l/01t 10K o= t,/ tot0l nu8?/3 o= 3/<i1t/3/d >ot/31* o= ;,i4, />/3y l/<i1l0ti>/ di1t3i4t 8u1t ?/ 3/93/1/nt/d ?y 0t l/01t 3K o= t,/ 3/<i1t/3/d >ot/31 t,/3/o=/ 3G. What is the completeness test? Bhe sufficiency of standard test? As +eld in PELAED V$ A#!ITOR "ENERAL* 12 $CRA 275L (a) Completeness Best sim)ly means t+at t+e la. m st be "om)lete in itsel* .+en it le*t Congress/ It m st set *ort+ t+erein t+e )oli"y to be e1e" ted, "arried o t or im)lemented by t+e delegate .+i"+ is not given any dis"retion0 and (b) @ufficiency of @tandards Best sim)ly re; ires Congress to *i1 a standard, t+e limits o* .+i"+ are s **i"iently determinate or determinable to .+i"+ t+e delegate m st "on*orm in t+e )er*orman"e o* +is * n"tions/ #ome o* t+e standards to g ide t+e delegate are general .el*are, ) bli" interest, et"/ 31. )s it constitutional for the C=M+L+C to re"uire candidates for all electi#e officesA includin5 those for PresidentA 0PA @enators and mem*ers of the House of ;epresentati#es to su*mit a Certification from a 5o#ernment.accredited dru5.testin5 centers that they are free from prohi*ited dru5s *efore their Certificate of Candidacy is admitted? (o, t+e CO'E%EC Resol tion is n"onstit tional/ It adds additional ; ali*i"ations to t+ose )rovided *or by t+e Constit tion *or t+e -resident, V-, #enators and 'embers o* t+e Bo se o* Re)resentatives/ (PI(ENTEL V$ CO(ELEC* " R No 17172-* No>/8?/3 3* 200-) 31.a. )s a Cilipino citiJen who *ecame a mem*er of the 6@ /rmed Corces and therefore at one time a 6@ CitiJen considered %natural *orn' for purposes of complyin5 with the "ualifications of a mem*er of the House of ;epresentati#es@ Ces as +eld in ANTONIO 'EN"$ON III V$ &O#$E O% REPRE$ENTATIVE$ ELECTORAL TRI'#NAL 0nd TEO!ORO CR#D* 32. $CRA 2+2 be"a se Re)/ A"t (o/ 2<8J )rovides t+at 4Any )erson .+o +ad lost +is -+ili))ine Citizens+i) by rendering servi"e to, or a""e)ting "ommission in, t+e Armed $or"es o* t+e &nited #tates, or a*ter se)aration *rom t+e Armed $or"es o* t+e &nited states, a"; ired &# "itizens+i), 'AC REACK&IRE -BI%I--I(E CI!IZE(#BI- BC !AOI(, A( OA!B O$ A%%E,IA(CE !O !BE RE-&B%IC O$ !BE -BI%I--I(E# A(D RE,I#!ERI(, !BE #A'E WI!B

!BE %OCA% CIVI% RE,I#!RC I( !BE -%ACE WBERE BE RE#IDE# OR %A#! RE#IDED I( !BE -BI%I--I(E#/ !+e said Oat+ o* allegian"e s+all "ontain a ren n"iation o* any ot+er "itizens+i)/9 And +e s+all still be "onsidered 4nat ral born9 $ili)ino "itizen/ 38. )f the candidate for Con5ressman is su*se"uently dis"ualified for non.compliance of the residence re"uirement under /rt. 0)A may the 8 nd placer *e declared the winner in his place? When may the 8nd placer *e allowed to *e declared the winner? It de)ends/ As +eld in OCA(PO V$ &O#$E ELECTORAL TRI'#NAL CRE$PO* 0 E 0 (ARK JI(ENED* Jun/ 12* 200+ 0nd (ARIO

!+ere m st be a *inal G dgment dis; ali*ying a "andidate in order t+at t+e votes o* a dis; ali*ied "andidate "an be "onsidered 4stray9/ !+is *inal G dgment m st be rendered 'E%ORE T&E ELECTION/ (%R NAR!O CAYAT V$ CO(ELEC* 200.)/ !+is .as t+e r ling in t+e "ase o* CODI%%A V#/ DE VE(ECIA/ Ben"e, .+en a "andidate +as not been dis; ali*ied by *inal G dgment and on ele"tion day +e obtained t+e +ig+est n mber o* votes, t+e votes "ast in +is *avor "annot be de"lared stray/ !o do so .o ld amo nt to disen*ran"+ising t+e ele"torate in .+om sovereignty resides/ !+e reason be+ind t+is is t+at t+e )eo)le voted *or +im bona *ide and in t+e +onest belie* t+at t+e "andidate .as t+en ; ali*ied to be t+e )erson to .+om t+ey .o ld entr st t+e e1er"ise o* t+e )o.ers o* government/ !+e dis; ali*i"ation o* a "andidate .+o obtained t+e +ig+est n mber o* votes A%TER T&E ELECTION does not entitle t+e se"ond )la"er to be de"lared t+e .inner/ !+e said )rin"i)le .as laid do.n as early as 6N62 in TOPACIO V$ PARE!E$ and reiterated in t+e "ases o* LA'O V$ CO(ELEC* A'ELLA V$ CO(ELEC 0nd !O(INO V$ CO(ELEC/ 38.a. )n order to #alidly create an aditional district for Ca5ayan de =ro CityA must the law creatin5 it *e first su*mitted to the people therein in a ple*iscite in accordance with @ection 1GA /rt. F of the 1234 Constitution? (o, be"a se t+e "reation o* anot+er distri"t .+en t+e same is .arranted as .+en t+ere is an in"rease o* )o) lation G sti*ying t+e "reation o* a ne. distri"t does not "reate a ne. or divide a lo"al government nit/ W+at is a))li"able is #e"tion >, Art/ VI o* t+e Constit tion, not #e"tion 6J, Art/ 3/ (,/</,6E= 0@. C=M+L+CA Decem*er 3A 8GG3 38.*. )s the creation of a fifth district in Camarines @ur *y di#idin5 the e$istin5 1 st District into two (8 #alid e#en thou5h it will only ha#e 144AGGG plus population which is short of 8(GAGGG as re"uired under @ection ( H3IA /rt. 0) of the Constitution? >o. Bhe 8(GAGGG population re"uirement applies only to ma-e a city entitled to one le5islati#e district or in the creation of a new pro#ince , NOT IN T&E CREATION O% A NEW !I$TRICT IN AN E)I$TIN" PROVINCE ('ENI"NO AM#INO III V$ CO(ELEC* A93il .* 2010) H!i11/ntin< O9inion o= Ju1ti4/ C039ioL I= t,/ 80Jo3ity 3ulin< i1 to ?/ =ollo;/d* 01 lon< 01 t,/ n/; di1t3i4t o3 di1t3i4t1 ;ill ?/ 403>/d out =3o8 0n /Ci1tin< 93o>in4/* t,/n* />/n 0n 03/0 ;it, only 200 in,0?it0nt1 03/ 0llo;/d to 4on1titut/ 0 n/; di1t3i4tF It >iol0t/1 t,/ 3/:ui3/8/nt o= 93o9o3tion0l 3/93/1/nt0tion 01 ;/ll 01 ?01/d on @uni=o38 0nd 93o<3/11i>/ 30tioAI 38.c. )s the law creatin5 the new le5islati#e district for Malolos City constitutional since the >ational @tatistics =ffice had pro7ected that it will ha#e a population of 8(!AG3G *y 'the year 8G1G'? (o, t+ere m st be 2>J,JJJ )o) lation on or be*ore t+e 'ay 6J, 2J6J ele"tions/ In t+is "ase, it .as not "lear t+at it +as "om)lied .it+ t+e )o) lation re; irement on ele"tion day/ 2J6J is ) to De"ember o* said year/ (AL!A'A V$ CO(ELEC* " R No 1--0.-* J0nu03y 22* 2010)

38.d. )n the computation of party.list representati#esA is the 0eterans Cederation Party #s. C=M+L+C Cormula or the Pan5ani*an Cormula still applica*le? (o more be"a se it res lts in a mat+emati"al im)ossiblity/ !o stri"tly "om)ly .it+ it re; iring at least 27 *or every se"toral re)resentative to obtain in order to garner 6 seat .o ld re; ire 66<7 in order t+at t+ere .ill be >M se"toral re)resentatives Din 2J68J based on t+e n mber o* legislative distri"ts at )resent/ Also, t+e 2J7 )arty:list members+i) in t+e Bo se o* Re)resentatives s+all be * lly *illed ), not G st 2J, 26, 22, or 28 .+en t+e -anganiban $orm la .as sed/ 38.e. )s Dan CernandeJ "ualified to run for Con5ressman of the Cirst District of La5una since he is rentin5 an apartment in @ta. ;osaA La5unaA e#en thou5h his residential house is at Pa5san7anA La5una which is a part of the (th district where he was residin5 *efore thou5h he resided in that rented apartment for more than 1 year *efore the 8GG4 elections? Ces/ O.ners+i) o* a real )ro)erty in t+e )la"e .+ere one r ns *or Congressman is not re; ired by #e"tion <, Art/ VI o* t+e Constit tion/ (!AN %ERNAN!ED V$ &RET* !/4/8?/3 21* 2005) 82:*/ I* a "andidate *or t+e Bo se o* Re)resentatives, a"tor Ri"+ard ,omez, .as dis; ali*ied by t+e CO'E%EC based on #e"tion =M o* t+e Omnib s Ele"tion Code be"a se 4+e .as not a resident o* Ormo" City9 at least one (6) year be*ore t+e 'ay 6J, 2J6J ele"tions, may +e be s bstit ted by +is .i*e % "y !orres@ Ass ming % "y .ins, may s+e validly be de"lared t+e re)resentative *or said Distri"t@ (o, a "andidate dis; ali*ied nder #e"tion =M o* t+e Omnib s Ele"tion Code "annot be s bstit ted be"a se t+e Certi*i"ate o* Candida"y o* o* Ri"+ard is not valid *or la"5 o* t+e ; ali*i"ation mandated by t+e Constit tion/ A valid COC is a "ondition sine ; a non *or a valid "andidate s bstit tion/ !+e.re .as 4material re)resentation9 in t+e COC o* Ri"+ard .+en +e "laimed +e is a resident o* Ormo" City .+en +e .as not/ As s "+, Ri"+ard .as not "onsidered a 4"andidate9 or t+ere .as no "andidate to s)ea5 o* so t+ere .o ld be no "andidate to be s bstit ted/ It is di**erent *or a "andidate dis; ali*ied nder #e"tion <M o* t+e OEC/ Be "o ld be s bstit ted be"a se +e +as all t+e ; ali*i"ations b t .as dis; ali*ied d e to an ele"tion o**ense li5e vote: b ying, terrorism, et"/ (TA"OLINO V$ &O#$E O% REPRE$ENTATIVE$ ELECTORAL TRI'#NAL AN! L#CY TORRE$-"O(ED* (034, 15* 2013) 33. )n case of #acancy in the @enate or in the House of ;epresentati#es under @ection 2 of /rticle 0))A is it automatic for the C=M+L+C to hold a special election? (o, t+ere m st be a la. )assed by Congress a))ro)riating t+e * nds *or t+e said ) r)ose/ ( L=?/D/ #s. C=M+L+CA 18G @C;/ 334 3+ W,il/ 0 (/8?/3 o= Con<3/11 i1 not 0llo;/d to 099/03 01 4oun1/l =o3 0ny 903ty in 4ou3t o3 ?/=o3/ 0d8ini1t30ti>/ ?odi/1* 80y ,/ do 1o 01 0 @1to4E,old/3AF No 01 ,/ld in P#YAT >1 !E "#D(AN* 113 $CRA 31 W,0t 4ould not ?/ don/ di3/4tly 4ould not liE/;i1/ ?/ don/ indi3/4tly/ #o a member o* Congress .+o is a sto"5+older o* t+e "or)oration involved in a "ase is not allo.ed to a))ear nder t+e g ise t+at +e is a))earing as s "+, not as "o nsel *or t+e "or)oration/ (Not/A Was t+e # )reme Co rt "orre"t in allo.ing #enator Ho5er Arroyo to arg e be*ore t+e # )reme Co rt as CO&(#E% *or t+e #enate o* t+e -+ili))ines in t+e "ases (!3ilon >1 E38it0* NERI >1 'lu/ Ri??on Co88itt//* /t4 ) .+ere t+e #enate .as a res)ondent t+erein des)ite #e"tion 6F,

Art VI .+i"+ )rovides t+at 4(o #enator or 'ember o* t+e Bo se o* Re)resentatives may )ersonally a))ear as "o nsel be*ore any "o rt o* G sti"eL9@ 3(. May a court suspend a mem*er of Con5ress when @ection 1: H3IA /rticle 0) appears to 5i#e such e$clusi#e power to each House only for disorderly *eha#iorA and with the concurrence of 8K3 of all its mem*ersA suspend or e$pel a Mem*er. / penalty of suspensionA when imposedA shall mot e$ceed si$ty days? Ces, t+is .as t+e r lings o* t+e # )reme Co rt in t+e "ases o* (IRIA( !E%EN$OR 0nd REP PARE!E$ V$ $AN!I"AN'AYAN RA 3015 099li/1 to 0ll <o>/3n8/nt o==i4/31 0nd /89loy//1 3:. )n case of conflict *etween the entries in a 7ournal of *oth Houses of Con5ress and e$traneous e#idence li-e affida#its of witnessesA which shall pre#ail? %s held in 6.@. #s. P=>@A 3! Phil. 482A the .ournal prevails over e:traneous evidence li;e accounts of newspaper .ournalists and reporters as to what the proceedings all about. 34. )n case of conflict *etween the 7ournal and the enrolled *illA which shall pre#ail> *n C/@C= PH)L. 0@. <)M+>+?A 4 @C;/ 3!4, it was held b7 the &upreme Court that !+e enrolled bill )revails over t+e Go rnal/ I* t+e enrolled bill )rovides t+at it is rea *ormalde+yde is t+e one e1em)t *rom ta1, and not rea and *ormalde+yde .+i"+ a))ears in t+e Go rnal .+i"+ .as really a))roved, t+e *ormer )revails and only C&RA!IVE %E,I#%A!IO( CO&%D CBA(,E !BE #A'E, (O! H&DICIA% %E,I#%A!IO(/ Bo.ever, i* t+e -resident o* t+e -+ili))ines, #enate -resident and t+e #)ea5er o* t+e Bo se o* Re)resentatives .it+dra. t+eir signat res as a res lt o* an anomaly s rro nding t+e )rinting o* t+e *inal "o)y o* t+e bill, t+en, t+e Go rnal .ill )revail sin"e .+at is le*t is no longer "onsidered an 4enrolled bill/9 ((O!E, +o.ever, t+at t+e Go rnal )revails over t+e enrolled bill on all matters re; ired to be entered in t+e Go rnals, li5e yeas and nays on t+e *inal reading o* a bill or on any ; estion at t+e re; est o* 6P> o* t+e members )resent/ DH sti"e Isagani Cr zE) 33. May the C=M+L+C continue to decide a pendin5 dis"ualification petition a5ainst a candidate for the House of ;epresentati#es after said candidate has *een proclaimed and already dischar5in5 his duties as such? (o more/ Only t+e Bo se o* Re)resentatives Ele"toral !rib nal (BRE!) +as t+e G risdi"tion to do t+at being 4t+e sole G dge o* all "ontests relating to t+e ele"tion, ret rns and ; ali*i"ations9 o* said 'ember in a""ordan"e .it+ #e"tion 6=, Art/ VI o* t+e Constit tion/ HLI(KAIC&ON" V$ CO(ELEC* A93il 1* 2005I 33.a. How a*out mem*ers of the House of ;epresentati#e representin5 the party.list 5roups? All ; estions regarding t+e ; ali*i"ations o* members o* t+e di**erent )arty:list gro )s are .it+in t+e e1"l sive G risdi"tion o* t+e BRE! a*ter t+eir )ro"lamation as s "+ and t+at t+e CO'E%EC may no longer "ontin e to de"ide it/ (A'AYON 6 PALPARAN V$ &RET* %/?3u03y 11* 2010) 33.*. May Les*iansA <aysA ,ise$uals and Brans5enders mar5inaliJed or under. represented considerin5 that they are not included in the twel#e %mar5inaliJed 5roups' enumerated *y the @upreme Court in />< ,/<=>< ,/E/>) 0@. C=M+L+C?

Y/1 be"a se t+e en merated se"tors t+erein, i/e/, labor, )easant, *is+er*ol5, rban )oor, indigeno s " lt ral "omm nities, elderly, +andi"a))ed, .omen, yo t+, veterans, overseas .or5ers, and )ro*essionals, 4is not e1"l sive9/
33.c. May an indi#idual who does not *elon5 to a particular mar5inaliJed 5roup #alidly *ecome the nominee of said sector? Ees pro#ided he 8u1t ,0>/ 0 t304E 3/4o3d o= 0d>o404y =o3 t,/i3 3/19/4ti>/ 1/4to31 (ATON" PA"LA#(* INC V$ CO(ELEC* " R No 203.77* 0nd 4o890nion 401/1* %/?3u03y 27* 2013)

33.d. May national parties "ualified to 7oin the party.list elections? W+ile t+e # )reme Co rt ans.ered t+e same in t+e negative in t+e "ases o* Ang Bagong Bayani and BA(A!, t+ey .ere allo.ed in ATON" PA"LA#(* INC V$ CO(ELEC* " R No 203.77* 0nd 4o890nion 401/1* %/?3u03y 27* 2013 33.e. May Con5ress chan5e the e$istin5 mem*ership of the Commission on /ppointments or +lectoral Bri*unals as a result of the chan5es of mem*ership of the different political parties? Yes *f the changes in the political part7 affiliations of the members of Congress is substantial and at the same time permanent so as to dramaticall7 increase the membership of one part7 while significantl7 reducing the other, the number of representatives of the different parties in the Commission on %ppointments ma7 also be changed in proportion to their actual memberships. H!ADA V$ $IN"$ON* !/4/8?/3 21* 15-5I /+ T16 *n Cunanan #s. BanA the mem*ership of the @enators was only %temporary' so as not to result in the change of membership in the Commission on %ppointments? 33.f. May a political party (LDP replace its representati#e in the House of ;epresentati#es +lectoral Commission whoA in a preliminary #otin5 in a protest case a5ainst an LDP Mem*erA #oted in fa#or of the other party and a5ainst the candidate of his #ery own party? @hile as a rule the different political parties ma7 change their representatives in the 1lectoral Tribunal or Commission on %ppointments, it ma7 not change a 2ember who completel7 heard and participated in a particular case "and has alread7 indicated his vote to the members of the tribunal$ and replace him with another who has no participation therein, e:cept onl7 to vote for a part7Amate who is involved in the protest. &uch would be a travest7 of .ustice. /,=>D=C 0@. P)>+D/A @eptem*er 8:A 1221 32. May a committee of Con5ress cite a person for contempt of court for refusin5 to answer its "uestions durin5 in#esti5ations in aid of le5islation? How lon5 may it imprison such witness? As +eld in %!+%30T vs. +%B%!1+ , 9C -hil. #D, @A ;itn/11 ;,o 3/=u1/1 to 0n1;/3 0 :u/3y ?y t,/ Co88itt// 80y ?/ d/t0in/d du3in< t,/ t/38 o= t,/ 8/8?/31 i89o1in< 10id 9/n0lty ?ut t,/ d/t/ntion 1,ould not ?/ too lon< 01 to >iol0t/ t,/ ;itn/11B 3i<,t to du/ 93o4/11 o= l0; A !G. May the President #alidly prohi*it mem*ers of the Ca*inet and those of the e$ecuti#e department from appearin5 *efore any Committee of Con5ress without her consent? It de)ends/ I* t+e a))earan"e is d e to t+e )o.er o* Congress to investigate in aid o*

legislation nder #e"tion 26, Art/ VI, s "+ a"t o* t+e -resident is n"onstit tional *or it .o ld violate t+e oversig+t )o.ers o* Congress and be"a se t+e a))earan"e o* said e1e" tive o**i"ers is 'A(DA!ORC/ It .o ld also violate t+e rig+t to in*ormation on t+e )art o* t+e "itizens/ Bo.ever, i* t+e invitation to a))ear is based on #e"tion 22, Art/ VI or d ring t+e 4; estion +o r9, t+en t+e -resident may validly demand t+at t+ey m st get +er "onsent *irst be"a se s "+ a))earan"e is DI#CRE!IO(ARC/ ($ENATE O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$* 3/93/1/nt/d ?y $ENATE PRE$I!ENT %RANKLIN !RILON* ET AL * V$ E)EC $EC E!#AR!O ER(ITA* ET AL * " R No 175..* A93il 20* 2007 * +-- $CRA 1) !G.a. While a Mem*er of the Ca*inet may *e compelled to appear *efore Con5ress under @ection 81A /rt. 0) of the ConstitutionA may he *e compelled to answer "uestions re5ardin5 his con#ersations with the President on matters su*7ect of the in#esti5ationKin"uiry in aid of le5islation? (o i* t+e "onversations are "overed by t+e 4e1e" tive )rivilege9/ !G.*. +$plain the %e$ecuti#e pri#ile5e' doctrine. Distin5uish the %presidential communications pri#ile5e' and the %deli*erati#e process pri#ile5e' which comprise said %e$ecuti#e pri#ile5e'. Who are co#ered *y this rule? !+e +i:on and postA@atergate cases establis+ed t+e broad "onto rs o* t+e 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</ / In 3nited &tates v. +i:on , t+e &/#/ Co rt re"ognized a great ) bli" interest in )reserving @t,/ 4on=id/nti0lity o= 4on>/310tion1 t,0t t0E/ 9l04/ in t,/ P3/1id/ntB1 9/3=o380n4/ o= ,i1 o==i4i0l duti/1 A It t+ s "onsidered )residential "omm ni"ations as 493/1u89ti>/ly 93i>il/</d/9 A))arently, t+e )res m)tion is *o nded on t+e 4P3/1id/ntB1 </n/30liN/d int/3/1t in 4on=id/nti0lity/9 !+e )rivilege is said to be ne"essary to g arantee t+e "andor o* )residential advisors and to )rovide 4t,/ P3/1id/nt 0nd t,o1/ ;,o 011i1t ,i8O ;it, =3//do8 to /C9lo3/ 0lt/3n0ti>/1 in t,/ 93o4/11 o= 1,09in< 9oli4i/1 0nd 80Ein< d/4i1ion1 0nd to do 1o in 0 ;0y 80ny ;ould ?/ un;illin< to /C93/11 /C4/9t 93i>0t/ly A In *n !e6 &ealed Case, t+e &/#/ Co rt o* A))eals delved dee)er/ It r led t+at t+ere are t.o (2) 5inds o* e1e" tive )rivilege0 one is t+e 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</ and, t+e ot+er is t+e d/li?/30ti>/ 93o4/11 93i>il/<// !+e =o38/3 9/3t0in1 to @4o88uni40tion1* do4u8/nt1 o3 ot,/3 80t/3i0l1 t,0t 3/=l/4t 93/1id/nti0l d/4i1ion-80Ein< 0nd d/li?/30tion1 0nd t,0t t,/ P3/1id/nt ?/li/>/1 1,ould 3/80in 4on=id/nti0l A !+e l0tt/3 in4lud/1 P0d>i1o3y o9inion1* 3/4o88/nd0tion1 0nd d/li?/30tion1 4o893i1in< 903t o= 0 93o4/11 ?y ;,i4, <o>/3n8/nt0l d/4i1ion1 0nd 9oli4i/1 03/ =o38ul0t/d A A""ordingly, t+ey are "+ara"terized by mar5ed distin"tions/ P3/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</ a))lies to d/4i1ion-80Ein< o= t,/ P3/1id/nt .+ile, t+e d/li?/30ti>/ 93o4/11 93i>il/</, to d/4i1ion-80Ein< o= /C/4uti>/ o==i4i0l1/ !+e =i31t is rooted in t+e "onstit tional )rin"i)le o* se)aration o* )o.er and t+e -resident?s ni; e "onstit tional role0 t+e 1/4ond on "ommon la. )rivilege/ &nli5e t+e d/li?/30ti>/ 93o4/11 93i>il/</, t+e 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</ a))lies to do4u8/nt1 in t,/i3 /nti3/ty* 0nd 4o>/31 =in0l 0nd 9o1t-d/4i1ion0l 80t/3i0l1 01 ;/ll 01 93/-d/li?/30ti>/ on/1 / As a "onse; en"e, "ongressional or G di"ial negation o* t+e 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</ is al.ays s bGe"t to greater s"r tiny t+an denial o* t+e d/li?/30ti>/ 93o4/11 93i>il/<// ! rning on .+o are t+e o**i"ials "overed by t+e 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</, *n !e6 &ealed Case "on*ines t+e )rivilege only to W+ite Bo se #ta** t+at +as @o9/30tion0l 93oCi8ityA to dire"t )residential de"ision:ma5ing/ !+ s, t+e )rivilege is meant to en"om)ass only t+ose * n"tions t+at *orm t+e "ore o* )residential a t+ority, involving .+at t+e "o rt "+ara"terized as 4; intessential and non:delegable -residential )o.er,9 s "+ as "ommander:in:"+ie* )o.er, a))ointment and

removal )o.er, t+e )o.er to grant )ardons and re)rieves, t+e sole:a t+ority to re"eive ambassadors and ot+er ) bli" o**i"ers, t+e )o.er to negotiate treaties, et" / !+e sit ation in Eudicial @atch, *nc. v. ,epartment of Eustice , tested t+e *n !e6 &ealed Case )rin"i)les/ !+ere, .+ile t+e )residential de"ision involved is t+e e1er"ise o* t+e -resident?s )ardon )o.er, a non:delegable, "ore:)residential * n"tion, t+e De) ty Attorney ,eneral and t+e -ardon Attorney .ere deemed to be too remote *rom t+e -resident and +is senior W+ite Bo se advisors to be )rote"ted/ !+e Co rt "on"eded t+at * n"tionally t+ose o**i"ials .ere )er*orming a tas5 dire"tly related to t+e -resident?s )ardon )o.er, b t "on"l ded t+at an organizational test .as more a))ro)riate *or "on*ining t+e )otentially broad s.ee) t+at .o ld res lt *rom t+e *n !e6 &ealed Case<s * n"tional test/ !+e maGority "on"l ded t+at, t+e lesser )rote"tions o* t+e deliberative )ro"ess )rivilege .o ld s **i"e/ !+at )rivilege .as, +o.ever, *o nd ins **i"ient to G sti*y t+e "on*identiality o* t+e F,8F6 .it++eld do" ments/ !+e above "ases, es)e"ially, +i:on, *n !e &ealed Case and Eudicial @atch, some+o. )rovide t+e elements o* 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</, to .itA 1) !+e )rote"ted "omm ni"ation m st relate to a 4; intessential and non:delegable )residential )o.er/9 !+e "omm ni"ation m st be a t+ored or 4soli"ited and re"eived9 by a "lose advisor o* t+e -resident or t+e -resident +imsel*/ !+e G di"ial test is t+at an advisor m st be in 4o)erational )ro1imity9 .it+ t+e -resident/ !+e 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</ remains a ; ali*ied )rivilege t+at may be over"ome by a s+o.ing o* ade; ate need, s "+ t+at t+e in*ormation so g+t 4li5ely "ontains im)ortant eviden"e9 and by t+e navailability o* t+e in*ormation else.+ere by an a))ro)riate investigating a t+ority / #im)ly ) t, t+e bases are 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</ and e1e" tive )rivilege on matters relating to di9lo804y o3 =o3/i<n 3/l0tion1/ &sing t+e above elements, .e are "onvin"ed t+at, indeed, t+e "omm ni"ations eli"ited by t+e t+ree (8) ; estions are "overed by t+e 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/<// Cirst, t+e "omm ni"ations relate to a 4; intessential and non:delegable )o.er9 o* t+e -resident, i/e/ t+e )o.er to enter into an e1e" tive agreement .it+ ot+er "o ntries/ !+is a t+ority o* t+e -resident to enter into e:ecutive agreements .it+o t t+e "on" rren"e o* t+e %egislat re +as traditionally been re"ognized in -+ili))ine G ris)r den"e / @econdA t+e "omm ni"ations are 4re"eived9 by a "lose advisor o* t+e -resident/ &nder t+e 4o)erational )ro1imity9 test, )etitioner "an be "onsidered a "lose advisor, being a member o* -resident Arroyo?s "abinet/ %nd third, t+ere is no ade; ate s+o.ing o* a "om)elling need t+at .o ld G sti*y t+e limitation o* t+e )rivilege and o* t+e un0>0il0?ility o* t+e in*ormation else.+ere by an a))ro)riate investigating a t+ority/ (NOTEL In NiCon* t,/ #$ $u93/8/ Cou3t ,/ld t,0t in>o40tion o= @/C/4uti>/ 93i>il/</A i1 un0>0ilin< i= it in>ol>/1 t,/ 4o88i11ion o= 0 43i8/ 0nd t,/3/ i1 0l3/0dy 0 9/ndin< 43i8in0l 401/ ) We see no dis) te on t+is/ It is settled in 3nited &tates v. +i:on , t+at 4demonstrated, s)e"i*i" need *or eviden"e in 9/ndin< 43i8in0l t3i0l9 o t.eig+s t+e -resident?s 4generalized interest in "on*identiality/9 Bo.ever, t+e )resent "ase?s distin"tion .it+ t+e +i:on "ase is very evident/ In +i:on, t+ere is a )ending "riminal )ro"eeding .+ere t+e in*ormation is re; ested and it is t+e demands o* d e )ro"ess o* la. and t+e *air administration o* "riminal G sti"e t+at t+e in*ormation be

dis"losed/ !+is is t+e reason .+y t+e &/#/ Co rt .as ; i"5 to 4 li8it t,/ 14o9/ o= it1 d/4i1ion 9 It stressed t+at it is @not 4on4/3n/d ,/3/ ;it, t,/ ?0l0n4/ ?/t;//n t,/ P3/1id/ntB1 </n/30liN/d int/3/1t in 4on=id/nti0lity C C C 0nd 4on<3/11ion0l d/80nd1 =o3 in=o380tion A &nli5e in +i:on, t+e in*ormation +ere is eli"ited, not in a "riminal )ro"eeding, b t in a legislative in; iry/ In t+is regard, &enate v. 1rmita stressed t+at t+e validity o* t+e "laim o* e1e" tive )rivilege de)ends not only on t+e gro nd invo5ed b t, also, on t+e 93o4/du30l 1/ttin< or t+e 4ont/Ct in .+i"+ t+e "laim is made/ $ rt+ermore, in +i:on, t+e -resident did not inter)ose any "laim o* need to )rote"t military, di)lomati" or sensitive national se" rity se"rets/ In t+e )resent "ase, E1e" tive #e"retary Ermita "ategori"ally "laims e1e" tive )rivilege on t+e gro nds o* 93/1id/nti0l 4o88uni40tion1 93i>il/</ in relation to +er e1e" tive and )oli"y de"ision:ma5ing )ro"ess and di)lomati" se"rets/ !1. May a person #alidly refuse to honor an in#itation to appear *efore the @enate ,lue ;i**on Committee in connection with its alle5ed in#esti5ation %in aid of le5islation'? Ces/ In '/n<Non* J3 >1 $/n0t/ 'lu/ Ri??on Co88itt//* No> 20* 1551* it .as +eld t+at 4t+e )o.er o* bot+ +o ses o* Congress to "ond "t in; iries in aid o* legislation is not, absol te or nlimited/ I!+e rig+ts o* )ersons a))earing in or a**e"ted by s "+ in; iries s+all be res)e"ted/I It *ollo.s t+en t+at t+e rig+ts o* )ersons nder t+e Bill o* Rig+ts m st be res)e"ted, in"l ding t+e rig+t to d e )ro"ess and t+e rig+t not to be "om)elled to testi*y against oneQs sel*/ B t broad as is t+is )o.er o* in; iry, it is not nlimited/ !+ere is no general a t+ority to e1)ose t+e )rivate a**airs o* individ als .it+o t G sti*i"ation in terms o* t+e * n"tions o* Congress/ (or is t+e Congress a la. en*or"ement or trial agen"y/ !+ese are * n"tions o* t+e e1e" tive and G di"ial de)artments o* government/ (o in; iry is an end in itsel*0 it m st be related to and in * rt+eran"e o* a legitimate tas5 o* Congress/ Investigations "ond "ted solely *or t+e )ersonal aggrandizement o* t+e investigators or to I) nis+I t+ose investigated are inde*ensible/ As s "+, i* t+e )erson invited is already an a"" sed be*ore t+e #andiganbayan or *a"ing a "ase in t+e Omb dsman in "onne"tion .it+ a s bGe"t matter related to t+e Bo se or #enate in; iry, t+en +e "o ld validly re* se to attend to said +earing/ !1.a. May the PC<< Chairman and commissioners refuse to attend in"uiries in ad of le5islation *ein5 done *y the @enate *ecause +$ecuti#e =rder >o. 1 pro#ides that they should not *e "uestioned re5ardin5 their acti#ities as such? (o, t+e )rovision o* E1e"/ Order (o/ 6 regarding t+eir )rivilege not to attend s "+ +earings is n"onstit tional/ It violates #e"tion 2M, Art/ II, !+e rig+t to in*ormation nder Art/ III, #e"tion 26, Art/ VI and #e"tion 6, Art/ 3I or t+e a""o ntability o* ) bli" o**i"ers/ !1.*. May local le5islati#e *odies #alidly cite a person in contempt of court (as what Con5ress could do for refusin5 to appear therein or to answer the "uestions of the mem*ers thereof? (o/ In (E,RO# ORIE(!A% II E%EC!RIC COO-ERA!IVE V#/ #A(,,&(IA(, -A(,%&(,#OD O$ D&'A,&E!E CI!C, ,/R/ (o/ =2FN2, (ov/ >, 6NM=, 6>> #CRA F26, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at s "+ )o.er .as not delegated by Congress to lo"al government nits/ !1.c. May the @enate Committee on Corei5n /ffairs conduct an in#esti5ation of an incident in#ol#in5 ran-in5 mem*ers of the P>P that too- place in MoscowA ;ussia? Ces/ It +as t+e a t+ority to investigate on 4all matters relating to t+e relations o* t+e -+ili))ines .it+ all ot+er nations9/ (!E LA PAD V$ $ENATE CO((ITTEE ON %OREI"N A%%AIR$* %/?3u03y 13* 2005) !8. What are the *ills that must e$clusi#ely ori5inate from the House of ;epresentati#es?

&nder #e"tion 2F, Art/ VI, All 0993o93i0tion1* 3/>/nu/ o3 t03i== ?ill1* ?ill1 0ut,o3iNin< in43/01/ o= t,/ 9u?li4 d/?t* ?ill1 o= lo40l 099li40tion* 0nd 93i>0t/ ?ill1 1,0ll o3i<in0t/ /C4lu1i>/ly in t,/ &ou1/ o= R/93/1/nt0ti>/1, b t t+e #enate may )ro)ose or "on" r .it+ amendments/ (NOTEL In Tol/ntino >1 $/43/t03y o= %in0n4/, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at t+e E: VA! %a. is "onstit tional even i* t+e same .as t+e VER#IO( .+i"+ "ame *rom t+e #enate, not *rom t+e Bo se o* Re)resentatives/ !+is is so be"a se t+e #enate is allo.ed to 4)ro)ose amendments9 to bills .+i"+ m st e1"l sively originate *rom t+e Bo se o* Re)resentatives/) !3. When is transfer of appropriations allowed *y the Constitution@ Only t+ose "overed by #e"tion 2> D>E .+i"+ )rovides t+at 4(o la. s+all be )assed a t+orizing any trans*er o* a))ro)riations0 +o.ever, t+e -resident, t+e -resident o* t+e #enate, t+e #)ea5er o* t+e +o se o* Re)resentatives, t+e C+ie* G sti"e o* t+e # )reme Co rt, and t+e +eads o* t+e "onstit tional "ommissions may, by la., be a t+orized to a gment any item in t+e general a))ro)riations la. *or t+eir res)e"tive o**i"es *rom savings in ot+er items o* t+eir res)e"tive a))ro)riations/9 !!. What is the so.called %e$ecuti#e impoundment'? It means t+at alt+o g+ an item o* a))ro)riation is not vetoed by t+e -resident, +e +o.ever re* ses *or .+atever reason, to s)end * nds made )ossible by Congress/ It is t+e *ail re to s)end or obligate b dget a t+ority o* any ty)e/ -ro)onents o* im)o ndment +ave invo5ed at least t+ree (8) )rin"i)al so r"es o* a t+ority o* t+e -resident/ D6E a t+ority to im)o nd given to +im by Congress, eit+er e1)ressly or im)liedly0 D2E t+e e1e" tive )o.er dra.n *rom +is )o.er as Commander:in:"+ie*0 and D8E t+e $ait+* l e1e" tion "la se o* t+e Constit tion/ (ote t+at in t+is "ase t+e #C +eld t+at t+e Co ntryside Develo)ment $ nd (CD$) or 4-or5 Barrel9 o* Congressmen and #enators is CO(#!I!&!IO(A% be"a se t+e same is 4set aside *or Rin*rastr "t re, ) r"+ase o* amb lan"es and "om) ters and ot+er )riority )roGe"ts and a"tivities, and "redit *a"ilities to ; ali*ied bene*i"iaries as )ro)osed and identi*ied by said #enators and Congressmen (P&ILCON$A V$ ENRIM#ED* 232 $CRA 207) !(. May the President refuse to enforce a law on the 5round that in his opinion it is unconstitutional? (o/ Ot+er.ise, +e .ill be violating t+e do"trine o* se)aration o* )o.ers be"a se by doing so, +e .ill be arrogating nto +imsel* t+e )o.er to inter)ret t+e la., not merely to im)lement it/ (L.@. M==> & C=. 0@. H/;;)@=>A !3 Phil.33 !:. Bhe President of the PhilippinesA *y /dministrati#e =rderA mandates the %/D=PB)=> =C / >/B)=>/L C=MP6B+;)?+D )D+>B)C)C/B)=> ;+C+;+>C+ @E@B+M' and appropriatin5 funds therefore?)s this within his %e$ecuti#e power'? (o as +eld by t+e # )reme Co rt in B%A# O-%E V#/ R&BE( !ORRE#, E! A%/, ,/R/ (o/ 62=<M>, H ly 28, 6NNM, t+e AO establis+es a system o* identi*i"ation t+at is all:en"om)assing in s"o)e, a**e"ts t+e li*e and liberty o* every $ili)ino "itizens and *oreign residents and t+ere*ore, it is s ))osed to be a la. )assed by Congress t+at im)lements it, not by an Administrative Order iss ed by t+e -resident/ Administrative -o.er, .+i"+ is s ))osed to be e1er"ised by t+e -resident, is "on"erned .it+ t+e .or5 o* a))lying )oli"ies and en*or"ing orders as determined by )ro)er governmental organs/ It enables t+e -resident to *i1 a ni*orm standard o* administrative e**i"ien"y and "+e"5 t+e o**i"ial "ond "t o* +is agents/ -res"inding *rom t+e *oregoing )re"e)ts, AO 8JM involves a s bGe"t t+at is not a))ro)riate to be "overed by an Administrative Order/ An administrative order is an ordinan"e iss ed by t+e -resident .+i"+ relates to s)e"i*i" as)e"ts in t+e administrative o)eration o* t+e government/ It m st be in +armony .it+ t+e la. and s+o ld be *or t+e sole ) r)ose o* im)lementing

t+e la. and "arrying o t t+e legislative )oli"y/ !+e s bGe"t o* AO 8JM t+ere*ore is beyond t+e )o.er o* t+e -resident to iss e and it is a s r)ation o* legislative )o.er/ !4. What is the %totality test' used *y the @upreme Court in holdin5 that former President Moseph +strada resi5ned as President on Manuary 8GA 8GG4? !BI# I# !BE !O!A%I!C !E#!, !BE !O!A%I!C O$ -RIOR, CO(!E'-ORA(EO&# A(D -O#!ERIOR $AC!# A(D CIRC&'#!A(!IA% EVIDE(CE BEARI(, 'A!ERIA% RE%EVA(CE !O !BE I##&E/ !3. )s President <loria Macapa5al /rroyo a de 7ure or a de facto President when she too- o#er President Moseph +strada in Manuary 8GG1? )f de 7ureA how did she succeed? ;esi5nation or permanent disa*ility of former President +strada? #in"e bot+ Bo ses o* Congress +ad re"ognized t+at Arroyo is t+e -resident .+en t+ey )assed Resol tion 4e1)ressing t+eir s ))ort to t+e administration o* Ber E1"ellen"y ,loria 'a"a)agal Arroyo, -resident o* t+e -+ili))ines9 .+i"+ .as )assed on Han ary 2F, 2JJ60 anot+er resol tion dated Han ary 2F, 2JJ6 4e1)ressing * ll s ))ort to t+e ass m)tion into o**i"e by V- Arroyo as -resident o* t+e -+ili))ines90 and t+e Resol tion dated $ebr ary =, 2JJ6 4"on*irming -resident Arroyo?s nomination o* #enator !eo)isto , ingona, Hr/ as Vi"e -resident o* t+e -+ili))ines9, +er government is de G re/ !2. May the President ma-es appointment to #acancies in the 7udiciary within two months immediately *efore the ne$t presidential election and up to the end of his term' in order to comply with the re"uirement of @ections ! and 3A /rt. 0))) for him to fill up #acancies in the 7udiciary within 2G days from the su*mission of the list of nominees *y the Mudicial and ,ar Council? (o/ #e"tion 6>, Arti"le VII a))lies only to tem)orary a))ointments to e1e" tive )ositions .+en "ontin ed va"an"ies t+erein .ill )reG di"e ) bli" servi"e or endanger ) bli" sa*ety and not to t+e G di"iary/ (IN RE VALEND#ELA 6 IN REL J#!"E VALLARTA No>/8?/3* 155-) Howe#erA in the case of ART#RO !E CA$TRO V$ J#!ICIAL AN! 'AR CO#NCIL* " R No 151032* (034, 1.* 2010 , a divided # )reme Co rt allo.ed -resident Arroyo to a))oint a ne. C+ie* H sti"e .it+in t+e )ro+ibited )eriod by +olding t+at @t,/ 93o,i?ition und/3 $/4tion 12* A3ti4l/ VII do/1 not 099ly to 099oint8/nt1 to =ill 0 >040n4y in t,/ $u93/8/ Cou3t o3 to ot,/3 099oint8/nt1 to t,/ Judi4i03yA
+ote, however, that ;,il/ nin/ (5) Ju1ti4/1 >ot/d to 0llo; t,/ P3/1id/nt to 099oint t,/ C,i/= Ju1ti4/ du3in< t,/ 93o,i?it/d 9/3iod* only =i>/ (2) Ju1ti4/1 >ot/d to 3/>/31/ IN RE VALEND#ELA 6 IN REL J#!"E VALLARTA A1 1u4,* t,/ P3/1id/nt i1 not 0llo;/d to 80E/ 0ny ot,/3 099oint8/nt1 in t,/ Judi4i03y du3in< 10id 9/3iod* /C4/9t t,/ C,i/= Ju1ti4/ I$ T&E APPOINT(ENT O% T&E C&IE% J#$TICE (A!E A$ AN E)CEPTION IN $ECTION 12* ART VIIF

(G. What appointments made *y the President shall *e the su*7ect of confirmation *y the Commission on /ppointments? Only t+ose "overed by t+e 6st senten"e o* #e"tion 6<, Art/ VII .+i"+ are %the heads of the e$ecuti#e departmentsA am*assadorsA other pu*lic ministers and consulsA or officers of the armed forces from the ran- of colonel or na#al captainA and other officers are #ested in him in this Constitution'. (1. May the President ma-e temporary appointments in#ol#in5 the mem*ers of the Ca*inet while Con5ress in session or not in session? Distin5uish ad interim appointment and appointment in an actin5 capacity/

Ces )rovided t+e tem)orary a))ointments o* "abinet members do not e1"eed one (6) year/ ($EN AM#ILINO PI(ENTEL* /t 0l * >1 E)EC $ECRETARY E!#AR!O ER(ITA* /t 0l * +.2 $CRA 2-.) !+e tem)orary a))ointments are valid/ !+e )o.er to a))oint is essentially e1e" tive in nat re and t+e legislat re may not inter*ere .it+ t+e e1er"ise o* t+is e1e" tive )o.er e1"e)t in t+ose instan"es .+en t+e Constit tion e1)ressly allo.s it to inter*ere/ !+e essen"e o* an a))ointment in an a"ting "a)a"ity is its tem)orary nat re/ It is a sto):ga) meas re intended to *ill an o**i"e *or a limited time ntil t+e a))ointment o* a )ermanent o"" )ant to t+e o**i"e/ In "ase o* va"an"y in an o**i"e o"" )ied by an alter ego o* t+e -resident, s "+ as t+e o**i"e o* a de)artment se"retary, t+e -resident m st ne"essarily a))oint an alter ego o* +er "+oi"e as a"ting se"retary be*ore t+e )ermanent a))ointee o* +er "+oi"e "o ld ass me o**i"e/ Congress, t+ro g+ a la. "annot im)ose on t+e -resident t+e obligation o* a tomati"ally a))ointing t+e &nderse"retary as +er alter ego/ Be m st be o* t+e -resident?s "on*iden"e and )rovided t+at t+e tem)orary a))ointment does not e1"eed one (6) year/ !+ere is a need to disting is+ ad interim a))ointments and a))ointments in an a"ting "a)a"ity/ W+ile bot+ are e**e"tive )on a""e)tan"e, ad interim a))ointments are e1tended only d ring t+e re"ess o* Congress, .+ereas a"ting a))ointments may be e1tended any time t+at t+ere is a va"an"y/ 'oreover, ad interim a))ointments are s bmitted to t+e Commission on A))ointments *or "on*irmation or reGe"tion0 a"ting a))ointments are not s bmitted to t+e Commission on a))ointments/ A"ting a))ointments are a .ay o* tem)orarily "ir" mventing t+e need o* "on*irmation by t+e Commission on A))ointments/ (1.a. May the President appoint a Chief Mustice within the prohi*ited period under @ection 1(A /rt. 0)) of the Constitution? Ces be"a se t+e )ro+ibition a))lies only to t+e E1e" tive De)artment/ (ART#RO !E CA$TRO V$ J'C* (ARC& 1.* 2010 6 APRIL 20* 2010 ON T&E (OTION %OR RECON$I!ERATION D(ote, +o.ever, t+at only *ive G sti"es voted on t+e iss e on .+et+er t+e -resident "o ld a))oint G sti"es and G dges lo.er t+an t+e C+ie* H sti"e/ !+ere*ore, t+e do"trine in IN RE VALEND#ELA 6 IN RE VALLARTA* 25- $CRA +0- is still a))li"ableE (1.*. Must the Commissioner of Customs *e su*7ected to confirmation *y the Commission on /ppointments considerin5 the importance of his position? (o be"a se +e does not *all nder t+e 6st senten"e o* #e"tion 6<, Art/ VII o* t+e Constit tion/ ($AR(IENTO V$ (I$ON* 127 $CRA 2+5) (1.c. @hall the new ,an5-o @entral <o#ernor *e re"uired to *e confirmed *y the Commission on /ppointments as the law creatin5 it re"uires? (o/ Congress "o ld not add to t+e list o* o**i"ials s bGe"t o* "on*irmation by t+e Commission on A))ointments nder t+e 6st senten"e o* #e"tion 6<, Art/ VII o* t+e Constit tion (TARRO$A V$ $IN"$ON* (0y 22* 155+Q CAL!ERON V$ CARALE* A93il 23* 1552) Con<3/11 80y not 0dd t,/ o==i4i0l1 1u?J/4t o= 4on=i380tion ?y t,/ Co88i11ion on A99oint8/nt1 in $/4tion 17 H%i31t $/nt/n4/I* A3t VII o= t,/ Con1titution (8.d. May the President #alidly appoint the D=BC /ssistant @ecretary Maria +lena ,autista as /ctin5 Mana5er of M/;)>/ which is under D=BC? (o/ !+e same *alls nder t+e )ro+ibition on m lti)le )ositions o* o**i"ials in t+e e1e" tive de)artment nder #e"tion 68, Art/ VII o* t+e Constit tion/ ( !ENNI$ %#NA V$ ER(ITA 6 (ARIA ELENA 'A#TI$TA* %/?3u03y 11* 2010)

(8. What is the %ta-e care power' of the President of the Philippines? It is t+e )o.er o* t+e -resident nder #e"tion 6=, Art/ VII .+i"+ )rovides t+at !+e -resident s+all +ave "ontrol o* all t+e e1e" tive de)artments , b rea s and o**i"es/ &/ 1,0ll /n1u3/ t,0t t,/ l0;1 ?/ =0it,=ully /C/4ut/d (RAN!Y !AVI! V$ ARROYO* " R No 1.1357* (0y 3* 2007) (3. What is the power of control of the President. Distin5uish it from power of super#ision/ GCont3olG +as been de*ined as It+e )o.er o* an o**i"er to alter or modi*y or n lli*y or set aside .+at a s bordinate o**i"er +ad done in t+e )er*orman"e o* +is d ties and to s bstit te t+e G dgment o* t+e *ormer *or test o* t+e latter/I G$u9/3>i1ionG on t+e ot+er +and means Ioverseeing or t+e )o.er or a t+ority o* an o**i"er to see t+at s bordinate o**i"ers )er*orm t+eir d ties/ ((ON!ANO V$ $ILVO$A) (!. May the President #alidly re"uire all officers and employees under the e$ecuti#e department to maintain an )D system and ha#e )D cards? Ces in a""ordan"e .it+ +er )o.er o* "ontrol nder #e"tion 6=, Art/ VII o* t+e Constit tion/ (KIL#$AN" (AYO #NO V$ E)EC#TIVE $ECRETARY E!#AR!O ER(ITA* ET AL * A93il 15* 2007 6 Jun/ 20* 2007) B t not *or a national ID system .+i"+ in"l des "ivilians as +eld in O)le vs/ !orres, s )ra/ ((. What is the doctrine of "ualified political a5ency? It sim)ly means t+at 4t,/ P3/1id/nt i1 not /C9/4t/d to 9/3=o38 in 9/31on 0n t,/ 8ulti=03iou1 /C/4uti>/ 0nd 0d8ini1t30ti>/ =un4tion1 T,/ O==i4/ o= t,/ EC/4uti>/ $/43/t03y i1 0n 0uCill03y unit ;,i4, 011i1t1 t,/ P3/1id/nt #nd/3 ou3 4on1titution0l 1/tu9* t,/ EC/4uti>/ $/43/t03y 04t1 =o3 0nd in ?/,0l= o= t,/ P3/1id/ntL 0nd ?y 0ut,o3ity o= t,/ P3/1id/nt* ,/ ,01 undi19ut/d Ju3i1di4tion to 0==i38* 8odi=y* o3 />/n 3/>/31/ 0ny o3d/3 o= t,/ $/43/t03y o= N0tu30l R/1ou34/1 0nd ot,/3 C0?in/t $/43/t03i/1 / W+ere t+e E1e" tive #e"retary a"ts Iby a t+ority o* t+e -residentI +is de"ision is t+at o* t+e -resident/ (L041on-(0<0ll0n/1 Co * In4 >1 P0no* 21 $CRA -52) ((.a. What is the power of e$ecuti#e impoundment? *t means that although an item of appropriation is not vetoed b7 the -resident, he, however, refuses for whatever reason, to spend funds made possible b7 Congress. *t is the failure to spend or obligate budget authorit7 of an7 t7pe. -roponents of impoundment have invo;ed at least three /5? principal sources of the authorit7 of the -resident on this matter. "'$ authorit7 to impound given b7 Congress, either e:pressl7 or impliedl7; "#$ the e:ecutive power drawn from his power as the commanderAinAchief; and "5$ the faithful e:ecution clause of the Constitution under &ection 'C, %rt. )** of the Constitution. (PH)LC=>@/ 0@. +>;)N6+?A 83( @C;/ (G: (:. What are the differences *etween the power of the President to declare martial law or suspend the pri#ile5e of the writ of ha*eas corpus under the 1234 Constitution and the pre#ious Constitutions? &nder t+e 6NM= -+ili))ine Constit tion, s "+ a"ts o* t+e -resident may be revie.ed not only by t+e # )reme Co rt b t also t+e Congress o* t+e -+ili))ines/ -revio sly, s "+ .o ld be "onsidered 4)oliti"al ; estion9 .+i"+ is beyond t+e revie. )o.ers o* t+e "o rts/ %i5e.ise, t+ere is a de*inite )eriod *or t+e said s s)ension nli5e be*ore and more im)ortantly, t+e gro nds are only invasion and rebellion WBE( !BE -&B%IC #A$E!C REK&IRE# I!/ !+e # )reme Co rt may

revie., in an a))ro)riate )ro"eeding *iled by any "itizen, t+e s **i"ien"y o* t+e *a"t al basis o* t+e )ro"lamation o* martial la. or s s)ension o* t+e )rivilege o* t+e .rit or t+e e1tension t+ereo*, and m st )rom lgate its de"ision t+ereon .it+in 8J days *rom its *iling/ A state o* martial la. does not s s)end t+e o)eration o* t+e Constit tion, nor s ))lant t+e * n"tioning o* t+e "ivil "o rts or legislative assemblies, nor a t+orize t+e "on*erment o* G risdi"tion on military "o rts and agen"ies over "ivilians .+ere "ivil "o rts are able to * n"tion, nor a tomati"ally s s)end t+e )rivilege o* t+e .rit/ !+e s s)ension o* t+e )rivilege o* t+e .rit s+all a))ly only to )ersons G di"ially "+arged *or rebellion or o**enses in+erent in or dire"tly "onne"ted .it+ invasion/ D ring t+e s s)ension o* t+e )rivilege o* t+e .rit, any )erson t+ s arrested or detained s+all be G di"ially "+arged .it+in 8 days, ot+er.ise, +e s+all be released/ (4. May the President under the 1234 Constitution #alidly issue decrees %which shall form part of the laws of the land' after declarin5 a state of national emer5ency *ut did not declare martial law. May she direct the ta-e.o#er of *usiness affected with national interest *y reason of the %emer5ency' which she herself proclaimed? I n t + e " a s e o * PRO% RAN!OL% $ !AVI!* /t Al V$ "LORIA (ACAPA"AL-ARROYO* A$ PRE$I!ENT AN! CO((AN!ER-IN-C&IE%* /t 0l * " R No 1.1357* (0y 3* 2007, it .as +eld t+at in de"laring a state o* national emergen"y, -resident Arroyo did not only rely on #e"tion 6M, Arti"le VII o* t+e Constit tion, a )rovision "alling on t+e A$- to )revent or s ))ress la.less violen"e, invasion or rebellion/ #+e also relied on #e"tion 6=, Arti"le 3II, a )rovision on t+e #tate?s e1traordinary )o.er to ta5e over )rivately:o.ned ) bli" tility and b siness a**e"ted .it+ ) bli" interest/ !+e # )reme Co rt r led t+at t+e assailed -- 6J6= is n"onstit tional inso*ar as it grants -resident Arroyo t+e a t+ority to )rom lgate 4de"rees/9 %egislative )o.er is )e" liarly .it+in t+e )rovin"e o* t+e %egislat re/ #e"tion 6, Arti"le VI "ategori"ally states t+at 4DtE+e legislative )o.er s+all be vested in t+e Congress o* t+e -+ili))ines .+i"+ s+all "onsist o* a #enate and a Bo se o* Re)resentatives/9 !o be s re, neit+er 'artial %a. nor a state o* rebellion nor a state o* emergen"y "an G sti*y -resident Arroyo?s e1er"ise o* legislative )o.er by iss ing de"rees/ %i5e.ise, t+e e1er"ise o* emergen"y )o.ers, s "+ as t+e ta5ing over o* )rivately o.ned ) bli" tility or b siness a**e"ted .it+ ) bli" interest, is also n"onstit tional/ !+is re; ires a delegation *rom Congress .+i"+ s+all en merate t+e said 4b siness a**e"ted .it+ national interest9/ (4.a. May the President #alidly declare a @tate of >ational +mer5ency in the Pro#ince of Ma5uindanao without a law enacted *y Con5ress in accordance with @ection 83 H8IA /rt. 0) of the Constitution? Ces be"a se t+e "alling o t t+e armed *or"es is .it+in t+e -resident?s )o.er nder t+e 6 st #e"tion o* #e"tion 6M, Art/ VII o* t+e Constit tion/ (DAL!Y A(PAT#AN V$ P#NO* Jun/ .* 2011) (3. What are the re"uisites of 7udicial re#iew? Co rts may e1er"ise t+e )o.er o* G di"ial revie. only .+en t+e *ollo.ing re; isites are )resentA first, t+ere m st be an a"t al "ase or "ontroversy0 second, )etitioners +ave to raise a ; estion o* n"onstit tionality0 third, t+e "onstit tional ; estion m st be raised at t+e earliest o))ort nity0 and fourth, t+e de"ision o* t+e "onstit tional ; estion m st be ne"essary to t+e determination o* t+e "ase itsel*/ (2. When may the courts still #alidly decide moot and academic cases?

A moot and a"ademi" "ase is one t+at "eases to )resent a G sti"iable "ontroversy by virt e o* s )ervening events, so t+at a de"laration t+ereon .o ld be o* no )ra"ti"al se or val e/ ,enerally, "o rts de"line G risdi"tion over s "+ "ase or dismiss it on gro nd o* mootness/ !+e @8oot 0nd 040d/8i49 )rin"i)le is not a magi"al *orm la t+at "an a tomati"ally diss ade t+e "o rts in resolving a "ase/ Co rts .ill de"ide "ases, ot+er.ise moot and a"ademi", i*A first, t+ere is a grave violation o* t+e Constit tion ( P3o>in4/ o= '0t0n<01 >1 Ro8ulo* R No 122..+* (0y 2.* 200+* +25 $CRA .37)/ second, t+e e1"e)tional "+ara"ter o* t+e sit ation and t+e )aramo nt ) bli" interest is involved (L041on >1 P/3/N* " R No 1+..-0* (0y 10* 2001* 32. $CRA .27)Q third, .+en "onstit tional iss e raised re; ires *orm lation o* "ontrolling )rin"i)les to g ide t+e ben"+, t+e bar, and t+e ) bli" (P3o>in4/ o= '0t0n<01 >1 Ro8ulo)0 and fourth, t+e "ase is "a)able o* re)etition yet evading revie. (/l*aOa #. Commission on +lectionsA " R No 173302* July 23* 200+* +32 $CRA 5-* /cop #. <uin5onaA Mr.A " R No 13+-22* July 2* 2002* 3-3 $CRA 2..* @anla-as #. +$ecuti#e @ecretary* " R No 1250-2* %/?3u03y 3* 200+* +21 $CRA 727 ) :G. Define locus standi. 0ocus standi is de*ined as 4a rig+t o* a))earan"e in a "o rt o* G sti"e on a given ; estion/9 In )rivate s its, standing is governed by t+e 4real:)arties:in interest9 r le as "ontained in #e"tion 2, R le 8 o* t+e 6NN= R les o* Civil -ro"ed re, as amended/ It )rovides t+at 4 />/3y 04tion 8u1t ?/ 93o1/4ut/d o3 d/=/nd/d in t,/ n08/ o= t,/ 3/0l 903ty in int/3/1t /9 A""ordingly, t+e 4real:)arty:in interest9 is 4t,/ 903ty ;,o 1t0nd1 to ?/ ?/n/=it/d o3 inJu3/d ?y t,/ Jud<8/nt in t,/ 1uit o3 t,/ 903ty /ntitl/d to t,/ 0>0il1 o= t,/ 1uit 9 # ""in"tly ) t, t+e )lainti**?s standing is based on +is o.n rig+t to t+e relie* so g+t/ :1. What are the tests of locus standi in the Philippines@ !+e original .asA D6E I* t+e a"t involves t+e disb rsement o* ) bli" * nds, mere ta1)ayer +as t+e "a)a"ity to s e and ; estion s "+ a"t/ D2E I* it does not involve disb rsement o* ) bli" * nds, only t+ose .+o are 4dire"tly inG red9 by t+e said la. or "ontra"t entered into by t+e government/ Case la. in most G risdi"tions no. allo.s bot+ 4"itizen9 and 4ta1)ayer9 standing in ) bli" a"tions/ !+e distin"tion .as *irst laid do.n in 8eauchamp v. &il;, .+ere it .as +eld t+at t+e )lainti** in a ta1)ayer?s s it is in a di**erent "ategory *rom t+e )lainti** in a "itizen?s s it/ In t,/ =o38/3* t,/ 9l0inti== i1 0==/4t/d ?y t,/ /C9/nditu3/ o= 9u?li4 =und1* ;,il/ in t,/ l0tt/3* ,/ i1 ?ut t,/ 8/3/ in1t3u8/nt o= t,/ 9u?li4 4on4/3n Bo.ever, to )revent G st abo t any )erson *rom see5ing G di"ial inter*eren"e in any o**i"ial )oli"y or a"t .it+ .+i"+ +e disagreed .it+, and t+ s +inders t+e a"tivities o* governmental agen"ies engaged in ) bli" servi"e, t+e &nited #tate # )reme Co rt laid do.n t+e more stringent 4 di3/4t inJu3y9 t/1t in 1: -arte 0evitt, later rea**irmed in Tileston v. 3llman. !+e same Co rt r led t+at *or a )rivate individ al to invo5e t+e G di"ial )o.er to determine t+e validity o* an e1e" tive or legislative a"tion, ,/ 8u1t 1,o; t,0t ,/ ,01 1u1t0in/d 0 di3/4t inJu3y 01 0 3/1ult o= t,0t 04tion* 0nd it i1 not 1u==i4i/nt t,0t ,/ ,01 0 </n/30l int/3/1t 4o88on to 0ll 8/8?/31 o= t,/ 9u?li4

!+is Co rt ado)ted t+e @di3/4t inJu3yA t/1t in o r G risdi"tion/ In -eople v. )era, it +eld t+at t+e )erson .+o im) gns t+e validity o* a stat te m st +ave 4 0 9/31on0l 0nd 1u?1t0nti0l int/3/1t in t,/ 401/ 1u4, t,0t ,/ ,01 1u1t0in/d* o3 ;ill 1u1t0in di3/4t inJu3y 01 0 3/1ult /9 !+e )era do"trine .as )+eld in a litany o* "ases, s "+ as, Custodio v. -resident of the &enate, 2anila !ace Forse Trainers< %ssociation v. ,e la Guente, -ascual v. &ecretar7 of -ublic @or;s and %ntiAChinese 0eague of the -hilippines v. Geli:. Bo.ever, being a mere )ro"ed ral te"+ni"ality, t+e re; irement o* locus standi may be .aived by t+e Co rt in t+e e1er"ise o* its dis"retion/ !+is .as done in t+e 15+5 E8/3</n4y Po;/31 C01/1* %raneta v. ,inglasan, .+ere t+e 4t30n14/nd/nt0l i89o3t0n4/9 o* t+e "ases )rom)ted t+e Co rt to a"t liberally/ # "+ liberality .as neit+er a rarity nor a""idental/ In %Huino v. Comelec, t+is Co rt resolved to )ass )on t+e iss es raised d e to t+e 4 =03-3/04,in< i89li40tion19 o* t+e )etition not.it+standing its "ategori"al statement t+at )etitioner t+erein +ad no )ersonality to *ile t+e s it/ Indeed, t+ere is a "+ain o* "ases .+ere t+is liberal )oli"y +as been observed, allo.ing ordinary "itizens, members o* Congress, and "ivi" organizations to )rose" te a"tions involving t+e "onstit tionality or validity o* la.s, reg lations and r lings/ !+ s, t+e Co rt +as ado)ted a r le t+at even .+ere t+e )etitioners +ave *ailed to s+o. dire"t inG ry, t+ey +ave been allo.ed to s e nder t+e )rin"i)le o* 4 t30n14/nd/nt0l i89o3t0n4//9 -ertinent are t+e *ollo.ing "asesA (1) Chave= v. -ublic 1states %uthorit7, .+ere t+e Co rt r led t+at t,/ /n=o34/8/nt o= t,/ 4on1titution0l 3i<,t to in=o380tion 0nd t,/ /:uit0?l/ di==u1ion o= n0tu30l 3/1ou34/1 03/ 80tt/31 o= t30n14/nd/nt0l i89o3t0n4/ ;,i4, 4lot,/ t,/ 9/tition/3 ;it, locus standiQ (8) 8agong %l7ansang 2a;aba7an v. Bamora, .+erein t+e Co rt +eld t+at @<i>/n t,/ t30n14/nd/nt0l i89o3t0n4/ o= t,/ i11u/1 in>ol>/d* t,/ Cou3t 80y 3/l0C t,/ 1t0ndin< 3/:ui3/8/nt1 0nd 0llo; t,/ 1uit to 93o19/3 d/19it/ t,/ l04E o= di3/4t inJu3y to t,/ 903ti/1 1//Ein< Judi4i0l 3/>i/;A o* t+e Visiting $or"es Agreement0 (3) 0im v. 1:ecutive &ecretar7, .+ile t+e Co rt noted t+at t+e )etitioners may not *ile s it in t+eir "a)a"ity as ta1)ayers absent a s+o.ing t+at 4Bali5atan J2:J69 involves t+e e1er"ise o* Congress? ta1ing or s)ending )o.ers, it reiterated its r ling in 8agong %l7ansang 2a;aba7an v. Bamora, t,0t in 401/1 o= t30n14/nd/nt0l i89o3t0n4/* t,/ 401/1 8u1t ?/ 1/ttl/d 93o89tly 0nd d/=init/ly 0nd 1t0ndin< 3/:ui3/8/nt1 80y ?/ 3/l0C/d/ By .ay o* s mmary, t+e *ollo.ing r les may be " lled *rom t+e "ases de"ided by t+is Co rt/ !a1)ayers, voters, "on"erned "itizens, and legislators may be a""orded standing to s e, )rovided t+at t+e *ollo.ing re; irements are metA t+e "ases involve "onstit tional iss es0 *or t0C90y/31, t+ere m st be a "laim o* illegal disb rsement o* ) bli" * nds or t+at t+e ta1 meas re is n"onstit tional0 *or >ot/31, t+ere m st be a s+o.ing o* obvio s interest in t+e validity o* t+e ele"tion la. in ; estion0 *or 4on4/3n/d 4itiN/n1, t+ere m st be a s+o.ing t+at t+e iss es raised are o* trans"endental

im)ortan"e .+i"+ m st be settled early0 and *or l/<i1l0to31, t+ere m st be a "laim t+at t+e o**i"ial a"tion "om)lained o* in*ringes )on t+eir )rerogatives as legislators/ #igni*i"antly, re"ent de"isions s+o. a "ertain to g+ening in t+e Co rt?s attit de to.ard legal standing/ In Iilosba7an, *nc. v. 2orato, t+e Co rt r led t+at t+e stat s o* Iilosba7an as a )eo)le?s organization does not give it t+e re; isite )ersonality to ; estion t+e validity o* t+e on:line lottery "ontra"t, more so .+ere it does not raise any iss e o* "onstit tionality/ 'oreover, it "annot s e as a ta1)ayer absent any allegation t+at ) bli" * nds are being mis sed/ (or "an it s e as a "on"erned "itizen as it does not allege any s)e"i*i" inG ry it +as s **ered/ In Telecommunications and 8roadcast %ttorne7s of the -hilippines, *nc. v. Comelec , t+e Co rt reiterated t+e 4dire"t inG ry9 test .it+ res)e"t to "on"erned "itizens? "ases involving "onstit tional iss es/ It +eld t+at 4t+ere m st be a s+o.ing t+at t+e "itizen )ersonally s **ered some a"t al or t+reatened inG ry arising *rom t+e alleged illegal o**i"ial a"t/9 In 0acson v. -ere=, t+e Co rt r led t+at one o* t+e )etitioners, 0aban ng ,emo;rati;ong -ilipino (%D-), is not a real )arty:in:interest as it +ad not demonstrated any inG ry to itsel* or to its leaders, members or s ))orters/ In &anla;as v. 1:ecutive &ecretar7, t+e Co rt r led t+at only t+e )etitioners .+o are members o* Congress +ave standing to s e, as t+ey "laim t+at t+e -resident?s de"laration o* a state o* rebellion i1 0 u1u390tion o= t,/ /8/3</n4y 9o;/31 o= Con<3/11* t,u1 i890i3in< t,/i3 l/<i1l0ti>/ 9o;/31 / As to )etitioners &anla;as, -artido 2anggagawa, and &ocial Eustice &ociet7, t+e Co rt de"lared t+em to be devoid o* standing, e; ating t+em .it+ t+e %D- in 0acson/ :8. What is the %ta-e o#er' pro#ision of the Constitution. May the President #alidly e$ercise the same? !+is is #e"tion 6=, Arti"le 3II , .+i"+ readsA &ec. 'C. *n times of national emergenc7, when the public interest so reHuires, the &tate ma7, during the emergenc7 and under reasonable terms prescribed b7 it, temporaril7 ta;e over or direct the operation of an7 privatel7Aowned public utilit7 or business affected with public interest. W+ile t+e -resident alone "an de"lare a state o* national emergen"y, +o.ever, .it+o t legislation, +e +as no )o.er to ta5e over )rivately:o.ned ) bli" tility or b siness a**e"ted .it+ ) bli" interest/ !+e -resident "annot de"ide .+et+er e1"e)tional "ir" mstan"es e1ist .arranting t+e ta5e over o* )rivately:o.ned ) bli" tility or b siness a**e"ted .it+ ) bli" interest/ (or "an +e determine .+en s "+ e1"e)tional "ir" mstan"es +ave "eased/ %i5e.ise, ;it,out l/<i1l0tion, t+e -resident +as no )o.er to )oint o t t+e ty)es o* b sinesses a**e"ted .it+ ) bli" interest t+at s+o ld be ta5en over/ In s+ort, t+e -resident +as no absol te a t+ority to e1er"ise all t+e )o.ers o* t+e #tate nder #e"tion 6=, Arti"le VII in t+e absen"e o* an emergen"y )o.ers a"t )assed by Congress/ <8. What are the limitations of the President&s power of e$ecuti#e clemency? !+e same is not available in "ases o* im)ea"+ment as .ell as violation o* ele"tion la.s, r les

and reg lations .it+o t t+e *avorable re"ommendation o* t+e Commission on Ele"tions/ ( $/4tion 15* A3t VII 0nd $/4tion 2* A3t I)-C)) :!. Distin5uish pardon from amnesty/ As +eld in 'ARRIOM#INTO V$ %ERNAN!ED* -2 P,il 7+2, t+e distin"tions are as *ollo.sA D6E -ardon is granted by t+e C+ie* E1e" tive and as s "+ it is a )rivate a"t .+i"+ m st be )leaded and )roved by t+e )erson )ardoned, be"a se t+e "o rts ta5e no noti"e t+ereo*0 .+ile amnesty by -ro"lamation o* t+e C+ie* E1e" tive .it+ t+e "on" rren"e o* Congress, and it is a ) bli" a"t o* .+i"+ t+e "o rts s+o ld ta5e G di"ial noti"e/ D2E -ardon is granted to one a*ter "onvi"tion (o* ordinary "rimes) 0 .+ile amnesty is granted to "lasses o* )ersons or "omm nities .+o may be g ilty o* )oliti"al o**enses, generally be*ore or a*ter t+e instit tion o* t+e "riminal )rose" tion and sometimes a*ter "onvi"tion/ D8E -ardon loo5s *or.ard and relieves t+e o**ender *rom t+e "onse; en"es o* an o**ense o* .+i"+ +e +as been "onvi"ted, t+at is, it abolis+ed or *orgives t+e ) nis+ment, and *or t+at reason it does IInor .or5 t+e restoration o* t+e rig+ts to +old ) bli" o**i"e, or t+e rig+t o* s **rage, nless s "+ rig+ts be e1)ressly restored by t+e terms o* t+e )ardon,I and it Iin no "ase e1em)ts t+e " l)rit *rom t+e )ayment o* t+e "ivil indemnity im)osed )on +im by t+e senten"eI arti"le 8<, Revised -enal Code)/ .+ile amnesty loo5s ba"5.ard and abolis+es and ) ts into oblivion t+e o**ense itsel*, it so overloo5s and obliterates t+e o**ense .it+ .+i"+ +e is "+arged t+at t+e )erson released by amnesty stands be*ore t+e la. )re"isely as t+o g+ +e +ad "ommitted no o**ense/ (1/4tion 10H7I* A3ti4l/ VII* P,ili99in/ Con1titutionQ $t0t/ >1 'l0lo4E* 72 N C * 2+2* 2+.Q In 3/ '3i<<1* 132 N C * 11-Q +. $ E +02 * +03Q EC 903t/ L0;* 32 "A * 2-2* 257Q $t0t/ /C 3/l An,/u1/3'u14, '3/;in< A11Rn >1 E?y* 1.0 (o * +5.Q .1 $ W 22* 71Q 'u3di4E >1 #nit/d $t0t/1* N Y * 32 $ Ct * 27.Q 2.1Q 237 # $ * .5Q 25 L0; /d * +.7 ) DFE -ardon is "om)lete .it+ t+e a"t o* t+e -resident .+ile Amnesty is valid only .it+ t+e "on" rren"e o* t+e maGority o* t+e members o* all t+e members o* Congress/ :(. )s it re"uired for the person applyin5 for amnesty to admit his 5uilt *efore his amnesty application can *e considered? Yes as held in )1!% )&. -1 -01, C &C!% 'J#. Be*ore one may validly a))ly *or e1e" tive "lemen"y ()ardon or amnesty) +e '&#! AD'I! BAVI(, CO''I!!ED !BE AC!# WBICB RE#&%!ED I( BI# I'-RI#O('E(!/ !+is r le abandoned t+e "ontrary r ling in Barrio; into vs/ $ernandez/ ::. May a pu*lic officerA who has *een 5ranted an a*solute pardon *y the Chief +$ecuti#eA entitled to automatic reinstatement to her former position without need of a >ew appointment? +o. %s held in (ON$ANTO V$ %ACTORAN*%/?3u03y* 15-5* a )ardon loo5s to t+e * t re/ It is not retros)e"tive/ It ma5es no amends *or t+e )ast/ It a**ords no relie* *or .+at +as been s **ered by t+e o**ender/ It does not im)ose )on t+e government any obligation to ma5e re)aration *or .+at +as been s **ered/ I#in"e t+e o**ense +as been establis+ed by G di"ial )ro"eedings, t+at .+i"+ +as been done or s **ered .+ile t+ey .ere in *or"e is )res med to +ave been rig+t* lly done and G stly s **ered, and no satis*a"tion *or it "an be re; ired/I T,i1 ;ould /C9l0in ;,y 9/tition/3* t,ou<, 903don/d* 40nnot ?/ /ntitl/d to 3/in1t0t/8/nt* unl/11 099oint/d 0<0in ?y t,/ 099ointin< 0ut,o3ity* 01 ;/ll 01 to 3/4/i>/ ?04E90y =o3 lo1t /03nin<1 0nd ?/n/=it1/

:4. May the power of e$ecuti#e clemency applied to administrati#e cases li-e the suspension of a Pro#incial <o#ernor? Y/1 T,i1 ;01 t,/ 3ulin< o= t,/ $u93/8/ Cou3t in Ll0801 >1 EC/4 $/4 O3?o1* O4t 12* 1551 T,/ ;o3d @4on>i4tion in $/4tion 15* A3t VII o= t,/ Con1titution may be sed eit+er in a "riminal "ase or in an administrative "ase/ :3. )s the mere filin5 of a criminal case a5ainst a recipient of a conditional pardon with the condition Pnot a5ain #iolate any of the penal laws of the Philippines and this condition *e #iolatedA he will *e proceeded a5ainst in the manner prescri*ed *y lawP sufficient to re#o-e such conditional pardon without first securin5 con#iction a5ainst the 5rantee? Ces/ As +eld in TORRE$ V$ "ONDALE$* 122 $CRA 2.2, t+e determination o* .+et+er t+e "onditions o* a "onvi"t?s )ardon +ad been brea"+ed rests e1"l sively in t+e so nd G dgment o* t+e -resident and t+at s "+ determination .o ld not be revie.ed by t+e "o rts/ As +eld in !esoro vs/ Dire"tor o* -risons, in a""e)ting t+e terms nder .+i"+ t+e )arole +ad been granted, !esoro +ad in e**e"t agreed t+at t+e ,overnor:,eneralQs determination (rat+er t+an t+at o* t+e reg lar "o rts o* la.) t+at +e +ad brea"+ed one o* t+e "onditions o* +is )arole by "ommitting ad ltery .+ile +e .as "onditionally at liberty, .as binding and "on"l sive )on +im/ :2. What are the re"uisites *efore the President or his representati#es may #alidly contract or 5uarantee forei5n loans? &nder #e"tion 2J, Art/ VII, t+e -resident may "ontra"t or g arantee *oreign loans on be+al* o* t+e Re) bli" o* t+e -+ili))ines s bGe"t to t+e *ollo.ing "onditionsA a/ t+ere m st be )rior "on" rren"e o* t+e 'onetary Board0 b/ s bGe"t to s "+ limitations as may be )rovided *or by la./ $ rt+er, t+e 'onetary Board s+all, .it+in 8J days *rom t+e end o* every ; arter o* t+e "alendar year, s bmit to t+e Congress a "om)lete re)ort o* its de"isions on a))li"ations *or loans to be "ontra"ted or g aranteed by t+e government or government o.ned and "ontrolled "or)orations .+i"+ .o ld +ave t+e e**e"t o* in"reasing t+e *oreign debt, and "ontaining ot+er matters as may be )rovided *or by la./ 4G. What is 7udicial power? H di"ial )o.er in"l des t+e d ty o* t+e "o rts o* G sti"e to settle a"t al "ontroversies involving rig+ts .+i"+ are legally demandable and en*or"eable, and to determine .+et+er or not t+ere +as been a grave ab se o* dis"retion amo nting to la"5 or in e1"ess o* G risdi"tion on t+e )art o* any bran"+ or instr mentality o* t+e government/ (#e"tion 6, 2nd )aragra)+, Art/ VIII o* t+e Constit tion) 41. May 7udicial power *e e$ercised *y the @upreme Court in cases in#ol#in5 the decisions of the House of ;epresentati#es +lectoral Bri*unal since @ection 1:A /rt. 0) of the Constitution pro#ides that the H;+B is the %sole 7ud5e' of all contests in#ol#in5 the electionA returns and "ualifications of the mem*ers of the House of ;epresentati#es? Ces i* t+ere is allegation o* grave ab se o* dis"retion amo nting to la"5 or in e1"ess o* G risdi"tion on t+e )art o* t+e BRE! (BO(DOC V#/ BRE! S -I(EDA) 48. What is a political "uestion?

*n /LM/;)= 0@. /L,/A 184 @C;/ :A it was defined as a ; estion .+i"+ deals .it+ t+e ne"essity, e1)edien"y and .isdom o* a )arti" ar a"t, t+e same is )oliti"al and not G sti"iable In $0nid0d >1 Co8/l/4* .3 $CRA 333, )oliti"al ; estions .as de*ined as ; estions .+i"+ are neatly asso"iated .it+ t+e .isdom, not t+e legality o* a )arti" lar a"t/ W+ere t+e vorte1 o* t+e "ontroversy re*ers to t+e legality or validity o* t+e "ontested a"t, t+e matter is de*initely G sti"iable or non:)oliti"al/ In T0n0d0 >1 Cu/n4o* 103 P,il * )oliti"al ; estion .as de*ined as ; estions to be ans.ered by t+e )eo)le in t+eir sovereign "a)a"ity or in regard to .+i"+ * ll dis"retionary a t+ority is vested to t+e e1e" tive or legislative bran"+ o* t+e government/ Or in "onN0l/1 >1 CO(ELEC* 21 $CRA ..+ , .+en t+e "r 1 o* t+e )roblem deals .it+ t+e .isdom o* an a"t, it is )oliti"al)/ 43. What is the e$tent of the fiscal autonomy 5ranted to the 7udiciary under the 1234 Constitution? As )rovided nder #e"tion 8, At/ VIII, t+e G di"iary s+all enGoy *is"al a tonomy and as s "+ a))ro)riations *or t+e G di"iary may not be red "ed by t+e legislat re belo. t+e amo nt a))ro)riated *or t+e )revio s year and, a*ter a))roval, s+all be a tomati"ally and reg larly released/ 4!. What are the cases to *e decided *y the @upreme Court en *anc? All "ases involving t+e "onstit tionality o* a treaty, international or e1e" tive agreement, or la., .+i"+ s+all be +eard by t+e # )reme Co rt en ban", in"l ding t+ose involving t+e "onstit tionality, a))li"ation, or o)eration o* )residential de"rees, )ro"lamations, orders, instr "tions, ordinan"es, and ot+er reg lations, s+all be de"ided .it+ t+e "on" rren"e o* a maGority o* t+e members .+o a"t ally too5 )art in t+e deliberations on t+e iss es in t+e "ase and voted t+ereon/ Also, no do"trine or )rin"i)le o* la. laid do.n by t+e "o rt en ban" or in division may be modi*ied or reversed e1"e)t by t+e "o rt sitting en ban"/ Also i* t.o (2) divisions o* t+e # )reme Co rt +ave "on*li"ting de"isions, t+e same s+all be resolved by t+e # )reme Co rt en ban"/ Cases re*erred to by t+e division to t+e ban" involving novel ; estions o* la. , t+e same s+all be de"ided by t+e en ban" a""e)ted by t+e latter/ $inally, dismissal o* G dges and disbarment o* la.yers are also de"ided by t+e # )reme Co rt en ban"/ .2 W,0t 03/ t,/ 9o;/31 o= t,/ $u93/8/ Cou3tF As en merated in Art/ VIII, #e"tion >, t +e # )reme Co rt s+all +ave t+e *ollo.ing )o.ersA EC/34i1/ o3i<in0l Ju3i1di4tion o>/3 401/1 0==/4tin< 08?0110do31* ot,/3 9u?li4 8ini1t/31 0nd 4on1ul1* 0nd o>/3 9/tition1 =o3 4/3tio303i* 93o,i?ition* 80nd08u1* :uo ;0330nto* 0nd ,0?/01 4o39u1 R/>i/;* 3/>i1/* 3/>/31/* 8odi=y* o3 0==i38 on 099/0l o3 4/3tio303i 01 t,/ l0; o3 t,/ Rul/1 o= Cou3t 80y 93o>id/* =in0l Jud<8/nt1 0nd o3d/31 o= lo;/3 4ou3t1 inL All 401/1 in ;,i4, t,/ 4on1titution0lity o3 >0lidity o= 0ny t3/0ty* int/3n0tion0l o3 /C/4uti>/ 0<3//8/nt* l0;* 93/1id/nti0l d/43//*

93o4l080tion* o3d/3* in1t3u4tion* o3din0n4/* o3 3/<ul0tion i1 in :u/1tionQ All 401/1 in>ol>in< t,/ l/<0lity o= 0ny t0C* i89o1t* 011/118/nt* o3 toll* o3 0ny 9/n0lty i89o1/d in 3/l0tion t,/3/toQ All 401/1 in ;,i4, t,/ Ju3i1di4tion o= 0ny lo;/3 4ou3t i1 in i11u/Q All 43i8in0l 401/1 in ;,i4, t,/ 9/n0lty i89o1/d i1 3/4lu1ion 9/39/tu0 o3 ,i<,/3Q All 401/1 in ;,i4, only 0n /33o3 o3 :u/1tion o= l0; i1 in>ol>/d A11i<n t/89o303ily Jud</1 o= lo;/3 4ou3t1 to ot,/3 1t0tion1 01 9u?li4 int/3/1t 80y 3/:ui3/ $u4, t/89o303y 011i<n8/nt 1,0ll not /C4//d 7 8ont,1 ;it,out t,/ 4on1/nt o= t,/ Jud</ 4on4/3n/d O3d/3 0 4,0n</ o= >/nu/ o3 9l04/ o= t3i0l to 0>oid 0 8i14033i0</ o= Ju1ti4/ P3o8ul<0t/ 3ul/1 4on4/3nin< t,/ 93ot/4tion 0nd /n=o34/8/nt o= 4on1titution0l 3i<,t1* 9l/0din< * 9304ti4/ * 0nd 93o4/du3/ in 0ll 4ou3t1* t,/ 0d8i11ion to t,/ 9304ti4/ o= l0;* t,/ Int/<30t/d '03* 0nd l/<0l 011i1t0n4/ to t,/ und/393i>il/</d $u4, 3ul/1 1,0ll 93o>id/ 0 1i89li=i/d 0nd in/C9/n1i>/ 93o4/du3/ =o3 t,/ 19//dy di19o1ition o= 401/1* 1,0ll ?/ uni=o38 =o3 0ll 4ou3t1 o= t,/ 108/ <30d/* 0nd 1,0ll not di8ini1,* in43/01/ o3 8odi=y 1u?1t0nti>/ 3i<,t1 Rul/1 o= 93o4/du3/ o= 19/4i0l 4ou3t1 0nd :u01i-Judi4i0l ?odi/1 1,0ll 3/80in /==/4ti>/ unl/11 di10993o>/d ?y t,/ $u93/8/ Cou3t A99oint 0ll o==i4i0l1 0nd /89loy//1 o= t,/ Judi4i03y in 044o3d0n4/ ;it, t,/ 4i>il 1/3>i4/ l0; 4:. What are the 3.fold Cunctions of Mudicial ;e#iew? !+ese are t+eA le5itimiJin5 function or to declare the law #alid and constitutionalQ chec-in5 function or to declare the law unconstitutionalQ sym*olic or educational function or when the supreme court decide a case e#en if it is moot and academic to educate the lower courts and other 5o#ernment officials/ 44. May inferior courts also e$ercise the power of 7udicial re#iew (declarin5 a lawA treatyA etc. unconstitutional in the li5ht of the re"uirements of @ection !(8 of /rticle 0))) that not e#en any of the @upreme Court&s three (3 di#isionsA sittin5 separately could not declare a lawA treatyA etc.A unconstitutional? Ces be"a se t+e )o.er o* G di"ial revie. is G st a )art o* G di"ial )o.er .+i"+ is available to all "o rts (#e"tion 6, Art/ VIII)/ %i5e.ise, as s+o.n by #e"tion > D2E (a), t+e de"ision o* lo.er "o rts de"laring a la. n"onstit tional is s bGe"t to revie. by t+e # )reme Co rt/ ( YNOT V$ IAC* (034, 20* 15-.) 43. What is the %operati#e fact doctrine'? It sim)ly means t+at t+e de"laration o* n"onstit tionality o* a la., treaty, et"/, is )ros)e"tive/ As s "+, all a"ts done in "onne"tion .it+ t+e said la. be*ore its de"laration o* n"onstit tionality s+all be "onsidered legal, valid and binding/ It is only t+e de"laration o* n"onstit tionality .+i"+ is t+e 4o)erative *a"t9 .+i"+ .o ld sto) t+e )eo)le *rom "om)lying .it+ its )rovisions/ (D+ /<,/E/>) 0@. P>,A 33 @C;/ !82 42. %/'A an employee of the @andi5an*ayanA was found 5uilty of dishonesty *y the Ci#il @er#ice Commission and ordered dismissed from the 5o#ernment ser#ice *ecause it was shown that another person too- the Ci#il @er#ice +$amination for him that is why

he passed. He was 5i#en the opportunity to answer said char5e *ut failed to do so. Decide. !+e De"ision o* t+e Civil #ervi"e Commission is not valid/ Only t+e # )reme Co rt +as t+e )o.er remove o**i"ials and em)loyees in t+e G di"iary nder its )o.er en n"iated in #e"tion <, Art/ VIII o* t+e Constit tion/ (C$C V$ AN!AL* !/4/8?/3 17* 2005) 3G. What are the "ualities of one aspirin5 to *ecome a mem*er of the 7udiciary aside from the citiJenship and a5e "ualifications? A 8/8?/3 o= t,/ Judi4i03y 8u1t ?/ 0 9/31on o= 93o>/n 4o89/t/n4/* int/<3ity* 93o?ity 0nd ind/9/nd/n4/ 31. 6nder the 1234 ConstitutionA may the salaries of the mem*ers of the 7udiciary *e ta$ed without #iolatin5 @ection 1GA /rticle 0))) which would ha#e the effect of decreasin5 the sameF (o/ !+is .as t+e r ling in >)B/C/> 0@. C=MM)@@)=>+;A 1(8 @C;/ 83! which abandoned the contrar7 rulings in the cases of -1!G1CT )&. 211!, 9J -hil. JJ# and 1+,1+C*% )&. ,%)*,, D5 -hil. KDK 31.a. May the Con5ress of the Philippines *e represented *y a Mem*er of the House of ;epresentati#es and a mem*er of the @enate in the Mudicial and ,ar Council separately? (o/ &nder #e"tion M, Art/ VIII o* t+e Constit tion, t+e H di"ial and Bar Co n"il s+all +ave seven (=) members only and t+e Congress o* t+e -+ili))ines is entitled to only one (6) member/ As s "+, t+e Bo se o* Re)resentatives s+all send only one (6) member in t+e H di"ial and Bar Co n"il/ (%RANCI$CO C&AVED V$ J#!ICIAL AN! 'AR CO#NCIL* July 1-* 2012 0nd A93il 13* 2013) 38. 6p to when are mem*ers of the 7udiciary entitled to hold on to their positions? #e"tion 66, Art/ VIII )rovides t+at t+e 'embers o* t+e # )reme Co rt and G dges o* t+e lo.er "o rt s+all +old o**i"e D6E d ring good be+avior ntil t+ey rea"+ t+e age o* =J years or D2E be"ome in"a)a"itated to dis"+arge t+e d ties o* t+eir o**i"e/ !+e # )reme Co rt en ban" s+all +ave t+e )o.er to dis"i)line G dges o* lo.er "o rts, or order t+eir dismissal by a vote o* maGority o* t+e members .+o a"t ally too5 )art in t+e deliberations on t+e iss es in t+e "ase and voted t+ereon 33. May an ;BC Mud5e *e appointed as a mem*er of the Pro#incial Peace and =rder Council of the place where he holds office? (o/ T,/ 8/8?/31 o= t,/ $u93/8/ Cou3t 0nd ot,/3 4ou3t1 /1t0?li1,/d ?y l0; 1,0ll not ?/ d/1i<n0t/d to 0ny 0</n4y 9/3=o38in< :u01i-Judi4i0l o3 0d8ini1t30ti>/ =un4tion1 ( *+ !16 E3,L1 ! , 0G 2%+B%+ , ctober J, 'D99? 3!. /re the different administrati#e and "uasi.7udicial *odies (C=M+L+CA >L;CA >/P=LC=MA M)L)B/;E C=MM)@@)=>@ *ound *y the re"uirement of @ection 1!A /rt. 0))) that %>o decision shall *e rendered *y any court without e$pressin5 therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is *ased'? No It 099li/1 only to t,/ 4ou3t1 01 d/=in/d o3 in4lud/d ?y $/4tion 1* A3t VIII ( %*! G!%+C1 )&. C%!!%&C & , '9 &C!% 'JJ* ),% ,1 1&-*!*T3 )&. CG*, 4C &C!% 5J4* 83&C%Y+ )&. 1+!*01, 'M# &C!% C* 2%+LC% )&. C 2101C, ''# &C!% #C5* )%00%, 0*, )&. *+C* +L, '#' &C!% #MJ* +%- 0C 2 )&. 0 ,, '#C &C!% CJ, +3+%0 )&. C%, 'KD &C!%

5JK 0nd 2angelen vs. C%, #'J &C!% #5M? 3(. What are the periods 5i#en to the different courts to decide cases *efore them? &nder #e"tion 6>, Art/ VIII, all "ases or matters *iled a*ter t+e e**e"tivity o* t+is Constit tion m st be de"ided or resolved .it+in 2F mont+s *rom date o* s bmission *or t+e # )reme Co rt, and nless red "ed by t+e # )reme Co rt, 62 mont+s *or all lo.er "ollegiate "o rts, and 8 mont+s *or all ot+er lo.er "o rts/ A "ase s+all be deemed s bmitted *or de"ision or resol tion )on t+e *iling o* t+e last )leading, brie* or memorand m re; ired by t+e R les o* Co rt or by t+e "o rt itsel*/ #nd/3 $/4tion 1-* A3t VII* ,o;/>/3* 0 401/ :u/1tionin< t,/ >0lidity o= t,/ d/4l030tion o= 803ti0l l0; o3 1u19/n1ion o= t,/ ;3it o= ,0?/01 4o39u1 8u1t ?/ d/4id/d ;it,in 30 d0y1 =3o8 t,/ d0t/ o= =ilin< 3:. )s the re"uirement under @ection 1(A /rt. 0))) mandatory or merely directory? #e"tion 6>, Art/ VIII is mandatory in all "o rts e1"e)t t+e # )reme Co rt .+ere said )rovision is "onsidered merely dire"tory/ !+is is so be"a se it is 4im)ossible9 *or t+e # )reme Co rt to "om)ly .it+ s "+ )rovision "onsidering t+e vol me o* "ases *iled be*ore it/ (C=;P6@ 0@. C/ 23 @C;/ !8!* M/L/C=;/ 0@. C/A 114 @C;/ !3(* M/;C+L)>= 0@. C;6?A 181 @C;/ (1 0nd D+ ;=M/ 0@. C/A 1(8 @C;/ 8G( -.. What are co#ered *y the powers of the Ci#il @er#ice CommissionF &nder #e"tion 2, Arti"le I3:B o* t+e Constit tion, t+e "ivil servi"e embra"es all bran"+es, s bdivisions, instr mentalities, and agen"ies o* t+e government, in"l ding government o.ned and "ontrolled "or)orations WI!B ORI,I(A% CBAR!ER#/ 33. What are the re"uirements *efore one may *e appointed in the ci#il ser#ice? +$ceptions? A))ointments in t+e C# s+all be made only a""ording to merit and *itness to be determined as *ar as )ra"ti"able, and /C4/9t 01 to 9o1ition1 ;,i4, 03/ 9oli4y d/t/38inin<* 93i803ily 4on=id/nti0l o3 ,i<,ly t/4,ni40l, by "om)etitive e1amination/ MN/ De*ine t+e t+ree (8) e1"e)tions to t+e r le t+at t+e a))ointee m st be "+osen based on merit and *itness to be determined by "om)etitive e1amination@ Poli4y d/t/38inin< is one "+arged .it+ laying do.n o* )rin"i)al or * ndamental g idelines or r les, s "+ as t+at +ead o* a de)artment/ P3i803ily 4on=id/nti0l 9o1ition is one denoting not only "on*iden"e in t+e a)tit de o* t+e a))ointee *or t+e d ties o* t+e o**i"e b t )rimarily "lose intima"y .+i"+ ens res *reedom o* inter"o rse .it+o t embarrassment or *reedom *rom misgivings or betrayals o* t+e )ersonal tr st on "on*idential matters o* t+e state (E1am)leA C+ie* %egal Co nsel o* t+e -(B, Besa vs/ -(B, 88 #CRA 88J) &i<,ly t/4,ni40l 9o1ition re; ires t+e a))ointee t+ereto to )ossess te"+ni"al s5ill or training in t+e s )reme or s )erior degree/ MN:a/ 'ay a government em)loyee nder 4)robationary )eriod9 entitled to se" rity o* ten re@ 'ay +e be dismissed .it+o t G st "a se and d e )ro"ess@

(o/ !+e C#C )osition t+at a "ivil servi"e em)loyee does not enGoy se" rity o* ten re d ring +is <: mont+ )robationary )eriod is "ontrary to t+e Constit tion and t+e Civil #ervi"e %a. itsel*/ #e"tion 8 (2) Arti"le 68 o* t+e Constit tion g arantees t+e rig+ts o* all wor-ers not G st in terms o* sel*:organization, "olle"tive bargaining, )ea"e* l "on"erted a"tivities, t+e rig+t to stri5e .it+ ; ali*i"ations, + mane "onditions o* .or5 and a living .age b t also to security of tenure, and #e"tion 2(8), Arti"le I3:B is em)+ati" in saying t+at, Pno officer or employee of the ci#il ser#ice shall *e remo#ed or suspended e$cept for cause as pro#ided *y law.P
Consistently, #e"tion F< (a) o* t+e Civil #ervi"e %a. )rovides t+at %no officer or employee in the Ci#il @er#ice shall *e suspended or dismissed e$cept for cause as pro#ided *y law after due process.' O r Constit tion, in sing t+e e1)ressions 4all .or5ers9 and 4no o**i"er or em)loyee ,9 ) ts no distin"tion bet.een a )robationary and a )ermanent or reg lar em)loyee .+i"+ means t+at bot+ )robationary and )ermanent em)loyees enGoy se" rity o* ten re/ -robationary em)loyees enGoy se" rity o* ten re in t+e sense t+at d ring t+eir )robationary em)loyment, t+ey "annot be dismissed e1"e)t *or "a se or *or *ail re to ; ali*y as reg lar em)loyees (C$C >1 (0<n0y/* A93il 23* 2010)

NJ. )s the position of City +n5ineer of ,a5uio City a %hi5hly technical' position@ (o/ !+e )osition o* City Engineer o* Bag io City is te"+ni"al 4b t not +ig+ly so/9 (,1 0 & &%+T & )&. 2%00%!1, 9C -hil. #9D? 21. )s there such a thin5 as %ne$t.in.ran-' or seniority rule in fillin5 up #acancies in the classified ci#il ser#ice? +o. %s held in Medenilla #s. C@CA Ce*ruary 12A 1221, there is no need to wait for the deadwoods to retire before one ma7 be promoted to fillAup a vacanc7 as a result of the presence of other emplo7ees with longer 7ears of service or ne:tAinAran;. @hat is important is that the appointee meets all the Hualifications for the said position. 28. What is the e$tent of the powers of the C@C in appointment cases? *t has onl7 the power to approve the appointment if the appointee meets all the Hualifications and the power to den7 the appointment if the appointee does not meet the Hualifications. *T , 1& + T F%)1 TF1 - @1! T &38&T*T3T1 TF1 %-- *+T11 CF &1+ 8Y TF1 %-- *+T*+L %3TF !*TY @*TF %+ TF1! @F*CF *T 810*1)1& T 81 2 !1 N3%0*G*1,. (,/;;=?= 0@. C@C & 0/L+>B)>= M6L)/> 23. )s the position of City or Pro#incial Le5al =fficer a primarily confidential position? Yes, as held in C%,*1+T1 )&. &%+T &, '4# &C!% 2-0* t,/ P3o>in4i0l L/<0l O==i4/3 i1 0 93i803ily 4on=id/nti0l o==i4/* ?ut not ,i1 011i1t0nt T,/ 108/ ;01 3/it/30t/d in &%2& + )&. C%, '4J &C!% ;,/3/ it ;01 ,/ld t,0t T,/ City L/<0l o==i4/3 i1 0 93i803ily 4on=id/nti0l o==i4/3 2!. May 5o#Rt. employees form unions for purposes of collecti#e *ar5ainin5 and to stri-e a5ainst the 5o#ernment? As +eld in %00*%+C1 G L )T. @ !I1!& )&. 2 01, '#4 &C!% and 1:ecutive rder +o. '9M , Eune ', 'D9C, government emplo7ees ma7 form unions but not authori=ed to stri;e or demand for collective bargaining agreement with the government. authori=ing govt. emplo7ees to form unions. 2(. May 5o#ernment employees *e remo#ed without cause as a result of a 5o#ernment reor5aniJation?

(o/ !+is is "lear *rom RA <<><, H ne 6J, 6NMM , .+i"+ is 4An a"t to )rote"t t+e se" rity o* ten re o* "ivil servi"e o**i"ers and em)loyees in t+e im)lementation o* government reorganization/9 !+ere m st be * ll "om)lian"e o* t+e d e )ro"ess re; irement/ It m st be based on G st "a se and .it+ d e )ro"ess/( D/;)= 0@. M)@=>A /u5ust 3A 1232* CL=;+?/ 0@. =><P)>A Ce*ruary 8:A 122G* M+>D=?/ 0@. N6)@6M,)><A Mune !A 122G* D=BC #s. C@CA =cto*er 3A 1221* ;omualdeJ #s. C@CA /u5ust 18A 1223 0nd Borio #s. C@CA 8G2 @C;/ :44 2:. May a person *e appointed in a temporary capacity as a Commissioner of the Commission on +lections? (o, #e"tion 6, Art/ I3:C )rovides t+at 4 In no 401/ 1,0ll 0ny 8/8?/3 ?/ 099oint/d o3 d/1i<n0t/d in 0 t/89o303y o3 04tin< 40904ity 4(8rillantes vs. Yorac, ,ec. '9, 'DD'? 24. What are the more important powers of the C=M+L+C@ &nder $/4tion 2* A3t I)-C* it1 9o;/31 03/ to en*or"e and administer all la.s relative to t+e "ond "t o* ele"tion, )lebis"ite, initiative, re*erend m and re"allL/original G risdi"tion over all "ontests relating to t+e ele"tions, ret rns, and ; ali*i"ations o* all ele"tive regional, )rovin"ial and "ity o**i"ials and a))ellate G risdi"tion over all "ontests involving ele"tive m ni"i)al o**i"ials de"ided by "o rts o* general G risdi"tion and ele"tive barangay o**i"ials de"ided by trial "o rts o* limited G risdi"tion/ Also, it +as t+e )o.er toA !/9utiN/ l0; /n=o34/8/nt 0</n4i/1* in4ludin< t,/ A%P R/<i1t/3 9oliti40l 903ti/1* /C4/9t 3/li<iou1 <3ou91 %il/ 4o89l0int1 =o3 >iol0tion o= /l/4tion l0;1 R/<ul0t/ t,/ /nJoy8/nt o3 utiliN0tion o= 0ll =30n4,i1/1 =o3 t,/ o9/30tion o= t30n19o3t0tion 0nd ot,/3 9u?li4 utiliti/1* 8/di0 o= 4o88uni40tion 23. Which court has 7urisdiction o#er election cases in#ol#in5 municipal and *aran5ay officials@ Ele"tion "ases involving m ni"i)al o**i"ial s+all be *iled be*ore t+e R!C .+ose de"ision may be a))ealed to t+e CO'E%EC/ !+ose involving barangay o**i"ials s+all be *iled .it+ t+e '!C .+ose de"ision is li5e.ise s bGe"t to a))eal to t+e CO'E%EC .+ose de"ision in bot+ instan"es is *inal and not a))ealable/ 22. Where must election cases in#ol#in5 city and pro#incial officials *e filed? It m st be *iled .it+ t+e CO'E%EC, not .it+ t+e "o rts/ 22.a. May the C=M+L+C +> ,/>C decide on /ppeal the Decision of ;BC /5ooA La 6nionA re5ardin5 the election protest in#ol#in5 candidates for Municipal mayor *ecause the Di#ision where the appeal was raffled could not decide it due to the inhi*ition of its mem*ers resultin5 in no "uorum therein? (o/ !+e CO'E%EC en ban" "o ld only de"ide 'otions *or Re"onsideration *rom a De"ision o* a Division o* t+e CO'E%EC/($AN!RA ERI"#EL V$ CO(ELEC* %/?3u03y 27* 2010) 1GG. Does the President ha#e discretion on the release of the )nternal ;e#enue /llotment ();/ for the Local <o#ernment @er#ice +"ualiJation Cund (L<@+C and may she #alidly impose conditions for the release thereof? (o, lo"al governments +ave *is"al a tonomy nder Art/ 3 o* t+e 6NM= Constit tion/ As +eld by

t+e # )reme Co rt in t+e "ase o* PROVINCE O% 'ATAN"A$ V$ &ON AL'ERTO RO(#LO* ET AL * (0y 2.* 200+* a tomati" release o* * nds o* %o"al ,overnment &nits, )arti" larly t+e IRA, is mandated .it+ no "onditions im)osed *or its release/ !o allo. t+e -resident to im)ose "onditions *or t+e release o* t+e IRA amo nts to "ontrol to lo"al government nits .+en t+e -resident?s )o.er over lo"al government nits is "on*ined to general s )ervision, not )o.er o* "ontrol as en n"iated in !3ilon >1 Li8* 232 $CRA 132 1GG./. May the @ecretary of +n#ironment and >atural ;esources #alidly re#erse and set aside the %small.scale minin5 permit' issued *y a Pro#incial <o#ernor without #iolatin5 @ection !A /rt. F of the Constitution which pro#ides that the President shall ha#e 5eneral super#ision onlyA not controlA o#er local 5o#ernments@ Ces/ P030<309, 1 o= $/4tion 2* A3ti4l/ )II (N0tion0l E4ono8y 0nd P0t3i8ony) o= t,/ Con1titution )rovides t+at 4DtE+e e1)loration, develo)ment and tilization o* nat ral reso r"es s+all be nder t+e * ll "ontrol and s )ervision o* t+e #tate 4/ Moreo#erA para5raph 3 of @ection 8A /rticle F)) of the Constitution pro#ides that %HtIhe Con5ress mayA *y lawA allow small.scale utiliJation of natural resources *y Cilipino citiJens 1 1 1/9 - rs ant to #e"tion 2, Arti"le 3II o* t+e Constit tion, R/A/ (o/ =J=< or t+e -eopleOs &mallA&cale 2ining %ct of 'DD' , .as ena"ted, establis+ing nder #e"tion F t+ereo* a -eo)leQs #mall:#"ale 'ining -rogram to be im)lemented by t+e DE(R #e"retary in "oordination .it+ ot+er "on"erned government agen"ies/ (LEA"#E O% PROVINCE$ O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$ >1 !EPART(ENT O% ENVIRON(ENT 0nd NAT#RAL RE$O#RCE$ 0nd &ON AN"ELO T REYE$* in ,i1 40904ity 01 $/43/t03y o= !ENR* "R No 1.237-* APRIL 11* 2013) 1G1. What are the re"uirements for a #alid chan5e of residence for purposes of the re"uirement on %residence' under the Local <o#ernment Code? In t+e "ase o* !#(PIT-(IC&ELENA V$ CO(ELEC* +.2 $CRA 250, it .as +eld t+at to validly e**e"t a "+ange o* residen"e, t+ere m st be animus manendi coupled with animus non re#ertendi. !+e intent to remain in t+e ne. domi"ile o* "+oi"e m st be *or an inde*inite )eriod o* time, m st be vol ntary and t+e residen"e at t+e ne. domi"ile m st be a"t al/ 6J2/ Is t+e 8:term limit o* ele"ted lo"al o**i"ials a))li"able to a term a"; ired t+ro g+ s ""ession@ No* t,/ 3-t/38 li8it 099li/1 only i= t,/ o==i4i0l ;01 !#LY ELECTE! to t,/ 10id 9o1ition =o3 t,3// (3) 4on1/4uti>/ t/381* not ?y 1u44/11ion ('ENJA(IN 'ORJA V$ CO(ELEC* 0nd JO$E T CAPCO* JR * " R No 133+52* $/9t/8?/3 3* 155-* #DJ &C!% 'JC) 1G8.a. Monte*on was elected Municipal Councilor of Bu*uranA Ce*u durin5 the 1223A 8GG1 and 8GG! elections. He was num*er councilor in the election of 8GG!. )n 8GG(A the 0ice Mayor died and he too- o#er the said position *y way of succession in accordance with the Local <o#ernment Code. May he #alidly run a5ain for Municipal Councilor durin5 the MayA 8GG4 elections? Ces, be"a se t+ere .as 4I(VO%&(!ARC RE(&(CIA!IO(9 o* +is 8 rd terms/ It .as not vol ntary .+i"+ "o ld +ave res lted in t+e "o nting o* +is ele"tion in 2JJF as +is 8 rd term/ Be .as *or"ed by la. to va"ate +is )osition as ' ni"i)al Co n"ilor/ ( M=>B+,=> 0@. C=M+L+CA /pril 3A 8GG3) 1G8.*. >icasio ,olosA Mr. was elected ,aran5ay Captain of ,aran5ay ,i-in5A DauisA ,ohol durin5 the 122!A 1224 and 8GG8 ,aran5ay elections. Without ha#in5 completed his 3 rd termA he ran for Municipal Councilor of DauisA ,ohol durin5 the 8GG! >ational and Local +lections and won. His term ended on Mune 3GA 8GG4. )s he "ualified to run for ,aran5ay

Captain of his *aran5ay durin5 the *aran5ay elections of =cto*erA 8GG4? (o more be"a se +e .as ele"ted to t+ree "onse" tive terms/ Bis non:"om)letion o* +is 8rd term WA# VO%&(!ARC .+en +er r n *or ' ni"i)al Co n"ilor/ ('OLO$* JR V$ CO(ELEC* (034, 1.* 2005) 1G8.c. Ha5edorn was elected and ser#ed for three (3 consecuti#e terms as Mayor of Puerto Princesa City *ut did not run durin5 his supposed ! th term. Howe#erA after 7ust a year in office of his successorA a recall election was held. May Ha5edorn run in the recall elections without #iolatin5 the 3.consecuti#e rule pro#ision of the Constitution? (o/ An ele"tive o**i"ial, .+o +as served *or t+ree "onse" tive terms and .+o did not see5 t+e ele"tive )osition *or .+at "o ld be +is *o rt+ term, b t later .on in a re"all ele"tion, +ad an interr )tion in t+e "ontin ity o* t+e o**i"ial?s servi"e/ $or, +e +ad be"ome in t+e interim, i/e/, *rom t+e end o* t+e 8rd term ) to t+e re"all ele"tion, a )rivate "itizen ( /dormeo #s. C=M+L+CA Ce*ruary !A 8GG8 and @ocrates #s. C=M+L+C and +dward Ha5edornA A >o#em*er 18A 8GG8 . 1G8.D. Cor four (! successi#e re5ular electionsA namelyA the 8GG1A 8GG!A 8GG4 and 8G1G national and local electionsA /*undo #ied for the position of municipal mayor of 0i5aA Catanduanes. )n *oth the 8GG1 and 8GG4 runsA he emer5ed and was proclaimed as the winnin5 mayoralty candidate and fully ser#ed the correspondin5 terms as mayor. )n the 8GG! electionsA howe#erA the 0i5a municipal *oard of can#assers initially proclaimed as winner one Mose Borres (Borres A whoA in due timeA performed the functions of the office of mayor. /*undo protested Borres& election and proclamation. /*undo was e#entually declared the winner of the 8GG! mayoralty electoral contestA pa#in5 the way for his assumption of office startin5 May 2A 8GG: until the end of the 8GG!.8GG4 term on Mune 3GA 8GG4A or for a period of a little o#er one year and one month. May he #alidly run for the same position in the MayA 8G1G elections?
Ces/ Be +as not served 8:"onse" tive terms/ !+e "onse" tiveness o* .+at ot+er.ise .o ld +ave been Ab ndo?s t+ree s ""essive, "ontin o s mayors+i) .as e**e"tively bro5en d ring t+e 2JJF: 2JJ= term .+en +e .as initially de)rived o* title to, and .as veritably disallo.ed to serve and o"" )y, an o**i"e to .+i"+ +e, a*ter d e )ro"eedings, .as event ally de"lared to +ave been t+e rig+t* l "+oi"e o* t+e ele"torate/ !+e t+ree:term limit r le *or ele"tive lo"al o**i"ials, a dis; ali*i"ation r le, is *o nd in #e"tion M, Arti"le 3 o* t+e 6NM= Constit tion, .+i"+ )rovidesA #e"/ M/ !+e term o* o**i"e o* ele"tive lo"al o**i"ials, e1"e)t barangay o**i"ials, .+i"+ s+all be determined by la., s+all be t+ree years and no 1u4, o==i4i0l 1,0ll 1/3>/ =o3 8o3/ t,0n t,3// 4on1/4uti>/ t/381/ Vol ntary ren n"iation o* t+e o**i"e *or any lengt+ o* time s+all not be "onsidered as an interr )tion in t+e "ontin ity o* +is servi"e *or t+e * llterm *or .+i"+ +e .as ele"ted/ (Em)+asis s ))lied/) !o "onstit te a dis; ali*i"ation to r n *or an ele"tive lo"al o**i"e ) rs ant to t+e a*ore; oted "onstit tional and stat tory )rovisions, t+e *ollo.ing re; isites m st "on" r/ (6) t+at t+e o**i"ial "on"erned +as been elected for three consecuti#e terms in t+e same lo"al government )ost0 and (2) t+at +e +as fully ser#ed three consecuti#e terms/ ((AYOR A'ELAR!O A'#N!O * $R V$ CO(ELEC 6 ERNE$TO VE"A* " R No 201.17* JAN#ARY 0-* 2013) 102-/ &/ ;01 /l/4t/d =o3 3-4on1/4uti>/ t/381 01 (uni4i90l (0yo3 o= !i<o1* !0>0o d/l $u3 &/3 1/3>/d 5 y/031 01 1u4, '/=o3/ t,/ /nd o= ,i1 3 3d t/38* !i<o1 ;01 4on>/3t/d into 0

4o89on/nt 4ity (0y ,/ 3un 0<0in =o3 City (0yo3F (o/ !+e abolition o* an ele"tive lo"al o**i"e d e to t+e "onversion o* a m ni"i)ality to a "ity does not, by itsel*, .or5 to interr )t t+e in" mbent o**i"ial?s "ontin ity o* servi"e/ Be is barred by t+e 8: "onse" tive r le/ (Latasa #s. C=M+L+CA Decem*er 1GA 8GG3 ) 1G8.f. He was elected for 3.consecuti#e terms *ut was the su*7ect of a pre#enti#e suspension *y the =m*udsman for se#eral months durin5 one of his terms. )s he "ualified for a ! th term? (o/ -reventive s s)ension is not a term:interr )ting event as t+e ele"tive o**i"er?s "ontin ed stay and entitlement to t+e o**i"e remain na**e"ted d ring t+e )eriod o* s s)ension, alt+o g+ +e is barred *rom e1er"ising t+e * n"tions o* +is o**i"e d ring t+is )eriod (/ldo#inoA Mr. #s. C=M+L+CA Decem*er 83A 8GG2) 1G8.5. / candidate for mayor was elected to 3.consecuti#e terms. )n one of his terms 3 termsA howe#erA he was proclaimed winner *ut he was ousted from office due to an election protest se#eral months *efore the end of his term. May he run a5ain for a %supposed' !th term? Ces/ W+en a "andidate is )ro"laimed as .inner *or an ele"tive )osition and ass mes o**i"e, +is term is interr )ted .+en +e loses in an ele"tion )rotest and is o sted *rom o**i"e, t+ s disenabling +im *rom serving .+at .o ld ot+er.ise be t+e ne1)ired )ortion o* +is term o* o**i"e +ad t+e )rotest been dismissed/ !+e brea5 or interr )tion need not be *or a * ll term o* t+ree years or *or t+e maGor )art o* t+e 8:year term0 an interr )tion *or any lengt+ o* time, )rovided t+e "a se is invol ntary, is s **i"ient to brea5 t+e "ontin ity o* servi"e/ (LonJanida #s. C=M+L+CA 311 @C;/ :G8 0nd DiJon #s. C=M+L+C ) 1G8.h. Mayor Morales was elected for 3 consecuti#e terms and had C6LLE @+;0+D said 3 terms. Howe#erA in one of said termsA his opponent protested and was declared the real winnerA not Morales. 6nfortunatelyA said decision remo#in5 Morales from office *ecame final only after he had fully ser#ed the same. May he run a5ain for a %!th term'? (o more/ !+e "ase o* %onzanida is not a))li"able be"a se +e .as not able to serve t+e * ll term and +is o))onent too5 over t+e rest o* one o* +is terms t+ s 4disenabling9 +im to * ll serve 8 "onse" tive terms/ W+en an o**i"ial is de*eated in an ele"tion )rotest and said de"ision be"omes *inal a*ter said o**i"ial +ad served t+e * ll term *or said o**i"e, t+en +is loss in t+e ele"tion "ontest does not "onstit te an interr )tion sin"e +e +as managed to serve t+e term *rom start to *inis+/ Bis * ll servi"e, des)ite t+e de*eat, s+o ld be "o nted in t+e a))li"ation o* term limits be"a se t+e n lli*i"ation o* +is )ro"lamation "ame a*ter t+e e1)iration o* t+e term ( =n5 #s. C=M+L+CA Manuary 83A 8GG: 0nd ;i#era #s. C=M+L+C & M/;)>= %,=D)>< % M=;/L+@A May 2A 8GG3)

1G3. )n the creation of a new pro#inceA cityA municipality or *aran5ay or when it will *e di#idedA mer5ed or a*olishedA or its *oundary su*stantially alteredA who shall #ote in the ple*iscite to *e conducted@ All t+e residents o* t+e )oliti"al nits a**e"ted, i/e/, *ormer and ne. lo"al government nit to be *ormed, m st )arti"i)ate in t+e )lebis"ite/ (B/> 0@. C=M+L+CA 1!8 @C;/ 484 and Padilla #s. C=M+L+CA 81! @C;/ 43( -lease ta;e note of the contrar7 rulings in P/;+D+@ 0@. +F+C6B)0+ @+C;+B/;EA 183 @C;/ : and L=P+? 0@. M+B;= M/>)L/ C=MM)@@)=>A 13: @C;/ :33 1G!. /re the statement of assets and lia*ilities and A Personal Data @heet of Mustices and Mud5es confidential and shall not *e released to the pu*lic? +o. *n the case of )> ;+S ;+N6+@B =C BH+ PH)L)PP)>+ C+>B+; C=; )>0+@B)</B)0+

M=6;>/L)@M (PC)M( C=; BH+ 8GG3 @B/B+M+>B =C /@@+B@ />D L)/,)L)B)+@ />D >+B W=;BH (@/L> />D P+;@=>/L D/B/ @H++B@ =C BH+ @6P;+M+ C=6;B />D C=6;B =C /PP+/L@ M6@B)C+@A /.M. >o. G2G3.G4.C/A Mune 13A 8G18A the &upreme Court held that the7 could be given to reHuesting parties s bGe"t to t+e limitations and )ro+ibitions )rovided in R/A/ (o/ <=68, its im)lementing r les and reg lations, and t+e *ollo.ing g idelinesA 6/ All re; ests s+all be *iled .it+ t+e O**i"e o* t+e Cler5 o* Co rt o* t+e # )reme Co rt, t+e Co rt o* A))eals, t+e #andiganbayan, t+e Co rt o* !a1 A))eals0 *or t+e lo.er "o rts, .it+ t+e O**i"e o* t+e Co rt Administrator0 and *or atta"+ed agen"ies, .it+ t+eir res)e"tive +eads o* o**i"es/ Re; ests s+all "over only "o)ies o* t+e latest #A%(, -D# and CV o* t+e members, o**i"ials and em)loyees o* t+e H di"iary, and may "over only )revio s re"ords i* so s)e"i*i"ally re; ested and "onsidered as G sti*ied, as determined by t+e o**i"ials mentioned in )ar/ 6 above, nder t+e terms o* t+ese g idelines and t+e Im)lementing R les and Reg lations o* R/A/ (o/ <=68/ In t+e "ase o* re; ests *or "o)ies o* #A%( o* t+e H sti"es o* t+e # )reme Co rt, t+e Co rt o* A))eals, t+e #andiganbayan and t+e Co rt o* !a1 A))eals, t+e a t+ority to dis"lose s+all be made by t+e Co rt En Ban"/ Every re; est s+all e1)lain t+e re; esting )arty?s s)e"i*i" ) r)ose and t+eir individ al interests so g+t to be served0 s+all state t+e "ommitment t+at t+e re; est s+all only be *or t+e stated ) r)ose0 and s+all be s bmitted in a d ly a""om)lis+ed re; est *orm se" red *rom t+e #C .ebsite/ !+e se o* t+e in*ormation se" red s+all only be *or t+e stated ) r)ose/ In t+e "ase o* re; esting individ als ot+er t+an members o* t+e media, t+eir interests s+o ld go beyond ) re or mere " riosity/ In t+e "ase o* t+e members o* t+e media, t+e re; est s+all additionally be s ))orted by )roo* nder oat+ o* t+eir media a**iliation and by a similar "erti*i"ation o* t+e a""reditation o* t+eir res)e"tive organizations as legitimate media )ra"titioners/ !+e re; esting )arty, .+et+er as individ als or as members o* t+e media, m st +ave no derogatory re"ord o* +aving mis sed any re; ested in*ormation )revio sly * rnis+ed to t+em/




>/ </


!+e re; esting )arties s+all "om)lete t+eir re; ests in a""ordan"e .it+ t+ese g idelines/ !+e " stodians o* t+ese do" ments (t+e res)e"tive Cler5s o* Co rt o* t+e # )reme Co rt, Co rt o* A))eals, #andiganbayan, and Co rt o* !a1 A))eals *or t+e H sti"es0 and t+e Co rt Administrator *or t+e H dges o* vario s trial "o rts) s+all )reliminarily determine i* t+e re; ests are not "overed by t+e limitations and )ro+ibitions )rovided in R/A/ (o/ <=68 and its im)lementing r les and reg lations, and in a""ordan"e .it+ t+e a*ore"ited g idelines/ !+erea*ter, t+e Cler5 o* Co rt s+all re*er t+e matter )ertaining to H sti"es to t+e Co rt En Ban" *or *inal determination/ !+is is in a""ordan"e .it+ t+e "onstit tional )rovision on ) bli" a""o ntability and trans)aren"y nder #e"tion 6, Art/ 3I and #e"tion =, Art/ III or t+e rig+t to in*ormation on matters o* ) bli" "on"ern as .ell as a""ess to o**i"ial re"ordsL 1G!.a. What are the 5rounds for impeachment? Only *or 4C l)able violation o* t+e "onstit tion, treason, bribery, gra*t and "orr )tion, ot+er +ig+ "rimes, or betrayal o* ) bli" tr st9/

1G(. What is the e$tent of a 7ud5ment in impeachment cases? H dgment in "ases o* im)ea"+ment s+all not e1tend * rt+er t+an removal *rom o**i"e and dis; ali*i"ation to +old any ot+er o**i"e nder t+e Re) bli" o* t+e -+ili))ines b t s+all nevert+eless be liable to )rose" tion, trial and ) nis+ment a""ording to la./ 1G:. When is an impeachment complaint deemed %initiated' to *ar another complaint within a period of one year? As +eld in %RANCI$CO V$ $PEAKER JO$E !E VENECIA* ET AL* +12 $CRA ++* No>/8?/3 10* 2003* an im)ea"+ment "om)laint deemed 4initiated9 to be a bar to t+e *iling o* anot+er "om)laint .it+in a 6:year )eriod )on its DaE *iling0 and DbE CO&-%ED WI!B CO(,RE## !AOI(, I(I!IA% AC!IO( O$ #AID CO'-%AI(!/9 1G4. Does the prohi*ition under @ection 3 H(I of /rt. F) applies when the 1 st impeachment complaint was filed on Muly 88A 8G1G and the 8 nd on Muly 84A 8G1G a5ainst the same impeacha*le officer thou5h *oth complaints were referred to the appropriate committee on the same day? (o/ W+at is )ro+ibited is +aving more t+an one im)ea"+ment )ro"eedings .it+in a )eriod o* one (6) year/ Even i* t+ere are several "ases *iled on di**erent dates b t sim ltaneo sly tried against t+e said im)ea"+able o**i"er, t+ere is no )ro+ibition to #e"tion 8 D>E o* Art/ 3I/ ("#TIERRED V$ &O#$E O% REPRE$ENTATIVE$ CO((ITTEE ON J#$TICE* ET AL * %/?3u03y 12* 2011) 1G4. Who in#esti5ates and prosecutes pu*lic officials for crimes committed in the performance of their official duties? +$ception It is t+e O**i"e o* t+e Omb dsman and t+e O**i"e o* t+e #)e"ial -rose" tor /C4/9t i= t,/ o==/n1/ i1 in >iol0tion o= /l/4tion l0;1* 3ul/1 0nd 3/<ul0tion1 ;,/3/in only t,/ CO(ELEC ,01 t,/ 9o;/3 to in>/1ti<0t/ 0nd to =il/ t,/ 0993o93i0t/ in=o380tion in 4ou3t / /Corpu= vs. Tanodba7an, '4D &C!% #9'? 1G3. What is co#ered *y the %academic freedom' pro#ision of the 1234 Constitution? It "overs not only a"ademi" *reedom on t+e )art o* t+e s"+ool b t also t+ose o* t+e tea"+ers, )ro*essors and t+e st dents be"a se t+e )rovision states t+at 4A"ademi" *reedom s+all be enGoyed in all instit tions o* +ig+er learning9 .+ile nder t+e 6N=8 Constit tion, only instit tions o* +ig+er learning enGoy a"ademi" *reedom be"a se t+e )rovision t+en states t+at @0ll in1titution1 o= ,i<,/3 l/03nin< 1,0ll /nJoy 040d/8i4 =3//do8 (A3t )V* $/4tion - H1I* 15.3 Con1titution 9 1G2. What is the e$tent of academic freedom on the part of schools@ It in"l des t+e )o.er to determineA ;,o 80y t/04,* ;,0t 80y ?/ t0u<,t* ,o; it 1,0ll ?/ t0u<,t* 0nd ;,o 80y ?/ 0d8itt/d to 1tudyIQ (Em)+asis s ))lied0 "iting #in"o, -+ili))ine -oliti"al %a., FN6, (6N<2) and t+e "on" rring o)inion o* H sti"e $ran5* rter in #.eezy v/ (e. Bam)s+ire (8>F &# 28F D6N>=E, ,ARCIA V#/ $AC&%!C AD'I##IO(, <M #CRA 2==)/ 11G. Does academic freedom on the part of the school carries with it the power to

re#o-e a de5ree or honor it has *estowed to its students? Ces/ As +eld in &- BOARD O$ RE,E(!# V#/ CA, A g st 86, 6NNN, 4a"ademi" $reedom in"l des t+e )o.er o* a &niversity to REVOOE a degree or +onor it +as "on*erred to a st dent a*ter it .as *o nd o t t+at t+e st dent?s grad ation .as obtained t+ro g+ *ra d/ A"ademi" *reedom is given a .ide s)+ere o* a t+ority/ I* an instit tion o* +ig+er learning "an de"ide on .+o "an and "annot st dy in it, it "ertainly "an also determine on .+om it "an "on*er t+e +onor and distin"tion o* being its grad ates/ 111. May a school punish its students for ille5al acts committed outside the school premises and *eyond school hours *ut within the semester where they are enrolled? Yes because the7 still carr7 the name of the school and their actuations affect the reputation of the school. ( /><+L+@ 0@. @)@=>A 118 @C;/ 8: This rule was reiterated in the cased of ,1 0% &%001 3+*)1!&*TY )&. C% /#MM9? where a rumble between members of two fraternities too; place outside the school campus but the students involved were 1(-1001, b7 the school. The &upreme Court, however, while conceding the power of the school over its students held that the penalt7 of e:pulsion is too harsh a penalt7. *t should be 1(C03&* +, meaning, the7 are not allowed to enroll at the ,e 0a &alle but the7 should be given transfer credentials so that the7 ma7 enroll in another school. '''Aa. %re students entitled to crossAe:amine the witnesses against them in an administrative case to satisf7 their right to due process> +o. @hat is important is that the7 were given the opportunit7 to be heard. D+ L/ @/LL+ 6>)0+;@)BE 0@. C/ (Decem*erA 8GG3 . 118. What are the underlyin5 principles *ehind the constitutional proscription that the @tate may not *e sued without its consent? 87 reason of public polic7 /if ever7 citi=en is allowed to sue the government, it will be distracted from performing its functions to serve the people and it will be left .ust answering cases in court?, b7 reason of sovereignt7 /the people shall not be allowed to sue the ver7 entit7 that gives it said right;? and b7 reason of consent /when the people ratified the Constitution which includes the provision that the &tate cannot be sued without its consent, it has consented or waived said right to sue?. 113. How may the @tate 5i#es its consent to *e sued? E1)ressly .+en t+ere is a la. allo.ing it and im)liedly .+en it enters into a "ontra"t .it+ an individ al be"a se in t+e latter, it des"ended to t+e level o* an individ al ma5ing it s s"e)tible to "o nter"laims or s its/ 11!. May the 5o#ernment *e sued in the e$ercise of its 5o#ernmental functions? Ces 830%C%+, doing so, it &%+T*%L i* t+e government agen"y +as a "+arter .+i"+ allo.s it to be s ed/ ( !%Y )&. CG* G ''M &C!% 4JK?. %lso, the government is not allowed to invo;e its immunit7 from suit if b7 will be causing an in.ustice to its citi=ens. /2*+*&T1!* )&. CG* of Cebu, 4M &C!% and )&. !1-380*C, 9C &C!% #D4?

11(. )s the 6@ <o#ernment also immune from suit in the Philippines in connection with the e$ercise of its 5o#ernmental functions? Ces/ !+is .as t+e r ling in 3.&. )&. !3*B, '5K &C!% where it was held that even if there is a

contract entered into b7 the 3& Lovernment but the same involves its .usre imperii functions /governmental functions, it cannot be sued. *t is onl7 when the contract involves its .us gestiones or business or proprietar7 functions that it ma7 be sued. ''K A3/ lo40l <o>/3n8/nt1 0l1o /ntitl/d to in>oE/ i88unity =3o8 1uitF Yes. 114. May a municipality *e held lia*le for dama5es as a result of the death of a person arisin5 from the collapse of a sta5e constructed *y the local 5o#ernment in connection with its town fiesta? Yes, a town fiesta is a business or proprietar7 function, not governmental, since no law reHuires an7 town, cit7, province or baranga7 to hold an annual fiesta. (B=;)= 0@. C=>B/>)LL/A 3( @C;/ (22 113. May a local 5o#ernment #alidly in#o-e state immunity from suit in a case where there is a contract entered into with a pri#ate corporation for the deli#ery of truc-s to the said municipality? May the court tryin5 the same #alidly issue a writ of preliminary attachment a5ainst the municipality? !+e m ni"i)ality may not validly invo5e its imm nity *rom s it in a "ase .+ere it entered into a "ontra"t .it+ a )rivate "or)oration sin"e it is deemed to +ave .aived state imm nity *rom s it/ Bo.ever, nli5e in "ases o* ordinary de*endants, t+e !rial Co rt may not validly iss e a .rit o* )reliminary atta"+ment against t+e )ro)erties o* t+e m ni"i)ality even i* t+e gro nds nder #e"tion 6, R le >= o* t+e 6NN= R les o* Civil -ro"ed re are )resent/ # ability is di**erent *rom liability/ ((#NICIPALITY O% &A"ONOY* '#LACAN V$ J#!"E !#(!#(* JR * RTC .* CE'# CITY* (034, 22* 2010) 112. May the 5o#ernment still *e held lia*le to a pri#ate indi#idual if the contract it entered into is #oid *ut the other party had already complied with his o*li5ations under said a5reement? Yes, because the government shall not enrich itself at the e:pense of its citi=ens. (!EPART(ENT O% &EALT& V$ C V CANC&ELA* /t 0l * +.2 $CRA 21-) Also, t+e said imm nity *rom s it de*ense is not a))li"able i* to do so .o ld "a se an inG sti"e to a "itizen ( M)>)@B+;)= 0@. CC) =C C+,6A !G @C;/) It does not also a))ly i* it .as t+e government .+i"+ violated its "ontra"t .it+ its "itizen (@/>B)/<= 0@. ;+P6,L)CA 34 @C;/ 82! -AR! II CON$TIT#TIONAL LAW Define police power. It is t+e )o.er vested in t+e legislat re by t+e Constit tion to ma5e, ordain, establis+ all manner o* .+olesome and reasonable la.s *or t+e good and .el*are o* t+e #tate and its )eo)le/ (ER(ITA (ALATE &OTEL V$ CITY (AYOR* July 31* 157.) What are the *asic purposesKaspects of police powerS to )romote t+e general .el*are, "om*ort and "onvenien"e o* t+e )eo)le0 (A##OCIA!IO( O$ #'A%% %A(DOW(ER# V#/ #ECRE!ARC, 6=> #CRA 8F80 &# V#/ !ORIBIO, 6> -+il/ M>

to )romote and )reserve ) bli" +ealt+0 (VI%%A(&EVA V#/ CA#!A(EDA, #e)tember 26, 6NM=0 DEC# V#/ #A( DIE,O, 6MJ #CRA >88 D('A!E0 %ORE(ZO V#/ DIREC!OR O$ BEA%!B, >J -+il/ >N>T a))re+end and "on*ine le)ers in a le)rosari m) to )romote and )rote"t ) bli" sa*ety0 (A,&#!I( V#/ ED&, MM #CRA 6N>0 !A3ICAB O-ERA!OR# V#/ H&I(IO, 66N #CRA MN= ) to maintain and sa*eg ard )ea"e and order0 (,&AZO( V#/ DE VI%%A) to )rote"t ) bli" morals0 (DE %A CR&Z V#/ -ARA#, 628 #CRA ><N0 ER'I!A 'A%A!E BO!E% V#/ CI!C 'ACOR, H ly 86, 6N<=0 H'' -RO'O!IO(# V#/ CA, 2<J #CRA 86N0 VE%A#CO V#/ VI%%E,A#, $ebr ary 68, 6NM8) to )romote t+e e"onomi" se" rity o* t+e )eo)le/ (ICBO(, V#/ BER(A(DEZ, 6J6 -+il/ 666>>) 8.a. May an =rdinance of the City of Manila #alidly re"uire peopleKcouples chec-in5 in the different motels in the city to H1I re5ister at the motel&s des- facin5 a pu*lic streetQ and H8I show their identification cardA etc/@ A/ Ces/ It is a valid e1er"ise o* )oli"e )o.er to )romote ) bli" morals, i/e/, " rb )rostit tion or illi"it relations+i)s/ ER(ITA (ALATE &OTEL V$ CITY (AYOR* July 31* 157.) 8.*. May the City of Manila #alidly prohi*it the operation of ni5ht clu*sA sauna parlorsA massa5e parlorsA -arao-e *arsA *eerhousesA and similar esta*lishments in the +rmita.Malate /rea and 5i#es the e$istin5 esta*lishments three (3 months to transfer to any place outside said area under pain of imprisonment of up to 1 year and fine of P(AGGG.GG or chan5e the nature of their *usiness to 5ift shopsA restaurantsA etc. ? A/ !+e Ordinan"e is n"onstit tional/ It violates t+e d e )ro"ess "la se by de)riving t+e o.ners o* said establis+ments o* t+eir legitimate b sinesses/ It li5e.ise violates t+e e; al )rote"tion "la se/ !+ere is no logi" in allo.ing said establis+ments in ot+er )arts o* t+e City o* 'anila b t not in t+e Ermita:'alate area/ $inally, even ass ming t+at t+e said Ordinan"e is intended to )romote ) bli" morals, t+e means em)loyed is "onstit tionally in*irm and not a valid e1er"ise o* )oli"e )o.er/ ( CITY O% (ANILA* 3/93/1/nt/d ?y (0yo3 Al=3/do Li8 V$ J#!"E PER%ECTO LA"#IO* JR 0nd (ALATE TO#RI$T !EVELOP(ENT CORPORATION* " R No 11-12.* A93il 12* 200-) 8.c. May the City of Manila #alidly prohi*it hotels and motelsA etc.A at the +rmita.Malate areaA to offer %short time' admission therein? A/ !+e Ordinan"e is n"onstit tional and is not a valid e1er"ise o* )oli"e )o.er/ !+ere is not+ing immoral in staying in a motel or +otel *or a )eriod o* t+ree (8) +o rs only be"a se a )erson?s stay t+erein "o ld be *or ) r)oses ot+er t+an +aving se1 or sing illegal dr gs/ $ rt+er, t+ere is not+ing t+at .o ld )revent )eo)le engaged in illi"it relations+i)s to "+e"5 in in said motels by )aying 62 +o rs or more t+o g+ t+ey .ill G st stay t+ere *or 8 +o rs/ ( W&ITE LI"&T CORPORATION V$ CITY O% (ANILA* 3/93/1/nt/d ?y (AYOR AL%RE!O LI(* " R No 122-+7* J0nu03y 20* 2005 ) 3. Distin5uish police power with power of eminent domain. !+e distin"tions areA !+e )o.er o* eminent domain is t+e in+erent rig+t o* t+e #tate to "ondemn or to ta5e )rivate )ro)erty *or ) bli" se )on )ayment o* G st "om)ensation .+ile )oli"e )o.er is t+e )o.er o* t+e state to )romote ) bli" .el*are by restraining and reg lating t+e se o* liberty and )ro)erty .it+o t "om)ensation0 In t+e e1er"ise o* )oli"e )o.er, enGoyment o* a )ro)erty is restri"ted be"a se t+e "ontin ed se t+ereo* .o ld be inG rio s to ) bli" .el*are/ In s "+ "ase, t+ere is no "om)ensable ta5ing )rovided none o* t+e )ro)erty interests is a))ro)riated *or t+e se or *or t+e bene*it o* t+e ) bli"/ Ot+er.ise,

t+ere s+o ld be "om)ensable ta5ing i* it .o ld res lt to ) bli" se/ -ro)erties "ondemned nder )oli"e )o.er are s ally no1io s or intended *or no1io s ) r)ose0 +en"e , no "om)ensation s+all be )aid/ %i5e.ise, in t+e e1er"ise o* )oli"e )o.er, )ro)erty rig+ts o* )rivate individ als are s bGe"ted to restraints and b rdens in order to se" re t+e general "om*ort, +ealt+ and )ros)erity o* t+e state/ (DIDI-IO EAR!B #AVER# '&%!I -&R-O#E A##OCIA!IO( V#/ DE(R #EC/ E%I#EA ,OZ&, E! A%/, FM> #CRA >M<) F. What are the tests for a #alid e$ercise of police power t+e interests o* t+e ) bli", not mere )arti" lar "lass, re; ire t+e e1er"ise o* )oli"e )o.er0 ( LAW%#L $#'JECT) t+e means em)loyed is reasonably ne"essary *or t+e a""om)lis+ment o* t+e ) r)ose and not nd ly o))ressive to individ als/ (LAW%#L (EAN$)/ In s+ort, t+e end does not G sti*y t+e means/ (. Define due process/ D e )ro"ess is a la. .+i"+ +ears be*ore it "ondemns, .+i"+ )ro"eeds )on in; iry and renders G dgment only a*ter trial (-er Daniel Webster in t+e !ART(O#T& COLLE"E CA$E) :. What are the Dinds of Due Process? s bstantive d e )ro"ess:::re; ires t+e intrinsi" validity o* t+e la. in inter*ering .it+ t+e rig+ts o* t+e )erson to li*e, liberty or )ro)erty/ In s+ort, it is to determine .+et+er it +as a valid governmental obGe"tive li5e *or t+e interest o* t+e ) bli" as against mere )arti" lar "lass/ -ro"ed ral d e )ro"ess:::one .+i"+ +ears be*ore it "ondemns, or t+e )ro"ed re as )ointed o t by Daniel Webster/ 4. What are the re"uisites of %7udicial due process'? As +eld in 'ANCO E$PANOL V$ PALANCA* 3. P,il 521 !+e re; isites areA !+ere m st be an im)artial "o rt or trib nal "lot+ed .it+ G di"ial )o.er to +ear and de"ide t+e matter be*ore it0 H risdi"tion m st be la.* lly a"; ired over t+e )erson o* t+e de*endant or over t+e )ro)erty s bGe"t o* t+e )ro"eedings0 !+e de*endant m st be given t+e o))ort nity to be +eard0 H dgment m st be rendered only a*ter la.* l +earing/ 3. What are the re"uisites of due process *efore administrati#e *odies? As +eld in B),/E 0@. C);A :2 Phil. :3(, t+e re; isites areA t+e rig+t to a +earing .+i"+ in"l des t+e rig+t to )resent eviden"e0 t+e trib nal m st "onsider t+e eviden"e )resented0 t+e de"ision m st +ave somet+ing to s ))ort itsel*0 t+e eviden"e m st be s bstantial0 t+e de"ision m st be based on t+e eviden"e )resented d ring t+e +earing0 t+e trib nal or body m st a"t on its o.n inde)endent "onsideration o* t+e la. or *a"ts0 t+e board or body s+all in all "ontroversial ; estions, render its de"ision in s "+ a manner t+at t+e )arties to t+e )ro"eedings "an 5no. t+e vario s iss es involved/

2. )f an accused was represented *y a non.lawyer durin5 the trial of his criminal caseA what ri5ht of the said accused was #iolated? )s he entitled to a new trial? I* an a"" sed .as re)resented by a non:la.yer d ring t+e entire trial (t+o g+ s+e t+o g+t t+at +e .as a la.yer), +is rig+t to d e )ro"ess .as violated and t+ere*ore, +e entitled to a ne. trial/ (!EL"A!O V$ CA* No>/8?/3 10* 15-7) 2.a. Consulta was represented *y one %/tty. Mocelyn ;eyes' from arrai5nment up to the time that the prosecution rested its case. He was represented *y another lawyer when he presented his e#idence. )t turned out that %/tty. ;eyes' was not a mem*er of the ,ar. May he #alidly claim #iolation of his ri5ht to due process and ha#e a new trial li-e in %Del5ado'? No 8o3/ Even i* +e .as not re)resented by a non:la.yer at t+e start o* t+e "riminal trial, )arti" larly .+en t+e )rose" tion )resented its eviden"e, b t .as re)resented by a la.yer .+en +e )resented +is eviden"e, t+ere is no violation o* +is rig+t to d e )ro"ess or rig+t to "o nsel/ All t,/ 3/:ui1it/1 o= Judi4i0l du/ 93o4/11 03/ 93/1/nt (CON$#LTA V$ PEOPLE* " R No 1.57+2* %/?3u03y 12* 2005) 2.*. Mayor Mali-si was furnished copies of the ;esolutions of the C=M+L+C directin5 his opponentA who appealed the decision of the ;BC a5ainst himA to deposit amounts for the decryptin5A copyin5 and printin5 of the *allot ima5es from CC Cards. BhereafterA the C=M+L+C unseated Mayor Mali-si. He went to the @upreme Court and claimed #iolation of his ri5ht t to due process *ecause he was not informed of the dates when the %decryptionA copyin5 and printin5' of the *allot ima5es/ Ces, +is rig+t to d e )ro"ess .as violated/ BE WA# (O! I($OR'ED O$ !BE DA!E# WBE( !BE 4de"ry)tion, "o)ying and )rinting9 o* t+e ballot images too5 )la"e/ 1G. What are the re"uisites of procedural due process in disciplinary actions a5ainst students@ As +eld in "#D(AN V$ N#* 1+2 $CRA .07* t+e re; isites areA 6. the students must *e informed in writin5 of the nature and cause of any accusation a5ainst themQ 8. they shall ha#e the ri5ht to answer the char5es a5ainst themA with the assistance of counselQ 3. they shall *e informed of the e#idence a5ainst themQ !. they shall ha#e the ri5ht to adduce e#idence in their own *ehalfQ (. the e#idence must *e duly considered *y the in#esti5atin5 committee or official desi5nated *y the school authorities to hear and decide the case. 11. What are the re"uisites of due process *efore a pri#ate employee may *e dismissed from his wor-? !+e re; isites o* D e -ro"ess be*ore t+e (%RC areA (oti"e0 and Bearing 18. )s due process satisfied in administrati#e proceedin5s if the respondent was not

assisted *y counsel? !+ere is no la., .+et+er t+e Civil #ervi"e A"t or t+e Administrative Code o* 6NM=, .+i"+ )rovides t+at a res)ondent in an administrative "ase s+o ld be assisted by "o nsel in order t+at t+e )ro"eedings t+erein is "onsidered valid/ (ot only, t+at, )etitioner +erein .as given t+e o))ort nity several times to engage t+e servi"es o* a la.yer to assist +im b t +e "on*idently in*ormed t+e investigators t+at +e "o ld )rote"t +imsel*/ (L#(IM#E! V$ E)ENEA* 2-2 $CRA 122) 18.a. )s there a #iolation of a person&s ri5ht to due process *efore an administrati#e *ody li-e the Ci#il @er#ice Commission if a party was not allowed to cross.e$amine the witnesses a5ainst him despite his re"uest? (o/ !+e rig+t to d e )ro"ess is not violated even i* a )arty to an administrative "ase .as not allo.ed to "ross:e1amine t+e ot+er )arty or +is .itnesses/ W+at +e is entitled to is t+e rig+t to be +eard/ (ATTY RO(EO ERECE V$ LYN (ACALIN"AY* ET AL * " R No 177-05* A93il 22* 200-) 18.*. How a*out in in#esti5ations in#ol#in5 disciplinary actions a5ainst studentsA are the latter entitled to cross.e$amine the complainant and his witnesses? A/ (o/ !+e rig+t to d e )ro"ess on t+e )art o* a st dent is not violated even i* +e .as not allo.ed to "ross:e1amine t+e ot+er )arty or +is .itnesses/ D e )ro"ess is served i* +e .as given t+e "+an"e to )resent +is eviden"e/ (!E LA $ALLE #NIVER$ITY V$ J#!"E WIL%RE!O REYE$* RTC 37* (0nil0* " R No* 12.5-0* !/4/8?/3 15* 200.) 18.c. )s there a #iolation of the ri5ht to due process if mem*ers of a faction of the Li*eral Party were e$pelled from said party in a meetin5 where they were not e#en notified nor 5i#en the chance to *e heard? (o/ D e )ro"ess "o ld be invo5ed only be*ore trib nals "reated by t+e #tate t+ro g+ .+i"+ governmental a"ts or * n"tions are )er*ormed/ !+e rig+t to d e )ro"ess g ards against n.arranted en"roa"+ment by t+e #tate into * ndamental rig+ts and "annot be invo5ed in )rivate "ontroversies involving )rivate rig+ts/ (ATIENDA V$ CO(ELEC 6 (AN#EL RO)A$ III* ET AL * %/?3u03y 17* 2010) 13. What are the re"uisites for a #alid classification@ As +eld in P/o9l/ >1 C0y0t* 7- P,il 12* t+e re; isites areA !+ere m st be real and s bstantial distin"tions0 It m st be germane tot +e ) r)oses o* t+e la.0 It m st not be limited to e1isting "onditions only0 and It m st a))ly e; ally to all members o* t+e same "lass/ 1!. )s there #iolation of the e"ual protection clause if policemen who are char5ed of a criminal offense punisha*le for more than si$ (: years will remain suspended until after the his ac"uittal unli-e other pu*lic officers whose ma$imum suspension e#en when facin5 5raft and corrupt char5es is only three (3 months? (o t+ere is o violation/ In &I(A"AN V$ PEOPLE, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at t+e *a"t t+at )oli"emen "+arged .it+ a "riminal o**ense ) nis+able by more t+an < years are to be s s)ended d ring t+e entire d ration o* t+e "ase nli5e ot+er government em)loyees is valid sin"e it rests on valid "lassi*i"ation be"a se )oli"emen "arry .ea)ons and t+e badge o* t+e la. .+i"+ "an be sed

to +arass or intimidate .itnesses against t+em/ 1!.a. )s there a #iolation of the ri5ht to e"ual protection of the laws of appointed 5o#ernment officials who are deemed automatically resi5ned upon the filin5 of their certificate of candidacy while elected officials are not? (o, t+ere is real and s bstantial distin"tion/ 'ost ele"ted o**i"ials +ave a *i1ed term nder t+e Constit tion and said term "o ld not be s+ortened by means o* a la./ (K&I(!O V#/ CO'E%EC, $ebr ary 22, 2J6J) 1!.*. )s there #iolation of the e"ual protection clause if policemen and soldiers are 5i#en allowances in the <eneral /ppropriations /ct while other 5o#ernment wor-ers are not since the allowances of all 5o#ernment wor-ers were incorporated already in their salaries under the Compensation and Position Classification /ct of 1232? (o/ !+ere is real and s bstantial distin"tion/ -oli"emen and soldiers are in "+arge o* t+e de*ense o* t+e "o ntry and "o ld be trans*erred to virt ally any.+ere in t+e "o ntry/ #in"e t+eir basi" )ay does not vary on lo"ation, t+e "ontin ed grant o* CO%A to t+em is intended to +el) t+em o**set t+e e**e"ts o* living in +ig+er "ost areas/ (,&!IERREZ V#/ DE-AR!'E(! O$ B&D,E! A(D 'A(A,E'E(!, 'ar"+ 6M, 2J6J) 1!.c. )s +$ecuti#e =rder >o. 1A @eries of 8G1G creatin5 the Philippine Bruth Commission of 8G1G to in#esti5ate %officers and employees of the pre#ious administration for 5raft and corruption' constitutional? It is n"onstit tional *or violation o* t+e e; al )rote"tion "la se/ It singles o t t+e o**i"ials o* t+e )revio s administration only even t+o g+ t+ere are also alleged gra*t and "orr )tion in ot+er administrations be*ore t+at o* -resident Arroyo/ ('IRAO"O V$ P&ILIPPINE TR#T& CO((I$$ION* !/4/8?/3 .* 2010) 1!.d. )s there a #iolation of the e"ual protection clause if appointed 5o#ernment officials are deemed automatically resi5ned upon the filin5 of their certificates of candidacy while elected officials may continue dischar5in5 the duties of their office despite the filin5 of their C=C&s? (o violation o* t+eir rig+t to e; al )rote"tion be"a se t+ere is real and s bstantial distin"tions/ (ote t+at t+e term o* o**i"e o* 'embers o* Congress, -resident and Vi"e -resident are mandated by t+e Constit tion .+i"+ is ) to noon o* H ne 8J, 8 years or < years a*ter t+eir ele"tion and as s "+, Congress "o ld not s+orten t+eir term by )roviding t+at t+ey are deemed resigned )on t+e *iling o* t+eir COC?s// 1(. What are the re"uisites of a #alid search warrant or warrant of arrest? (o sear"+ .arrant or .arrant o* arrest s+all iss e e1"e)t )on )robable "a se to be determined )ersonally by t+e G dge a*ter e1amination nder oat+ or a**irmation o* t+e "om)lainant and t+e .itnesses +e may )rod "e, and )arti" larly des"ribing t+e )la"e to be sear"+ed and t+e )ersons or t+ings to be seized/ (#e"tion 2, Art/ III) In addition, R le 62< o* t+e R les on Criminal -ro"ed re re; ires t+at no .arrant s+all be iss ed *or more t+an one (6) s)e"i*i" o**ense and t+at in t+e im)lementation o* a sear"+ .arrant .+en t+e res)ondent is not )resent, .itnesses are re; ired/ $inally, a Cir" lar iss ed by t+e # )reme Co rt re; ires t+at no .arrant or .arrant o* arrest s+all be im)lemented d ring t+e nig+t, .ee5:ends or +olidays, e1"e)t in e1"e)tional "ases/

1(.a. What are the two (8 -inds of pro*a*le cause? !+e t.o (2) 5inds o* )robable "a se areA D6E !+e e1e" tive determination o* )robable "a se by t+e -rose" tor .+ere +e determines .+et+er to *ile a "riminal "ase in "o rt or not0 and D2E H di"ial determination o* )robable "a se to be done by t+e G dge *or t+e ) r)ose o* iss ing a .arrant o* arrest against t+e a"" sed/ (LEVI$TE V$ J#!"E ALA(E!A* Au<u1t 3* 2010) 6>:b/ 'ay t+e Anti:!errorism Co n"il iss e a .arrant o* detention against terrorists or s s)e"ted terrorists .it+o t violating #e"tion 2, Art/ III o* t+e Constit tion .+i"+ allo.s only 4G dges9 to iss e .arrants@ In t+e "ases o* D6E #O&!BER( BE'I#-BERE E(,A,E'E(! (E!WORO, I(C/, on be+al* o* t+e #o t+:#o t+ (et.or5 (##() *or (on:#tate Armed ,ro ) Engagement, and A!!C/ #O%I'A( '/ #A(!O#, HR/, D2E OI%&#A(, 'ACO &(O (O'&0 D8E BA,O(, A%CA(#A(, 'AOABACA( (BACA(), DFE OARA-A!A(, A%%IA(CE $OR !BE ADVA(CE'E(! O$ -EO-%E?# RI,B!#, D>E !BE I(!E,RA!ED BAR O$ !BE -BI%I--I(E# (IB-), vs/ !BE A(!I:!ERRORI#' CO&(CI%, E! A%/, ,/R/ (o/ 6=M>>2, O"tober >, 2J6J , t+e # )reme Co rt *ailed to de"ide on t+e "onstit tionality o* t+e said la. be"a se t+e )etitioners .ere +eld to +ave no legal standing or )ersonality to s e/ -lease note o* t+e ; estionable )rovisions o* t+e said la.A @ec. 13. -eriod o* detention .it+o t G di"ial .arrant o* arrest/: !+e )rovisions o* Arti"le 62> o* t+e Revised -enal Code, not.it+standing, any )oli"e or la. en*or"ement )ersonnel, ;,o* ,0>in< ?//n duly 0ut,o3iN/d in ;3itin< ?y t,/ Anti-T/33o3i18 Coun4il +as ta5en " stody o* a )erson "+arged .it+ or s s)e"ted o* t+e "rime o* terrorism or t+e "rime o* "ons)ira"y to "ommit terrorism s+all, WI!BO&! I(C&RRI(, A(C CRI'I(A% %IABI%I!C $OR DE%AC I( !BE DE%IVERC O$ DE!AI(ED -ER#O(# !O !BE -RO-ER H&DICIA% A&!BORI!IE#, DE%IVER #AID CBAR,ED OR #&#-EC!ED -ER#O( !O !BE -RO-ER H&DICIA% A&!BORI!C WI!BI( A -ERIOD O$ !BREE (8) DAC# "o nted *rom t+e moment said "+arged or s s)e"ted )erson +as been a))re+ended or arrested, detained, and ta5en into " stody by t+e said )oli"e, or la. en*or"ement )ersonnelA -rovided, !+at t+e arrest o* t+ose s s)e"ted o* t+e "rime o* terrorism or "ons)ira"y to "ommit terrorism m st res lt *rom t+e s rveillan"e nder #e"tion = and e1amination o* ban5 de)osits nder #e"tion 2= )* t+is A"t/ @ection 12. -eriod o* Detention in t+e event o* an a"t al or imminent terrorist atta"5/: In t+e vent o* an a"t al or imminent terrorist atta"5,, s s)e"ts may not be detained *or more t+an t+ree days .it+o t t+e .ritten a))roval o* a m ni"i)al, "ity, )rovin"ial or regional o**i"ial o* a B man Rig+ts Commission, or G dge o* t+e m ni"i)al, regional trial "o rt, t+e #andiganbayan or a G sti"e o* t+e Co rt o* A))eals nearest t+e )la"e o* arrest/ I* t+e arrest is made d ring #at rdays, # ndays or +olidays, or a*ter o**i"e +o rs, t+e arresting )oli"e o* la. en*or"ement )ersonnel s+all bring t+e )erson t+ s arrested to t+e residen"e o* any o* t+e o**i"ials mentioned above t+at is nearest t+e )la"e .+ere t+e a"" sed .as arrested/ !+e a))roval in .riting o* any o* t+e said o**i"ials s+all be se" red by t+e )oli"e or la. en*or"ement )ersonnel "on"erned .it+in *ive days a*ter t+e date o* t+e detention o* t+e )ersons "on"erned0 -rovided, +o.ever, !+at .it+in t+ree days a*ter t+e detention t+e s s)e"ts .+ose "onne"tion .it+ t+e terror

atta"5 or t+reat is not establis+ed, s+all be released immediately/ ((O!EA &nder t+e B man #e" rity A"tPAnti:!errorism %a., Re) bli" A"t (o/ N8=2, A))roved on 'ar"+ <, 2JJ= and e**e"tive on H ly 6>, 2JJ= (!+is %a. s+all be a tomati"ally s s)ended one (6) mont+ be*ore and t.o (2) mont+s a*ter t+e +olding o* any ele"tion) a )erson may be ta5en into " stody by t+e )oli"e i* t+ere is a .ritten a t+orization by t+e Anti:!errorism Co n"il and s "+ detention may be e1tended )on .ritten a))roval o* t+e Commission o* B man Rig+ts in "ase o* a"t al or imminent terrorist atta"5//) 1:. )n case the place to *e searched as indicated in the search warrant is erroneous *ecause it is different from the place mentioned *y the applicants who searched the place indicated *y them in their affida#itA are the thin5s seiJed admissi*le in e#idence? (o/ As +eld in PEOPLE V$ CA* 251 $CRA FJJ, WBA! I# 'A!ERIA% I( DE!ER'I(I(, !BE VA%IDI!C O$ A #EARCB I# !BE -%ACE #!A!ED I( !BE WARRA(! I!#E%$, (O! WBA! !BE A--%ICA(!# BAD I( !BEIR !BO&,B!#, OR BAD RE-RE#E(!ED I( !BE -ROO$# !BEC #&B'I!!ED !O !BE CO&R! I##&I(, !BE WARRA(!/ 14. What are the different instances when a warrantless search and seiJure is allowed under our e$istin5 7urisprudence? Warrantless sear"+ is allo.ed in t+e *ollo.ing instan"esA " stoms sear"+es0 sear"+es o* moving ve+i"le0 seiz re o* eviden"e in )lain vie.0 "onsented sear"+es0 sear"+ in"idental to a la.* l arrest0 and sto) and *ris5 meas res/ (-EO-%E V#/ AR&!A, 2MM #CRA <2<) 13. May a 7ud5e deputiJe his Cler- of Court to ta-e the deposition of the applicant for a search warrant su*7ect to clarificatory "uestions after his hearin5 in other cases? (o/ As +eld in '04,/ >1 RuiN* 3. $CRA -23, t+e e1amination o* t+e "om)lainant ant t+e .itnesses +e may )rod "e m st be done )ersonally by t+e G dge/ Ot+er.ise, t+e .arrant s+all be void/ As s "+, t+e #C +eld in -E(DO( V#/ CA, (ovember 6<, 6NNJ t+at .+en t+e ; estions as5ed to t+e a))li"ant *or a sear"+ .arrant .as )re:ty)ed, t+e same is not valid sin"e t+ere "o ld +ave been no sear"+ing ; estions/ 12. May a sin5le search warrant *e issued for the crimes of e#asion and insurance fraud? estafaA falsificationA ta$

(o, s "+ .o ld be a 4general .arrant9 and violates t+e r le t+at a .arrant s+all be iss ed *or one (6) s)e"i*i" o**ense/ (A1i0n $u3/ty >1 &/33/30* 2+ $CRA 312) 8G. What is a %scatter.shot warrant'? It is a sear"+ .arrant iss ed *or more t+an one (6) s)e"i*i" o**ense li5e a sear"+ .arrant iss ed *or more t+an one s)e"i*i" o**ense li5e one *or esta*a, robbery, t+e*t and ; ali*ied t+e*t9/ (TA('A$EN V$ PEOPLE* July 1+* 1552Q PEOPLE V$ CA* 217 $CRA 101) 81. May a 7ud5e #alidly issue a warrant of arrest *ased only from the )nformation and

the ;esolution of the Prosecutor findin5 pro*a*le cause a5ainst the accused? (o/ !+ere .ill be no basis *or t+e iss an"e sin"e t+e -rose" tor is neit+er t+e "om)lainant nor t+e .itness to t+e "ase/ Be "o ld not +ave determined )robable "a se based *rom t+e said do" ments/ (VICENTE LI(*$R AN! (AYOR $#$ANA LI( V$ &ON N %ELI) * " R NO 5502+2.)/ As +eld in t+e "ase o* #oliven vs/ 'a5asiar, de"ided nder t+e 6NM= Constit tion, t+e Co rt noted t+at t+e addition o* t+e .ord )ersonally a*ter t+e .ord determined and t+e deletion o* t+e grant o* a t+ority by t+e 6N=8 Constit tion to iss e .arrants to ot+er res)ondent o**i"ers as to may be a t+orized by la. does not re; ire t+e G dge to )ersonally e1amine t+e "om)lainant and +is .itness in +is determination o* )robable "a se *or t+e iss an"e o* a .arrant o* arrest/W+at t+e Constit tion nders"ores is t+e e1"l sive and )ersonal res)onsibility o* t+e iss ing G dge to satis*y +imsel* o* t+e e1isten"e o* )robable "a se/ $ollo.ing establis+ed do"trine and )ro"ed res, +e s+allA (6) )ersonally eval ate t+e re)orts and t+e s ))orting do" ments s bmitted by t+e *is"al regarding t+e e1isten"e o* )robable "a se and, on t+e basis t+ereo*, iss e a .arrant o* arrest0 (2) I* on t+e basis t+ereo* +e *inds no )robable "a se, +e may disregard t+e *is"alQs re)ort and re; ire t+e s bmission o* s ))orting a**idavits o* .itnesses to aid +im in arriving at a "on"l sion as to t+e e1isten"e o* )robable "a se/ !+e "ase o* -eo)le vs/ Bonorable Enri; e B/ Inting reiterates t+e *ollo.ing do"trinesA (6) !+e determination o* )robable "a se is a * n"tion o* t+e G dge/ It is not *or t+e -rovin"ial $is"al or -rose" tor nor *or t+e Ele"tion # )ervisor to as"ertain/ Only t+e G dge alone ma5es t+is determination/ (2) !+e )reliminary in; iry made by t+e )rose" tor does not bind t+e G dge/ It merely assist +im to ma5e t+e determination o* )robable "a se/ !+e G dge does not +ave to *ollo. .+at t+e )rose" torQs )resent to +im/ By itsel*, t+e )rose" torQs "erti*i"ation o* )robable "a se is ine**e"t al/ It is t+e re)ort, t+e a**idavits, t+e trans"ri)ts o* stenogra)+i" notes, and all ot+er s ))orting do" ments be+ind t+e )rose" torQs "erti*i"ation .+i"+ are material in assisting t+e G dge to ma5e +is determination/ (8) -reliminary in; iry s+o ld be disting is+ed *rom t+e )reliminary investigation )ro)er/ W+ile t+e *ormer see5s to determine )robable "a se *or t+e iss an"e o* .arrant o* arrest, t+e latter as"ertains .+et+er t+e o**ender s+o ld be +eld *or trial or be released/ 88. /s to the re"uirement that the 7ud5e must %personally' determine pro*a*le causeA must he e$amine the complainant and his witnesses face to face in order to comply with the said constitutional pro#ision? It de)ends/ D6E/ In "onne"tion .it+ t+e iss an"e o* a #EARCB WARRA(!, +e m st )ersonally e1amine t+e "om)lainant and t+e .itnesses, .it+ sear"+ing ; estions, *a"e to *a"e/ (Ba"+e vs/ H dge R iz, s )ra) D2E/ In "onne"tion .it+ t+e iss an"e o* a .arrant o* arrest, +o.ever, t+e .ord @9/31on0lly9 a*ter t+e .ord determined does not ne"essarily mean t+at t+e G dge s+o ld e1amine t+e "om)lainant and +is .itnesses )ersonally or *a"e to *a"e be*ore iss ing t+e .arrant o* arrest b t t+e e1"l sive res)onsibility on t+e )art o* said G dge to satis*y +imsel* o* t+e e1isten"e o* )robable "a se/ As s "+, t+ere is no need to e1amine t+e "om)lainant and +is .itnesses *a"e to *a"e/ It is s **i"ient i* t+e G dge is "onvin"ed o* t+e e1isten"e o* )robable "a se )on reading t+e a**idavits or de)osition o* t+e

"om)lainant and +is .itnesses/ $OLIVEN V$ (AKA$IAR* 17. $CRA 353 83. )s the 7ud5e *ound *y the findin5s of e$istence of %pro*a*le cause' *y the Prosecutor as indicated in his Certification in the information so that the issuance of a warrant of arrest is only ministerial on his part? )f not satisfied of the e$istence of pro*a*le causeA may the 7ud5e re"uire the Prosecutor to su*mit additional e#idence@ !+e G dge is not bo nd by t+e *indings o* t+e -rose" tor be"a se t+e said *inding is only 4)robable "a se9 t+at a "rime .as "ommitted/ -robable "a se to G sti*y t+e iss an"e o* a .arrant o* arrest is a G di"ial * n"tion vested only in t+e G dge/ In *a"t, +e "an re; ire t+e -rose" tor to s bmit additional eviden"e i* +e is not "onvin"ed o* t+e e1isten"e o* )robable *or t+e iss an"e o* a .arrant o* arrest/ (P >1 Vill0nu/>0* 110 $CRA +72Q Pl04/3 >1 Vill0nu/>0* 127 $CRA +73) 8!. )s P=peration Dap-apP *ein5 done *y the police *ecause the suspect has somethin5 *ul5in5 in his waist and -eeps on touchin5 his a*domen as if touchin5 a 5un #alid? As +eld in PEOPLE V$ (EN"OTE* " R No -.025* Jun/* 1552* 210 $CRA 1.+* 4O-ERA!IO( OA-OA-9 or .arrantless sear"+ .it+o t )robable "a se is n"onstit tional/ # "+ sear"+ is valid only i* "overed by #e"tion >, Arti"le 668 o* t+e R les o* Co rt .+i"+ )rovidesA #e"/ >/ Arrest .it+o t .arrant0 .+en la.* l/: A )ea"e o**i"er or )rivate )erson may, .it+o t .arrant, arrest a )ersonA (a) W+en, in +is )resen"e, t+e )erson to be arrested +as "ommitted, is a"t ally "ommitting, or is attem)ting to "ommit an o**ense0 (b) W+en an o**ense +as in *a"t G st been "ommitted, and +e +as )ersonal 5no.ledge o* *a"ts indi"ating t+at t+e )erson to be arrested +as "ommitted it0 and (") W+en t+e )erson to be arrested is a )risoner .+o +as es"a)ed *rom a )enal establis+ment or )la"e .+ere +e is serving *inal G dgment or tem)orarily "on*ined .+ile +is "ase is )ending, or +as es"a)ed .+ile being trans*erred *rom one "on*inement to anot+er/ Com)are t+is "ase to 'A(A%I%I V#/ -EO-%E, O"tober N, 6NN=/ !+e )oli"emen sa. several s s)i"io s loo5ing men at da.n .+o ran .+en t+ey .ent near t+em/ As t+e )oli"emen ran a*ter t+em, an nli"ensed *irearm .as "on*is"ated/ !+e sear"+ .as de"lared valid by t+e # )reme Co rt/ (ote, +o.ever, t+at in 'A%ACA! V#/ CA, 2M8 #CRA 6>N, t+e #C +eld t+at mere s s)i"ions not s **i"ient to validate .arrantless arrest/ 8(. May the )loilo Police arrest or ma-es a search without warrant the person disem*ar-in5 from a ship *ased solely on an information relayed to them *y an informant that the suspect&s *a5 contains mari7uana? (o/ As +eld in P+=PL+ #s. /MM)>6)D)>A 1:3 @C;/ !G8 a .arrantless arrest o* t+e a"" sed .as n"onstit tional/ !+is .as e**e"ted .+ile +e .as "oming do.n t+e vessel, to all a))earan"es no less inno"ent t+an t+e ot+er disembar5ing )assengers/ Be +ad not "ommitted nor .as a"t ally "ommitting or attem)ting to "ommit an o**ense in t+e )resen"e o* t+e arresting o**i"ers/ Be .as not even a"ting s s)i"io sly/ In s+ort, t+ere .as no )robable "a se t+at, as t+e )rose" tion in"orre"tly s ggested, dis)ensed .it+ t+e "onstit tional re; irement o* a .arrant/ 8:. )n arrests without warrant *ased on the fact that a crime has 7ust *een committedA

what -ind of -nowled5e is re"uired on the part of the arrestin5 officer? In PEOPLE V$ "ALVED* 322 $CRA 2+7* t,/ $u93/8/ Cou3t ,/ld t,0t t+e )oli"eman arrested t+e a"" sed:a))ellant on t+e basis solely o* .+at Reynaldo Castro +ad told +im and not be"a se +e sa. t+e a"" sed:a))ellant "ommit t+e "rime "+arged against +im/ Indeed, t+e )rose" tion admitted t+at t+ere .as no .arrant o* arrest iss ed against a"" sed:a))ellant .+en t+e latter .as ta5en into " stody/ Considering t+at t+e a"" sed:a))ellant .as not "ommitting a "rime at t+e time +e .as arrested nor did t+e arresting o**i"er +ave any )ersonal 5no.ledge o* *a"ts indi"ating t+at a"" sed:a))ellant "ommitted a "rime, +is arrest .it+o t a .arrant "annot be G sti*ied/ 84. What is the effect on the ille5ality of the arrest *y the su*se"uent act of the accused in postin5 *ond for his pro#isional li*erty and enterin5 a plea durin5 his arrai5nment? By entering a )lea o* not g ilty d ring t+e arraignment, t+e a"" sed:a))ellant .aived +is rig+t to raise t+e iss e o* illegality o* +is arrest/ I! I# (OW #E!!%ED !BA! OBHEC!IO( !O A WARRA(! O$ ARRE#! OR !BE -ROCED&RE BC WBICB A CO&R! ACK&IRE# H&RI#DIC!IO( OVER !BE -ER#O( O$ A( ACC&#ED '&#! BE 'ADE BE$ORE BE E(!ER# BI# -%EA, O!BERWI#E, !BE OBHEC!IO( I# DEE'ED WAIVED/ !BE $AC! !BA! !BE ARRE#! WA# I%%E,A% DOE# (O! RE(DER !BE #&B#EK&E(! -ROCEEDI(,# VOID A(D DE-RIVE !BE #!A!E O$ I!# RI,B! !O CO(VIC! !BE ,&I%!C WBE( A%% !BE $AC!# -OI(! !O !BE C&%-ABI%I!C O$ !BE ACC&#ED/ (PEOPLE V$ "ALVED* 322 $CRA 2+7) 83. )s a warrantless search and seiJure *y a pri#ate indi#idual #alid? Ces sin"e t+e "onstit tional )rovision is not a))li"able to +im/ ( PEOPLE O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$ V$ AN!RE (ARTI* " R NO -1271* J0nu03y 1-* 1551Q $ILA&I$ INTERNATIONAL &OTEL* INC V$ RO"ELIO $OL#TA* ET AL * +-2 $CRA 770) 82. What are the re"uisites of a #alid search incidental to a #alid arrest? As +eld in NOLA$CO V$ PANO* 135 $CRA 2+1, a sear"+ in"idental to a valid arrest m st be done at t+e )la"e .+ere t+e a"" sed is arrested or its immediate vi"inity or on t+e )erson o* t+e a"" sed/ As s "+, i* a"" sed .as arrested .+ile inside a Gee)ney, t+ere is no valid sear"+ in"idental to a valid arrest i* s+e .ill be bro g+t to +er residen"e and t+erea*ter sear"+ t+e said )la"e/ Or as +eld in E$PANO V$ CA* 2-- $CRA 2-- , i* t+e a"" sed .as arrested in t+e street d ring a b y:b st o)eration, t+e sear"+ o* +is +o se nearby is not a valid sear"+ in"idental to a valid arrest/ 3G. )f the accused was #alidly arrested without warrant inside a ni5ht clu* for ille5al possession of firearmA may the arrestin5 officers #alidly search his car par-ed se#eral meters from the place of arrest *ased on %search incidental to a #alid arrest'? W+ere t+e g n t "5ed in a )erson?s .aist is )lainly visible to t+e )oli"e, no sear"+ .arrant is ne"essary and in t+e absen"e o* any li"ense *or said *irearm, +e may be arrested at on"e as +e is in e**e"t "ommitting a "rime in t+e )resen"e o* t+e )oli"e o**i"ers/ (o .arrant is ne"essary in s "+ a sit ation, it being one o* t+e re"ognized e1"e)tions nder t+e R les/ As a "onse; en"e o* t+e a"" sed?s valid .arrantless arrest inside t+e nig+t"l b, +e may be la.* lly sear"+ed *or dangero s .ea)ons or anyt+ing .+i"+ may be sed as )roo* o* t+e "ommission o* an o**ense, .it+o t a sear"+ .arrant in a""ordan"e .it+ #e"tion 62, R le 62</ !+is is a valid sear"+ in"idental to a la.* l arrest/ In *a"t, t+e s bse; ent dis"overy in +is "ar (.+i"+ .as )ar5ed in a distant )la"e *rom .+ere t+e illegal )ossession o* *irearm .as "ommitted Da*ter +e re; ested t+at +e .ill bring +is "ar to t+e -oli"e #tation a*ter +is .arrantless arrest:::.it+ a )oli"eman es"orting +imE) , o* a dr g )ara)+ernalia and s+ab , CA((O! BE #AID !O BAVE BEE( 'ADE D&RI(, A( I%%E,A% #EARCB be"a se o*

+is "onsent, not d e to sear"+ in"idental to a valid arrest/ As s "+, t+e items do not *all nder t+e e1"l sionary r le and t+e nli"ensed *irearms, dr g )ara)+ernalia and t+e s+ab , "an be sed as eviden"e against t+e a"" sed. /PEOPLE V$ "O* 32+ $CRA 33-) 31. May the police authorities #alidly search the rented apartment of a suspect without a search warrant or without the consent of the said person ,6B W)BH BH+ C=>@+>B =C BH+ =W>+; =C BH+ /P/;BM+>B? (o/ PEOPLE V$ !A(A$O* 212 $CRA 2+. abandoned t+e r ling in %o)ez vs/ Commissioner .+ere t+e alleged 4.i*e9 "o ld give a valid "onsent *or t+e sear"+ o* t+e +otel room o* +er + sband as +eld by t+e # )reme Co rt:::even t+o g+ it t rned o t t+at s+e .as G st a 4mani" rist9 o* t+e s s)e"t / In order t+at t+ere is a valid "onsent to a .arrantless sear"+, t+e "onsent m st "ome *rom t+e )erson dire"tly a**e"ted by said .arrantless sear"+/ 38. What is the %plain #iew doctrine' in connection with warrantless search and seiJure? As +eld in PEOPLE V$ VAL!ED* 3+1 $CRA 22* t+e plain view doctrine, .+i"+ may G sti*y a sear"+ .it+o t .arrant, A--%IE# O(%C WBERE !BE -O%ICE O$$ICER I# (O! #EARCBI(, $OR EVIDE(CE A,AI(#! !BE ACC&#ED, B&! I(ADVER!E(!%C CO'E# ACRO## A( I(CRI'I(A!I(, OBHEC!/ As s "+, 4)lain vie. do"trine "o ld not be sed to G sti*y t+e seiz re o* an nli"ensed *irearm in -eo)le vs/ Damaso, s )ra, .+i"+ .as seen on to) o* a table a*ter t+e o)ening o* +is a)artment?s door .it+o t a .arrant nor "onsent o* t+e o"" )ant t+erein/ 38.a. Bhe police recei#ed an information that accused&s house is surrounded *y fully 5rown mari7uana. BhereafterA the police went to the place of the accused and it turned out that the information was correct. Bhe accused was arrested and the police too- his pictures infront of his mari7uana plants and other pictures with him after uprootin5 the same. )s the seiJure of the mari7uana plants 7ustified under the %plain #iew doctrine'? (o, t+e seiz re is not valid/ (or "an it be G sti*ied nder t+e )lain vie. do"trine/ In order t+at t+e )lain vie. do"trine "o ld be validly a))lied, t+e mariG ana )lants m st +ave been I(ADVER!E(!%C $O&(D/ In t+is "ase, t+e )oli"ement .ent t+ere s)e"i*i"ally to loo5 *or it/ ( PEOPLE V$ VAL!ED* 3+1 $CRA 22) 33. Define pro*a*le cause in connection with the issuance of a search warrant. !+e I)robable "a seI *or a valid sear"+ .arrant, +as been de*ined Ias s "+ *a"ts and "ir" mstan"es .+i"+ .o ld lead a reasonably dis"reet and )r dent man to believe t+at an o**ense +as been "ommitted, and t+at t+e obGe"ts so g+t in "onne"tion .it+ t+e o**ense are in t+e )la"e so g+t to be sear"+edI/ (K intero vs/ (BI, H ne 28, 6NMM)/ !+is )robable "a se m st be s+o.n to be .it+in t+e )ersonal 5no.ledge o* t+e "om)lainant or t+e .itnesses +e may )rod "e and not based on mere +earsay/ (-/ V#/ #C H&CO, <F -BI%/ <<=0 A%VAREZ V#/ C$I, <F -BI%/ 880 &# V#/ ADDI#O(, 2M -BI%/ ><<)/ 3!. What is the %sufficiency test' in connection with applications for a search warrant? I!+e tr e test o* s **i"ien"y o* a de)osition or a**idavit to .arrant iss an"e o* a sear"+ .arrant is .+et+er it ;01 d30;n in 0 80nn/3 t,0t 9/3Ju3y 4ould ?/ 4,03</d t,/3/on 0nd t,/ 0==i0nt ?/ ,/ld li0?l/ =o3 d080</ 40u1/d !+e oat+ re; ired m st re*er to t+e tr t+ o* t+e *a"ts .it+in t+e )ersonal 5no.ledge o* t+e a))li"ant o* a sear"+ .arrant andPor +is .itnesses, not o* t+e *a"ts merely re)orted by a )erson .+om one "onsiders to be reliable/I (DR/ (E'E#IO -R&DE(!E V#/ !BE BO(/ E3EC&!IVE H&D,E ABE%ARDO '/ DACRI!, R!C 88, 'anila S -eo)le o* t+e -+ili))ines, ,R (o/

M2M=J, De"ember 6F, 6NMN) 3(. May the police and military authorities #alidly search the citiJens without warrant in chec-points set up *y them? What is the e$tent of the search that they may conduct? In ;)C/;D= 0/LM=>B+ 0@. <+> ;+>/B= D+ 0)LL/A <; >o. 33233A @eptem*er 82A 1232A t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at .arrantless sear"+es and seiz res in military and )oli"e "+e"5)oints are not illegal as t+ese meas res to )rote"t t+e government and sa*eg ards t+e lives o* t+e )eo)le/ !+e "+e"5)oints are legal as .+ere t+e s rvival o* t+e organized government is on t+e balan"e, or .+ere t+e lives and sa*ety o* t+e )eo)le are in grave )eril/ Bo.ever, t+e # )reme Co rt "lari*ied t+at t+e military o**i"ers manning t+e "+e"5)oints may "ond "t VI#&A% #EARCB O(%C, (O! BODI%C #EARCB/ 3:. )s an unlicensed firearm seiJed in the house of the accused without warrant *y the military authoritiesA after they were 5i#en consent *y the said owner of the house for them to search for re*el soldiersA admissi*le in e#idence@ (o/ In VEROY V$ LAYA"#E* 210 $CRA 5., t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at t+e o.ner o* t+e +o se allo.ed t+e )oli"emen to enter +is +o se be"a se t+ey .ill be sear"+ing *or rebel soldiers b t .+en inside t+e +o se, t+ey instead seized an nli"ensed *irearm/ As s "+, t+ere .as no "onsent to sear"+ *or *irearms and as a "onse; en"e, t+e *irearm is not admissible as eviden"e/ 34. )f the 7ud5e finds that thereRs pro*a*le causeA must he issue a warrant of arrest as a matter of course@ It de)endsA $A(#L!E V$ $ALVANI* $EPTE('ER 27* 15-- ((o be"a se a .arrant is iss ed in order to +ave G risdi"tion o* t+e "o rt over t+e )erson o* an a"" sed and to ass re t+e "o rt o* +is )resen"e .+enever +is "ase is "alled in "o rt/ As s "+, i* t+e "o rt believes t+at t+e )resen"e o* t+e a"" sed "o ld be +ad even .it+o t a .arrant o* arrest, t+en +e may not iss e said .arrant/ (oteA !+is "ase involves a minor o**ense) "ODO V$ TAC-AN* 300 $CRA 272/ I* t+e o**ense "ommitted is a serio s one li5e t+at obtaining in t+is "ase *or m rder, t+e H dge m st iss e a .arrant o* arrest a*ter determining t+e e1isten"e o* )robable "a se) 33. )f the applicant for a search warrant testifies that his -nowled5e of the facts and circumstances was deri#ed from a %hi5hly relia*le informant'A would such fact sufficient to con#ince the court of the e$istence of %pro*a*le cause'? (o, 5no.ledge based on +earsay in*ormation does not G sti*y t+e e1isten"e o* )robable "a se/ (P3ud/nt/ >1 !0y3it* s )ra/) In *a"t, .+en t+e statements in t+e a**idavits o* .itnesses are mere generalities, mere "on"l sions o* la., and not )ositive statements o* )arti" lar a"ts, t+e .arrant iss ed by virt e t+ereo* is not valid/ Pon1i40 >1 I<n0l0<0* July 31*15-.) 32. )n the seiJure of alle5ed pirated tapesA what must the applicant su*mit to the court in order that the search warrant to *e issued shall *e #alid@ In C/ntu3y %oC >1 CA* 17+ $CRA 722 0nd COL#('IA PICT#RE$ V$ CA* 271 $CRA 1++* it .as +eld t+at t+e master "o)y o* t+e allegedly )irated ta)e s+o ld be )resented be*ore t+e G dge in order to "onvin"e +im o* t+e e1isten"e o* )robable "a se)

!G. What is the effect on the e#idence o*tained in #iolation of @ections 8 and 3 of /rticle )))? Any eviden"e obtained in violation o* #e"tions 2 and 8 o* Arti"le III s+all be inadmissible *or any ) r)ose in any )ro"eeding/ !1. 6nder the Human @ecurity /ctK/nti.Berrorism LawA ;epu*lic /ct >o. 2348A /ppro#ed on March :A 8GG4 and effecti#e on Muly 1(A 8GG4A may police authorities the listen toA intercept and recordA with the use of any modeA form or -ind or type of electronic or other sur#eillance e"uipment or interceptin5 and trac-in5 de#icesA or with the use of any other suita*le ways or means for that purposeA any communicationA messa5eA con#ersationA discussionA or spo-en or written words of a person without #iolatin5 the ri5ht to pri#acy? Ces nder #e"tions = and M o* t+e la. .+i"+ )rovidesA @ection 4/ # rveillan"e o* s s)e"ts and inter"e)tion and re"ording o* "omm ni"ations/ !+e )rovisions o* RA F2JJ (Anti:Wireta))ing %a.) to t+e "ontrary not.it+standing, a )oli"e or la. en*or"ement o**i"ial and t+e members o* +is team may, )on a .ritten order o* t+e Co rt o* A))eals, listen to, inter"e)t and re"ord, .it+ t+e se o* any mode, *orm or 5ind or ty)e o* ele"troni" or ot+er s rveillan"e e; i)ment or inter"e)ting and tra"5ing devi"es, or .it+ t+e se o* any ot+er s itable .ays or means *or t+at ) r)ose, any "omm ni"ation, message, "onversation, dis" ssion, or s)o5en or .ritten .ords bet.een members o* a G di"ially de"lared and o tla.ed terrorist organization, asso"iation, or gro ) o* )ersons or o* any )erson "+arged .it+ or s s)e"ted o* t+e "rime o* terrorism or "ons)ira"y to "ommit terrorism/ -rovided, !+at s rveillan"e, inter"e)tion and re"ording o* "omm ni"ations bet.een la.yers and "lients, do"tors and )atients, Go rnalists and t+eir so r"es and "on*idential b siness "orres)onden"e s+all not be a t+orized/ !8. 6nder the Human @ecurity /ctK/nti.Berrorism LawA ;epu*lic /ct >o. 2348A /ppro#ed on March :A 8GG4 and effecti#e on Muly 1(A 8GG4A may police authorities e$amine the *anaccounts of indi#iduals without #iolatin5 their ri5ht to pri#acy? Ces nder #e"tions 2= and 2M o* t+e said la./ It )rovidesA @ection 84/ H di"ial a t+orization re; ired to e1amine ban5 de)osits, a""o nts and re"ords/ !+e G sti"es o* CA designated as s)e"ial "o rt to +andle anti:terrorism "ases a*ter satis*ying t+emselves o* t+e e1isten"e o* )robable "a se in a +earing "alled *or t+at ) r)ose t+atA A )erson "+arged .it+ or s s)e"ted o* t+e "rime o* terrorism or "ons)ira"y to "ommit terrorism0 O* a G di"ially de"lared and o tla.ed terrorist organization or gro ) o* )ersons0 O* a member o* s "+ G di"ially de"lared and o tla.ed organization, asso"iation or gro ) o* )ersons, may a t+orize in .riting any )oli"e or la. en*or"ement o**i"er and t+e members o* +is team d ly a t+orized in .riting by t+e anti:terrorism "o n"il toA e1amine or "a se t+e e1amination o*, t+e de)osits, )la"ements, tr st a""o nts, assets, and re"ords in a ban5 or *inan"ial instit tion0 and gat+er or "a se t+e gat+ering o* any relevant in*ormation abo t s "+ de)osits, )la"ements, tr st a""o nts, assets, and re"ords *rom a ban5 or *inan"ial instit tion/ !+e ban5 or *inan"ial instit tion s+all not re* se to allo. s "+ e1amination or to )rovide t+e desired in*ormation, .+en so ordered by and served .it+ t+e .ritten order o* t+e Co rt o* A))eals/

@ec. 83/ A))li"ation to e1amine de)osits, a""o nts and re"ords/ !+e .ritten order o* t+e CA a t+orizing t+e e1amination o* ban5 de)osits, )la"ements, tr st a""o nts, assets and re"ordsA A )erson "+arged .it+ or s s)e"ted o* t+e "rime o* terrorism or "ons)ira"y to "ommit terrorism0 O* a G di"ially de"lared and o tla.ed terrorist organization or gro ) o* )ersons0 O* a member o* s "+ G di"ially de"lared and o tla.ed organization, asso"iation or gro ) o* )ersons, in a ban5 or *inan"ial instit tion: :#BA%% O(%C BE ,RA(!ED BC !BE A&!BORIZI(, DIVI#IO( O$ !BE CA &-O( A( E3: -AR!E A--%ICA!IO( !O !BA! E$$EC! O$ A -O%ICE OR %AW E($ORCE'E(! O$$ICIA% .+o +as been d ly a t+orized by t+e Anti:!errorism Co n"il to *ile s "+ e1:)arte a))li"ation and )on e1amination nder oat+ or a**irmation o* t+e a))li"ant and +is .itnesses +e may )rod "e to establis+ t+e *a"ts t+at .ill G sti*y t+e need and rgen"y o* e1amining and *reezing t+e ban5 de)osits, )la"ements, tr st a""o nts, assets and re"ordsA O* A )erson "+arged .it+ or s s)e"ted o* t+e "rime o* terrorism or "ons)ira"y to "ommit terrorism0 O* a G di"ially de"lared and o tla.ed terrorist organization or gro ) o* )ersons0 O* a member o* s "+ G di"ially de"lared and o tla.ed organization, asso"iation or gro ) o* )ersons/ !3. May a wife #alidly seiJe the diariesA chec-s and 5reetin5 cards of the alle5ed paramours of her hus*and in the latter&s clinic and use the same as e#idence in a le5al separation case *etween them? As +eld in D#L#ETA V$ CA* %/?3u03y 10* 1557, t+e eviden"e obtained by t+e .i*e .+o *or"ibly o)ened t+e dra.ers at t+e "lini" o* +er do"tor:+ sband and too5 diaries, "+e"5s and greeting "ards o* +is alleged )aramo rs is inadmissible as eviden"e/ !+is is so be"a se t+e intima"ies o* + sband and .i*e does not G sti*y t+e brea5ing o* "abinets to determine marital in*idelity/ !3. )s the freedom of speech and e$pression affected *y the Human @ecurity /ct? Ces, nder @ection 8: o* t+e la., it )rovides t+at )ersons .+o +ave been "+arged .it+ terrorism or "ons)ira"y to "ommit terrorism:::even i* t+ey +ave been granted bail be"a se eviden"e o* g ilt is not strongT"an beA 4Prohi*ited from usin5 any cellular phonesA computersA or other means of communications with people outside their residence.' !!. What is the rule on criticisms on the acts of pu*lic officers? A ) bli" o**i"ial s+o ld not be too onion:s5inned .it+ re*eren"e to "omments )on +is o**i"ial a"ts/ !+e interest o* t+e government and t+e so"iety demands * ll dis" ssion o* ) bli" a**airs/ (#$ >1 'u1to1* 3. P,il .31) !(. May the a*o#e rule applica*le to pri#ate indi#iduals who are pu*lic fi5ures or pri#ate indi#iduals who are candidates for pu*lic office? As +eld by t+e # )reme Co rt in t+e "ase o* 'A"#IO (I!LAN! CO#RIER 6 CECILLE A%A'LE V$ CO#RT O% APPEAL$ 6 RA(ON LA'O* JR * +++ $CRA 2- D(ovember 2>, 2JJF , t+e arti"le involving a )rivate individ al r nning *or 'ayor o* Bag io City is still .it+in t+e mantle o*

)rote"tion g aranteed by t+e *reedom o* e1)ression )rovided in t+e Constit tion sin"e it is t+e ) bli"?s rig+t to be in*ormed o* t+e mental, moral and )+ysi"al *itness o* "andidates *or ) bli" o**i"e/ !+is .as re"ognized as early as t+e "ase o* &# V#/ #EDA(O, 6F -+il/ 88M D6NJNE and t+e "ase o* (EW CORO !I'E# V#/ #&%%IVA(, 8=< &/#/ 2>F .+ere t+e &# # )reme Co rt +eldA @Oit i1 o= t,/ ut8o1t 4on1/:u/n4/ t,0t t,/ 9/o9l/ 1,ould di14u11 t,/ 4,0304t/3 0nd :u0li=i40tion1 o= 40ndid0t/1 =o3 t,/i3 1u==30</1 T,/ i89o3t0n4/ to t,/ $t0t/ 0nd to 1o4i/ty o= 1u4, di14u11ion1 i1 1o >01t* 0nd t,/ 0d>0nt0</1 d/3i>/d 1o <3/0t* t,0t t,/y 8o3/ t,0n 4ount/3?0l0n4/ t,/ in4on>/ni/n4/ o= 93i>0t/ 9/31on1 ;,o1/ 4ondu4t 80y ?/ in>ol>/d* 0nd o4401ion0l inJu3y to t,/ 3/9ut0tion1 o= indi>idu0l1 8u1t yi/ld to t,/ 9u?li4 ;/l=03/* 0lt,ou<, 0t ti8/1 1u4, inJu3y 80y ?/ <3/0t T,/ 9u?li4 ?/n/=it =3o8 9u?li4ity i1 1o <3/0t 0nd t,/ 4,0n4/ o= inJu3y to 93i>0t/ 4,0304t/3 1o 180ll* t,0t 1u4, di14u11ion 8u1t ?/ 93i>il/</d @ Cl/03ly* t,/ :u/1tion/d 03ti4l/1 4on1titut/ =0i3 4o88/nt on 0 80tt/3 o= 9u?li4 int/3/1t 01 it d/0lt ;it, t,/ 4,0304t/3 o= t,/ 93i>0t/ 3/19ond/nt ;,o ;01 3unnin< =o3 t,/ to9 /l/4ti>/ 9o1t in '0<uio City 0t t,0t ti8/ !:. May the C=M+L+C #alidly prohi*it columnistsA radio announcers and B0 commentator for commentin5 for or a5ainst any issue durin5 the ple*iscite period since they can air their #iews in a pro5ram sponsored *y the C=M+L+C itself@ (o, s "+ .o ld be an nd e inter*eren"e on t+e *reedom o* e1)ression/ I! I# #!I%% A RE#!RIC!IO( O( !BE CO%&'(I#!, A((O&(CER OR CO''E(!A!OR?# CBOICE O$ !BE $OR&' WBERE BE 'AC E3-RE## BI# VIEW/ -lebis"ite iss es are matters o* ) bli" "on"ern and im)ortan"e/ !+e )eo)leQs rig+t to be in*ormed and to be able to *reely and intelligently ma5e a de"ision .o ld be better served by a""ess to an nabridged dis" ssion o* t+e iss es, I(C%&DI(, !BE $OR&'/ !+e )eo)le a**e"ted by t+e iss es )resented in a )lebis"ite s+o ld not be nd ly b rdened by restri"tions on t+e *or m .+ere t+e rig+t to e1)ression may be e1er"ised/ ( P/,L)B= 0. @/>)D/D 0@. C=M+L+CA " R NO 50-.-* J0nu03y 25* 1550) !4. What are the re"uisites that a newspaper must comply in order that its news item on an on5oin5 trial in court will not *e actiona*le for *ein5 li*elous? In EliN0ld/ >1 "uti/33/N*.7 $CRA ++-, it .as +eld t+at in order t+at any ne.s item relating to a G di"ial )ro"eeding .ill not be a"tionable, t+e same m st be DaE a tr e and *air re)ort o* t+e a"t al )ro"eedings0 DbE m st be done in good *ait+0 and D"E no "omments nor remar5s s+all be made by t+e .riterU !3. What are the tests of o*scenity? !+e t+ree (8) tests as +eld in (ill/3 >1 C0li=o3ni0* 3. L Ed 2d +15 areA 1. Whether the a#era5e person applyin5 to contemporary community standards would find the wor- appeals to prurient interestQ 8. Whether the wor- depicts or descri*es a patently offensi#e se$ual conductQ 3. Whether the wor- as a whole lac-s serious literary A artisticA political or scientific #alue.

!2. May the City Mayor order the confiscation without a search warrant ma5aJines which he *elie#es to *e o*scene? What is the correct procedure for him to follow? (o/ (-ita vs/ CA, 6=M #CRA 8<2)/ A City 'ayor may not order t+e .arrantless seiz re o* magazines .+i"+ +e believes to be obs"ene0 ot+er.ise, +e .ill be"ome t+e "om)lainant, )rose" tor and G dge at t+e same time/ Be s+o ld obtain a sear"+ .arrant *rom a G dge by *ollo.ing t+e )ro"ed re laid do.n by t+e R les on +o. to se" re a sear"+ .arrant/ (G. May pu*lic school teachers #alidly file mass lea#esA instead of 5oin5 on stri-eA after their demand to the 5o#ernment was not met' In ,E#I!E et al/ vs/ CO&R! O$ A--EA%#, FFF #CRA >6 +eld t+at 4t+ese mass a"tions .ere to all intents and ) r)oses a stri5e0 t+ey "onstit ted a "on"erted and na t+orized sto))age o*, or absen"e *rom, .or5 .+i"+ it .as t+e tea"+ers? d ty to )er*orm, nderta5en *or essentially e"onomi" reasons/9 It is ndis) ted *a"t t+at t+ere .as a .or5 sto))age and t+at )etitioners? ) r)ose .as to realize t+eir demands by .it++olding t+eir servi"es/ !+e *a"t t+at t+e "onventional term 4stri5e9 .as not sed by t+e stri5ing em)loyees to des"ribe t+eir "ommon "o rse o* a"tion is in"onse; ential, #I(CE !BE #&B#!A(CE O$ !BE #I!&A!IO(, A(D (O! I!# A--EARA(CE, WI%% BE DEE'ED CO(!RO%%I(,/ !+e rig+t o* government em)loyees to organize I# %I'I!ED !O !BE $OR'A!IO(# O$ &(IO(# OR A##OCIA!IO(# O(%C, WI!BO&! I(C%&DI(, !BE RI,B! !O #!RIOE ('0n<0li10n >1 CA* 2.7 $CRA 715) (1. What is the procedure to *e followed in the application of rally permits *efore the City or Municipal Mayor in accordance with ,P ,ilan5 33G? !+e a))li"ants *or a )ermit to +old an assembly s+o ld in*orm t+e li"ensing a t+ority o* t+e date, t+e ) bli" )la"e .+ere and t+e time when it .ill ta5e )la"e/ I* it .ere a )rivate )la"e, only t+e "onsent o* t+e o.ner or t+e one entitled to its legal )ossession is re; ired/ # "+ a))li"ation s+o ld be *iled .ell a+ead in time to enable t+e ) bli" o**i"ial "on"erned to a))raise .+et+er t+ere may be valid obGe"tions to t+e grant o* t+e )ermit or to its grant b t at anot+er ) bli" )la"e/ It is an indis)ensable "ondition to s "+ re* sal or modi*i"ation t+at t+e "lear and )resent danger test be t+e standard *or t+e de"ision rea"+ed/ I* +e is o* t+e vie. t+at t+ere is s "+ an imminent and grave danger o* a s bstantive evil, t+e a))li"ants m st be +eard on t+e matter/ !+erea*ter, +is de"ision, .+et+er *avorable or adverse, m st be transmitted to t+em at t+e earliest o))ort nity/ !+ s i* so minded, t+ey "an +ave re"o rse to t+e )ro)er G di"ial a t+ority/ ( 'AYAN* KARAPATAN* KIL#$AN" (A"'#'#KI! N" PILIPINA$ (K(P)* 0nd "A'RIELA vs/ E!#AR!O ER(ITA, in +is "a)a"ity as E1e" tive #e"retary, 'anila City 'ayor LITO ATIENDA, C+ie* o* t+e -+ili))ine (ational -oli"e, ,en/ ART#RO ( LO(I'AO* NCRPO C+ie* (0J "/n VI!AL M#EROL* and Western -oli"e Distri"t C+ie* "/n PE!RO '#LAON", ,/R/ (o/ 6<NMFM, 'ay, 2JJ<) (1.a. May the City Mayor of Manila #alidly deny the application for a rally permitA or to chan5e the #enue thereofA if he finds e#idence of clear and present dan5er in accordance with the M,L ;eyes #s. Mayor ,a5atsin5 doctrine? Com)lian"e .it+ t+e Reyes vs/ Bagatsing do"trine is no longer eno g+/ &nder t+e - bli" Assemble A"t, i* t+e 'ayor believes in t+e e1isten"e o* "lear and )resent danger, BE '&#! $IR#! I($OR' !BE A--%ICA(! O$ !BE #AID EVIDE(CE A(D ,IVE BII' !BE CBA(CE !O #&B'I! CO(!ROVER!I(, EVIDE(CE BE$ORE BE CO&%D DE(C !BE #AID A--%ICA!IO( $OR A RA%%C -ER'I!/ (INTE"RATE! 'AR O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$ V$ (AYOR JO$E ATIENDA* JR * %/?3u03y 2+* 2010)

(8. )s ,P 33G unconstitutional for *ein5 #a5ue (0oid for 0a5ueness Doctrine and o#er*road (=#er*readth Doctrine)@ (o/ It is very "lear t+at it deals only on ) bli" assemblies t+at deals .it+ rallies, mass a"tions and similar a"ts and not all 5inds o* ) bli" assemblies/ As s "+, it is not vag e/ (eit+er is t+e la. overbroad/ It reg lates t+e e1er"ise o* t+e rig+t to )ea"e* l assembly and )etition only to t+e e1tent needed to avoid a "lear and )resent danger o* t+e s bstantive evils Congress +as t+e rig+t to )revent/ (3. )s the Cali*rated Pre.empti#e ;esponse (CP; of the /rroyo /dministration towards rallyists constitutional? !+e Co rt reiterates its basi" )oli"y o* )+olding t+e * ndamental rig+ts o* o r )eo)le, es)e"ially *reedom o* e1)ression and *reedom o* assembly/ $or t+is reason, t+e so:"alled "alibrated )reem)tive res)onse )oli"y, t+e )oli"y o* dis)ersing rallyists t+ro g+ .ater "annons, +as no )la"e in o r legal *irmament and m st be str "5 do.n as a dar5ness t+at s+ro ds *reedom/ It merely "on* ses o r )eo)le and is sed by some )oli"e agents to G sti*y ab ses/ On t+e ot+er +and, B/-/ (o/ MMJ "annot be "ondemned as n"onstit tional0 it does not " rtail or nd ly restri"t *reedoms0 it merely reg lates t+e se o* ) bli" )la"es as to t+e time, )la"e and manner o* assemblies/ $ar *rom being insidio s, 4ma1im m toleran"e9 is *or t+e bene*it o* rallyists, not t+e government/ !+e delegation to t+e mayors o* t+e )o.er to iss e rally 4)ermits9 is valid be"a se it is s bGe"t to t+e "onstit tionally: so nd 4"lear and )resent danger9 standard/ ('AYAN* KARAPATAN* KIL#$AN" (A"'#'#KI! N" PILIPINA$ (K(P)* 0nd "A'RIELA vs/ E!#AR!O ER(ITA, in +is "a)a"ity as E1e" tive #e"retary, 'anila City 'ayor LITO ATIENDA, C+ie* o* t+e -+ili))ine (ational -oli"e, ,en/ ART#RO ( LO(I'AO* NCRPO C+ie* (0J "/n VI!AL M#EROL* and Western -oli"e Distri"t C+ie* "/n PE!RO '#LAON", ,/R/ (o/ 6<NMFM, 'ay, 2JJ<) (!. May the MB;C, suspend for three (3 months the airin5 of the pro5ram /n5 Datin5 Daan of ,rother +liseo @oriano as a result of #ul5ar and uncouth lan5ua5e he uttered a5ainst the host of the pro5ram /n5 Baman5 Daan of the )5lesia >i Dristo? Ces as 4s bse; ent ) nis+ment9/ In *a"t, it is a valid 4)rior restraint9 meas re on t+e )art o* t+e '!RCB (#ORIA(O V#/ %A,&ARDIA, A)ril 2N, 2JJN) DDissenting O)inionA !+e s s)ension o* t+e )rogram is illegal/ It "onstit tes 4)rior restraint9/ Be is )revented *rom +osting t+e )rogram d ring t+e s ""eeding days even i* +e .ill G st say t+e 4%ord?s -rayer9 or to greet 4good morning9 to +is vie.ers/ -er H sti"e Antonio Car)ioE (!.a. May the City of CauayanA )sa*elaA #alidly close the ,om*o ;adio @tations therein on the 5round that their *uildin5 was constructed on an %a5ricultural land' Hthat is why the City did not issue *usiness permit for it to operateI which has not *een con#erted to %commercial land' *y the D/; despite the fact that it has *een there for so many years and was "uestioned only when the said station was critical of the Dy&s in )sa*ela who own the only other radio station therein? A !+e a"t o* t+e City o* Ca ayan, Isabela "onstit tes )rior restraint/ It s+all )ay -6J' in damages *or t+e losses s **ered by Bombo Radyo as a res lt o* t+e illegal "los re/ (NEW$O#N!$ 'ROA!CA$TIN" NETWORK INC 0nd CON$OLI!ATE! 'ROA!CA$TIN" $Y$TE(* INC >1 &ON CEA$AR " !Y* %ELICI$I(O " (EER* 'A"NO$ (A)I(O* RAC(A %ERNAN!ED-"ARCIA 0nd T&E CITY O% CA#AYAN* " R No1 1.02.0 61.5+11* A93il 2* 2005) (!.*. Distin5uish %clear and present dan5er'A %dan5erous tendency rule' and %*alancin5 of interest test'.

Clear and )resent danger and dangero s tenden"y r le (.+et+er t+e .ords sed in s "+ "ir" mstan"es and are o* s "+ a nat re as to "reate a "lear and )resent danger t+at t+ey .ill bring abo t t+e s bstantive evils t+at t+e #tate +as t+e rig+t to )revent) Dangero s tenden"y r le (I* t+e .ords ttered "reate a dangero s tenden"y .+i"+ t+e #tate +as t+e rig+t to )revent, t+en s "+ .ords are ) nis+able) !+e balan"ing:o*:interest test (W+en a )arti" lar "ond "t is reg lated in t+e interest o* t+e ) bli" order, and t+e reg lation res lts in an indire"t, "onditional, )artial abridgment o* s)ee"+, t+e d ty o* t+e "o rts is to determine .+i"+ o* t+e 2 "on*li"ting interests demand greater )rote"tion nder t+e "ir" mstan"es )resented/) ((. May @enator Muan Ponce +nrile pre#ent the mo#ie producer of the +D@/ ) ;e#olution mo#ie from includin5 his participation durin5 the uprisin5 since it #iolates his ri5ht to pri#acy? (o, as bet.een Enrile?s rig+t to )riva"y and t+e *reedom o* e1)ression on t+e )art o* t+e movie )rod "er, t+e latter?s rig+t )revail be"a se Enrile?s )art in t+e movie deals solely on +is a"ts as a ) bli" o**i"er t+en/ !o e1"l de +im as integral )art o* t+e revol tion .o ld be a distortion o* +istory/ (%Y1! -! ,3CT* + )&. E3,L1 C%-30 +L, E3%+ - +C1 1+!*01, 1T %0., 'KM &C!% 9K'? (:. May the mother of a murdered Mayor stop the filmin5 of the life story of her son which would include his alle5ed lo#e affairs which would *lac-en his memory? Ces/ As bet.een t+e rig+t to )riva"y invo5ed by t+e mot+er and t+e *reedom o* e1)ression invo5ed by t+e movie )rod "er, t+e state s+all balan"e t+eir res)e"tive interests/ #in"e t+e movie )rod "er is )rimarily a*ter )ro*its only, t+e rig+t to )riva"y s+all )revail/ (%ag nzad vs/ ,onzales)/ (4. What are the two (8 aspects of the ;)<HB B= ;+L)<)=6@ P;=C+@@)=> />D W=;@H)P ? Distin5uish each/ %3//do8 to ?/li/>/Q 0nd %3//do8 to 04t I( t+e *irst, s "+ *reedom is absol te/ Be may ind lge in +is o.n t+eories abo t li*e and deat+0 .ors+i) any god +e "+ooses, or none at all/ Be may not be ) nis+ed even i* +e "annot )rove .+at +e believes/ In t+e se"ond, i* t+e individ al e1ternalizes .+at +e believes, +is *reedom to do so be"omes s bGe"t to t+e a t+ority o* t+e #tate/ !+is is so be"a se religio s *reedom "an be e1er"ised only .it+ d e regard to t+e rig+ts o* ot+ers/ E1am)leA 4,o *ort+ and m lti)ly:::"annot marry several times G st to "om)ly/ (3. May a Meho#ah&s Witnesses Mem*er who is the Court )nterpreter of ;BC ,ranch 8(3A Las Pinas CityA *e held lia*le for %5rossly immoral conduct' for li#in5 with a married man while her #ery own marria5e was still su*sistin5@ (o/ As +eld in E$TRA!A V$ $OLE!A! E$CRITOR* +52 $CRA 1 (R/1olution o= t,/ (otion =o3 R/4on1id/30tion)* +0- $CRA 1* t,/ $u93/8/ Cou3t ,/ld t,0t 1,/ i1 not li0?l/ =o3 grossly immoral "ond "t be"a seA 6/ #+e is a member o* t+e He+ova+?s Witnesses and t+e Wat"+ !o.er #o"iety0 2/ !+at t+e "onG gal arrangement .as in "on*ormity .it+ t+eir religio s belie*s0

8/ !+at t+e "onG gal arrangement .it+ K ila)io +as t+e a))roval o* +er "ongregation/ Es"ritor li5e.ise "laimed t+at DFE s+e +ad e1e" ted a 4DEC%ARA!IO( O$ -%ED,I(, $AI!B$&%(E##9 in a""ordan"e .it+ +er religion .+i"+ allo.s members o* t+e He+ova+?s .itnesses .+o +ave been abandoned by t+eir s)o ses to enter into marital relations/ !+e De"laration t+ s ma5es t+e res lting nion moral and binding .it+in t+e "ongregation all over t+e .orld e1"e)t in "o ntries .+ere divor"e is allo.ed/ Es"ritor?s "onG gal arrangement "annot be )enalized as s+e +as made o t a "ase *or e1em)tion *rom t+e la. based on +er * ndamental rig+t to religion/ Bo.ever, t+is mode o* living .it+ anot+er ot+er t+an +is or +er s)o se by a married )erson does not a))ly in )la"es .+ere divor"e is allo.ed/ (2. May children of Meho#ah&s Witnesses in pu*lic schools *e forced to sin5 the >ational /nthemQ recite the Patriotic Pled5eQ and @alute the Cla5 under pain of *ein5 e$pelled for non.compliance? (o sin"e s "+ is in violation o* t+eir religio s belie*s/ (ROE% EBRA%I(A,, E! A% V#/ !BE DIVI#IO( #&-ERI(!E(DE(! O$ #CBOO%# O$ CEB&, 'ar"+ 6, 6NN8)/ Religio s *reedom is s )erior to t+e stat te re; iring t+e ) )ils to sing the +ational %nthem; recite the -atriotic -ledge; and &alute the Glag. The doctrine laid down in Lerona vs. &ecretar7 of 1ducation was reversed. (2.a. May L<,B Party of les*iansA 5ays *ise$uals and trans5enders *e denied accreditation as a party.list 5roup *ecause it alle5edly espouses an o*scene doctrine of %same se$ marria5e' which is alle5edly contrary to the teachin5s of the ,i*le and the Doran? Our Constitution provides in Article III, Section 5 that [n]o law shall be made respecting an establishment o religion, or prohibiting the ree e!ercise thereo "# At bottom, what our non$establishment clause calls or is government neutralit% in religious matters"# &'()*+I,.http/00sc"1udiciar%"gov"ph01urisprudence023430april23430453562"htm. 7l .8 tn29. 7o .. Clearl%, governmental reliance on religious 1usti ication is inconsistent with this polic% o neutralit%"# &'()*+I,.http/00sc"1udiciar%"gov"ph01urisprudence023430april23430453562"htm. 7l .8 tn25. 7o .. :e thus ind that it was grave violation o the non$establishment clause or the CO;)+)C to utili<e the =ible and the -oran to 1usti % the e!clusion o Ang Ladlad" >A,? +A@+A@ +?=A (A*A' BS" CO;)+)C, ?"*" ,o" 453562, April C, 2343 ) :G. How may the ri5ht to tra#el *e impaired? !+e liberty o* abode and o* "+anging t+e same .it+in t+e limits )res"ribed by la. s+all not be im)aired e1"e)t )on la.* l order o* t+e "o rt/ (eit+er s+all t+e rig+t to travel be im)aired e1"e)t in t+e interest o* national se" rity, ) bli" sa*ety, or ) bli" +ealt+, as may be )rovided by la./ <6. )s the ri5ht to tra#el affected *y the Human @ecurity /ct? Ces, @ection 8: )rovides t+at )ersons .+o +ave been "+arged .it+ terrorism or "ons)ira"y to "ommit terrorism:::even i* t+ey +ave been granted bail be"a se eviden"e o* g ilt is not strongT"an beA Detained nder +o se arrest0 Restri"ted *rom traveling0 andPor &)on a))li"ation o* t+e )rose" tor, t+e s s)e"t?s rig+t to travel s+all be limited to t+e m ni"i)ality or "ity .+ere +e resides or .+ere t+e "ase is )ending, in t+e interest o* national se" rity and ) bli" sa*ety/ !ravel o tside o* said m ni"i)ality or "ity, .it+o t t+e a t+orization o* t+e "o rt, s+all be deemed a violation o* t+e terms and "onditions o* t+e

bail .+i"+ s+all t+en be *or*eited as )rovided in t+e R les o* Co rt/ !+ese restri"tions s+all be terminated )on a"; ittal o* t+e a"" sed0 or t+e dismissal o* t+e "ase *iled against +im0 or earlier )on t+e dis"retion o* t+e "o rt or )on motion o* t+e )rose" tor/ 72 (0y %o38/3 P3/1id/nt (034o1 >0lidly 4o89/l t,/ <o>/3n8/nt to i11u/ ,i8 ,i1 t30>/l 909/31 in o3d/3 t,0t ,/ 4ould 3/tu3n to t,/ P,ili99in/1 =3o8 ,i1 #$ /Cil/ in 044o3d0n4/ ;it, ,i1 4on1titution0l 3i<,t to t30>/lF (o/ (%ER!INAN! (ARCO$* ET AL V$ &ON RA#L (AN"LAP#$* ET AL * " R NO --211* $/9t/8?/3 12* 15-5 0nd t,/ R/1olution o= t,/ (otion =o3 R/4on1id/30tion d0t/d O4to?/3 2.* 15-5) W+at is )rovided by t+e -+ili))ine Constit tion is t+e rig+t to travel and not t+e rig+t to ret rn/ !+ese t.o (2) rig+ts are di**erent nder t+e &niversal De"laration o* B man Rig+ts and International Covenant on Civil and -oliti"al Rig+ts/ !BE RI,B! !O RE!&R( !O O(EQ# CO&(!RC I# (O! A'O(, !BE RI,B!# #-ECI$ICA%%C ,&ARA(!EED BC !BE BI%% O$ RI,B!#, WBICB !REA!# O(%C O$ !BE %IBER!C O$ ABODE A(D !BE RI,B! !O !RAVE%, B&! I! I# O&R WE%%:CO(#IDERED VIEW !BA! !BE RI,B! !O RE!&R( 'AC BE CO(#IDERED A# A ,E(ERA%%C ACCE-!ED -RI(CI-%E O$ I(!ER(A!IO(A% %AW, &(DER O&R CO(#!I!&!IO(, I# -AR! O$ !BE %AW O$ !BE %A(D/ :3. What is the %residual power' of the President? It is t+e )o.er o* t+e -resident in balan"ing t+e general .el*are and t+e "ommon good against t+e e1er"ise o* rig+ts o* "ertain individ als/ !+e )o.er involved is t+e -residentQs RE#ID&A% -OWER to )rote"t t+e general .el*are o* t+e )eo)le/ :!. May a person out on *ail *e #alidly allowed to tra#el a*road? Ces, s bGe"t to t+e *ollo.ing re; isites ( 'anoto" vs/ CA, 6F2 #CRA 6FN)A Be m st +o.ever D6E "onvin"e t+e "o rts o* t+e rgen"y o* +is travel, D2E t+e d ration t+ereo*, and D8E t+at +is s reties are .illing to nderta5e t+e res)onsibility o* allo.ing +im to travel/ :(. )s the ri5ht to information on matters of pu*lic concern a*solute? (o/ W+ile t+e rig+t o* t+e )eo)le to in*ormation on matters o* ) bli" "on"ern s+all be re"ognized and a""ess to o**i"ial re"ordsLs+all be a**orded t+e "itizen, it m st be s bGe"t to s "+ limitations as may be )rovided by la. as .ell as reasonable "onditions im)osed by ) bli" o**i"ials in " stody o* said re"ords li5e t+e )ayment o* t+e e1)enses o* re)rod "tion o* ) bli" do" ments0 t+e re; est m st be done d ring o**i"e +o rs, et"/ ::. May the C=M+L+C *e compelled to pu*lish the names of the nominees of the different party.list 5roups for the May 1!A 8GG4 elections despite the prohi*ition on such pu*lication as em*odied *y the Party.List /ct? CE#, t+e CO'E%EC m st ) blis+ t+e same des)ite t+e )ro+ibition in t+e la./ # "+ )ro+ibition violates t+e rig+t to in*ormation on matters o* ) bli" "on"ern on t+e )art o* t+e "itizen/ (BA(!AC RE-&B%IC V#/ CO'E%EC, 'AC F, 2JJ=) :4. May the President #alidly prohi*it mem*ers of her Ca*inet as well as other officers in the e$ecuti#e department from attendin5 in#esti5ations in aid of le5islation *y Con5ress?

(o/ # "+ .o ld violate t+e rig+t o* t+e )eo)le to in*ormation on matters o* ) bli" "on"ern/ It is only t+ro g+ said investigations t+at t+e )eo)le .ill be in*ormed o* t+e .or5ings o* t+e di**erent de)artments o* t+e government/ ($ENATE O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$* 3/93/1/nt/d ?y $ENATE PRE$I!ENT %RANKLIN !RILON* ET AL * V$ E)EC $EC E!#AR!O ER(ITA* ET AL * " R No 175..* A93il 20* 2007 ) :3. May a ,aran5ay #alidly e$ercise the power of eminent domain? Ces, s bGe"t to t+e a))roval by t+e -resident/( Barangay 'ati"ti" vs/ Elbinias, 6FM #CRA M8) :2. What are the re"uisites *efore an e$propriator may #alidly o*tain a writ of possession to ta-e o#er possession of the e$propriated property? It d/9/nd1L I* t+e e1)ro)riation is *or a 4N0tion0l <o>/3n8/nt 93oJ/4t19 or 4n0tion0l in=301t3u4tu3/ 93oJ/4t19, li5e t+ose "overed by t+e 4B ild:O)erate:!rans*er9, RA MN=F s+all be *ollo.ed/ !+is means t+at t+ere m st be a DaE Com)laint *or e1)ro)riation .+i"+ is s **i"ient in *orm and in s bstan"e0 and D2E t+e 6JJ7 o* t+e mar5et val e o* t+e )ro)erty so g+t to be e1)ro)riated m st *irst be )aid to t+e o.ner o* t+e )ro)erty/ (REP#'LIC O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$ V$ J#!"E "IN"OYON* +.- $CRA +.+) In ordinary e1)ro)riation "ases, t+e r le is t+at in t+e "ase o* BI,%A(,:AWA V#/ H&D,E BACA%%A, 8>F #CRA ><2/ It )rovidesA -&R#&A(! !O #EC!IO( 2, R&%E <= O$ !BE 6NN= R&%E# O$ CIVI% -ROCED&RE A(D !BE DOC!RI(E %AID DOW( I( !BE ROBER( DEVE%O-'E(! CA#E, !BE O(%C REK&I#I!E# $OR !BE I''EDIA!E E(!RC BC !BE ,OVER('E(! I( E3-RO-RIA!IO( CA#E# AREA t,/ =ilin< o= 0 4o89l0int =o3 /C93o93i0tion 1u==i4i/nt in =o38 0nd 1u?1t0n4/Q 0nd t,/ 80Ein< o= 0 d/9o1it /:ui>0l/nt to t,/ A$$E$$E! VAL#E O% T&E PROPERTY $#'JECT TO E)PROPRIATION/ I* t+e e1)ro)riation is being done by a %o"al ,overnment &nit, t+e # )reme Co rt de"ision in t+e "ase o* T&E CITY O% ILOILO V$ J#!"E LE"A$PI* RTC 22* ILOILO CITY* +++ $CRA 275* s+all be "om)lied .it+A t+e "om)laint *or e1)ro)riation *iled in "o rt is s **i"ient in *orm and s bstan"e0 and t,/ /C93o93i0to3 8u1t d/9o1it t,/ 08ount /:ui>0l/nt to 12K o= t,/ =0i3 803E/t >0lu/ o= t,/ 93o9/3ty to ?/ /C93o93i0t/d ?01/d on it1 4u33/nt t0C d/4l030tion 4G. Who determines the 7ust compensation in e$propriation cases? What are the factors to *e considered in determinin5 the same? Determination o* G st "om)ensation is a G di"ial * n"tion .it+ t+e assistan"e or re"ommendation o* t+e "o rt:a))ointed "ommissioners/ ((0notoE >1 CA* (0y 21*15-.) !+e *a"tors to be "onsidered in determining t+e G st "om)ensationPmar5et val e areA 6. cost of ac"uisitionQ 8. the current #alue of li-e propertiesQ 3. its actual or potential usesQ

!. particular case of landsQ (. their siJeA shapeA locationQ and :. the ta$ declarations thereon. $inally, note t+at as +eld in t+e "ase o* Re) bli" vs/ #antos, 6F6 #CRA 8J, t+e mar5et val e as re"ommended by t+e board o* "ommissioners a))ointed by t+e "o rt .ere at best only ADVI#ORC A(D -ER#&A#IVE A(D BC (O 'EA(# $I(A% OR BI(DI(,/ ( 'ERKENKOTTER* INC V$ CO#RT O% APPEAL$ AN! REP#'LIC O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$* De"ember 6F, 6NN2)/ 41. What are the re"uisites of %ta-in5' in e$propriation cases? !+e Re; isites o* ta5ing areA t+e e1)ro)riator m st enter t+e )ro)erty0 t+e entran"e m st not be *or G st a momentary )eriod0 t+e entry m st be nder .arrant o* "olor or title0 t+e )ro)erty m st be devoted *or ) bli" se0 and t+e o.ner m st be o sted *rom bene*i"ial se o* +is land/ (R/9 >1 C01t/ll>i* 2- $CRA 337) 48. May a pri#ate property already used as a pri#ate cemetery *e e$propriated for another pu*lic purpose@ (o, a )rivate )ro)erty .+i"+ is already devoted to ) bli" se may not be e1)ro)riated *or anot+er ) bli" ) r)ose/ (City o= (0nil0 >1 C,in/1/ Co88unity* +0 P,il 3+5) 48.a. )n case the 5o#ernment will not *e a*le to use the land e$propriated for the purpose for which it was intendedA may the landowner as- for its re#ersion to him? Ces, )rovided +e "om)lies .it+ t+e *ollo.ingA 6/ Ret rn t+e G st "om)ensation )aid by t+e government0 2/ )ay t+e legal interest0 8/ )ay t+e ne"essary e1)enses in" rred by t+e government in maintaining t+e lot0 and F/ )ay t+e )e" niary val e o* t+e servi"es in managing it to t+e e1tent t+at t+e lando.ner .ill be bene*ited t+ereby/ ((ACTAN CE'# INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT A#T&ORITY V$ LODA!A* %/?3u03y 22* 2010) 43. What are the ri5hts of a person under custodial in#esti5ation under the %Mahinay Doctrine' or the %+$panded Miranda Doctrine'? !+e rig+ts areA !+e )erson arrested, detained, invited or nder " stodial investigation m st be in*ormed in a lang age 5no.n to and nderstood by +im o* t+e reason *or t+e arrest and +e m st be s+o.n a "o)y o* t+e .arrant o* arrest, i* any0 Every ot+er .arnings, in*ormation or "omm ni"ation m st be in a lang age 5no.n to and nderstood by said )erson0 Be m st be .arned t+at +e +as t+e rig+t to remain silent and t+at any statement +e ma5es may be sed as eviden"e against +im0 Be m st be in*ormed t+at +e +as t+e rig+t to be assisted at all times and +ave t+e )resen"e o* an inde)endent and "om)etent la.yer, )re*erably o* +is o.n "+oi"e0

Be m st be in*ormed t+at i* +e +as no la.yer or "annot a**ord t+e servi"es o* a la.yer, one .ill be )rovided *or +im0 and t+at a la.yer may also be engaged by any )erson in +is be+al*, or may be a))ointed by t+e "o rt )on )etition o* t+e )erson arrested or one a"ting in +is be+al*0 !+at .+et+er or not t+e )erson arrested +as a la.yer, , +e m st be in*ormed t+at no " stodial investigation in any *orm s+all be "ond "ted e1"e)t in t+e )resen"e o* +is "o nsel or a*ter a valid .aiver +as been made0 !+e )erson arrested m st be in*ormed t+at, at any time, +e +as t+e rig+t to "omm ni"ate or "on*er by t+e most e1)edient means:::tele)+one, radio, letter or messenger:::.it+ +is la.yer (eit+er retained or a))ointed), any member o* +is immediate *amily0 or any medi"al do"tor, )riest or minister "+osen by +im or by any one *rom +is immediate *amily or by +is "o nsel, or be visited byP"on*er .it+ d ly a""redited national or international non:governmental organization/ I! #BA%% BE !BE RE#-O(#IBI%I!C O$ !BE O$$ICER !O E(#&RE !BA! !BI# I# ACCO'-%I#BED0 Be m st be in*ormed t+at +e +as t+e rig+t to .aive any o* said rig+ts )rovided it is made vol ntarily, 5no.ingly and intelligently and ens re t+at +e nderstood t+e same0 In addition, i* t+e )erson arrested .aives +is rig+t to a la.yer, +e m st be in*ormed t+at it m st be done in .riting A(D in t+e )resen"e o* "o nsel, ot+er.ise, +e m st be .arned t+at t+e .aiver is void even i* +e insist on +is .aiver and "+ooses to s)ea50 !+at t+e )erson arrested m st be in*ormed t+at +e may indi"ate in any manner at any time or state o* t+e )ro"ess t+at +e does not .is+ to be ; estioned .it+ t+e .arning t+at on"e +e ma5es s "+ indi"ation, t+e )oli"e may not interrogate +im i* t+e same +ad not yet "ommen"ed, or t+e interrogation +as beg n0 !+e )erson arrested m st be in*ormed t+at +is initial .aiver o* +is rig+t to remain silent, t+e rig+t to "o nsel or any o* +is rig+ts does not bar +im *rom invo5ing it at any ot+er time d ring t+e )ro"ess, regardless o* .+et+er +e may +ave ans.ered some ; estions or vol nteered some in*ormation or statements0 Be m st be in*ormed t+at any statement OR EVIDE(CE, as t+e "ase may be, obtained in violation o* any o* t+e *oregoing, .+et+er in" l)atory or e1" l)atory, in .+ole or in )art, #BA%% BE I(AD'I##IB%E I( EVIDE(CE/ 4!. What are the ri5hts of a person under %custodial detention' or for one suspected or arrested as a terrorist under the Human @ecurity /ct? !+e rig+ts o* an a"" sed nder t+e Anti:!errorism A"t are embodied nder #e"tion 26 t+ereo* .+i"+ statesA @ection 81/ Rig+ts o* a )erson nder " stodial detention/: !+e moment a )erson "+arged .it+ or s s)e"ted o* t+e "rime o* terrorism or t+e "rime o* "ons)ira"y to "ommit terrorism is a))re+ended or arrested and detained, +e s+all *ort+.it+ be in*ormed by t+e arresting )oli"e or la. en*or"ement o**i"ers to .+ose " stody t+e )erson "on"erned is bro g+t, o* +is or +er rig+tA

6/ to be in*ormed o* t+e nat re and "a se o* +is arrest, to remain silent and to +ave "om)etent and inde)endent "o nsel )re*erably o* +is o.n "+oi"e/ I* t+e )erson "annot a**ord t+e servi"es o* "o nsel o* +is or +er "+oi"e, t+e )oli"e or la. en*or"ement o**i"ers "on"erned s+all immediately "onta"t t+e *ree legal assistan"e nit o* t+e IB- or t+e - bli" attorney?s o**i"e (-AO)/ It s+all be t+e d ty o* t+e *ree legal assistan"e nit o* t+e IB- or t+e -AO?s t+ s "onta"ted to immediately visit t+e )erson detained and )rovide +im .it+ legal assistan"e/ !+ese rig+ts "annot be .aived e1"e)t in .riting and in t+e )resen"e o* t+e "o nsel o* "+oi"e0 2/ in*ormed o* t+e "a se or "a ses o* +is detention in t+e )resen"e o* +is legal "o nsel0 8/ allo.ed to "omm ni"ate *reely .it+ +is legal "o nsel and to "on*er .it+ t+em at any time .it+o t restri"tion0 F/ allo.ed to "omm ni"ate *reely and )rivately .it+o t restri"tions .it+ t+e members o* +is *amily or .it+ +is nearest relatives and be visited by t+em0 and >/ allo.ed *reely to avail o* t+e servi"es o* a )+ysi"ian or )+ysi"ians o* "+oi"e/ 4(. /re the a*o#e ri5hts a#aila*le to a suspect if he is under in#esti5ation *y a pri#ate person? (o/ (!BE -EO-%E O$ !BE -BI%I--I(E# V#/ HO#E !I(, %A( &C, HR/, et al/, F=> #CRA 2FM)/ !+e "laim t+at +is a**idavit is inadmissible in eviden"e in a""ordan"e .it+ se"tion 62 D6E o* t+e Bill o* Rig+ts is not tenable/ !+e 4investigation9 nder said )rovision re*ers to 4" stodial investigation .+ere a s s)e"t +as already been ta5en into )oli"e " stody and t+at t+e investigating o**i"ers begin to as5 ; estions to eli"it in*ormation and "on*essions or admissions *rom t+e s s)e"t/ # ""in"tly stated, " stodial investigation re*ers to t+e "riti"al )re:trial stage .+en t+e investigation "eases to be a general in; iry into an nsolved "rime b t +as began to *o" s on a )arti" lar )erson as a s s)e"t (-eo)le vs/ D enas, Hr/, F2< #CRA <<<)/ Cl/03ly* t,/3/=o3/* t,/ 3i<,t1 /nu8/30t/d ?y t,/ 044u1/d 03/ not 0>0il0?l/ 'E%ORE "OVERN(ENT INVE$TI"ATOR$ ENTER T&E PICT#RE !+e )rote"tive mantle o* se"tion 62, arti"le III do/1 not 099lyL D6E to administrative investigations (-eo)le vs/ H dge Ayson, 6=> #CRA 26<)0 D2E "on*ession to a )rivate individ al (Oim)o vs/ CA, 282 #CRA >8)0 D8E verbal admission made to a radio anno n"er .+o .as not a )art o* t+e investigation (-eo)le vs/ Ordono, 88F #CRA <=8)0 DFE or even to a 'ayor a))roa"+ed as a )ersonal "on*idante and not in +is o**i"ial "a)a"ity (-eo)le vs/ Z ela, 828 #CRA >MN)/ D>E In *a"t, even a videota)ed intervie. .+ere t+e a"" sed .illingly admit +is g ilt in t+e )resen"e o* ne.smen is not "overed by t+e said )rovision t+o g+ t+e trial "o rts .ere .arned by t+e s )reme Co rt to ta5e e1treme "a tion in admitting similar "on*essions be"a se o* t+e distin"t )ossibility t+at t+e )oli"e, .it+ t+e "onnivan"e o* ns"r ) lo s media )ra"titioners, may attem)t to legitimize "oer"ed e1traG di"ial "on*essions and )la"e t+em beyond t+e e1"l sionary r le by +aving an a"" sed admit an o**ense on television (-eo)le vs/ Endino, 8>8 #CRA 8J=)/ 4:. When is custodial in#esti5ation deemed to ha#e started so as to entitle the suspect to *e informed of his ri5hts under the %Mahinay Doctrine' or the %+$panded Miranda Doctrine'? How a*out if the suspect is wal-in5 towards the police station with the policemen who in#ited him to the police stationA is he entitled to *e informed of his ri5hts already if the latter will as-

him "uestions re5ardin5 the commission of a crime where he is the suspect? C stodial investigation begins .+en it is no longer a general in; iry into an nsolved "rime b t starts to *o" s on a )arti" lar )erson as a s s)e"t, i/e/, .+en t+e )oli"e investigator starts interrogating or e1a"ting "on*ession *rom t+e s s)e"t in "onne"tion .it+ an alleged o**ense/ T&E PLACE O% INTERRO"ATION I$ NOT !ETER(INATIVE O% T&E E)I$TENCE OR A'$ENCE O% C#$TO!IAL INVE$TI"ATION '#T T&E TONE AN! (ANNER O% M#E$TIONIN" 'Y T&E POLICE A#T&ORITIE$/ !+ s, t+ere .as " stodial investigation .+en t+e )oli"e a t+orities, )on t+eir arrest o* some o* t+e a"" sed, immediately as5ed t+em regarding t+eir )arti"i)ation in t+e "ommission o* t+e "rime , even .+ile t+ey .ere still .al5ing along t+e +ig+.ay on t+eir .ay to t+e )oli"e station (PEOPLE V$ 'ARIM#IT* 3+1 $CRA 700) 44. /re spontaneous admissions made *efore a person could *e informed of his ri5hts durin5 custodial in#esti5ation admissi*le as e#idence? Ces/ #)ontaneo s statements vol ntarily given, as .+ere a))ellant orally admitted 5illing t+e vi"tim be*ore t+e barangay "a)tain (.+o is neit+er a )oli"e o**i"er nor a la. en*or"ement agent), do not *all nder " stodial investigation/ # "+ admission, even .it+o t t+e assistan"e o* a la.yer, does not violate a))ellant?s "onstit tional rig+ts A(D !BERE$ORE AD'I##IB%E I( EVIDE(CE/ (PEOPLE V$ !ANO* " R NO 11.750* 335 $CRA 212* $EPT 1* 2000Q PEOPLE V$ (AYOR"A* " R NO 132+02* 3+7 $CRA +2-* NOVE('ER 25* 2000) 43. What are the re"uisites *efore an e$tra7udicial confession is admissi*le? !o be admissible in eviden"e, an e1traG di"ial "on*ession m st beA (i) vol ntary0 (ii) made .it+ t+e assistance of competent and independent counsel0 (iii) e1)ress0 and (iv) in .riting/ A s s)e"t?s "on*ession, .+et+er verbal or non:verbal, .+en ta5en .it+o t t+e assistan"e o* "o nsel, .it+o t a valid .aiver o* s "+ assistan"e, regardless o* t+e absen"e o* "oer"ion or t+e *a"t t+at it +ad been vol ntarily given, is inadmissible in eviden"e, even i* a))ellant?s "on*ession .ere gos)el tr t+/ (PEOPLE V$ !ANO* " R NO 11.750* 335 $CRA 212* $EPT 1* 2000Q PEOPLE V$ $A(OL!E* " R NO 12-221* 337 $CRA 732* J#L 31* 2000) !o be admissible in eviden"e, an e1traG di"ial "on*ession m st beA (i) vol ntary0 (ii) made .it+ t+e assistance of competent and independent counsel0 (iii) e1)ress0 and (iv) in .riting/ A s s)e"t?s "on*ession, .+et+er verbal or non:verbal, .+en ta5en .it+o t t+e assistan"e o* "o nsel, .it+o t a valid .aiver o* s "+ assistan"e, regardless o* t+e absen"e o* "oer"ion or t+e *a"t t+at it +ad been vol ntarily given, is inadmissible in eviden"e, even i* a))ellant?s "on*ession .ere gos)el tr t+/ 42. )s the presence of a lawyer to assist the suspect durin5 custodial in#esti5ation sufficient to comply with the re"uirements of the Constitution? (o/ As +eld in -EO-%E V#/ -A!&(,A(, 8>F #CRA F68, t+e mere )resen"e o* a la.yer is not s **i"ient "om)lian"e .it+ t+e "onstit tional re; irement o* assistan"e o* "o nsel/ Assistan"e o* "o nsel m st be e**e"tive, vigilant and inde)endent/ A la.yer .+o "o ld G st +ear t+e investigation going on .+ile .or5ing on anot+er "ase +ardly satis*ies t+e minim m re; irements o* e**e"tive assistan"e o* "o nsel/ (ot only .as t+e a"" sed s bGe"ted to " stodial investigation .it+o t "o nsel, +e .as li5e.ise denied e**e"tive assistan"e o* "o nsel d ring t+e ta5ing o* +is e1tra:G di"ial

"on*ession/ 3G. Crom what time must the counsel assist the suspect durin5 custodial in#esti5ation? Who must select such counsel? In PEOPLE V JI(ENED* " R No -270+ !/4/8?/3 12* 1551, it .as +eld t+at t+e "o nsel m st be )resent *rom t+e in"e)tion o* t+e " stodial investigation not at any time t+erea*ter/ Also, t+e la.yer .+o assists t+e s s)e"t nder " stodial interrogation s+o ld be o* t+e latterQs o.n "+oi"e, not one *oisted on +im by t+e )oli"e investigators or ot+er )arties/ In t+is "ase, t+e *ormer G dge .+ose assistan"e .as re; ested by t+e )oli"e .as evidently not o* 'ar"os HimenezQ o.n "+oi"e0 s+e .as t+e )oli"e o**i"ersQ o.n "+oi"e0 s+e did not as5 'ar"os i* +e .as .illing to +ave +er re)resent +im/ !+is is not t+e mode o* soli"itation o* legal assistan"e "ontem)lated by t+e Constit tion/ $ rt+ermore, t+e *ormer G dge .as not )resent .+en 'ar"os .as being interrogated by t+e )oli"e/ W+ile s+e as5ed +im i* +e +ad vol ntarily given t+e statements "ontained in t+e ty)e.ritten do" ment, t+is is *ar *rom being s bstantial "om)lian"e .it+ t+e "onstit tional d ty o* )oli"e investigators d ring " stodial interrogation/ 31. )s the e$tra7udicial confession of a suspect o*tained without the assistance of a lawyerA *ut spea-s of 5ospel truthA admissi*le in e#idence? (o/ In -EO-%E V#/ ,A%I!, 68> #CRA F<>, -EO-%E V#/ -A($I%O CABI%E#, 2MF #CRA 6NN0 and -EO-%E V#/ !A(, 2M< #CRA 2J=, it .as +eld t+at even i* t+e "on*ession o* t+e a"" sed s)ea5s t+e tr t+, i* it .as made .it+o t t+e assistan"e o* "o nsel, it is inadmissible in eviden"e regardless o* t+e absen"e o* "oer"ion or even i* it .as vol ntarily given/ In order t+at a "on*ession is admissible, t+e *ollo.ing re; isites m st be )resentA the confession must *e #oluntaryQ the confession must *e made with the assistance of a competent and independent counselQ the confession must *e e$pressQ and the confession must *e in writin5. !+e above re; irements, +o.ever, are not a))li"able .+en t+e s s)e"t ma5es an s)ontaneo s statement, not eli"ited t+ro g+ ; estioning by t+e a t+orities, B&! ,IVE( I( A( ORDI(ARC 'A((ER WBEREBC !BE ACC&#ED ORA%%C AD'I!!ED BAVI(, CO''I!!ED !BE CRI'E/ !+is .as t+e de"ision o* t+e # )reme Co rt in t+e "ase o* PEOPLE V$ AN!AN* (034, 3* 155. .+en t+e a"" sed made a vol ntary and verbal "on*ession to t+e ' ni"i)al 'ayor t+at +e "ommitted t+e "rime im) ted to +im/ As s "+, +is n"o nselled "on*ession is admissible in eviden"e 38. What are the two (8 -inds of coerced or in#oluntary confessions under @ection 18A /rt. ))) of the Constitution? !+e t.o (2) 5inds o* invol ntary or "oer"ed "on*essions Constit tion/ !+ese areA nder Art/ III, #e"tion 62 o* t+e

"on*ession .+i"+ are t+e )rod "t o* t+ird degree met+ods s "+ as tort re, *or"e, violen"e, t+reat, intimidation0 and t+ose .+i"+ are given .it+o t t+e bene*it o* 'iranda Warnings/ -EO-%E V#/ OBRERO, 882 #CRA 6NJ 33. What is the status of coerced confessions as e#idence in court?

Coer"ed or invol ntary "on*essions are inadmissible as eviden"e being t+e 4*r it o* t+e )oisoned tree/9 3!. )s the ri5ht to counsel satisfied if the suspect was assisted *y the @tation Commander of the Western Police District while he was *ein5 in#esti5ated *y the policemen of the same station? How a*out if the in#esti5ation is *ein5 conducted *y the >,) and the suspect was ordered assisted *y a lawyer.applicant therein? !+ere is no "om)lian"e o* t+e "onstit tional re; irement o* "om)etent and inde)endent "o nsel to assist an a"" sed d ring " stodial investigation .+en t+e a"" sed .as assisted by t+e #tation Commander o* t+e W-D, Atty/ De los Reyes, .+ile being investigated by ot+er )oli"emen o* t+e same )oli"e station be"a se t+e interest o* t+e )oli"e is nat rally adverse to t+e a"" sed/ In *a"t, t+e #C in t+e "ase o* -EO-%E V#/ HA(&ARIO, 2<= #CRA <JM +eld t+at a la.yer a))lying *or a )osition in t+e (BI "o ld not validly assist an a"" sed being investigated t+en by t+e (BI/ (-EO-%E V#/ OBRERO, 882 #CRA 6NJ) 3(. )s the ri5ht to counsel a#aila*le to a suspect durin5 a police line.up? !+e # )reme Co rt +ad "on*li"ting de"isions on t+is as)e"t b t ended ) .it+ t+e r le t+at sin"e t+e a"" sed .ill not be made to ma5e any testimony or statement d ring t+e )oli"e line: ), t+en +e is not nder " stodial investigation and t+ere*ore, t+ere is no need *or +im to be assisted by a la.yer/ ( P >1 #180n &0110n* 12. $CRA 271Q "08?o0 >1 Jud</ C3uN* 172 $CRA 7+2Q !E LA TORRE V$ CA* 25+ $CRA 157 0nd PEOPLE V$ &ATTON) 3:. )s there a #alid custodial in#esti5ation if the lawyer who assisted him durin5 custodial in#esti5ation is a pu*lic attorney who was not chosen *y the accused himself *ut 5i#en to him free of char5e? Could the Ciscal also represent the accused durin5 custodial in#esti5ation to satisfy the re"uirement of the Constitution that the accused is assisted *y counsel? !+e "o nsel m st be t+e "+oi"e o* t+e a"" sed or s s)e"t/ (-/ vs/ Alegria, #e)tember 2M, 6NNJ) Also, t+e $is"al "o ld not +ave )rote"ted t+e rig+ts o* t+e s s)e"t, even i* t+ey are 5no.n to ea"+ ot+er, sin"e t+e $is"al is t+ere *or t+e )rivate "om)lainant/ ( P >1 (0to1-Vidu0y0* $/9t/8?/3 11* 1550) 3:.a. Bhe appellants were arrested *y the P/=CBC for Didnappin5 and Murder of two (8 minor children of a *usinessman from ,ulacan. While under custodial in#esti5ation *y Col. Cesar MancaoA the lawyers 5i#en to assist them tare the lawyers of P/=CBC. Was the confessions o*tained durin5 the custodial in#esti5ation admissi*le in e#idence? Ces/ As +eld in t+e "ase o* PEOPLE O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$ V$ !O(IN"O REYE$* ET AL * " R No 1.-300* (034, 1.* 2005, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at sin"e t+e eviden"e s+o.s t+at t+e la.yers o* -AOC!$ assisted t+em *rom t+e start ) to t+e end o* t+eir " stodial investigation and t+at t+eir rig+ts .ere )rote"ted, t+e same is admissible as eviden"e es)e"ially so t+at t+ere is no eviden"e o* "om) lsion/ 3:.*. What are the e#idence of #oluntariness in the suspect&s e$tra7udicial confession ma-in5 it admissi*le in e#idence? May such confession *e used a5ainst a co.accused? 6p to what e$tent? In P/o9l/ >1 Pi0* 225 P,il 2.. 0nd PEOPLE V$ REYE$* " R No 1.-300* (034, 1.* 2005* t+e # )reme Co rt en merated t+e *ollo.ing as eviden"e o* vol ntariness in t+e e1traG di"ial "on*ession o* a s s)e"tA

!+eir )+ysi"al e1amination re)orts "erti*y t+at no e1ternal signs o* )+ysi"al inG ry or any *orm o* tra ma .ere noted d ring t+eir e1amination In -eople v. -ia, .e +eld t+at t+e *ollo.ing *a"tors indi"ate vol ntariness o* an e1tra:G di"ial "on*essionA (1 where the accused failed to present credi*le e#idence of compulsion or duress or #iolence on their personsQ (8 where they failed to complain to the officers who administered the oathsQ (3 where they did not institute any criminal or administrati#e action a5ainst their alle5ed intimidators for maltreatmentQ (! where there appeared to *e no mar-s of #iolence on their *odiesQ and (( where they did not ha#e themsel#es e$amined *y a reputa*le physician to *uttress their claim. It s+o ld also be noted t+at t+e e1tra:G di"ial "on*essions o* a))ellants Arnaldo and $lores are re)lete .it+ details on t+e manner in .+i"+ t+e 5idna))ing .as "ommitted, t+ereby r ling o t t+e )ossibility t+at t+ese .ere invol ntarily made/ !+eir e1tra:G di"ial "on*essions "learly state +o. a))ellants and t+eir "o+orts )lanned t+e 5idna))ing as .ell as t+e se; en"e o* events be*ore, d ring and a*ter its o"" rren"e/ !+e vol ntariness o* a "on*ession may be in*erred *rom its lang age i*, )on its *a"e, t+e "on*ession e1+ibits no s s)i"io s "ir" mstan"es tending to "ast do bt )on its integrity, it being re)lete .it+ details .+i"+ "o ld only be s ))lied by t+e a"" sed/ Wit+ res)e"t to a))ellant Reyes?s "laim t+at t+e e1tra:G di"ial "on*essions o* a))ellants Arnaldo and $lores "annot be sed in eviden"e against +im, .e +ave r led t+at alt+o g+ an e1tra: G di"ial "on*ession is admissible only against t+e "on*essant, G ris)r den"e ma5es it admissible as "orroborative eviden"e o* ot+er *a"ts t+at tend to establis+ t+e g ilt o* +is "o:a"" sed / In -eople v. %lvare= , .e r led t+at .+ere t+e "on*ession is sed as "ir" mstantial eviden"e to s+o. t+e )robability o* )arti"i)ation by t+e "o:"ons)irator, t+at "on*ession is re"eivable as eviden"e against a "o:a"" sed M<:"/ I* a la.yer a))lying *or a )osition in t+e (BI .ill be t+e one to assist d ring t+e " stodial investigation o* a )erson arrested by t+e (BI, is +is "on*ession admissible in eviden"e@ (o/ !+ere is violation o* t+e "onstit tional rig+t to a "om)etent and inde)endent "o nsel o* +is o.n "+oi"e/ (PEOPLE V$ J#ANERIO* 27. $CRA 70-) 3:.d. )s the ri5ht to counsel durin5 custodial in#esti5ation carries with it the o*li5ation of pre#entin5 the suspect from admittin5 the commission of a crime or incriminatin5 himself? (o/ !+e )resen"e o* a la.yer d ring " stodial investigation is not intended to sto) an a"" sed *rom saying anyt+ing .+i"+ mig+t in"riminate +im0 b t rat+er, it .as ado)ted in o r Constit tion to )re"l de t+e slig+test "oer"ion on t+e a"" sed to admit somet+ing else/ !BE CO&(#E% #BO&%D (EVER -REVE(! A( ACC&#ED $RO' $REE%C A(D VO%&(!ARI%C !E%%I(, !BE !R&!B/ (PEOPLE V$ 'A$E* 3-2 P,il -03 (2000) 0nd 3/it/30t/d in P/o9l/ >1 !o8in<o R/y/1 34. )f the e$tra7udicial admission or confession of the accused is declared inadmissi*le as e#idenceA must the accused *e ac"uitted as a matter of ri5ht? I* t+ere is no ot+er eviden"e aside *rom t+e e1traG di"ial "on*ession, yes, as +eld by t+e # )reme Co rt in -eo)le vs/ ,alit, s )ra/ Bo.ever, i* t+ere are ot+er eviden"e to )rove +is g ilt beyond reasonable do bt, no/ In PEOPLE V$ ROLAN!O %ELI)(INIA y CA(AC&O* "R No 122333* (034, 20* 2002, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at t+o g+ t+e e1traG di"ial "on*ession o* t+e

a"" sed .as de"lared inadmissible *or violation o* +is rig+t to "o nsel, i* t+ere are eviden"e s **i"ient to )rove +is g ilt beyond reasonable do bt, li5e 4i34u81t0nti0l />id/n4/* t+en +e "an still be "onvi"ted o* t+e "rime "+arged/ !+is is so be"a se H1I the compromisin5 circumstances were duly pro#en which were consistent with each other and which lead with moral certainty to the conclusion that he was 5uilty of the crime char5edQ and H8I the totality of such circumstances eliminated *eyond dou*t the possi*ility of his innocence/ In P/o9l/ >1 (0,in0y, it .as +eld t+at "onvi"tion may be +ad on 4i34u81t0nti0l />id/n4/ )rovided t+e *ollo.ing re; isites are )resentA D aI there is more than one circumstanceQ H*I the facts from which the inferences are deri#ed are pro#enQ and HcI the com*ination of all circumstances is such as to produce a con#iction *eyond reasona*le dou*t. 33. May a con#icted person *e released from 7ail throu5h reco5niJance? (o/ In ATTY J#LIANA A!ALI(-W&ITE V$ J#!"E ARN#L%O '#"TA$* RTC 2 'ORON"AN* $A(AR* +.2 $CRA 1.2, it .as +eld t+at res)ondent H dge is g ilty o* gross ignoran"e o* t+e la. *or ordering t+e release o* Baga)oro )ending t+e a))roval o* +is a))li"ation *or )arole and be*ore t+e "om)letion o* t+e minim m )eriod o* t+e senten"e im)osed )on +im/ It is )atently erroneo s to release a "onvi"t on re"ognizan"e/ #e"tion 2F, R le 66F )rovides t+at t+ere s+all no bail *or a "onvi"t a*ter *inal G dgment/ !+e only e1"e)tion is .+en t+e "onvi"t a))lies *or -robation be*ore +e "ommen"es to serve +is senten"e and t+at t+e o**ense and t+e )enalty *or t+e o**ense is .it+in t+e ) rvie. o* t+e -robation %a./ / #e"tions > and 6< o* R le 66F o* t+e R les o* Co rt (on t+e di**erent 5inds o* bail) A--%IE# O(%C !O A( ACC&#ED &(DER,OI(, -REVE(!IVE I'-RI#O('E(! D&RI(, !RIA% OR O( A--EA%/ !BEC DO (O! A--%C !O A -ER#O( CO(VIC!ED BC $I(A% H&D,'E(! A(D A%READC #ERVI(, #E(!E(CE/ 32. May a 7ud5e re"uire %cash *ond' only? (o/ !+e R les )rovide *or *o r (F) .ays o* )osting bond ("as+, )ro)erty, s rety and re"ognizan"e) and it is grave ab se o* dis"retion on t+e )art o* t+e G dge to re; ire "as+ bond only/ (Al8/d0 >1 Vill0luN* 77 $CRA 3-) 2G. May an accused char5ed of a capital offense and the e#idence of 5uilt is stron5 *e 5ranted *ail? Ces/ It is a matter o* dis"retion on t+e )art o* t+e "o rt/ !+e ) r)ose o* t+e bond is to ass re t+e "o rt o* t+e )resen"e o* t+e a"" sed d ring t+e trial o* +is "ase/ I* t+e )robability o* 4*lig+t9 is nil, t+en t+e a"" sed may be allo.ed to )ost bail/ (BE%!RA( V#/ !BE #ECRE!ARC O$ H&#!ICE, A)ril, 2JJ=) 21. May a person su*7ect of e$tradition from another country and where the cases a5ainst him in said country are *aila*leA *e allowed to post *ail pendin5 the e$tradition hearin5s? No As +eld in #NITE! $TATE$ V$ J#!"E P#R#""ANAN 6 (ARK JI(ENED* 3-5 $CRA 723 t+ro g+ *ormer C+ie* G sti"e -anganiban, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at a )erson *a"ing e1tradition )ro"eedings is not entitled to bail even i* t+e "rime +e .as "+arged o* in a *oreign "o ntry is bailable/ !+is is so be"a se t+e "onstit tional )rovision on t+e rig+t to bail nder Art/ III o* t+e 6NM= Constit tion 099li/1 only to 43i8in0l 401/1* not in /Ct30dition 93o4//din<1 (E!#AR!O RO!RI"#ED V$ T&E PRE$I!IN" J#!"E* RTC 1.* (ANILA* +-3 $CRA 250) T,i1 i1 1o ?/40u1/ o= t,/ 9o11i?ility o= =li<,t

'#T IN T&E CA$E O% "OVERN(ENT O% &ON"KON" V$ OLALIA* 221 $CRA +.0* it .as +eld t+at t+e )otential e1traditee 80y ?/ <30nt/d ?0il i* A H1I ,/ 40n 93o>/ ?y 4l/03 0nd 4on>in4in< />id/n4/ t,0t ,/ i1 not 0 =li<,t 3i1EQ 0nd H2I ;ill 0?id/ ;it, 0ll t,/ o3d/31 0nd 93o4/11/1 o= t,/ /Ct30dition 4ou3t @Cl/03 0nd 4on>in4in< />id/n4/A i1 0n />id/n4/ ;it, 0 1t0nd03d lo;/3 t,0n 93oo= ?/yond 3/01on0?l/ dou?t ?ut 8o3/ t,0n 93/9ond/30n4/ o= />id/n4/ 28. )n e$tradition casesA is the respondent therein entitled to notice and hearin5 *efore the issuance of a warrant of arrest a5ainst him? (o/ In #ECRE!ARC O$ H&#!ICE V#/ H&D,E %A(!IO(, 822 #CRA 6<J (!+e 'ar5 Himenez Case) , t+e # )reme Co rt on a N:< vote +eld t+at t+e e1traditee is entitled to noti"e and +earing .+en a re; est *or e1tradition by anot+er "o ntry is still being eval ated/ Bo.ever, on 'otion *or Re"onsideration in t+e same "ase, in a N:< de"ision, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at t+e )ros)e"tive e1traditee is not entitled to noti"e and +earing .+ile +is "ase is still nder eval ation be"a se t+is .o ld de*eat t+e ) r)ose o* t+e arrest .arrant sin"e it "o ld give .arning t+at res)ondents .o ld be arrested and even en"o rage t+em to *lee b t entitled to noti"e and +earing i* t+e "ase is already *iled in "o rt/ Bo.ever, i* bail .as granted to an e1tradite, t+e same may not be "an"elled .it+o t noti"e and +earing/ Ot+er.ise, +is rig+t to d e )ro"ess .ill be violated/ (E!#AR!O RO!RI"#ED V$ T&E PRE$I!IN" J#!"E* RTC 1.* (ANILA* +-3 $CRA 250) 23. What is the %+N6)P=)@+ ;6L+'? I* t+e eviden"e in a "riminal "ase is evenly balan"ed, t+e "onstit tional )res m)tion o* inno"en"e tilts t+e s"ale o* G sti"e in *avor o* t+e a"" sed and +e s+o ld be a"; itted *rom t+e "rime "+arged/ W+ere t+e in" l)atory *a"ts and "ir" mstan"es are "a)able o* t.o or more inter)retations one o* .+i"+ is "onsistent .it+ t+e inno"en"e o* t+e a"" sed and t+e ot+er "onsistent .it+ +is g ilt, t+en t+e eviden"e does not * l*ill t+e test o* moral "ertainty and is not s **i"ient to s ))ort a "onvi"tion be"a se o* t+e a"" sed?s "onstit tional )res m)tion o* inno"en"e/( PEOPLE V$ !E LO$ $ANTO$* 322 $CRA +12) 2!. May the court re#erse the order of trial in a criminal case? (o/ s "+ .o ld violate t+e rig+t o* t+e a"" sed to )res m)tion o* inno"en"e/ !o be re; ired to )resent +is eviden"e *irst .o ld be ma5ing +im )rove +is inno"en"e and not t+e #tate )roving +is g ilt/ (AleGandro vs/ -e)ito, N< #CRA 822) Bo.ever, i* t+e a"" sed does not obGe"t to s "+ a )ro"ed re, t+en a reverse order o* trial is allo.ed by t+e R les/ (#a"ay vs/ #andiganbayan, H ly 6J,lNM<) In *a"t it s+o ld be noted t+at nder t+e ne.ly ado)ted 6NM> R les o* Criminal -ro"ed re (#e"/ 8e), R le 66N)t+e said )ro"ed re is no. e1)ressly san"tioned/ !+ sA IBo.ever, .+en t+e a"" sed admits t+e a"t or omission "+arged in t+e "om)laint or in*ormation b t inter)oses a la.* l de*ense, t+e order o* trial may *e modi*ied a""ordingly/I 2(. What is the e$tent of the o*li5ation of a counsel de oficio for an accused in a criminal case? W+ile an a"" sed may be given a "o nsel de o*i"io .+i"+ is not a la.yer o* +is o.n "+oi"e be"a se +e "o ld not a**ord t+e servi"es o* a de )arte la.yer, only t+e *ait+* l )er*orman"e by "o nsel o* +is d ty to.ards +is "lient "an give meaning and s bstan"e to t+e a"" sed?s rig+t to d e )ro"ess and to be )res med inno"ent ntil )roven ot+er.ise/ Ben"e, a la.yer?s d ty, es)e"ially t+at o* a

de*ense "o nsel, m st not be ta5en lig+tly/ It m st be )er*ormed .it+ all t+e zeal and vigor at +is "ommand to )rote"t and sa*eg ard t+e a"" sed?s * ndamental rig+ts/ !+e "avalier attit de o* Atty/ 'anolo Brotonel o* t+e -AO "annot go nnoti"ed/ It is dis"ernible in DaE +is re* sal to "ross:e1amine Oleby (adera (t+e "om)lainant *or RA-E)0 DbE t+e manner in .+i"+ +e "ond "ted 'ari"ris (adera?s "ross:e1amination0 and D"E +is *ail re not only to )resent eviden"e *or t+e a"" sed b t to in*orm t+e a"" sed o* +is rig+t to do so, i* +e desires/ (PEOPLE V$ NA!ERA* JR * 32+ $CRA +50) 2:. )f the accused has the ri5ht to *e present durin5 the trial of his caseA can he also refuse to appear durin5 the hearin5s of his case? (o/ D ring arraignment, )rom lgation o* t+e de"ision and .+en +e is to be identi*ied by t+e .itnesses *or t+e )rose" tion, +e m st be )resent/ Bo.ever, +e "an validly .aive +is )resen"e a*ter arraignment .+en +e state in o)en "o rt or in an a**idavit t+at .+enever a .itness mentions +is name d ring t+e )resentation o* t+e )rose" tion?s eviden"e, +e admits t+at +e is t+e one being re*erred to/ (A:uino >1 (ilit03y Co88i11ion* 73 $CRA 2+7Q P >1 Jud</* 122 $CRA 275) 2:.a. May a Mud5e direct the witnesses for the prosecution to appear *efore him and e$amined them anew re5ardin5 their testimonies in a Homicide caseA without notice to the prosecution and the counsel for the accusedA and after the latter had already filed a Demurrer to +#idence with lea#e of court *y the pre#ious 7ud5e? No T,/ Jud</ 4o88itt/d <3o11 i<no30n4/ o= t,/ l0; It i1 0l1o >iol0ti>/ o= t,/ 3i<,t to i8903ti0l t3i0l on t,/ 903t o= t,/ 044u1/d ("ACAYAN V$ J#!"E PA(INT#AN* $/9t/8?/3 1.* 1555) 24. When may %speedy trial' *e raised *y the accused to cause the dismissal of his case? What -ind of delays must occur *efore the same could *e in#o-edF In HAI'E BER(A! V#/ #A(DI,A(BACA(, 'ay 2J, 2JJF, it .as +eld t+at t+e rig+t to s)eedy trial is violated only i* t+e )ro"eedings .ere attended by >/C0tiou1* 4093i4iou1 0nd o993/11i>/ d/l0y1/ !+e determination o* .+et+er t+e delays are o* said nat re is relative and "annot be based on mere mat+emati"al re"5oning o* time/ -arti" lar regard to t+e *a"ts and "ir" mstan"es o* t+e "ase/ As +eld in t+e "ase o* DE %A -E(A V#/ #A(DI,A(BACA(, "ertain *a"tors s+all be "onsidered and balan"ed to determine i* t+ere is delay, as *ollo.sA %engt+ o* t+e delay0 Reasons *or t+e delay0 Assertion or *ail re to assert s "+ rig+t by t+e a"" sed0 and -reG di"ed "a sed by t+e delay/ !+ere is no violation o* t+e rig+t to s)eedy dis)osition o* +is "ase be"a se )etitioner *ailed to assert +is "onstit tional rig+t to a s)eedy dis)osition o* +is "ase/ D ring t+e M:year )eriod )rior to A)ril 6N, 2JJ2, )etitioner did not "om)lain abo t t+e long delay in de"iding +is "ase/ 23. May the ri5ht to speedy disposition of cases *e in#o-ed for the dismissal of cases pendin5 *efore "uasi.7udicial *odies li-e the =ffice of the =m*udsman? Ces, nreasonable delays li5e *ail re to de"ide a "om)laint against t+e res)ondent *or more t+an t+ree (8) years *rom t+e time all t+e )leadings .ere *iled violates t+e res)ondent?s rig+t to a s)eedy dis)osition o* +is "ase and t+e "ase m st be dismissed/ (!#TERTE V$ $AN!I"AN'AYAN* 2-5 $CRA .21Q AN"C&AN"CO V$ O('#!$(AN* 275 $CRA 301) !+e determination o* .+et+er an a"" sed +ad been denied t+e rig+t to s)eedy trial de)ends on t+e s rro nding "ir" mstan"es o* ea"+ "ase, not a mat+emati"al "om) tation o* t+e years, mont+s and

days/ Alt+o g+ it too5 abo t M years be*ore t+e trial o* t+is "ase .as res med, s "+ delay did not amo nt to violation o* )etitioner?s rig+t to s)eedy trial "onsidering t+at s "+ delay .as not attrib table to t+e )rose" tion/ !+e *a"tors to "onsider in determining .+et+er or not s "+ rig+t +as been violatedA lengt+ o* delay, reasons *or s "+ delay, and assertion or *ail re to assert s "+ rig+ts by t+e a"" sed and t+e )reG di"e "a sed by t+e delay/ (ii) #)eedy !rial A"t o* 6NNM/ !+e a t+ority o* t+e #e"retary o* H sti"e to revie. resol tions o* +is s bordinates even a*ter an in*ormation +as already been *iled in "o rt does not )resent an irre"on"ilable "on*li"t .it+ t+e 8J:day )eriod )res"ribed in #e"/ = o* t+e #)eedy !rial A"t o* 6NNM/ ($#('AN" V$ "EN CO#RT (ARTIAL* " R NO 1+01--* 33. $CRA 22.* A#" 3* 2000Q 'LANCO V$ $AN!I"AN'AYAN* " R NO$ 137.2. S 2-* 3+7 $CRA 10-* NOV 2.* 2000Q $OLAR TEA( ENTERTAIN(ENT* INC &ON &OW* " R NO 1+0-73* 33- $CRA 21* A#" 22* 2000) 22. Was the failure of the court to ha#e a %si5n lan5ua5e e$pert' to inform the accused who is a deaf.mute of the contents of the criminal information fatal to the #alidity of the proceedin5s which resulted in the con#iction of the said accused? Ces be"a se t+e a"" sed .as denied o* t+e rig+t to be in*ormed o* t+e nat re and "a se o* t+e a"" sation against +im/ As s "+, t+e entire )ro"eedings is n ll and void and anot+er trial be "ond "ted in t+e )resen"e o* a sign lang age e1)ert to in*orm t+e a"" sed o* t+e )ro"eedings/ ( $0l/1 >1 CA* 17+ $CRA .1.Q P >1 C3i1olo<o* 120 $CRA 723) 1GG. )n an )nformation for %;/P+'A is there #iolation of the ri5ht to *e informed of the nature and cause of accusation a5ainst the accused if the alle5ed rape too- place %sometime from Manuary 122G up to Decem*er :A 1223' or a period of almost nine (2 yearsA without specifyin5 the e$act date when the alle5ed rape too- place? (one/ !+e a"" sed s+o ld +ave *iled a 'otion *or a Bill o* -arti" lar or a 'otion to K as+/ W+en +e *ailed to do any o* t+e t.o (2), +e is deemed to +ave .aived t+e de*e"t in t+e in*ormation/ Clearly, +e sl mbered on +is rig+ts and a.a5ened too late/ $inally, t+e date is not an element in ra)e "ases/ (PEOPLE V$ JERRY NADARENO* A93il -* 200-) 1GG.a. May an accused in a %Homicide' case *e con#icted of %Murder' without #iolatin5 his ri5ht to *e informed of the nature and cause of accusation a5ainst him? Ces/ Even i* t+e In*ormation .as "a)tioned 4$orA Bomi"ide9 only b t t+e body o* t+e In*ormation alleges 4trea"+ery9 or 4evident )remeditation9 and t+e same .as read to t+e a"" sed, +e "o ld be "onvi"ted o* ' rder/ !+is is so be"a se it is t+e body o* t+e In*ormation t+at is binding, not t+e "a)tion t+ereo* and t+ere*ore, t+e a"" sed .as d ly in*ormed o* t+e nat re and "a se o* a"" sation against +im/ (P >1 R/10>0<0* 125 $CRA +27) 1GG.*. May an accused for alle5ed %sale' of mari7uana *e con#icted of %possession' of mari7uana without #iolatin5 his ri5ht to informed of the nature and cause of accusation a5ainst him? (o/ W+ile no "onvi"tion *or t+e nla.* l sale o* )ro+ibited dr gs may be +ad nder t+e )resent

"ir" mstan"es, t+e establis+ed )rin"i)le is t+at )ossession o* mari.uana is absorbed in t+e sale t+ereo*, /C4/9t ;,/3/ t,/ 1/ll/3 i1 =u3t,/3 0993/,/nd/d in 9o11/11ion o= 0not,/3 :u0ntity o= t,/ 93o,i?it/d d3u<1 not 4o>/3/d ?y o3 in4lud/d in t,/ 10l/ 0nd ;,i4, 03/ 93o?0?ly int/nd/d =o3 1o8/ =utu3/ d/0lin<1 o3 u1/ ?y t,/ 1/ll/3 / (PEOPLE O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$ >1 C&A! (ANANAN$ALA* " R No 1.2535* A93il 3* 2013) !+e r le is t+at .+en t+ere is a varian"e bet.een t+e o**ense "+arged in t+e "om)laint or in*ormation, and t+at )roved or establis+ed by t+e eviden"e, and t+e o**ense as "+arged ne"essarily in"l des t+e o**ense )roved, t+e a"" sed s+all be "onvi"ted o* t+e o**ense )roved in"l ded in t+at .+i"+ is "+arged/ A""ording to #e"tion >, R le 62J, !ules of Court (6NM>), t+e r le t+en a))li"able, an o**ense "+arged ne"essarily in"l des t+at .+i"+ is )roved, .+en some o* t+e essential elements or ingredients o* t+e *ormer, as t+is is alleged in t+e "om)laint or in*ormation, "onstit te t+e latter/

1G1. What is the effect of the testimony of a witness who did not return to court for his cross e$amination? How a*out if there is only partial cross.e$amination? A .itness .+o did not ret rn to "o rt *or +is "ross:e1amination .o ld render +is entire testimony inadmissible *or being +earsay/ It li5e.ise violated t+e rig+t o* "on*rontation on t+e )art o* t+e a"" sed/ (Ortigas, HR/ vs/ % *t+ansa, <F #CRA <6J0 !ELA CR#D V$ PAPA* !/4/8?/3 -* 2010) I* t+e .itness .as )artially e1amined, only t+e )ortion o* +is dire"t testimony .+ere +e .as "ross: e1amined s+all be admissible as eviden"e ( P >1 $/n/3i1* 55 $CRA 52) 1G8. What are the re"uisites of a #alid trial in a*sentia? May an accused who 7umped *ail after arrai5nment *e #alidly con#icted *y the trial court? !+e re; isites o* a valid trial in absentia are t+e *ollo.ingA !+e a"" sed .as d ly arraigned0 !+e a"" sed .as noti*ied o* t+e +earing0 and !+e a"" sed?s absen"e Dd ring t+e trialE is nG sti*iable/ 1G3. May an accused compel the trial court to issue su*poena to a Physician who is already wor-in5 in the 6nited @tates to testify on his treatment of the accused? Would the failure of said witness to appear and testify for the accused #iolates his ri5ht to su*poena witnesses and the production of e#idence in his fa#or@ (o/ # "+ .itness is beyond t+e G risdi"tion o* t+e -+ili))ine Co rts/ $ rt+er, +is rig+t to s b)oena .itnesses and t+e )rod "tion o* eviden"e .ill not be violated sin"e t+e +os)ital "o ld )rod "e said re"ords and anot+er )+ysi"ian "o ld testi*y on t+e "ontents t+ereo*/ (Cavili vs/ Bon/ $lorendo, 6>F #CRA <6J0 $aGardo vs/ ,ar"ia, NM #CRA >6F) 1G!. May the accused *e presented *y the prosecution as the latter&s witness? (o/ # "+ .o ld violate t+e rig+t o* t+e a"" sed against sel*:in"rimination and i* s "+ +a))ened, t+e )ro"eedings s+all be n ll and void/ (C+avez vs/ CA, 2F #CRA <<8) 1G(. <enerallyA to what -ind of e#idence does the ri5ht a5ainst self.incrimination applies? ,enerally, it a))lies only to 4testimonial "om) lsion/9 As s "+, *or"ing a )erson to give a sam)le o* +is rine to determine .+et+er a .oman is )regnant (Villa*lor vs/ # mmers, F6 -+il/ <2)0 .+et+er a )erson is s **ering *rom se1 ally transmitted disease (&# vs/ !ang !eng, 28 -+il/ 6F>) or nder t+e in*l en"e o* )ro+ibited dr gs (-EO-%E V#/ BA(IBI!, ,/R/ (O/ 682JF>, 88N #CRA M<, A&,/ 2>, 2JJJ0 -EO-%E V#/ CO(!I(E(!E, ,/R/ (O#/ 6JJMJ6: J2, 88N #CRA 6, A&,/ 2>, 2JJJ) does not violate t+e )erson?s rig+t against sel*:in"rimination/ %i5e.ise *or"ing one to try a )air o* s+oes, )ants or s+irt does not *all nder t+e above )ros"ri)tion/

1G:. How a*out forcin5 a person to 5i#e a sample of his handwritin5?. !+o g+ t+e same does not re; ire testimonial "om) lsion, t+e rig+t against sel*:in"rimination .ill be violated by said a"t/ !+is is so be"a se it involves t+e se o* t+e intelligen"e o* t+e )erson/ (Beltran vs/ #amson, >J -+il/ >=J) 1G4. Does the ri5ht a5ainst self.incrimination applica*le to ci#il and administrati#e cases also? Ces b t nli5e in "riminal "ases .+ere t+e a"" sed "o ld not be )resented by t+e )rose" tion and +is rig+t not to ta5e t+e .itness stand is absol te, an adverse )arty in a "ivil or administrative "ases may be )resented by t+e ot+er )arty b t "o ld re* se to ans.er only i* t+e ; estion )ro)onent nded "alls *or an in"riminatory ans.er/ 1G3. May a court steno5rapher who had resi5ned from the 5o#ernment *e compelled to transcri*e her notes under pain of contempt without #iolatin5 her ri5ht a5ainst in#oluntary ser#itude? Ces/ !+is is so be"a se t+e testimony .as ta5en .+ile s+e .as still in t+e government and as s "+, it .as +er obligation to trans"ribe t+e same, +aving re"eived +er salary *or t+e day .+en t+e testimony .as ta5en/ (A"lara"ion vs/ ,atmaitan, <F #CRA 686) 1G2. )s the Death Penalty already a*olished *y the 1234 Constitution?

W+ile t+e # )reme Co rt ans.ered t+e same in t+e a**irmative in t+e "ases o* - vs/ ,avarra, 6>> #CRa 82=0 - vs/ 'asang5ay, 6>> #CRA 6680 - vs/ Aten"io, 6>< #CRA 2F20 - vs/ Intino, #e)tember 2<, 6NMM it +eld in -eo)le vs/ ' noz, 6=J #CRA 6J=, t+at it .as merely s s)ended/ 11G. )s death as a penalty a cruel or unuasual punishment?

(o/ (- vs/ Estoista, N8 -+il/ <F=)/ It is only .+en t+e ) nis+ment is s+o"5ing to t+e "ons"ien"e o* t+e "omm nity and dis)ro)ortionate to t+e o**ense "+arged t+at t+e )enalty be"omes "r el and n s al/ In *a"t, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld in ECBE,ARAC V#/ #ECRE!ARC O$ H&#!ICE t+at deat+ t+ro g+ %et+al InGe"tion is t+e most + mane .ay o* im)lementing t+e deat+ )enalty/ 111 W,0t 03/ t,/ 3/:ui1it/1 ?/=o3/ 0n 044u1/d 80y >0lidly in>oE/ dou?l/ J/o903dyF !+ere is do ble Geo)ardy .+en t+ere isA D6E valid "om)laint o* in*ormation0 D2E *iled in a "o rt o* "om)etent G risdi"tion0 D8E t+e a"" sed .as validly arraigned0 and DFE t+e a"" sed .as "onvi"ted or a"; itted, or t+e "ase .as dismissed or ot+er.ise terminated .it+o t t+e e1)ress "onsent o* t+e a"" sed/ (-EO-%E V#/ A%'ARIO, 8>> #CRA 6) 118. )f the dismissal was with the e$press consent of the accusedA may the dismissal result in dou*le 7eopardy? Ces in t.o (2) instan"es/ As a general r le, i* t+e dismissal is t+ro g+ t+e instan"e o* t+e

a"" sed or .it+ +is e1)ress "onsent, t+ere is no do ble Geo)ardy/ Bo.ever, t+is r le admits o* t.o (2) e1"e)tionsA t+e motion to dismiss is based on ins **i"ien"y o* eviden"e or Dem rrer to Eviden"e0 and #? t+e motion to dismiss is based on t+e denial o* t+e a"" sed?s rig+t to s)eedy trial. /-EO-%E V#/ A%'ARIO, 8>> #CRA 6) :do ble Geo)ardy +as set in/ In t+ese t.o (2) instan"es, t+e "orre"t des"ri)tion o* .+at +a))ened is t+at t+e a"" sed .as 4a"; itted9 and not 4t+e "ase .as dismissed .it+ +is "onsent9/ It m st be )ointed o t, +o.ever, t+at in PEOPLE V$ TA(PAL* 2++ $CRA 202 0nd PEOPLE V$ LEVI$TE* 222 $CRA 23-, t+e #C reversed t+e dismissal o* t+e "riminal "ase by t+e trial "o rt based on 4s)eedy trial9 sin"e t+e same .as not )redi"ated 4on t+e "lear rig+t o* t+e a"" sed to s)eedy trial/9 It is only .+en t+ere is a "lear violation o* t+e a"" sed?s rig+t to s)eedy trial t+at t+e dismissal res lts in do ble Geo)ardy/ 118.a. Bhe accused was arrested with an unlicensed firearm in Ma*alacatA Pampan5a. He was char5ed for #iolation of PD 13:: with the ;BC of Pampan5a in an )nformation si5ned *y the City Prosecutor of /n5eles City. /t the middle of the trialA the Mud5e dismissed the case without the consent of the accused. When another information for the same offense was filed *y the Pro#incial prosecutor of Pampan5aA the accused mo#ed for the dismissal of the 8nd case *ased on dou*le 7eopardy. Decide. Do ble Geo)ardy +as not set in be"a se t+e *irst re; isite o* valid "om)laint or in*ormation is not )resent/ !+e City -rose" tor o* Angeles City +as no G risdi"tion to *ile an in*ormation *or an o**ense t+at too5 )la"e in 'abala"at, -am)anga/ (C#!IA V$ CA* 2-+ $CRA 1.3) 113. Bhe accused was char5ed of theft of electricity *ased on the City =rdinance of ,atan5as City. /fter arrai5nmentA the case was dismissed *ecause it was found out that the same has prescri*ed *ecause it was filed after more than :G days. Bhe Ciscal filed another information *ased on the ;e#ised Penal Code. Has dou*le 7eopardy set in? Ces/ I* t+e a"" sed .as "+arged o* 4t+e*t o* ele"tri"ity9 based on t+e City Ordinan"e o* Batangas and not based on t+e Revised -enal Code and later on t+e "ase is dismissed by t+e G dge d e to t+e *a"t t+at t+e "rime +as )res"ribed, t+e government "an no longer "+arge t+e a"" sed o* t+e same "rime nder t+e Revised -enal Code sin"e do ble Geo)ardy +as set in/ I* an a"t is ) nis+ed by la. and an ordinan"e, a"; ittal or "onvi"tion in one s+all bar )rose" tion *rom t+e ot+er/ ( PEOPLE V$ RELOVA* 1+- $CRA 252) 11!. Bhe accused was char5ed of 5ra#e coercion *efore the MBC and was duly arrai5ned. Bhe Mud5e dismissed it without any motion form the accused *ecause the case is alle5edly outside the MBC&s 7urisdiction. /nother information for the same offense was filed with the ;BC which was li-ewise dismissed *ecause of lac- of 7urisdiction. /s suchA the Ciscal filed a 3rd information for 5ra#e coercion *efore the MBC. Bhe accused pleaded dou*le 7eopardy. )s he correct@ Ces/ #in"e t+e a"" sed .as already arraigned in t+e 6st in*ormation be*ore t+e '!C .+i"+ +as G risdi"tion over t+e same and t+e "ase .as s bse; ently dismissed .it+o t +is e1)ress "onsent, t+en do ble Geo)ardy +as set in/ 11(. Bhe accused was arrai5ned of homicide and entered a plea of 5uilty *ut prayed that he *e 5i#en the chance to pro#e incomplete self.defense which the court 5ranted. /fter

presentin5 his e#idence to pro#e %incomplete self.defense'A the court ac"uitted him *ecause what was alle5edly pro#en *y him was complete self.defense. May the accused #alidly in#o-e dou*le 7eopardy if the Prosecutor mo#es for the reinstatement of the case for him to present the e#idence of the prosecution? (o be"a se one o* t+e re; isites o* do ble Geo)ardy is missing/ !+ere .as no valid arraignment/ !+is is so be"a se +is )lea .as one o* g ilty and yet, +e .as a"; itted/ In t+is "ase, +e +as to be re:arraigned *or +im to enter a )lea o* 4not g ilty9 in order t+at +e "o ld be validly a"; itted (PEOPLE V$ 'ALI$ACAN* 1. $CRA 1115) 11:. Bhe accused was con#icted of frustrated murder. Within 1( days from promul5ationA he filed a Motion for >ew Brial *ased on a %newly.disco#ered e#idence' which was 5ranted *y the court. /fter the presentation of the alle5ed %newly.disco#ered e#idence'A the accused was ac"uitted. May the prosecution appeal the ac"uittal since the e#idence presented was not really a newly.disco#ered e#idence *ut a for5otten one and that e#en assumin5 that the same is a newly.disco#ered e#idenceA it was insufficient to o#erturn the e#idence of 5uilt as pro#en *y the prosecution. In t+e "ase o* P >1 Jud</ &/3n0ndo* 10- $CRA 121, t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at indeed, t+e eviden"e )resented .as not 4ne.ly:dis"overed eviden"e9 and t+at ass ming it to be so, it .as not s **i"ient to overt rn t+e eviden"e o* g ilt as s+o.n by t+e )rose" tion?s eviden"e/ Bo.ever, t+o g+ t+e de"ision .as erroneo s, do ble Geo)ardy +as set in and t+e government "o ld no longer a))eal t+e de"ision/ #o even i* t+e "o rt obvio sly erred in t+e a))re"iation o* t+e eviden"e res lting in a de"ision o* a"; ittal instead o* "onvi"tion, a))eal .o ld ) t t+e a"" sed in do ble Geo)ardy/ ('azo vs/ ' n/ Co rt, 668 #CRA 26=) 114. May the 5o#ernment appeal a 7ud5ment of ac"uittal or for the increase of the penalty imposed? As a general r le, (o sin"e do ble Geo)ardy +as set in/ ( PEOPLE V$ &ON VELA$CO* " R NO 12.+++* 3+0 $CRA 20.* $EPT 13* 2000) As mandated by t+e Constit tion, stat tes and "ognate G ris)r den"e, an a"; ittal is *inal and na))ealable on t+e gro nd o* do ble Geo)ardy, .+et+er it +a))ens at t+e trial "o rt o* a G dgment o* a"; ittal bro g+t be*ore t+e # )reme Co rt on "ertiorari "annot be +ad nless t+ere is a *inding o* mistrial, as in Lalman vs. &andiganba7an. Bo.ever, i* t+e a"" sed .as t+e one .+o a))ealed t+e de"ision o* t+e C$I "onvi"ting +im o* +omi"ide (t+o g+ +e .as "+arged o* m rder), t+e a))ellate "o rt may "onvi"t +im o* m rder i* t+e eviden"e .arrants and t+at t+e lo.er "o rt mis:a))re"iated t+e eviden"e/ !+is is so be"a se i* t+e a"" sed a))eals t+e de"ision, t+e same .ill be s bGe"t to a "om)lete re:e1amination o* t+e eviden"e on re"ord/ (PEOPLE V$ !O(IN"O* (034, 2* 2005) -lease ta5e note, +o.ever, t+at in t+e "ase o* H1I ARTE(IO VILLAREAL V$ PEOPLE O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$* " R No 12122-* %/?3u03y 1* 2012 Q H2I PEOPLE O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$ V$ T&E &O(ORA'LE CO#RT O% APPEAL$* /t 0l * " R No 12+52+* %/?3u03y 1* 2012Q H3I PEOPLE O% T&E P&ILIPPINE$ V$ $AN!I"AN'AYAN* I(EL!A (ARCO$* JO$E CONRA!O 'ENITED 0nd "IL'ERT !#LAY* " R No 12330+-02* %/?3u03y .* 2012Q 0nd H+I Y$I!ORO V$ &ON TERE$ITA CA$TRO* %/?3u03y 7* 2012* t+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at a -E!I!IO( $OR CER!IORARI &(DER R&%E <> I# A%%OWED I$ !BERE I# ,RAV E AB&#E O$ DI#CRE!IO( O( !BE -AR! O$ !BE %OWER CO&R! I( DI#'I##I(, !BE CRI'I(A% CA#E OR I( I'-O#I(, A %OWER -E(A%!C/ 113.a. May the 5o#ernment A *y way of Petition for Certiorari under ;ule :(A "uestion the Decision of /c"uittal *y the trial courtA or for the increase of the penalty imposed *y the trial

court? Ces/ In "ases o*A D6E in a G dgment o* a"; ittal rendered .it+ grave ab se o* dis"retion amo nting to la"5 or in e1"ess o* G risdi"tion DPEOPLE V$ $AN!I"AN'AYAN* +51 $CRA 1-2* Jun/ 17* 2000 E0 and D2E .+ere t+e )rose" tion +ad been de)rived o* d e )ro"ess d e to mis*easan"e o* t+e )rose" tor/ H(ERCIALE$ V$ CO#RT O% APPEAL$* 3.5 $CRA 3+2Q PEOPLE V$ VELA$CO* 3+0 $CRA 20.* $/9t/8?/3 13* 2000I* 4it/d PEOPLE V$ $AN!I"AN'AYAN 6 I(EL!A (ARCO$* ET AL * %/?3u03y .* 2012Q VILLAREAL V$ PEOPLE* %/?3u03y 1* 2012Q Y$I!ORO V$ &ON TERE$ITA CA$TRO* %/?3u03y 7* 2012 %i5e.ise i* t+e )enalty .as .rong li5e im)osing slig+t )+ysi"al inG ries to some a"" sed and Bomi"ide *or t+e ot+ers .+en all o* t+em )arti"i)ated in in*li"ting inG ries res lting into t+e deat+ o* %enny d ring +is initiation rites , t+e de*ense o* do ble Geo)ardy is navailing and t+e # )reme Co rt in"reased t+e )enalties *or t+ose earlier senten"ed to slig+t )+ysi"al inG ries only/ (VILLAREAL V$ PEOPLE* %/?3u03y 1* 2012) 113.*. Mason )#ler was char5ed ofS H1I ;ec-less imprudence resultin5 to sli5ht physical in7uriesQ and H8I ;ec-less imprudence resultin5 to Homicide and Dama5e to Property as a result of his sin5le ne5li5ent act of *umpin5 the #ehicle of the #ictims. He entered a plea of 5uilty in the first case and was sentenced to C+>@6;+. When he was a*out to *e arrai5ned in the second caseA he in#o-ed dou*le 7eopardy and prayed for the dismissal of the said 8 nd case. Decide. Ces, do ble Geo)ardy +as set in/ Be "o ld not be tried again *or t+e 2 nd "ase/ A single negligent a"t "o ld not be t+e s bGe"t o* t.o (2) "riminal in*ormations/ DIVLER V$ J#!"E PE!RO* " R No 1.2.17* No>/8?/3 1.* 2010I ((O!EA Very im)ortant in yo r Criminal %a./ Arti"le FM o* t+e Revised -enal Code allo.s "om)le1ing a "rime i* it involves grave and less grave *elonies b t t+e Ivler "ase does not involve grave or less grave *elonies/ !+e # )reme Co rt +eld t+at Art/ FM does not a))ly to negligen"e "ases and s+o ld be "om)le1ed regardless o* t+e 5ind o* *elonies involved) 113.c. May the pri#ate complainant #alidly file a Motion for ;econsideration of a Decision of the @upreme Court /CN6)BB)>< Hu*ert We** and company of ;ape with Homicide and Murder without #iolatin5 the rule on dou*le 7eopardy? (o/ !+e a"; ittal o* B bert Webb and +is "o:a"" sed by t+e # )reme Co rt in t+e Viz"onde Ra)eP' rder "ases is *inal/ Do ble Geo)ardy +as set in/ ( LEJANO V$ PEOPLE 6 PEOPLE V$ &#'ERT WE' ET AL * J0nu03y 1-* 2011) 66M:d/ #+aron C neta *iled t.o (2) "ases o* %ibel against t+e editors and "ol mnist o* t+e tabloid Bandera/ A*ter t+e )rose" tion rested its "ase, t+e a"" sed *iled a Dem rrer to Eviden"e .+i"+ t+e trial "o rt granted/ #+aron ; estioned t+e dismissal be*ore t+e Co rt o* A))eals on Certiorari nder R le <> .+i"+ .as granted by t+e latter and ordered t+e trial "o rt s+all )ro"eed to re"eive t+e eviden"e o* t+e a"" sed/ !+e editors .ent to t+e # )reme Co rt alleging t+at t+eir rig+t against do ble Geo)ardy .as violated/ Ces, t+e rig+t o* said a"" sed against do ble Geo)ardy .ill be violated by remanding t+e "ase *or t+e re"e)tion o* eviden"e *or t+e said a"" sed/ Dismissal o* a "riminal "ase based on dem rrer to eviden"e amo nts to a"; ittal and as s "+, do ble Geo)ardy +as set in/ $inally, t+e Co rt o* A))eals s+o ld not +ave entertained #+aron?s )etition be"a se only t+e #oli"itor ,eneral "o ld *ile s "+ a )etition ; estioning t+e de"ision o* t+e lo.er "o rt in "riminal "ases be*ore t+e CA or #C, not t+e )rivate "om)lainant/ ('A#TI$TA V$ $,03on Cun/t0-P0n<ilin0n* O4to?/3 2+* 2012)

113.e. What is the P@uper#enin5 Cact Doctrine.P It sim)ly )rovides t+at an a"" sed?s "onvi"tion s+all not be a bar to anot+er )rose" tion *or an o**ense .+i"+ ne"essarily in"l des t+e o**ense "+arged in t+e *ormer "om)laint or in*ormation .+en t+e graver o**ense develo)ed d e to s )ervening *a"ts arising *rom t+e same a"t or omission "onstit ting t+e *ormer "+arge or t+at t+e *a"ts "onstit ting t+e graver "+arge be"ame 5no.n only or .ere dis"overed a*ter a )lea .as entered in t+e *ormer "om)laint or in*ormation/ ( $/4tion .* Rul/ 11.* 2000 Rul/1 o= C3i8in0l P3o4/du3/Q P >1 T03oE* .3 P,il 270Q P >1 Vill01i1* +7 O " 27-Q (/lo >1 P/o9l/* -2 P,il .77Q P >1 'ulin<* 10. P,il .12Q P >1 Adil* .7 $CRA +72Q P >1 T040n* 1-2 $CRA 701Q 0nd P >1 City Cou3t o= (0nil0* 121 $CRA 73. 112. When may the %e$.post facto law' rule *e in#o-ed? Only i* t+e la. so g+t to be a))lied is a 4D6E "riminal la. or )enal in nat re0 D2E it is a))lied retroa"tively0 and t+at D8E it is )reG di"ial to t+e a"" sed9/ Ot+er.ise, t+e same may not be invo5ed as .+en t+e ; estioned la. involves t+e G risdi"tion o* t+e #andiganbayan .+i"+ is not a )enal la./ E1 )ost *a"to la. )ro+ibits t+e retros)e"tivity o* )enal la.s/ RA M2FN is not a )enal la./ It is a s bstantive la. on G risdi"tion .+i"+ is not )enal in "+ara"ter/ (-A($I%O '/ %AC#O( V#/ !BE E3EC&!IVE #ECRE!ARC, !BE #A(DI,A(BACA(, E! A%/, RO'EO ACO- S $RA(CI#CO Z&BIA, HR/, ,/R/ (o/ 62MJN<, Han ary 2J, 6NNN) 18G. What are the different forms of e$.post facto law? In order t+at a la. is an e1 )ost *a"to la., t+e same m st be oneT .+i"+ ma5es an a"t done "riminal be*ore t+e )assing o* t+e la. and .+i"+ .as inno"ent .+en "ommitted, and ) nis+es s "+ a"tion0 .+i"+ aggravates a "rime or ma5es it greater t+an .+en it .as "ommitted0 .+i"+ "+anges t+e ) nis+ment and in*li"ts a greater ) nis+ment t+an t+e la. anne1ed to t+e "rime .+en it .as "ommitted0 .+i"+ alters t+e legal r les o* eviden"e and re"eives less or di**erent testimony t+an t+e la. re; ired a t+e time o* t+e "ommission o* t+e o**ense in order to "onvi"t t+e de*endant0 every la. .+i"+, in relation to t+e o**ense or its "onse; en"es, alters t+e sit ation o* a )erson to +is disadvantage0 t+at .+i"+ ass mes to reg late "ivil rig+ts and remedies b t in e**e"t im)oses a )enalty or de)rivation o* a rig+t .+i"+ .+en done .as la.* l0 de)rives a )erson a"" sed o* a "rime o* some la.* l )rote"tion to .+i"+ +e +as be"ome entitled, s "+ as t+e )rote"tion o* a *ormer "onvi"tion or a"; ittal, or a )ro"lamation o* amnesty (KAY VILLE"A$ KA(I* 32 $CRA +25Q (EJIA V$ PA(ARAN* 170 $CRA +2.Q TAN V$ 'ARRIO$* 150 $CRA 7-7Q PEOPLE V$ $AN!I"AN'AYAN* 211 $CRA 2+1)

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