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1.0 INTRODUCTION

In a developing country like India, the contribution of railway transport towards
the economic growth is immense as other modes of transport i.e. roadways,
airways, inland waterways etc. are not available at reasonable rates and in sizable
quantity to cope up with the quantum of traffic. The inland waterways are yet to
be explored, airways carries very little traffic, roadways carries short distance
traffic more efficiently and the railway has to deal with the bulk of traffic.

In recent past, the railways in India have started losing even the long distance
traffic which is being hauled by the roadways. In order to move the traffic
efficiently and promptly, it is felt that the speed of the rail transport shall be
augmented. As a result, today there is a cry for high speed. Turnout, an essential
feature of the track-structure for diversion of traffic from one road to another,
poses at present a tricky problem in the context of achieving reasonably high
speed over the turnout. Ideally, speed over turnouts should be that speed at which
the train would have run, had there not been a turnout to be negotiated. But this
ideal requirement can not be fulfilled. Due to the inherent features of the turnouts
which cause a sort of discontinuity in the track, the speeds on the turnout have
been less than those permitted on the mainline. The turnouts are thus considered
bottleneck in increasing train speed.

2.0 NEED FOR HIGHER SPEED ON TURNOUT

Compared to the speeds over turnouts on advanced foreign countries, the speeds
on turnouts on Indian Railways are restrictive. Through running trains lose time
when they have to run through the loop. Many times, running through the main
line may often not be possible as at many stations, the platform may be on the
main line and some passenger train may be standing on it. Sometimes, goods train
may be standing on the main line due to insufficient loop capacity. At some
locations, like points on the main line in big yard which are far away from the
station, junction between double and single line where trains do not stop, Y-
junction between important main lines, crossovers between slow and fast lines for
the same direction on quadrupled section, high speeds on turnouts are required. At
stopping stations, only the speed which the train will attain due to brakes being
applied well in advance will be required on turnout.

Achievement of higher average speeds and line capacity without increasing the
maximum permissible speed is possible by increasing speeds on turnouts. Time
loss due to restrictive speeds on turnouts can be gauged from the following table-




2

Maximum
sectional
speed
( kmph)
Speed over
T/O
( kmph)
Time Lost in
Acceleration &
Deacceleration
(minute)
Time loss for
each 100 m
( minute)
Time loss for
one loop
(700 m length)
(minute)
75 1.2 0.04 1.48
50 1.8 0.06 2.22
30 2.95 0.12 3.79
105
15 4.8 0.24 6.48

It is obvious that raising speeds over turnouts can bring about huge saving in
running time. In view of policy of increasing sectional speed of certain routes up
to 150 kmph, increasing speed potential on turnouts becomes even more
important.

Attempt has been made in this paper to scrutinize the existing types of the turnout
layout on the Indian Railway in the context of the design principles and the
practical consideration for improvement and to recommend the proposal for
having the desired speed on the turnout on the economic consideration.

3.0 TURNOUT & ITS DESIGN

A turnout is a device consisting of a pair of points (for switches) and a crossing to
enable railway vehicle to run without interruption from one track to another. A
turnout thus primarily consists of a pair of switch assembly with the crossing
assembly.

Design Criteria - Turnout design is governed by following criteria -
Safety
Economy
Maintainability
















Running Rails
3

4.0 FACTORS AFFECTING SPEED OVER TURNOUTS

Various factors limiting speeds over turnouts are as follows-


















A-Kink in the turnout route at the toe of switch rail
B-Entry from straight to curve without transition
C- Lead curve without super-elevation
D-Entry from curve to straight without transition
E-Gap at the V of crossing

4.1 Sudden Change Of Direction At The Toe Of Switch

There is an angle between the gauge planes of switch and stock rails at toe of
switch. The sudden change in the direction of travel of vehicle at toe gives rise to
lateral accelerations in the vehicle, flange forces on the track and discomfort to
passengers. The only way to mitigate the effect of this lurch is to reduce the entry
angle to as small a value as practicable.


4.2 Change From Straight To Curve Without Transition

Speed over turnout is affected by the geometry of the lead curve which is
normally a circular curve without any transition. This factor is of importance in
case of straight switches. With curved switches, this factor is somewhat
eliminated at position B but at position D, a similar situation continues. The
sudden change of curvature from infinity to a certain value gives rise to lateral
accelerations.


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4.3 Non-Provision Of Superelevation On Lead Curve

The motion over the lead curve is controlled by the geometry of the lead curve
which is circular curve without any superelevation and its tangential to the
straight length of the switch and the straight length of the crossing ahead of the
theoretical nose of crossing. The permissible speed has, therefore, to be restricted
so that maximum permissible cant deficiency is not exceeded.

4.4 Entry From Curve To Straight Without Transition

The lead curve is generally circular curve without any transition and is tangential
to the straight length of the theoretical nose of crossing. Therefore, speed over
lead curve is to be restricted due to non-provision of transition.

4.5 Gap At The V Of Crossing

The gaps in the running rail at the nose of crossing are a source of very high
vertical acceleration. The motion over the gap at the V of the crossing does not
create any serious problem. There is usually no restriction of speed over the
straight path so far as the geometry of the turnout is concerned, the speed being
limited by the standard of interlocking. Since the motion on turnout over V of
crossing is identical to that on the straight so far as crossing is concerned, there
should naturally be no restriction of speed on the turnout side. Experience of
many years has also provided that the motion on either side of the road at the
crossing are identical. For very high speed beyond 200 kmph, movable nose
crossing is adopted.


5.0 OTHER LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL TURNOUTS ON IR

5.1 SWITCH PORTION





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Twist in track due to tongue rails being 6 mm higher than the stock rail.
This introduces twist for both the straight as well as turnout. The tongue
rail for part of its length is higher than that of stock rail by 6 mm as this
reduces the amount of undercut in the foot of tongue rail.

Twist in the stock rail occurs due to its having been kept vertical whereas
the track rail in the approaches is canted at 1in 20.

Widening of gauge between theoretical toe of switch and actual toe and
then change over suddenly to exact gauge at the actual toe.

The tongue rail is projected outside the gauge face of stock rail by about 6
mm posing an obstruction in the path of wheel. The centre line of the web
of tongue rail coincides with gauge face of stock rail in closed position.

Outer fastenings of the stock rail are not adequate to withstand the heavy
lateral force generated during entry of the vehicles in switch portion.

At present, curved switches are manufactured out of ordinary rails and
they are thinner and longer than the straight switches. As such, the curved
switches are more flexible and show a tendency to excessive vibrations
under traffic. Their thin tips are susceptible to early damage.

Indian railways curved switch designs are of intersecting type.

5.2 LEAD PORTION

Due to non-provision of superelevation, excessive wear on the outer rail of lead
curve takes place.

5.3 CROSSING PORTION

Built-up crossings are non-monolithic in nature. As a result, relative
movement of various components takes place which causes wear.










Built-up crossing

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The legs of crossings are manufactured as straight lines. These crossings
result in problems of integrating them with curved main line track and
also within curved lead portion.
The V has to bear double the load compared to adjacent running rails,
however, its section is lesser than that of adjoining running rails.
Wooden/ST sleepers get bent in the middle under the crossing.

6.0 TURNOUT FOR HIGH SPEED

Up-gradation in turnout technology in the advanced railway systems has been
guided by the following considerations-
Higher speeds on straight and curved tracks with reasonable level of
passenger comfort. Designs have been evolved for a speed of over 200
kmph on curved track.
Least life cycle cost with minimum traffic interruption for repairing and
reconditioning.
Track geometry maintainability comparable with the normal track
Safety and comfort
Timely warning before failure
Planned maintenance without emergencies

6.1 By reducing the switch angle, entry gets smoothened and flange force gets
reduced. The small switch angle is obtained by providing curved switches. For
speeds higher than 45 kmph, tangential type of switches are used over foreign
railways. In tangential type, very small switch angle is possible compared to
intersecting type.



.
INTERSECTION FORM
TANGENTIAL FORM
NON-INTERSECTION FORM

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6.2 In order to provide lateral rigidity to switch rails, and prevent its vibration under
traffic, thick web switches are used.

6.3 In some countries, head hardened rails on outer rail of lead curve are used to
check wear.

6.4 In order to eliminate the shocks at the heel of switch and the toe of the crossing
due to untransitioned lead curve, transitioned lead curves are used. In transitioned
lead curves, the rate of application of lateral acceleration is gradual and passenger
discomfort is reduced.

6.5 Crossings can be either fixed or movable type. In straight type, the lead curve
ends before the toe of crossing whereas in curved type, the led curve continues
over the crossing. Curved crossings eliminate the shock due to change in
alignment from lead curve to straight at the toe of crossing. The crossings with
moveable nose are generally used in turnouts with speeds 160 kmph and above.

6.6 The check rails are independently secured to the nose of crossing. Also, the check
rails are raised above stock rails by 45 mm, as a result, greater width of wheel
comes in contact with check rail and grinding is better.

7.0 CALCULATION OF PERMISSIBLE SPEED OVER TURNOUT

The permissible speed over the turnout is the minimum of the following three
speeds

Permissible speed due to non-transitioning of the lead curve
Permissible speed due to non- canting of lead curve
Permissible speed to obtain desirable values of lateral forces and acceleration
at entry

Entry conditions are the most important and critical consideration in
determination of speed on turnout. All attempts to find permissible speed over
turnout finally boil down to finding the permissible speed for ensuring
satisfactory entry conditions.

7.1 Permissible Speed Based On Non-Transitioning Of Lead Curve

Non-transitioning of lead curve results in sudden change of curvature and gives
rise to lateral acceleration. Speed is given by following formula-

V=4/5 4.4 R-70
Speed V is in kmph and radius R is in m.

8



7.2 Permissible Speed Based On Non-Provision Of Superelevation On Lead Curve

The lead curves on Indian turnouts are not provided with superelevation. The
permissible speed is therefore, restricted so that maximum permissible cant
deficiency is not exceeded.

V= RC / 13.76
Where speed V is in kmph, radius R is in m and cant deficiency C is in mm.

7.3 Permissible speeds for various types of turnouts calculated on criteria mentioned
in para 7.1 & 7.2 are as follows-

TURNOUT SWITCH
ANGLE
SPEED DUE TO NON-
TRANSITIONING
(KMPH)
SPEED DUE TO
NON-PROVISION OF
SUPERELEVATION
(KMPH)
1 IN 8.5 ( straight
switch)
1 34 27
43.6 35.8
1 IN 8.5 ( curved
switch)
0 47 27
45 36
1 IN 12 ( straight
switch)
1 8 0
68 50
1 IN 12 ( curved
switch)
0 27 35
69.4 51
1 IN 16
0 24 27
95.4 68.8
1 IN 16 ( sym.
split)
0 12 13
138 97
1 IN 20
0 24 27
122 86.4


7.4 Permissible Speed Based On Entry Conditions

The subject matter was discussed vide item number 488 of 38
th
TSC. A formula
was evolved for calculating permissible speed based on entry conditions. In this
method, the speed is determined on the basis of an abrupt change of direction and
consequent thrust at the toe of switch. This involves determination of the radius of
a virtual curve at the toe of switch corresponding to a chord C equal to bogie
centers of a passenger coach and versine v as measured at the toe of switch when
the above chord is placed symmetrical to the toe.

9
A T
B
C
CHORD LENGTH AB = DI STANCE BETWEEN
BOGIE CENTRES
VIRTUAL CURVE
THEORETICAL TOE OF SWITCH
STOCK RAIL
SWITCH ANGLE
VERSINE





Let R be the radius calculated by putting the above values in the formula

v = C
2
/ 8R
The virtual radius R
v
is then taken as R/2 to allow for 100 % impact effect. The
permissible speed is then calculated so that cant deficiency does not exceed the
permissible value of 75 mm.
v = Versine
V = Permissible speed
C = Distance between bogie centers
R
v
= Radius of virtual curve
R
v
= R/2
V = RC / 13.76
Where V is in kmph, R is in m and C is in mm.

As per this method, versine is same for straight or curved switches. Entry
conditions are far superior with curved switches. The speeds calculated with this
formula for 1 in 16 and 1 in 20 turnouts are ridiculously low. The subject was
again discussed in 41
st
TSC. TSC asked RDSO to conduct detailed study in this
regard.

8.0 O.R.E REPORTS

The O.R.E. have examined the Guiding Principles for the Design of Points and
crossings vide question D-72 and the results of their study and experiments are
contained in their reports 1 to 6 on question D-72. The O.R.E. had gone into the
problem by detailed analysis taking all parameters of track geometry and vehicle
suspension and they obtained the solutions by using computers. The results of
theoretical analysis have been verified with experiments. Main observations of the
reports are as under-

The lateral acceleration determines the comfort of riding, while the lateral
forces exchanged during the passage of wheels determine the
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maintainability of switches. The value of permissible lateral force on turnout
should be fixed on the basis of same limits of lateral loads which will ensure
that the turnout does not entail unduly high maintenance effort.

Permissible speeds on turnouts should be worked out by studying lateral
acceleration of vehicles affecting comfort and forces exerted on track.

The lateral forces and lateral acceleration are proportional to angle of attack
and speed. The values of lateral forces for typical values of angle of attack
and various speeds are given below-

The total change in direction at the entry is made up of the angularity of
axle, the switch angle and the increase in switch angle from the theoretical
toe of switch to the actual point of attack and is termed a angle of attack. In
the figure shown below, is the angle of attack.

STOCK RAIL
GAUGE FACE
TOE OF SWITCH
SWITCH GAUGE FACE
POINT OF ATTACK


MAXIMUM VALUE OF LATERAL FORCES
(TONNES)
ANGLE OF
ATTACK
SPEED
30 KMPH
SPEED
45 KMPH
SPEED
60 KMPH
0 12 0
2.4 3.0 4.0
0 24 0
4.9 5.10 6.50
0 34.4 0
7.0 7.50 10.0
0 41.5 0
10.0 11.50 14.9

Flange forces depend to a greater extent on the angle of attack than on
speed.

For the same angle of attack, the impact and lateral accelerations are more
for entry into circular curve than for transition curve.





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The angle of attack and the accelerations are higher for a stiffer track.

The angle of attack is made up of two components-
i) Due to angular position taken by bogie truck - This can be reduced
by adoption of tighter gauge and less wearing tolerances and stiffer
tolerances of wheel flange wear and axle boxes and horn cheeks
and better constructional features of coaches and locos. This is
difficult as the tolerance in the vehicle are based on many other
considerations.
ii) Due to geometry of switch - This is the prepondering consideration
for achieving riding comfort.

The following switch entry angles were recommended for different
speeds-

SPEED SWITCH ANGLE
40 kmph 0 40 30
60 kmph
0 25 0
100 kmph
0 15 0
160 kmph
0 8 0

Tangential type of switch is best suited as it gives small entry angles.

9.0 RDSO TRIALS

9.1 The RDSO conducted studies in early 1960s on the flange force exerted by the
Pacific & BESA type of locomotives on 1 in 8.5 & 1 in 12 turnouts with wooden
and steel sleeper layouts.

9.1.1 Lateral forces measured by RDSO were as follows-

TYPE OF TURNOUT LATERAL FORCE SPEED
1 in 8.5(straight) 13 T upto 24 kmph
1 in 12(straight) 11 T upto 32 kmph
1 in 12 (curved) 5.7 T upto 32 kmph

9.1.2 Slack gauge of 1/8 to 1/4 caused slight increase in lateral forces.

9.1.3 For 1 in 8.5 turnout, the track structure was found deflecting by about 4 mm on
turnout with steel sleeper and about 6 mm on turnout with wooden sleepers.

9.1.4 Lateral forces exerted by locos on turnout with straight switches exceed the limit
given by Blondel formula.

H
Blondel
= 0.4 x axle load + 2 t

12

9.2 In 1971, RDSO undertook investigations on the speed potential of 1 in 8.5 and 1
in 12 turnouts with straight and curved switches and 1 in 16 and 1 in 20 turnouts
with curved switches.

9.2.1 The field trials were primarily concerned with a measurement of the lateral
accelerations in the vehicles and the lateral forces on the track.

9.2.2 The rolling stock used were

Locomotives = WP, WG, WDM2, WDM4
Coaches = IRS, ICF
Wagons = BOX, CR

9.2.3 The lateral forces observed for 1 in 8.5 and 1 in 12 turnout are indicated below-


MAX.LATERAL LOAD
1 in 8.5 TURNOUT
MAX.LATERAL LOAD
1 in 12 TURNOUT
ROLLING
STOCK
SPEED
km/h
STRAIGHT CURVED STRAIGHT CURVED
10 9.65 6.50 8.65 5.00
20 12.60 6.70 11.90 5.00
30 15.45 8.40 13.60 5.40
40 19.15 11.20 14.50 8.00
WDM2
50 - - 15.90 10.50
10 8.40 4.40 6.70 2.80
20 10.00 4.75 6.60 3.75
30 11.25 5.25 7.50 4.50
40 12.85 7.50 8.60 4.75
BOX
(LOADED)
50 - - 10.00 5.00

The limiting value of lateral strength of track based on Prudhomes formula for
18.8 t axle load of WDM2 would be -

H
Prudhomes
= 0.85 (1+18.8/3) = 6.2 t

The above value is applicable for lateral forces exerted over a length of 2 m.
However in case of turnouts, the instantaneous value of lateral forces is to be
considered. Here it may be permissible to apply Blondel`s limit for lateral forces,
which is given by the formula

H
Blondelb
= 0.4 x axle load + 2 t

Permissible lateral force based on Blondel formula for WDM2 works out as
follows -

13
= 0.4 x 18.8 + 2 t
= 9.52 t

9.2.4 Lateral acceleration were well below the value of 0.3 g to 0.35 g permitted upto
40 kmph to 60 kmph.

9.2.5 Instrumented trials have revealed the following permissible speeds based on
lateral forces exerted by vehicles while negotiating the switches -

TYPE OF
TURNOUT
SWITCH ANGLE SPEED POTENTIAL
1 IN 8.5 (straight) 1 34 27 10 kmph
1 IN 8.5 (curved)
0 47 27
25 kmph
1 IN 12 (straight)
1 8 0
15 kmph
1 IN 12 (curved)
0 27 35
42 kmph
1 IN 16 and 1 in 20
0 24 27
55 kmph
1 IN 16 (high
speed)
0 17 11 >80 kmph


10.0 SIGNALLING & OTHER REQUIREMENTS FOR RAISING SPEED ON
TOs

10.1 Speeds from 15 kmph to 30 kmph

Visibility of starter signal of loop line from a distance equal to the braking
distance of the heaviest train in the section has to be ensured.
In case, visibility cannot be ensured, Repeater signal should be provided.

10.2 Speeds higher than 30 kmph

Prior indication of signal aspect should be given to driver of approaching
train so that he can take appropriate action in time.
This will require modification in signalling and introduction of another
aspects to suitably pre-warn the driver. This will necessitate introduction
of another aspect like `flashing yellow`.
In view of increased speed through loops, detection of siding points
taking off from loops has to be ensured through interlocking.

10.3 Other Engineering Requirements

Turn in curves will have to be eased and strengthened
Track structure of loops will have to be improved
Raising of speed potential can not be on isolated station but will have to be
on entire route selected for this purpose.
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Design adequacy of sand humps may have to be examined.


11.0 SPEED POTENTIAL OVER TURNOUTS ON IR

Speed potential on various types of turnouts on BG on Indian Railways are as
under-


Description Speed Potential (kmph)

1 in 8 TO with Str. SW 10

1 in 8 TO with Cu. Sw.

25
1 in 12 TO with St. Sw

15
1 in 12 with conventional Cu Sw. 40

1 in 12 TO with improved Cu. Sw.

50

1 in 12 TO with Thick Web Sw.

50
1 in 16 Conventional TO with Cu.
Sw.

50
1 in 16 Impr.TO with Cu. Sw. 65

1 in 20 Impr.TO with Cu. Sw.

85
1 in 8 Symm. Split TO with Cw.
Sw

40

1 in 12 Symm. Split TO with Impr.
Cw. Sw

70

1 in 16 Symmetrical split with
Cu.Sw
75

15




12.0 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ON INDIAN RAILWAYS

Following are the important developments that have taken place in recent past in
regard to improvement of various features of turnouts -

1:12 B.G. 60 Kg HEAT TREATED WELDED CROSSINGS

In this type of crossing, the splice and point rails of Vee are joined together by
welding process instead of conventional nut/bolts. Connection between the point
and splice rails is achieved by fusion of weld metal with rail metal. Assembly is
then heat treated.



















ADVANTAGES

Thickness of Vee at nose increased.
Vee of the crossing becomes monolithic in structure.
Problem of relative displacements between splice and point rails is
eliminated.
Higher hardness of welding material is achieved.
Interchangeable with conventional built up crossing.

SALIENT FEATURES

Developed for 1:12 BG 60 Kg for Indian Railway.
I NSULAT ION
ERCMK II I
RUBBER PAD
SECTION AT ACTUAL NOSE OF CROSSING
WELDED VEE
A.N.C.
HEAT TREATED WELDED CROSSING
(1 : 12 B.G. 60 Kg)

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V made by welding points & splice rails. Electroslag process of welding
adopted
400 mm length of wing rail on either side of ANC location (total 800 mm)
heat treated to 330+/-20 BHN. This portion of wing rails considered to be
most wear prone.
16 mm thick sandwitch plate used between point and splice rails.
Web thickness at ANC kept 49 mm ( 2 web +16 mm)
Special bearing plate used to fix crossing on sleepers with ERC.
15 nos. special PSC sleepers used (SL no 64 to 78 ) to lay this crossing.
Other sleepers are same as in 1:12 layout to Drg. No. RDSO/T-4218.
About 2000 nos. of such crossings supplied to Railways between 1996-
2000 and have been laid on E, SE, C,N,W, SC & S. Railways.
Recently, 4 nos. of such crossings were modified to suit existing sleepers
and three have been laid at Bhopal for trial . After modifications, these
crossings have been laid on existing PSC sleepers of CMS crossings with
special liners of different sizes.
Performance of these crossings is satisfactory.

-
Relevant ous suld be made available to field staff during laying and maintenance
-
After
1:12 BG 60 Kg SWING NOSE CROSSING

In conventional crossing, there is vertical as well as lateral discontinuity between
nose of crossing and the wing rails. This discontinuity results in high impact
forces, jerks, discomfort and excessive wear. Moveable (or swing) Nose
crossing eliminates this problem. It has a moveable nose similar to a switch
which is moved through operation of a separate point motor simultaneously with
the switches. It is necessary only if speeds > 160 kmph and intersections flatter
than 1 in 32. With this crossing, check rails are not required.

SALIENT FEATURES

Developed for 1:12 BG 60 Kg by M/S BMW, Jamshedpur.
Made by using normal 60 Kg (UIC) rails.
V of crossing is movable. It gives better riding.
Operation of swing nose is syncronized with the operation of switch as
per requirement of movement of traffic.
260 mm stroke point machine is required for its operation.
It gives continuous, impact free and smooth path to moving wheels.
Nose thickness of this crossing at ANC is 72 mm i.e. full head width as
against 16.5 mm kept for normal built up/CMS crossing. As full rail head
thickness is available throughout the crossing, its wear and tear is expected
to be similar to that of any normal running rail.
No weakness of reduced head in crossing. Full head can sustain impact as
of normal rail.
17
Can be used with 1:12 BG 60 Kg fan shaped PSC sleeper turnouts to
drawing no RDSO/T-4218.
This crossing requires 15 nos .of special PSC sleepers.



One crossing laid at Gamaharia station of CKP division of SE Railway
on 30.7.1997 has undergone 1mm wear.
Negligible wear expected to give same life as that of a normal rail in
track without any reconditioning etc.
Bracket of point clamp lock has recently been modified and SE Railway
have been advised to lay further swing nose crossing with this system.
100 sets have been procured and supplied to E, SE, C, W, & N Railway.
Other Railway will shortly lay these crossings after getting feed back
from SE Railway.
This is a future generation of crossing suitable for high speed & heavy
traffic routes
Comments from field are awaited for further improvement of the design
to serve its purpose of giving impact free movement to moving wheels.

WELDABLE C M S CROSSING

CMS crossing cannot be welded with 90 UTS rails because of different chemical
composition and metallurgical properties. Technology is now available for
welding of conventional rails with CMS crossing by using a special welding
process. In this process, a buffer rail is first welded on the end of CMS crossing
by Flash Butt welding. The buffer rail is then cut leaving only 10-15 mm thick
piece of buffer rail welded to CMS crossing. Thereafter, conventional rail is
welded to this buffer rail piece by Flash Butt welding. Conventional rails are then
cut to make the overall length of weldable CMS crossing as per requirement.
















A .N.C.
60Kg (UIC) RAIL PIECES
C.M.S.CROSSING.
WELDED JOINTS
WELDABLE C.M.S. CROSSING (1:12 B.G. 60Kg)
SPECIAL ALLOY WELDED JOINTS

18













SALIENT FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES

Two rail pieces on either end are welded with CMS crossing.
Special alloy steel is used for welding rail with CMS crossing.
The chemical composition of special alloy is such that it suits to welding
with CMS crossing as well as 60 Kg (UIC) rails.
Joints in vicinity of crossings are kept a bit away from ANC.
These rail pieces can further be welded with adjacent rails to avoid joints
nearby crossing.
The technology of welding CMS with normal rail is not available in India
but available in abroad.
M/s Voest Alpine Austria had supplied 20 nos. of such crossings which
were laid on N.Rly in 1995 and still performing well with two
reconditionings.
M/s Cogifer France had supplied such crossings to DMRC.
Railway Board is planning to procure this technology from abroad in near
future.
With this arrangement , it would be possible to continue LWR through
turnouts.
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THICK WEB CURVED SWITCHES
ADVANTAGES OF THICK WEB SWITCHES



No twist as top of tongue rail is in level with top of stock rail.
Lateral strength increased.
Sturdier due to thicker web.
Switch entry angle reduced smoother entry.
Jerk at entry is reduced as tip of tongue rail is housed in a recess.
Higher speed potential ( 50 kmph for 1 in 12 layout).

Two types of thick web switches have been used by Indian Railway. They are
fabricated from imported asymmetrical rail section. Both are non-overriding type.

Zu 1- 60 for 60 kg.
Zu 2 49 for 52 kg.

Following design using indigenous crane rails have been developed by RDSO.

1 IN 12 52 KG : RDSO / T 5168 using CR 100.(Drg. Issued)
1 IN 12 60 KG : RDSO / T- 5222 using CR 120.(Drg. Not Issued)

Zu-2-49 thick web switches

About 600 nos. procured in 1984-1990 for wooden sleeper layout with 115
mm throw.
Were laid on E , SE, SC, S, C, & N Railways.
Had outlived lives about 10 to 12 times more than the life of conventional
switches.
Most of these switches were replaced by fan shaped PSC layouts
prematurely due to non availability of wooden sleepers for renewals.
Very less switches were replaced on account of wear.
Would have still given more life if wooden sleepers were made available
Four set of these switches were laid at Faridabad station of C. Railway
in 1985 on main line out of which three sets are still existing in track.
320 sets were procured by KRCL in 1996-97 for PSC sleeper layout with
145 mm throw with SSD. Performance of these switches on KRCL is
satisfactory
20
.
21





Zu-1-60 THICK WEB SWITCHES

Salient features and advantages
400 sets procured in 1996-2000 for PSC sleeper layout with 160 mm
throw and SSD. These switches were procured as per firms own design
(five designs).
Use of SSD, enable uniform gauge in switch portion, thus avoiding
floating tight gauge and rattling of switch/stretcher bar fittings.
With use of SSD, wear on tongue rail will considerably be reduced which
in turn will increase the life of tongue rails.
Point clamp locks with 220 mm stroke IRS Point machine are used which
gives positive & direct locking of stock & tongue rail on high speed route.
PSC sleepers will give more sound & uniform base than the wooden
sleepers which will enhance its service life.
Zu-1-60 thick web switches with 160 mm throw & SSD on PSC sleepers
is expected to give more life as was achieved with Zu-2-49 TWS on
wooden sleepers.
As a policy, Railway Board has decided to lay thick web switches on
entire A route of Indian Railway. It has been planned to lay about 2000
sets of TWS every year. .Procurement of thick web switches is in process
at Railway Board level.
Initial procurement cost of thick web switches is about 3 to 4 times more
than the cost of conventional 60 kg switches but considering its expected
enhanced life by more than 12 - 15 times, it will certainly be economical
in the long run.
RDSO has developed design of 1:12 and 1:8.5 thick web switches with
160 mm throw and SSD for use on respective existing PSC sleepers so
that TWS may be introduced on entire A route as per planning by
simply replacing the existing switch assembly by TWS switches.
RDSOs design of slide chairs for TWS are provided with ERC, leaf
springs & wedge arrangement. With this system, LWR may also be
continued through turnouts in future.
DMRC has used canted turnouts in their project using 60 D rails for
making tongue rails through M/S COGIFER FRANCE. This rail has
special feature of flat bottom and top canted to 1:20. Stock rails are made
canted by giving 1:20 cant in slide chairs. DMRC has continued LWR
through turnouts at some of the location which is working satisfactorily.




22
HEAT TREATED SWITCH TIPS FOR 10125 mm CURVED SWITCHES BG
60/52 Kg ON PSC SLEEPERS




Tongue rails fitted with heat treated switch tips will have longer life. The
switches wear fast at the tip due to reduced cross section. The life of switches can
be increased by increasing hardness to about 450 BHN against the normal
hardness of 270 BHN in case of 90 UTS rails.

SALIENT FEATURES WITH ADVANTAGES

It is a part of tongue rail fitted with web of tongue rail after stubbing.
It covers those area of tongue rail which is very much prone to wear. It is
about two meter in length from ATS.
Being heat treated, the head of tongue rail causes negligible wear during
service.
Normally tongue rail wear in about two meter length from ATS and rest
of tongue rail has no wear but every time full length of tongue is replaced
on account of wear.
Tongue rail fitted with switch tips need to be replaced the tip portion only
and there is no need to replace full tongue rail.
Worn switch tip after reconditioning may again be fitted on stubbed
tongue rails
The wear pattern observed so for on switch tips are very negligible.
Tongue rail fitted with switch tips will have long service life. Thus will
require lesser consumption of tongue rails as well as lesser frequency of
reconditioning of worn tongue rails.
23
42 sets of heat treated switch tips for 6400 mm straight switches BG 52
kg were procured in 1990 for wooden layouts and laid on E, SE, C, N,
SC, S & W Railways. These switch tips had given service life of 4 to 6
years with negligible wear before replaced by fan shaped PSC switches.
C. Railway is procuring 90 sets of 10125 mm curved switches fitted with
switch tips for BG 60 & 52 kg for PSC layouts through three firms out of
which 15 sets have so far been supplied.
These switches have been laid in suburban section of Mumbai division on
C. Railway and performance of these switches is satisfactory.
Other Railways may also procure and lay switch tips after gaining
experience by C. Railway.

SPRING SETTING DEVICE


It is a reversible mechanical spring device connected to the foot of two tongue
rails at or near JOH. The device actuates after the movement of tongue rails
initiated by the point motor reaches about half way. At this stage, one connecting
rod of the SSD pulls the open tongue rail away from stock rail and simultaneously
the other connecting rod pushes the closed tongue rail firmly against the stock
rail. This prevents the rattling of tongue rails between toe and heel under moving
wheels and ensures adequate clearance between tongue rails and stock rails.
Hence, enhanced life of switches and better riding comfort can be achieved. The
Spring Setting Device is used with the turnouts of Voest Alpine of Austria. KRCL
has also laid them on turnouts.

EXPLOSIVE HARDENED CMS CROSSING


The initial hardness of CMS Crossing is about 180 BHN while that of cast wheels
is 320-340 BHN. By the time, its hardness increases through work hardening,
wear ( 2 mm-3 mm ) takes place quickly. Explosive hardening process has been
developed to overcome this problem. With this process, initial hardness of 350
BHN is achieved. Developmental orders have been placed on two indigenous
manufactures to develop this process and supply few such crossings on
experimental basis.

FAN SHAPED TURNOUTS

On high speed routes, points and crossings on wooden and ST layouts are posing
considerable problems in maintenance due to loosening of fittings, creep, packing
not being retained and alignment disturbance. To overcome these problems and
for better stability in points and crossings, fan shaped turnouts have been
introduced on Indian Railways. Compared to the conventional wooden or steel
sleeper layouts, the PSC sleeper layout is much more accurately manufactured
and laid into track. Therefore, it is expected to give better riding quality. It has
also reduced incidences of signal failures on engineering account.


24

13.0 DEFICIENCIES OF P & C VIS--VIS SOLUTION

In view of recent developments in the field of turnouts on Indian Railways as
described above, it has been possible to overcome many deficiencies of
conventional turnouts which were serving as impediment for raising speed. The
current status of improvements effected vis--vis these deficiencies is indicated
in the table given below-


Deficiency of Conventional Switch
/Crossing

Alternative Designs /Advances

TWIST IN SWITCH PORTION

THICK WEB SWITCHES

OBSTRUCTION BY TIP OF
TONGUE RAIL

1 IN 12 HIGH SPEED
SWITCH,THICK WEB Sw.

WEAK FASTENINGS

T W Sw.,HIGH SPEED Sw.,ELASTIC
FASTENING

RAPID WEAR OF TR

HEAT TREATED SWITCHES

INADEQUATE CLEARANCE
NEAR JOH (1 IN 12)

SPRING SETTING DEVICE

ANGULAR ENTRY AT TOE

HIGH SPEED Sw.

NON MONOLITHIC
CONSTRUCTION OF CROSSING



CMS CROSSING-
ORDINARY,EXPLOSIVE
HARDENED,WELDABLE

DISCONTINUITY AT CROSSING

MOVEABLE CROSSING
NO 1 IN 20 CANT


NO SUPERELEVATION OVER TR
AND LEAD


NO TRANSITION OVER CURVED
TR AND LEAD


STRAIGHT CROSSING




25
14.0 PLANS FOR MODERNISATION OF TURNOUTS ON IR

CORPORATE SAFETY PLAN

Fan Shaped Layouts @ 2500 per year.
Thick-Web Switches @ 2000 per year on Group A routes.
Weldable CMS crossings to facilitate continuation of LWRs through
turnouts. (As per correction slip no. 8 to IRPWM, CWR/LWR can be
taken through points and crossings in station yards.)

INTEGRATED MODERNISATION PLAN OF IR (2005-2010)

Adoption of Thick Web Switches.
10000 to be laid in 5 year period.
Priority : Gr. A Routes and routes with annual GMT exceeding 20.
Provision of weldable CMS crossings to facilitate continuation of LWRs
through turnouts.

15.0 CONCLUSION

15.1 The 51
st
TSC had envisaged following permissible speeds on BG turnouts at
various locations -

Turnouts for goods yards to permit TO speed of 25 kmph
Turnouts for passenger yards to permit TO speed of 50 kmph
Turnouts for outskirts of big yards to permit TO speed of 75 kmph
Turnouts at junction between single and double lines to permit TO speed
of 100 kmph

This may serve as broad guidelines for enhancing speed over turnouts on Indian
Railways. This matter is to finalized in consultation with Operating Department
who have to specify and prioritize their requirement of permissible speed on
turnouts at various locations.

15.2 An increase in the speed requires not only strengthening of the track but also
improvement of maintenance. Following measures may have to ensured-

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Putting in place a system to ensure better co-ordination between Signal
and Engineering Departments.
26
LWR through Points & Crossings


15.3 Fabrication and assembly of turnouts requires to be done to a very strict
tolerances if speeds over turnouts are to be enhanced. PSC fan-shaped turnouts
are to be laid into track with the help of cranes only, but these turnouts are still
being laid by manual means in field. Due to this, initial laying quality is not of a
high standard. As per corporate plan, 2500 PSC fan-shaped turnouts are to laid
every year.
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T-28

machines on IR
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15.4 The turnout is one of the weakest links in the railway track. With increase of
speed upto 140 km/h (at present) and beyond (in future) and increased axle loads,
Indian Railways has to go for modern and sturdier turnouts. To cater to these
needs, turnouts need to be strengthened so as to reduce recurring maintenance
cost. Possible areas of technology up-gradation are given below-

15.4.1 IMPROVEMENT IN GEOMETORY

Flatter entry angle thereby reducing the angle of attack and reduced lateral
forces resulting in increased passenger comfort.
Adoption of tangential layouts providing benefits of higher speeds.
Introduction of transition curves thereby improving the running
characteristics of the curved tracks.
Use of spring operated switch setting device to ensure proper flange way
clearance.
Use of curved crossings.
Continuation of canting of rails through turnout resulting in smoother ride
over turnouts.

15.4.2 IMPROVEMENT IN STRUCTURAL SOUNDNESS

Switch Portion

Use of asymmetrical profile section (ZU-1-60) forged to standard rail
profile (UIC 60) at the end.
Use of higher UTS steel, further hardened to reduced wear.
Effective holding of stock rail with specially designed pins incorporated in
bearing plates.
Use of non greasing eco friendly base plates.
Use of specially designed synthetic rail pads for reduced vibration of
switch assembly.
Housing of switch operating mechanism and detection rods in a hollow
steel sleeper of the size of standard concrete sleeper will be a considerable
help in mechanized maintenance.
27
Provision of thermal restraints to arrest differential thermal expansion of
stock and tongue rails.
Sophisticated pulling techniques including introduction of hydraulic
systems.

Crossing Area

Use of explosive hardened CMS crossing to avoid deformation.
Use of compound crossings with high-manganese steel over running area.
Use of special alloyed steel junction pieces for welding of crossings with
standard rails.
Welded crossings using high grade steel bars (Balfour Beatty design).
Crossings forged and welded from special steel blocks (BWG design).
Surface hardening of load bearing areas.
Use of swing nose crossings, housed in a specially designed cradle.



-------------------------
28

References

Association of American Railroads, Report NO. ER-14, Speed of Trains
Through Turnouts, September 1961
Railway Research & Engineering News, Section E, Translation Series
Seminar on Points and Crossing, 11.5.81 to 16.5.81, Institute of Advanced
Track Technology, Pune
Design Aspects of Modern Turnouts, K.Santhanam, IPWE(India), RDSO
Centre
Speed on Turnouts, B.P.Agrawal, Indian Railway Institute of Advanced P.
Way Engg.
Speed of Trains on Turnouts, K.V.Rao, Western Railway
IRSAPWE 71
st
Advanced Course, Development in India to Increase Speed
over Turnouts, Rajendra Rai
Design of Turnouts and Speed on Turnouts by S.J.Singh, May1973
Turnout Design World Practices, August1972 Edition by M. N. Prasad
Modern Design of Points and Crossing,Paper pesented on 5-2-1971, by Y.
Krishna Murty
Turnouts Design and Speeds by K. Santhanam, Paper Presented At Indian
Railway Institute of Advanced P. Way Engg.
Turnouts taken at High Speed by J.N.Lamba
High Speed Turnouts and Its Design Calculation By A.K.Pramannik
Turnout for High Speed by T.R. Natarajan
Developments in India to Increase Speed Over Turnouts by Rajendra Rai
Papers Compiled By Technical Committee, IPWE, May 1996

---------------------





Project report by-

i) Sri A.K.Singh, Director/RDSO
ii) Sri Jitendra Kumar, Sr. DEN/BPL









29