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A PROJECT REPORT ON

INTERNAL CURING OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE


SUBMITTED BY SOMDATT DAHIYA 09EELCE055

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING OF GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BHARATPUR, RAJASTHAN
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Er. Amit D i!

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BHARATPUR, RAJASTHAN

2012-2013

A PROJECT REPORT ON

INTERNAL CURING OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE


"# SUBMITTED BY#"
Mr. RAMESH $UMAR 09EELCE0%% Mr. SOMDATT DAHIYA 09EELCE055 Mr. YASHPAL SINGH 09EELCE0&' Mr. AN$UR GUPTA 09EELCE00% Mr. MU$ESH $UMAR 09EELCE0() Mr. SUNIL $R. SHARMA *0EELCE(0) Mr. MANISH $UMAR *0EELCE(05 Mr. RAGHVENDRA SINGH *0EELCE(0& Mr. JITENDRA SINGH *0EELCE(0% Mi++. USHA MEENA 09EELCE059 Mi++. SONIA GUPTA 09EELCE05&

Mr. DHANRAJ MEENA 09EELCE0

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Er. Amit D i!

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BHARATPUR, RAJASTHAN

2012-2013

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that, the ro!ect e"tit#e$

INTERNAL CURING OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE


%&'(itte$ 'y Mr. SOMDATT DAHIYA Is a recor$ of his o)" )or* carrie$ o&t 'y hi( i" artia# f&#fi##(e"t for the a)ar$ of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Govt. engineering college, Bharatp r, ra!a"than U"$er (y +&i$a"ce $&ri"+ the aca$e(ic year (0*("(0*'

Dr. Bi+, -it A./ r! 0Pr1-2.t A34i+1r5


Date , P#ace,-HARATPUR

Er. Amit D i! 0Pr1-2.t G6i32 7 H.O.D5

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BHARATPUR

(0*("(0*'

A.891,:23;2m29t

.he" )e ta*e a +#a"ce o/er o&r !o&r"ey thro&+ho&t the year, fe) res ectf&# a"$ frie"$#y faces a"$ e"co&ra+e(e"t co(e across o&r (i"$0 .hat )e re(e('er the (ost is the i((e"se he# , +&i$a"ce a"$ teachi"+s of o&r ro!ect +&i$e Er0 A(it Daiya )itho&t )ho( )or*i"+ i" this ro!ect )o&#$ ha/e 'ee" )a#*i"+ o" a" &"*"o)" ath0 He )ho has ta*e" si"cere efforts to #ea$ &s, he )ho ta&+ht &s ho) to #a", )or* a"$ a"a#y1e a"$ he )ho (a$e &s $isco/er o&r hi$$e" 2&a#ities )i## 'e a#)ays re(e('ere$ 'y &s for the teachi"+s a"$ ri"ci #es he ta&+ht &s $&ri"+ the ro!ect co&rse0 .e )o&#$ #i*e to tha"* hi( for 'ei"+ s&ch a" e3ce##e"t teacher, a erfect +&i$e, a strict $isci #i"aria", a" i"$efati+a'#e #ea$er a"$ a tr&e frie"$0 .e are +ratef&# to Er0 Priya"*a G& ta for their ti(e#y a"$ /a#&a'#e +&i$a"ce0 .e are +ratef&# for the +&i$a"ce a"$ *i"$ s& ort of Dr0 -is)a!it Acharya0 .e )o&#$ #i*e to e3te"$ o&r +ratit&$e to)ar$s the s& orti"+ staff for 'ei"+ /ery he# f&#0 .e are /ery +ratef&# to those )ho i" the for( of 'oo*s ha$ co"/eye$ +&i$a"ce i" this ro!ect )or*0 At #ast, )e )o&#$ #i*e to tha"* o&r frie"$s a"$ fa(i#y for their s& year0 ort a"$ e"co&ra+e(e"t thro&+ho&t the

Mr0 %OMDATT DAHI4A -0TECH CI5IL ENGINEERING

CHAPTER

NO.

DESCRIPTION

PAGE

NO.

ABSTRACT 6 LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION 707 O-JECTI5E 708 %IGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT 709 DEFINITION OF INTERNAL CURING *. 70: NECE%%IT4 OF INTERNAL CURING 70; POTENTIAL MATERIAL% FOR IC 70< AD5ANTAGE% OF INTERNAL CURING 70= CONCRETE DEFICIENCIE% THAT IC CAN ADDRE%%

i ii ii 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 : : ; ; ; < = = = 79 7: 7: 7: 7; 7< 7< 7= 7> 7> 7>

70> IMPRO5EMENT% TO CONCRETE DUE TO IC 70? %UMMAR4 SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMERS (. 807 GENERAL 808 %UPER A-%OR-ENT POL4MER% FOR IC 809 %UMMAR4 LITERATURE REVIE< '. 907 GENERAL 908 RE5IE. OF LITERATURE 909 %UMMAR4 %. E=PERIMENTAL PROCEDURE :07 CON%TITUENT MATERIAL% U%ED :0707 Ce(e"t :0708 A++re+ates :0709 %& er P#astici1ers :070: %i#ica Po)$er :070; %& er A'sor'e"t Po#y(ers :08 FRE%H CONCRETE PROPERTIE% :0807 %#&( Test :09 HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIE%

:0907 Co( ressio" Test o" co"crete c&'es :0908 Te"si#e stre"+th of co"crete :0909 F#e3&ra# %tre"+th of co"crete :090: Mo$&#&s of E#asticity :0: TE%TING PROCEDURE :0; %UMMAR4 MI= DESIGN ;07 DEFINITION 5. ;08 O-JECTI5E OF MI@ DE%IGN ;09 FACTOR% TO -E CON%IDERED IN MI@ DE%IGN ;0: MI@ DE%IGN RESULTS AND DISCUSSION <07 FRE%H CONCRETE PROPERTIE% <08 MECHANICAL PROPERTIE% <0807 Co( ressi/e %tre"+th &. <0808 % #it Te"si#e %tre"+th <0809 F#e3&ra# %tre"+th <080: Mo$&#&s of E#asticity <09 COMPARI%ON OF RE%ULT% <0: %UMMAR4 ). CONCLUSIONS =07 GENERAL =08 CONCLU%ION% SCOPE FOR FUTURE <OR$ >. >07 GENERAL REFERENCES PUBLICATIONS

7> 7? 7? 7? 7? 86 87 87 87 87 88 8; 8; 8; 8; 8; 8< 8< 8= 8? 97 97 97 98 98 99 9<

ABSTRACT

Proper curing of concrete structures is important to ensure that they meet their intended performance and durability requirements. Therefore an effective in situ curing is necessary to maximize the degree of hydration and to minimize the cracking problems due to drying shrinkage. Traditional external curing could not achieve a desired effect due to the very low permeability of high-performance concrete, so some researchers shifted their attention to internal curing, a new curing method that may greatly enhance the curing effect on high-performance concrete. igh-performance concrete, which has a low water-binder ratio !w"b# and is often incorporated with highly active mineral admixtures such as silica fume, has been widely used in long span bridges and high-rise buildings because of its excellent mechanical performance. $t is also accompanied with more severe self-desiccation at early ages, however, and is thus more prone to autogenous shrinkage !%&# and cracking. The low water-cement !w"c# ratio !below '(.)# of P*, which is necessary for the

enhancement of strength and durability, leads to a so-called self-desiccation of concrete, as a result of the cement hydration process. This causes considerable volume changes known as autogenous shrinkage, which in turn lead to concrete cracking. The internal curing !$*# of concrete using small, well distributed water reservoirs seems to be able to solve this problem. $* is the process by which water is provided throughout the concrete to enhance cement hydration. $nternal curing can be achieved in two different ways. !i# +y partially replacing fine aggregates by ,ight -eight &aturated %ggregates, !ii# +y adding &uper %bsorbent Polymers. &uper %bsorbent Polymers !&%P# are a group of polymeric materials that have the ability to absorb and retain a significant amount of liquid from their surroundings and to retain the liquid within their structure without dissolving.

ii $n this study it is experimentally examined about the influence of $* on the mechanical properties of properties are analyzed. SL.NO. 70 80 90 :0 ;0 <0 Ta'#e 7, Mi3 Pro ortio" Ta'#e 8, Fresh Co"crete Pro erties Ta'#e 9, Co( ressi/e %tre"+th Res&#ts Ta'#e :, % #it Te"si#e %tre"+th Ta'#e ;, F#e3&ra# %tre"+th Ta'#e <, Mo$&#&s of E#asticity P*. &everal percentages of &%P are added and the DESCRIPTION PAGE NO. 8: 8; 8< 8< 8= 8=

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER * INTRODUCTION
*.* OBJECTIVE To i"cor orate i"ter"a# c&ri"+ of HPC 'y (ea"s of %& er A'sor'e"t Po#y(ers0 To st&$y the effect of $iffere"t co( ositio"s of %AP o" (echa"ica# ro erties of HPC0 *.( SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT No)AaA$ays HPC has 'eco(e a" o'!ect of i"te"si/e research $&e to its +ro)i"+ &se i" the co"str&ctio" ractice0 Ho)e/er, #o) )Bc ratio C'e#o) 60:D of HPC, )hich is "ecessary for the e"ha"ce(e"t of stre"+th a"$ $&ra'i#ity, #ea$s to se#f $esiccatio"
SL.NO. 70 80 90 :0 ;0 <0 =0 >0 ?0 DESCRIPTION Fi+&re7, %& er A'sor'e"t Po#y(er Fi+&re 8, %AP 'efore a"$ after a$$itio" of )ater Fi+&re 9, Mo&#$s Fi+&re :, Co( ariso" of Co( ressi/e %tre"+th Fi+&re ;, Co( ariso" of % #it Te"si#e %tre"+th Fi+&re <, Co( ariso" of F#e3&ra# %tre"+th Fi+&re =, Co( ariso" of E#astic (o$&#&s Fi+&re >, Co( ressio" Test Fi+&re ?, F#e3&re Test PAGE NO. < < 8: 8= 8> 8> 8? 96 96

of co"crete, as a res&#t of ce(e"t hy$ratio"

rocess0 This ca&ses co"si$era'#e

/o#&(e cha"+es, )hich i" t&r" #ea$ to crac*i"+ as )e## as stre"+th re$&ctio"0

I"ter"a# C&ri"+ of co"crete &si"+ s(a## )e## $istri'&te$ )ater reser/oirs see(s to 'e a'#e to so#/e this #o) )Bc is i"/esti+ate$0 The effects of a$$i"+ o#y(er o" (echa"ica# stre"+th of co"crete are st&$ie$ e3 eri(e"ta##y a"$ the res&#ts are $isc&sse$0 *.' DEFINITION OF INTERNAL CURING 0IC5 The ACIA96> Co$e states that Ei"ter"a# c&ri"+ refers to the rocess 'y )hich the hy$ratio" of ce(e"t occ&rs 'eca&se of the a/ai#a'i#ity of a$$itio"a# i"ter"a# )ater that is "ot art of the (i3i"+ .ater0F Co"/e"tio"a##y, c&ri"+ co"crete (ea"s creati"+ co"$itio"s s&ch that )ater is "ot #ost fro( the s&rface i0e0, c&ri"+ is ta*e" to ha e" Gfro( the o&tsi$e to i"si$eH0 I" co"trast, Gi"ter"a# c&ri"+H is a##o)i"+ for c&ri"+ Gfro( the i"si$e to o&tsi$eH thro&+h the i"ter"a# reser/oirs Ci" the for( of sat&rate$ #i+ht)ei+ht fi"e a++re+ates, s& er a'sor'e"t o#y(ers, or sat&rate$ )oo$ fi'resD Create$0 GI"ter"a# c&ri"+H is ofte" a#so referre$ as G%e#fI c&ri"+0H *.% NECESSITY OF INTERNAL CURING 0IC5 Co"/e"tio"a##y, c&ri"+ co"crete (ea"s creati"+ co"$itio"s s&ch that )ater is "ot #ost fro( the s&rface i0e0, c&ri"+ is ta*e" to ha e" Gfro( the o&tsi$e to i"si$eH0 I" co"trast, Gi"ter"a# c&ri"+H is a##o)i"+ for c&ri"+ Gfro( the i"si$e to o&tsi$eH thro&+h the i"ter"a# reser/oirs Ci" the for( of sat&rate$ #i+ht)ei+ht fi"e a++re+ates, s& er a'sor'e"t o#y(ers, or sat&rate$ )oo$ fi'resD Create$0 GI"ter"a# c&ri"+H is ofte" a#so referre$ as G%e#fIc&ri"+0H Ofte" s ecia##y i" HPC, it is "ot easi#y ossi'#e to ro/i$e c&ri"+ )ater fro( the to s&rface at the rate re2&ire$ to satisfy the o"+oi"+ che(ica# shri"*a+e, $&e to the e3tre(e#y #o) er(ea'i#ities ofte" achie/e$0 *.5 POTENTIAL MATERIALS FOR INTERNAL CURING ro'#e(0 I" this st&$y, the effect of %& er A'sor'e"t Po#y(er as a" a+e"t for i"ter"a# c&ri"+ o" (echa"ica# stre"+ths of co"crete )ith

The fo##o)i"+ (ateria#s ca" ro/i$e i"ter"a# )ater reser/oirs,


Li+ht)ei+ht A++re+ate C"at&ra# a"$ sy"thetic, e3 a"$e$ sha#eD, L.% %a"$ C.ater a'sor tio" J7= KD L.A 7?(( Coarse C.ater a'sor tio" J 86KD %& erAa'sor'e"t Po#y(ers C%APD C<6A966 (( si1eD %RA C%hri"*a+e Re$&ci"+ A$(i3t&reD C ro y#e"e +#yco# ty e i0e0 o#yethy#e"eA+#yco#D

.oo$ o)$er

*.& ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL CURING a0 I"ter"a# c&ri"+ CICD is a (etho$ to ro/i$e the )ater to hy$rate a## the ce(e"t, acco( #ishi"+ )hat the (i3i"+ )ater a#o"e ca""ot $o0 I" #o) )Bc ratio (i3es C&"$er 60:9 a"$ i"creasi"+#y those 'e#o) 60:6D a'sor ti/e #i+ht)ei+ht a++re+ate, re #aci"+ so(e of the sa"$, ro/i$es )ater that is $esor'e$ i"to the (ortar fractio" C asteD to 'e &se$ as a$$itio"a# c&ri"+ )ater0 The ce(e"t, "ot hy$rate$ 'y #o) a(o&"t of (i3i"+ )ater, )i## ha/e (ore )ater a/ai#a'#e to it0 '0 IC ro/i$es )ater to *ee the re#ati/e h&(i$ity CRHD hi+h, *ee i"+ se#fA $esiccatio" fro( occ&rri"+0 c0 IC (ai"tai"s the stre"+ths of (ortarBco"crete at the ear#y a+e C78 to =8 hrs0D a'o/e the #e/e# )here i"ter"a##y L e3ter"a##y i"$&ce$ strai"s ca" ca&se crac*i"+0 $0 IC ca" (a*e & for so(e of the $eficie"cies of e3ter"a# c&ri"+, 'oth h&(a" re#ate$ Ccritica# erio$ )he" c&ri"+ is re2&ire$ is the first 78 to =8 ho&rsD a"$ hy$ratio" re#ate$ C'eca&se hy$ratio" artic#es thirsti"+ for )aterD0 ro$&cts c#o+ the assa+e)ays "ee$e$ for the f#&i$ c&ri"+ )ater to tra/e# to the ce(e"t

Fo##o)i"+ factors esta'#ish the $y"a(ics of )ater (o/e(e"t to the &"hy$rate$ ce(e"t artic#es, i0 ii0 iii0 Thirst for )ater 'y the hy$rati"+ ce(e"t artic#es is /ery i"te"se, Ca i##ary actio" of the ores i" the co"crete is /ery stro"+, a"$ .ater i" the ro er#y $istri'&te$ artic#es of L.A Cfi"eD is /ery f#&i$0 *.) CONCRETE DEFICIENCIES THAT IC CAN ADDRESS The 'e"efits fro( IC ca" 'e e3 ecte$ )he"

Crac*i"+ of co"crete rei"forci"+ stee#,

ro/i$es

assa+e)ays res&#ti"+ i" $eterioratio" of

#o) ear#yAa+e stre"+th is a ro'#e(, er(ea'i#ity or $&ra'i#ity (&st 'e i( ro/e$, Rheo#o+y of co"crete (i3t&re, (o$&#&s of e#asticity of the fi"ishe$ ro$&ct or $&ra'i#ity of hi+h f#yAash co"cretes are co"si$eratio"s0

Nee$ for re$&ce$ co"str&ctio" ti(e, 2&ic*er t&r"aro&"$ ti(e i" recast #a"ts, #o)er (ai"te"a"ce cost, +reater erfor(a"ce a"$ re$icta'i#ity0

*.> IMPROVEMENTS TO CONCRETE DUE TO IC


Re$&ces a&to+e"o&s crac*i"+, #ar+e#y e#i(i"ates a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e, Re$&ces er(ea'i#ity, Protects rei"forci"+ stee#, I"creases (ortar stre"+th, I"creases ear#y a+e stre"+th s&fficie"t to )ithsta"$ strai",

Pro/i$es +reater $&ra'i#ity, Hi+her ear#y a+e Csay 9 $ayD f#e3&ra# stre"+th Hi+her ear#y a+e Csay 9 $ayD co( ressi/e stre"+th, Lo)er t&r"aro&"$ ti(e, I( ro/e$ rheo#o+y Greater &ti#i1atio" of ce(e"t, Lo)er (ai"te"a"ce, &se of hi+her #e/e#s of f#y ash, hi+her (o$&#&s of e#asticity, or +reater c&ri"+ re$icta'i#ity, hi+her erfor(a"ce, $oes "ot a$/erse#y affect &( a'i#ity Re$&ces effect of i"s&fficie"t e3ter"a# c&ri"+0

*.9 SUMMARY Defi"itio", a$/a"ta+es a"$ "ecessity of I"ter"a# C&ri"+ is st&$ie$ i" $etai# a"$ the (ateria#s those ca" 'e &se$ for IC are a"a#yse$0

CHAPTER ( SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMERS


(.* GENERAL

%& er a'sor'e"t o#y(ers Ca#so ca##e$ s#&sh o)$erD are o#y(ers that ca" a'sor' a"$ retai" e3tre(e#y #ar+e a(o&"ts of a #i2&i$ re#ati/e to their o)" (ass0 .ater a'sor'i"+ o#y(ers, )hich are c#assifie$ as hy$ro +e#s )he" crossA#i"*e$M a'sor' a2&eo&s so#&tio"s thro&+h hy$ro+e" 'o"$i"+ )ith )ater (o#ec&#es0 A %APNs a'i#ity to a'sor' )ater is a factor of the io"ic co"ce"tratio" of the a2&eo&s so#&tio"0 I" $eio"i1e$ a"$ $isti##e$ )ater, a %AP (ay a'sor' ;66 ti(es its )ei+ht Cfro( 96I<6 ti(es its o)" /o#&(eD, '&t )he" &t i"to a 60?K sa#i"e so#&tio", the a'sor'e"cy $ro s to (ay'e ;6 ti(es its )ei+ht0 The tota# a'sor'e"cy a"$ s)e##i"+ ca acity are co"tro##e$ 'y the ty e a"$ $e+ree of crossA#i"*ers &se$ to (a*e the +e#0 Lo) $e"sity crossA#i"*e$ %AP +e"era##y has a hi+her a'sor'e"t ca acity a"$ s)e##s to a #ar+er $e+ree0 These ty es of %APs a#so ha/e a softer a"$ stic*ier +e# for(atio"0 Hi+h crossA#i"* $e"sity sha e e/e" &"$er (o$est ress&re0 (.( SUPER"ABSORBENT POLYMER 0SAP5 FOR IC The co((o" %APs are a$$e$ at rate of 6I60< )t K of ce(e"t0 The %APs are co/a#e"t#y crossA#i"*e$0 They are Acry#a(i$eBacry#ic aci$ co o#y(ers0 O"e ty e of %APs are s&s e"sio" o#y(eri1e$, s herica# artic#es )ith a" a/era+e artic#e si1e of a ro3i(ate#y 866 ((M a"other ty e of %AP is so#&tio" o#y(eri1e$ a"$ the" cr&she$ a"$ sie/e$ to artic#e si1es i" the ra"+e of 78;I8;6 ((0 The si1e of the s)o##e" %AP artic#es i" the ce(e"t astes a"$ (ortars is a'o&t three ti(es #ar+er $&e to ore f#&i$ a'sor tio"0 The s)e##i"+ ti(e $e e"$s es ecia##y o" the artic#e si1e $istri'&tio" of the %AP0 It is see" that (ore tha" ;6K s)e##i"+ occ&rs )ithi" the first ; (i" after )ater a$$itio"0 o#y(ers e3hi'it #o)er a'sor'e"t ca acity a"$ s)e##, '&t the +e# stre"+th is fir(er a"$ ca" (ai"tai" artic#e

Fi;.* S6?2r A@+1r@29t P1:!m2r

Fi;6r2 (# SAP @2A1r2 93 At2r 33iti19 1A , t2r (.' SUMMARY The hysica# a"$ che(ica# ro erties of %& er A'sor'e"t Po#y(ers a"$ their a #icatio"s i" the fie#$ of Ci/i# E"+i"eeri"+ is st&$ie$ i" $etai# i" this cha ter0

CHAPTER '

LITERATURE REVIE<
'.* GENERAL I" this cha ter #iterat&re s&r/ey o" the to ics of a #icatio" of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ to hi+h erfor(a"ce co"crete )ith /ario&s (ateria#s a"$ to (eas&re /ario&s ara(eters s&ch as a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e etc0, is rese"te$0 '.( REVIE< OF LITERATURE '.(.*. BMiti; ti9; A6t1;2916+ S/ri98 ;2 @! I9t2r9 : C6ri9;C @! M.R. G2i82r 2t. :, Am2ri. 9 C19.r2t2 I9+tit6t2, S?2.i : P6@:i. ti19. 0*55 The &se of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ is a hi+h#y effecti/e (ea"s of (iti+ati"+ a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e i" ce(e"t (ortars C)Bc(J609;, > K si#ica f&(eD0 T)o $iffere"t so&rces of i"ter"a# )ater s& #y are co( are$, 7D re #ace(e"t of a ortio" of the sa"$ 'y artia##y sat&rate$ #i+ht)ei+ht fi"e a++re+ate a"$ 8D the a$$itio" of s& er a'sor'e"t o#y(er artic#es C%APD0 At e2&a# )ater a$$itio" rates, the %AP syste( is see" to 'e (ore efficie"t i" re$&ci"+ a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e at #ater a+es, (ost #i*e#y $&e to a (ore ho(o+e"eo&s $istri'&tio" of the e3tra c&ri"+ )ater )ithi" the threeA$i(e"sio"a# (ortar (icrostr&ct&re0 A co( ariso" of the )ater $istri'&tio" i" the $iffere"t syste(s, 'ase$ o" co( &ter i"o$e#i"+ a"$ $irect o'ser/atio" of t)oA$i(e"sio"a# cross sectio"s, is +i/e"0 '.(.(. BI9t2r9 : .6ri9; 1A /i;/"?2rA1rm 9.2 .19.r2t2 ,it/ ?r2"+1 823 Ai92 :i;/t ,2i;/t ;;r2; t2 A1r ?r2429ti19 1A 6t1;2916+ +/ri98 ;2 .r .8i9;C @! D 9i2: C6++19 2t. :, C2m29t 93 C19.r2t2 R2+2 r./ '>. 0&5 The effecti/e"ess of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ CICD to re$&ce a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e crac*i"+ i" hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete CHPCD )as i"/esti+ate$ &si"+ $iffere"t #e/e#s of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ o" fo&r airs of #ar+eAsi1e ris(atic HPC s eci(e"s teste$ si(&#ta"eo&s#y &"$er free a"$ restrai"e$ shri"*a+e0 I"ter"a# c&ri"+ )as s& #ie$ 'y reAsoa*e$ fi"e #i+ht)ei+ht a++re+ate CL.AD as a artia# re #ace(e"t to re+&#ar sa"$0 It )as fo&"$ that the &se of 7=> *+B(9 of sat&rate$ L.A i" HPC, ro/i$i"+ 8= *+B(9 of IC )ater e#i(i"ate$ the te"si#e stress $&e to restrai"e$ a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e )itho&t co( ro(isi"+ the ear#yAa+e stre"+th a"$ e#astic (o$&#&s of HPC0 It )as sho)" that the

ris* of co"crete crac*i"+ co&#$ 'e co"ser/ati/e#y esti(ate$ fro( the e3te"t of free shri"*a+e strai" occ&rri"+ after the ea* e3 a"sio" strai" that (ay $e/e#o at /ery ear#y a+es0 A&to+e"o&s e3 a"sio", o'ser/e$ $&ri"+ the first $ay for hi+h #e/e#s of i"ter"a# c&ri"+, ca" si+"ifica"t#y re$&ce the ris* of crac*i"+ i" co"crete str&ct&res, as 'oth the e#astic a"$ cree strai"s $e/e#o i"itia##y i" co( ressio", e"a'#i"+ the te"si#e stre"+th to i"crease f&rther 'efore te"si#e stresses start to i"itiate #ater0 '.(.'. BHi;/ P2rA1rm 9.2 C19.r2t2 E9/ 9.2m29t t/r16;/ I9t2r9 : C6ri9;C @! J1/9 R1@2rt+, N1rt/2 +t S1:it2 C1r?1r ti19. 0*'5 I"ter"a# c&ri"+ CICD i" #ace of, or as a" a$!&"ct to, e3ter"a# c&ri"+ ca" ass&re that res&#ts co"te( #ate$ thro&+h HPC )i## 'e achie/e$ a"$ i( ro/e$0 Pro'#e(s res&#ti"+ fro( #o) )aterAce(e"t C)BcD ratio co"cretes, s&ch as a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e, ha/e 'ee" i$e"tifie$, a"$ research a"$ fie#$ e3 erie"ce sho) &s ho) IC )i## reso#/e the(0 Co"crete ca" 'e i( ro/e$ 'y the s&'stit&tio", for a s(a## a(o&"t of "at&ra# sa"$ i" the (i3t&re, of a" e2&a# /o#&(e of cr&she$ str&ct&ra# +ra$e a'sor'e"t #i+ht)ei+ht a++re+ate sa"$ CL.A%D0 Most e3 a"$e$ sha#e #i+ht)ei+ht a++re+ates ha/e the a'i#ity to a'sor' 7;K or (ore 'y )ei+ht of )ater a"$ this a'sor'e$ )ater is i((e$iate#y a/ai#a'#e to hy$rate the ce(e"t artic#es $e ri/e$ of (i3i"+ )ater i" #o) )Bc ratio co"cretes0 This occ&rs thro&+h ro( t re#ease of the )ater as the co"crete c&res a"$ the (i3i"+ )ater is &se$ & 0 '.(.%. BEDt293i9; i9t2r9 : .6ri9; t1 .19.r2t2 miDt6r2+ ,it/ <EC /i;/2r t/ 9 0.%(C @! G +t19 E+?i91F "Hi- Fi9 2t. :, C19+tr6.ti19 93 B6i:3i9; M t2ri :+. 0**5 To o'tai" the re2&ire$ $&ra'i#ity, stre"+th a"$ hi+h erfor(a"ce $&ri"+ the #ife cyc#e of the str&ct&re, c&ri"+ co"crete is cr&cia# fro( the first ho&rs after its setti"+0 Therefore, a" effecti/e i" sit& c&ri"+ is re2&ire$ to (a3i(i1e $e+ree of hy$ratio" of ce(e"titio&s (ateria# a"$ to (i"i(i1e crac*i"+ ro'#e(s $&e to $ryi"+ shri"*a+e0 Hy$ratio" starts )he" (i3i"+ )ater co"tacts the ce(e"titio&s (ateria#s, ca&si"+ che(ica# reactio"s that ro$&ce ca#ci&( si#icate hy$rates, )hich (a*e co"crete stro"+er, a"$ other hy$ratio" ro$&cts s&ch as ca#ci&( hy$ro3i$e a"$ (o"os&# hate0 The for(atio" of the hy$ratio" ro$&cts is associate$ )ith a re$&ctio" of the ori+i"a# /o#&(e, )hat is ca##e$ che(ica# shri"*a+e0 %o(e art of the (i3i"+ )ater 'eco(es che(ica##y 'o"$e$ to the hy$ratio"

.(

ro$&cts, so(e other a$sor'e$ at the s&rface of the hy$ratio" ro$&cts, a"$ the rest re(ai"s i" so#&tio" at the ca i##ary ores for(e$ $&ri"+ hy$ratio"0 Ce(e"titio&s (ateria#s +et the )ater "ee$e$ to ro(ote hy$ratio" fro( the ca i##ary ores, )hich +e"erates s&rface te"sio"s that res&#t i" /o#&(etric re$&ctio"s *"o)" as a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e )he" occ&rs i" a c#ose$ isother(a# syste( that is "ot s&'!ecte$ to e3ter"a# forces0 I"ter"a# c&ri"+ CICD is a" effecti/e (etho$ for i( ro/i"+ erfor(a"ce of #o) .BC I#o) er(ea'i#ity co"cretes 'eca&se they re2&ire a$$itio"a# )ater to hy$rate the ce(e"titio&s (ateria#s0 Co"/e"tio"a# co"cretes, o" the other ha"$, co"tai" e"o&+h )ater to hy$rate the ce(e"titio&s (ateria#s, '&t are fre2&e"t#y "ot ro er#y c&re$, a##o)i"+ $ryi"+ a"$ co( ro(isi"+ stre"+th +ai" a"$ $&ra'i#ity0 The ai( of this i"/esti+atio" is to assess the effect of IC as a co( #e(e"t to tra$itio"a# c&ri"+ i" re#ati/e#y hi+h .BC co"cretes C.BC a'o/e 60:8D &"$er $ryi"+ co"$itio"s0 De+ree of hy$ratio", co( ressi/e stre"+th, a"$ er(ea'i#ity )ere (eas&re$ i" co"cretes )ith IC a"$ )itho&t IC0 Res&#ts sho) that e/e" &"$er $ryi"+ co"$itio"s, (i3t&res )ith IC e3hi'it 7<K hi+her hy$ratio", 7?K hi+her co( ressi/e stre"+th, a"$ 96K #o)er er(ea'i#ity tha" their co&"ter arts )ith "o IC0 This s&++ests that IC ca" 'e /ery &sef&# for i( ro/i"+ erfor(a"ce i" co"crete (i3t&res )ith re#ati/e#y hi+h .BC &"$er oor c&ri"+ co"$itio"s0 '.(.5. BS6?2r @+1r@i9; ?1:!m2r+ + 9 i9t2r9 : .6ri9; ;29t A1r miti; ti19 1A 2 r:!" ;2 .r .8i9; 1A /i;/"?2rA1rm 9.2 .19.r2t2 @ri3;2 32.8+C @! B rt Cr 2!2 2t. :, C19+tr6.ti19 93 B6i:3i9; M t2ri :+. 0'5 Hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete CHPCD )ith #o) )B'Aratio e3 erie"ces a co"si$era'#e che(ica# shri"*a+e a"$ se#fA$esiccatio" $&ri"+ its hy$ratio" rocess, #ea$i"+ to a rather hi+h a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e $efor(atio" $&ri"+ har$e"i"+0 I" case the free $efor(atio" of the co"crete is re/e"te$, i"ter"a# stresses are i"tro$&ce$, )hich ca" #ea$ to re(at&re crac*s0 These ear#yAa+e crac*s ca" se/ere#y affect the $&ra'i#ity of a co"crete str&ct&re0 -y a$$i"+ s& er a'sor'i"+ o#y(ers C%APD i"to the HPC as a" i"ter"a# c&ri"+ a+e"t, a"$ 'y a$$i"+ a$$itio"a# c&ri"+ )ater to the co"crete (i3t&re, the che(ica# shri"*a+e a"$ the se#fA$esiccatio" $&ri"+ hy$ratio" of the co"crete is co&"teracte$ a"$ th&s the a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e of the HPC ca" 'e si+"ifica"t#y re$&ce$0 U"fort&"ate#y, this rocess of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ a#so has so(e $isa$/a"ta+eo&s effects o" the (echa"ica# ro erties0 I" search of

..

a" o ti(i1atio" of the i"ter"a# c&ri"+ rocess, a" e3te"si/e e3 eri(e"ta# ro+ra( )as erfor(e$ o" HPC, &si"+ $iffere"t $e+rees of i"ter"a# c&ri"+, to assess the (echa"ica# a"$ ther(a# ro erties of the HPC, a"$ to e/a#&ate the effecti/e"ess of the erfor(e$ c&ri"+0 The +oa# is to o'tai" a (a3i(a# a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e re$&ctio" a"$ a (i"i(a# stre"+th re$&ctio"0 The res&#ti"+ effect o" the ear#yAa+e crac*i"+ ris* is si(&#ate$ 'y (ea"s of fi"ite e#e(e"t ca#c&#atio"s0 The si(&#atio"s a#so i"c#&$e ther(a# stress $e/e#o (e"t $&e to the heat of hy$ratio"0 I" case =6 *+B (9 of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ )ater is ro/i$e$ /ia the %AP, a" o ti(a# re$&ctio" of the crac*i"+ ris* is "otice$, (ai"#y ca&se$ 'y the a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e re$&ctio" a"$ the a eari"+ e3 a"si/e $efor(atio" ea* $irect#y after setti"+ ta*es #ace0 '.(.&. BA6t1;2916+ S/ri98 ;2 1A C19.r2t2 ,it/ S6?2r"A@+1r@29t P1:!m2rC, < 9;, F F/16, G/16, Y6A2i, P29;, B1, Li6, G/i./ 1, H6, S/6;6 9;. 0*95 The )aterAre#ease rocess of re)ette$ s& erAa'sor'e"t o#y(er C%APD artic#es i" ce(e"t aste is i##&strate$ 'y a crac*i"+ /ie)er a"$ it is fo&"$ that )ater e"trai"e$ 'y %AP is a#(ost e3ha&ste$ after = $ays, ro$&ci"+ (a"y ores i" the aste str&ct&re0 Mea")hi#e, the effects of %AP $osa+es a"$ e"trai"e$ )ater o" i"ter"a# re#ati/e h&(i$ity CIRHD, a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e CA%D, a"$ co( ressi/e stre"+th of co"crete are $isc&sse$0 Res&#ts i"$icate that i"cor oratio" of %AP o'/io&s#y $e#ays IRH $ec#i"e a"$ (iti+ates A% at a" ear#y a+eM ho)e/er, it "e+ati/e#y i"f#&e"ces the ore str&ct&re of ce(e"t aste0 Th&s, the co( ressi/e stre"+th of co"crete $ecreases )ith a hi+her co"te"t of %AP or e"trai"e$ )ater0 '.(.). ECombating
Shrinkage with Internal Curing,

N24i::2 A.M 0Pr1?2rti2+ 1A

C19.r2t2, F16rt/ E3iti19, Pr29ti.2 H ::5 0*&5 %hri"*a+e i" co"crete is re#ate$ ri(ari#y to the crac*i"+ te"$e"cy i" co"crete str&ct&res0 Crac*s affect co"creteHs co( ressi/e stre"+th, $&ra'i#ity erfor(a"ce, a"$ aesthetic 2&a#ity0 .hether i" the for( of $ryi"+ shri"*a+e, a&to+e"o&s#y shri"*a+e, #astic shri"*a+e, or other shri"*a+e (echa"is(, co('ati"+ the /o#&(e i"sta'i#ity of co"crete ca" 'e 2&ite cha##e"+i"+ for e"+i"eers a"$ co"tractors0

./

'.(.>. BT/2 6+2 1A :i;/t,2i;/t Ai92+ A1r t/2 i9t2r9 : .6ri9; 1A .19.r2t2C, @! G21r;2 C. H1AA, N1rt/2 +t S1:it2 C1r?1r ti19. 0*(5 The 'e"efits of &si"+ #i+ht)ei+ht a++re+ates i" co"crete to he# re$&ce crac*i"+ i" s#a's a"$ 'ri$+e $ec*s has 'ee" i"t&iti/e#y *"o)" for $eca$es 'y the #i+ht)ei+ht a++re+ate i"$&stry '&t the reaso"s as to )hy this occ&rre$ )ere "ot e3te"si/e#y e3a(i"e$ a"$ the 'e"efits )ere "ot )i$e#y ro(ote$0 It )as 'e#ie/e$, a"$ correct#y so, that the #o)er (o$&#&s of the L.A a"$ the i( ro/e$ tra"sitio" 1o"e aro&"$ the L.A artic#es $&e to their +e"era##y /esic&#ar s&rface, he# e$ re$&ce stress co"ce"tratio"s 'et)ee" the aste a"$ the a++re+ate a"$ those re$&ctio"s s&'se2&e"t#y re$&ce$ the a(o&"t of ear#yAa+e crac*i"+ i" the co"crete0 I" the 7?>6Hs, the ro$&ctio" of hi+hA stre"+th co"crete CH%CD 'eca(e (ore co((o" a"$, to acco( #ish it, ca(e the &se of hi+her ce(e"t co"te"ts, s& #e(e"tary ce(e"ti"+ (ateria#s s&ch as si#ica f&(e, f#y ash a"$ '#ast f&r"ace s#a+ ce(e"t, a"$ #o)er )aterA'i"$er ratios as a res&#t of the e3te"si/e &se of s& er #asti1ers0 The ter( Ehi+hA erfor(a"ceF co"crete CHPCD a#so e(er+e$ )ith a foc&s o" ro/i$i"+ s ecia# ro erties of co"crete a'o/e )hat )o&#$ "or(a##y 'e e3 ecte$ fro( co"crete ro$&ce$ for +e"era# &se0 Most of the HPC )as $irecte$ at i( ro/e$ $&ra'i#ity0 The $&ra'i#ity i( ro/e(e"ts ca(e 'y re$&ci"+ or e#i(i"ati"+ the tra"s ort (echa"is(s of the e"/iro"(e"t i"to the co"crete a"$ this +e"era##y fo##o)e$ the sa(e (o$ificatio"s of the (i3t&re ro ortio"s that occ&rre$ for H%C0

.0

'.(.9. BI9t2r9 : C6ri9; 1A Hi;/ P2rA1rm 9.2 C19.r2t2 Bri3;2 D2.8+ 93 It+ EAA2.t+ 19 P2rA1rm 9.2, S2r4i.2 LiA2 93 LiA2"C!.:2 C1+tC, @! D 9i2: C6++19 2t. :, N ti19 : R2+2 r./ C169.i: C 9 3 . 055 I"ter"a# c&ri"+ )ith L.A has 'ee" s&ccessf&##y &se$ rece"t#y i" #ar+e co"str&ctio" ro!ects of "or(a#A$e"sity co"crete str&ct&res0 Fie#$ o'ser/atio"s re orte$ (ar+i"a# a/e(e"t crac*i"+, a"$ tests i"$icate$ that =A$ay f#e3&ra# stre"+ths reache$ ?6K to 766K of the re2&ire$ 8>A$ay f#e3&ra# stre"+th $&e to a" i( ro/e$ ce(e"t hy$ratio"0 They a#so fo&"$ that the co( ressi/e stre"+ths of airAc&re$ cy#i"$ers )ere si(i#ar to those of )etAc&re$ cy#i"$ers at a## a+es, s&++esti"+ that co"crete )ith i"ter"a# c&ri"+ is #ess se"siti/e to co"$itio"s0 A#tho&+h the 'e"efits of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ for hi+h erfor(a"ce co"crete CHPCD str&ct&res ha/e 'ee" e/i$e"ce$ i" #a'oratory a"$ fie#$ i"/esti+atio"s Cs&ch as those re/io&s#y (e"tio"e$D, the #iterat&re $oes "ot ro/i$e a"y si+"ifica"t 2&a"titati/e i"for(atio" re+ar$i"+ the e3te"t of ser/ice #ife that ca" 'e achie/e$ 'y i"ter"a# c&ri"+ of co"crete str&ct&res0 The o'!ecti/e of this a er is to ro/i$e reaso"a'#e esti(ates of ser/ice #ife a"$ #ife cyc#e costs for a ty ica# co"crete 'ri$+e $ec* (a$e )ith i"ter"a##yA c&re$ HPC, &si"+ a/ai#a'#e test $ata fro( the #iterat&re, a#o"+ )ith (echa"istic (o$e#s a"$ co"ser/ati/e e"+i"eeri"+ !&$+(e"t0 '.(.*0. BI9t2r9 : C6ri9; 93 Mi.r1+tr6.t6r2 1A Hi;/"P2rA1rm 9.2 M1rt r+C, @! D :2 P. B29tF 2t. :, B6i:3i9; 93 Fir2 R2+2 r./ L @1r t1r!, N ti19 : I9+tit6t2 1A St 93 r3+ 93 T2./91:1;!. 0%5 .hi#e ty ica##y &se$ to re$&ce ear#yAa+e a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e a"$ crac*i"+, i"ter"a# c&ri"+ )i## a#so stro"+#y i"f#&e"ce the (icrostr&ct&re that is ro$&ce$ i" ce(e"tA 'ase$ (ateria#s0 I" this a er, the (icrostr&ct&re of a set of three $iffere"t '#e"$e$ ce(e"t hi+h erfor(a"ce (ortars ro$&ce$ )ith a"$ )itho&t i"ter"a# c&ri"+ )i## 'e co( are$0 For these (ortars )ith a )aterAtoAce(e"titio&s (ateria#s ratio of 609 'y (ass, i"ter"a# c&ri"+ has 'ee" ro/i$e$ 'y the a$$itio" of reA)ette$ #i+ht)ei+ht fi"e oor e3ter"a# c&ri"+ ractices or &"fa/ora'#e a('ie"t

.)

a++re+ates0 Their (icrostr&ct&res ha/e 'ee" e3a(i"e$ after 786 $ays of sea#e$ c&ri"+ &si"+ sca""i"+ e#ectro" (icrosco y of o#ishe$ s&rfaces i" the 'ac*Ascattere$ e#ectro" i(a+i"+ (o$e0 C#ear $isti"ctio"s 'et)ee" the (icrostr&ct&res ro$&ce$ )ith a"$ )itho&t i"ter"a# c&ri"+ are "ote$, i"c#&$i"+ $iffere"ces i" the &" reacte$ ce(e"titio&s co"te"t, the orosity, a"$ the (icrostr&ct&re of the i"terfacia# tra"sitio" 1o"es 'et)ee" sa"$ +rai"s C"or(a# a"$ #i+ht)ei+htD a"$ the hy$rate$ ce(e"t o'ser/atio"s )i## 'e re#ate$ to re/io&s#y (eas&re$ aste0 These (icro str&ct&ra# erfor(a"ce attri'&tes s&ch as

a&to+e"o&s $efor(atio" a"$ co( ressi/e stre"+th $e/e#o (e"t0

'.(.**. BS2:A C6ri9; C19.r2t2 H A9 I9tr136.ti19C, Am@i:!.P.S. 2t. :, C19.r2t2 C1m?1+it2+ L @, Str6.t6r : E9;i922ri9; R2+2 r./ C29tr2, C/299 i. E3cessi/e e/a oratio" of )ater Ci"ter"a# or e3ter"a#D fro( fresh co"crete sho&#$ 'e a/oi$e$M other)ise, the $e+ree of ce(e"t hy$ratio" )o&#$ +et #o)ere$ a"$ there'y co"crete (ay $e/e#o &"satisfactory ro erties0 C&ri"+ o eratio"s sho&#$ e"s&re that a$e2&ate a(o&"t of )ater is a/ai#a'#e for ce(e"t hy$ratio" to occ&r0 This a er $isc&sses $iffere"t as ects of achie/i"+ o ti(&( c&re of co"crete )itho&t the "ee$ for a #yi"+ e3ter"a# c&ri"+ (etho$s0 '.' SUMMARY A $etai#e$ #iterat&re st&$y )as carrie$ o&t 'ase$ o" the re/io&s i"/esti+atio"s a"$ the /ario&s ara(eters i"/o#/e$ are a#so co"si$ere$0

.1

CHAPTER % E=PERIMENTAL PROCEDURE


%.* CONSTITUENT MATERIALS USED Materia#s that are &se$ for (a*i"+ co"crete for this st&$y )ere teste$ 'efore casti"+ the s eci(e"s0 The re#i(i"ary tests )ere co"$&cte$ for the fo##o)i"+ (ateria#s0

Ce(e"t Fi"e a++re+ate Coarse a++re+ate .ater %i#ica f&(e %& er a'sor'e"t o#y(er
%.*.* C2m29t

.2

Ce(e"t &se$ i" co"str&ctio" is characteri1e$ as hy$ra&#ic or "o"Ahy$ra&#ic0 Hy$ra&#ic ce(e"ts Ce0+0, Port#a"$ ce(e"tD har$e" 'eca&se of hy$ratio", che(ica# reactio"s that occ&r i"$e e"$e"t#y of the (i3t&reNs )ater co"te"tM they ca" har$e" e/e" &"$er)ater or )he" co"sta"t#y e3 ose$ to )et )eather0 The che(ica# reactio" that res&#ts )he" the a"hy$ro&s ce(e"t o)$er is (i3e$ )ith )ater ro$&ces hy$rates that are "ot )aterAso#&'#e0 No"Ahy$ra&#ic ce(e"ts Ce0+0, #i(e a"$ +y s&( #asterD (&st 'e *e t $ry i" or$er to retai" their stre"+th0 The (ost i( orta"t &se of ce(e"t is the ro$&ctio" of (ortar a"$ co"crete0 The 'o"$i"+ of "at&ra# or artificia# a++re+ates to for( a stro"+ '&i#$i"+ (ateria# that is $&ra'#e i" the face of "or(a# e"/iro"(e"ta# effects0 S?2.iAi. Gr 4it! 1A C2m29t 0IS# %0'*5 I" co"crete Tech"o#o+y, s ecific +ra/ity of ce(e"t is (a$e &se of i" $esi+" ca#c&#atio"s of co"crete (i3es, a"$ it is a#so &se$ to ca#c&#ate its s ecific s&rface0 The s ecific +ra/ity is $efi"e$ as the ratio 'et)ee" the )ei+ht of +i/e" /o#&(e of ce(e"t to the )ei+ht of a" e2&a# /o#&(e of )ater0 The (ost ce(e"t0 I9iti : 93 Fi9 : S2tti9; Tim2 1A C2m29t As soo" as )ater is a$$e$ to ce(e"t, hy$ratio" of ce(e"t starts )hich res&#ts i" cha"+i"+ the )ater ce(e"t (i3 fro( f#&i$ to so#i$ Csetti"+D0 I"itia# %etti"+ Ti(e is that ti(e erio$ 'et)ee" the ti(es at )hich )ater is a$$e$ to ce(e"t aste, #ace$ i" the 5icatHs (o&#$ ;(( to =(( fro( the 'otto( of the (o&#$0 It is &s&a##y $esira'#e that co"crete sho&#$ 'e #ace$ a"$ co( acte$ 'efore I"itia# %et has starte$ a"$ "ot $ist&r'e$ after0 I" the seco"$ sta+e of hy$ratio", har$e"i"+ ta*es #ace a"$ the Fi"a# %etti"+ Ti(e is that ti(e erio$ 'et)ee" the ti(e )ater is a$$e$ to ce(e"t a"$ the ti(e at )hich o &#ar (etho$ of $eter(i"i"+ s ecific +ra/ity of ce(e"t is 'y the &se of *erose"e )hich $oes"Ht react )ith

.3

"ee$#e )ith a""&#ar co##ar attach(e"t fai#s to (a*es a" i( ressio" o" the s&rface of ce(e"t aste0 %.*.( A;;r2; t2+ EFi"e a++re+ateF is $efi"e$ as (ateria# that )i## ass a No0 : sie/e a"$ )i##, for the (ost art, 'e retai"e$ o" a No0 866 sie/e0 For i"crease$ )or*a'i#ity a"$ for eco"o(y as ref#ecte$ 'y &se of #ess ce(e"t, the fi"e a++re+ate sho&#$ ha/e a ro&"$e$ sha e0 The &r ose of the fi"e a++re+ate is to fi## the /oi$s i" the coarse a++re+ate a"$ to act as a )or*a'i#ity a+e"t0 Coarse a++re+ate is a (ateria# that )i## ass the 9Ai"ch scree" a"$ )i## 'e retai"e$ o" the No0 : sie/e0 As )ith fi"e a++re+ate, for i"crease$ )or*a'i#ity a"$ eco"o(y as ref#ecte$ 'y the &se of #ess ce(e"t, the coarse a++re+ate sho&#$ ha/e a ro&"$e$ sha e0 E/e" tho&+h the $efi"itio" see(s to #i(it the si1e of coarse a++re+ate, other co"si$eratio"s (&st 'e acco&"te$ for0

Fi92 ;;r2; t2+# Us&a##y sa"$ or sto"e $&st a"$ its si1e is #i(ite$ to :0=;(( +a&+e, i0e0, assi"+ thro&+h :0=;(( I% sie/e '&t retai"e$ o" =; (icro" sie/e0 C1 r+2 ;;r2; t2+# -ro*e" sto"eB+ra/e# a"$ its si1e is :0=;(( +a&+e #&s i0e0, retai"e$ o" :0=;(( I% sie/e0 A:: i9 ;;r2; t2+# %ie/e a"a#ysis e"a'#es &s to ascertai" the ro ortio"s of $iffere"t si1es of

a++re+ate0 The res&#ts )hich are +e"era##y +i/e" as erce"ta+e of tota# a++re+ate assi"+ thro&+h each of sie/e are co"si$ere$ as a (etho$ of sta"$ar$i1atio" of +ra$i"+ of a++re+ates for (ost eco"o(ica# (i3 a"$ )or*a'i#ity )ith (i"i(&( 2&a"tity of ce(e"t0

.4

%.*.' S6?2r ?: +ti.iF2r+ %& er #astici1ers, a#so *"o)" as hi+h ra"+e )ater re$&cers, are che(ica#s &se$ as a$(i3t&res )here )e##A$is erse$ artic#e s&s e"sio"s are re2&ire$0 These o#y(ers are &se$ as $is ersa"ts to a/oi$ artic#e a++re+atio", a"$ to i( ro/e the f#o) characteristics Crheo#o+yD of s&s e"sio"s s&ch as i" co"crete a #icatio"s0 Their a$$itio" to co"crete or (ortar a##o)s the re$&ctio" of the )ater to ce(e"t ratio, "ot affecti"+ the )or*a'i#ity of the (i3t&re, a"$ e"a'#es the ro$&ctio" of se#fAco"so#i$ati"+ co"crete a"$ hi+h erfor(a"ce co"crete0 This effect $rastica##y i( ro/es the erfor(a"ce of the har$e"i"+ fresh aste0 I"$ee$ the stre"+th of co"crete i"crease )he"e/er the a(o&"t of )ater &se$ for the (i3 $ecreases0 Ho)e/er, their )or*i"+ (echa"is(s #ac* of a f&## &"$ersta"$i"+, re/ea#i"+ i" certai" cases ce(e"tAs& er #astici1er i"co( ati'i#ities0 %.*.% Si:i. P1,32r %i#ica f&(e i" o)$er for( is a$$e$ to Port#a"$ ce(e"t co"crete to i( ro/e its ro erties, i" artic&#ar its co( ressi/e stre"+th, 'o"$ stre"+th, a"$ a'rasio" resista"ce0 These i( ro/e(e"ts ste( fro( 'oth the (echa"ica# i( ro/e(e"ts res&#ti"+ fro( a$$itio" of a /ery fi"e o)$er to the ce(e"t aste (i3 as )e## as fro( the o11o#a"ic reactio"s 'et)ee" the si#ica f&(e a"$ free ca#ci&( hy$ro3i$e i" the aste0 A$$itio" of si#ica f&(e a#so re$&ces the er(ea'i#ity of co"crete to ch#ori$e io"s, )hich rotects the rei"forci"+ stee# of co"crete fro( corrosio", es ecia##y i" ch#ori$eArich e"/iro"(e"ts s&ch as coasta# re+io"s a"$ those of h&(i$ co"ti"e"ta# roa$)ays a"$ r&")ays C'eca&se of the &se of $eici"+ sa#tsD a"$ sa#t)ater 'ri$+es0 Effect of si#ica f&(e o" $iffere"t ro erties of fresh a"$ har$e" co"crete,A aD .or*a'i#ity, .ith the a$$itio" of si#ica f&(e, the s#&( #oss )ith ti(e is $irect#y ro ortio"a# to i"crease i" the si#ica f&(e co"te"t $&e to the i"tro$&ctio" of #ar+e s&rface area i" the co"crete (i3 'y its a$$itio"0 A#tho&+h the s#&( $ecreases, the (i3 re(ai"s hi+h#y cohesi/e0

.5

'D %e+re+atio" a"$ -#ee$i"+, %i#ica f&(e re$&ces '#ee$i"+ si+"ifica"t#y 'eca&se the free )ater is co"s&(e$ i" )etti"+ of the #ar+e s&rface area of the si#ica f&(e a"$ he"ce the free )ater #eft i" the (i3 for '#ee$i"+ a#so $ecreases0 %i#ica f&(e a#so '#oc*s the ores i" the fresh co"crete so )ater )ithi" the co"crete is "ot a##o)e$ to co(e to the s&rface0 %.*.5 S6?2r"A@+1r@29t P1:!m2r 0SAP5 The co((o" %APs are a$$e$ at rate of 6I60< )t K of ce(e"t0 The %APs are co/a#e"t#y crossA#i"*e$0 They are Acry# a(i$eBacry#ic aci$ co o#y(ers0 O"e ty e of %APs are s&s e"sio" o#y(eri1e$, s herica# artic#es )ith a" a/era+e artic#e si1e of a ro3i(ate#y 866 ((M a"other ty e of %AP is so#&tio" o#y(eri1e$ a"$ the" cr&she$ a"$ sie/e$ to artic#e si1es i" the ra"+e of 78;I8;6 ((0 The si1e of the s)o##e" %AP artic#es i" the ce(e"t astes a"$ (ortars is a'o&t three ti(es #ar+er $&e to ore f#&i$ a'sor tio"0 The s)e##i"+ ti(e $e e"$s es ecia##y o" the artic#e si1e $istri'&tio" of the %AP0 It is see" that (ore tha" ;6K s)e##i"+ occ&rs )ithi" the first ; (i" after )ater a$$itio"0

%.( FRESH CONCRETE PROPERTIES %.(.* S:6m? T2+t Fresh co"crete )he" &"s& tra"s orti"+, orte$ )i## f#o) to the si$es a"$ si"*i"+ i" hei+ht )i##

ta*e #ace0 This /ertica# sett#e(e"t is *"o)" as s#&( 0 The )or*a'i#ity Cease of (i3i"+, #aci"+ a"$ co( actio"D of co"crete $e e"$s o" )et"ess of co"crete ro ortio"s of fi"e a++re+ate to coarse Cco"siste"cyD i0e0, )ater co"te"t as )e## as a++re+ate a"$ a++re+ate to ce(e"t ratio0 The s#&( test )hich is a fie#$ test is o"#y a" a ro3i(ate (eas&re of co"siste"cy $efi"i"+ ra"+es of co"siste"cy for (ost ractica# )or*s0 This test is erfor(e$ 'y fi##i"+ fresh co"crete i" the (o&#$ a"$ (eas&re the sett#e(e"t i0e0, s#&( 0 %.' HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIES

/(

%.'.* C1m?r2++i19 T2+t 19 C19.r2t2 C6@2+ The $eter(i"atio" of the co( ressi/e stre"+th of co"crete is /ery i( orta"t 'eca&se the co( ressi/e stre"+th is the criterio" of its 2&a#ity0 Other stre"+th is +e"era##y rescri'e$ i" ter(s of co( ressi/e stre"+th0 The stre"+th is e3 resse$ i" NB(( 80 This (etho$ is a #ica'#e to the (a*i"+ of re#i(i"ary co( ressio" tests to ascertai" the s&ita'i#ity of the a/ai#a'#e (ateria#s or to $eter(i"e s&ita'#e (i3 ro ortio"s0 The co"crete to 'e teste$ sho&#$ "ot ha/e the "o(i"a# (a3i(&( si1e of a++re+ate (ore tha" 9>(( test s eci(e"s are either 7;c( c&'es or 7;c( $ia(eter, 96c( &se$0 At #east three s eci(e"s sho&#$ 'e (a$e a/ai#a'#e for testi"+0 .here e/ery cy#i"$er is &se$ for co( ressi/e stre"+th res&#ts the c&'e stre"+th ca" 'e ca#c&#ate$ as &"$er0 Mi"i(&( cy#i"$er co( ressi/e stre"+th J 60> 3 co( ressi/e stre"+th c&'e C76 c( 3 76 c(D The co"crete s eci(e"s are +e"era##y teste$ at a+es 7 $ay, = $ays a"$ 8> $ays0

%.'.( T29+i:2 Str29;t/ 1A C19.r2t2 0S?:it T29+i:2 T2+t5 Co"crete is stro"+ i" co( ressio" '&t )ea* i" te"sio"0 Te"sio" stresses are #i*e#y to $e/e#o i" co"crete $&e to $ryi"+ shri"*a+e, r&sti"+ of rei"force(e"t, te( erat&re +ra$ie"t etc0 I" co"crete roa$ s#a' this te"si#e stresses are $e/e#o e$ $&e to )hee# #oa$e$ a"$ /o#&(e cha"+es i" co"crete are a/ai#a'#e to $eter(i"e this0 % #it test is o"e of the i"$irect (etho$s a/ai#a'#e to fi"$ o&t the te"si#e stre"+th0 %.'.' F:2D6r : +tr29;t/ 1A C19.r2t2 It is the a'i#ity of a 'ea( or s#a' to resist fai#&re i" 'e"$i"+0 It is (eas&re$ 'y #oa$i"+ &"Arei"force$ <3< i"ch co"crete 'ea(s )ith a s a" three ti(es the $e th C&s&a##y 7> i"0D0 The f#e3&ra# stre"+th is e3 resse$ as EMo$&#&s of R& t&reF CMRD i" si0 F#e3&ra# MR is a'o&t 78 to 86 erce"t of co( ressi/e stre"+th0

/.

%.'.% M136:6+ 1A E: +ti.it! It is the ratio 'et)ee" te"si#e stress a"$ te"si#e strai" of a"y (ateria#0 It sho)s the (ateria#Hs te"$e"cy to 'e $efor(e$ e#astica##y )he" a force is a #ie$ to it0 This is ca#c&#ate$ fro( the stress I strai" c&r/e of that artic&#ar (ateria#0 %.% TESTING PROCEDURE .ithi" the e3 eri(e"ta# research ro+ra( co"cer"i"+ the $e/e#o (e"t of

(echa"ica# ro erties of a hi+h erfor(a"ce refere"ce co"crete of +ra$e M:6 CREFD )as co"si$ere$ )ith the fo##o)i"+ co( ositio", accor$i"+ to Ta'#e 70 The )BcAratio is 60980 The )B' ratio is 60960 The s& er #astici1er is o#y car'o3y#ic ether0 Coarse a++re+ates )ere chose", ha/i"+ a artic#e si1e (ai"#y /aryi"+ 'et)ee" 8 (( a"$ 86 ((0 The si#ica f&(e, co"tai"i"+ (ore tha" ?6K of a(or ho&s %iO8, has a s ecific s&rface area of 86 (8B+0 A re/io&s st&$y, )ith a si(i#ar HPC co( ositio" C)B' ratio of 6099D, i"$icates te"si#e fai#&re of the HPC after < $ays $&e to i"ter"a# restrai"t of the a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e0 I" or$er to (iti+ate this a"$ to re/e"t ear#yAa+e crac*i"+, a$$itio"a# i"ter"a# c&ri"+ )ater )i## 'e ro/i$e$ 'y (ea"s of %AP0 The %AP &se$, is a s&s e"sio" o#y(eri1e$, co/a#e"t#y cross #i"*e$ acry#

a(i$eBacry#ic aci$ co o#y(er0 The artic#e $e"sity is =>; *+B( 9 C$ia(eter 'et)ee" >6 O( a"$ 7;6 O(D a"$ has a )ater a'sor tio" ca acity of :; +B+ after ; (i" Cthe a ro3i(ate (i3i"+ ti(eD0 -ase$ o" this a'sor tio" #e/e#, the a(o&"t of %AP to 'e a$$e$ to the co"crete is esti(ate$, ai(i"+ for a" a(o&"t of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ )ater e2&a# to :; *+B(9 C%AP:;D, <=0;6 *+B(9 C%AP<=0;D a"$ ?6 *+B(9 C%AP?6D0 This #ea$s to a corres o"$i"+ %AP a(o&"t of res ecti/e#y 7 *+B( 9, 70; *+B(9 a"$ 8066 *+B(90 The a(o&"t of c&ri"+ )ater itse#f has to 'e a$$e$ to the co"crete $&ri"+ (i3i"+0 As co( e"satio", the sa"$ co"te"t is re$&ce$ i" or$er to o'tai" 7 (9 of co"crete CTa'#e 7D0 Co"crete (i3es are (a$e &si"+ a #a"etary (i3er accor$i"+ to the fo##o)i"+ (i3i"+ roce$&re, first the $ry co( o"e"ts C'i"$er, fi"e a"$ coarse a++re+ates, %APD are (i3e$ for 7 (i", a"$ after)ar$s the )ater a"$ s& er #astici1er are a$$e$ a"$ (i3i"+ co"ti"&es for a"other : (i"0 A" i"te"si/e e3 eri(e"ta# ro+ra( is erfor(e$ to st&$y the

//

effect of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ o" $iffere"t ty es of co"crete ro erties, CiD fresh ro erties Cs#&( a"$ $e"sityDM CiiD (echa"ica# ro erties Cco( ressi/e stre"+th, f#e3&ra# stre"+th, s #itti"+ te"si#e stre"+th a"$ e#astic (o$&#&sD0 %.5 SUMMARY The $etai#e$ e3 eri(e"ta# ro+ra( to 'e fo##o)e$ for the &r ose of this ro!ect a"$ the tests to 'e carrie$ o&t are st&$ie$ i" this cha ter0

CHAPTER 5 MI= DESIGN


5.* DEFINITION Mi3 $esi+" is the rocess of se#ecti"+ s&ita'#e i"+re$ie"t if co"crete a"$

$eter(i"es their re#ati/e ro ortio"s )ith the o'!ect of certai" (i"i(&( stre"+th a"$ $&ra'i#ity as eco"o(ica##y as ossi'#e0 5.( OBJECTIVE OF MI= DESIGN The o'!ecti/e of co"crete (i3 $esi+" as fo##o)s0 70 The first o'!ecti/e is to achie/e the sti &#ate$ (i"i(&( stre"+th0

/0

80 The seco"$ o'!ecti/e is to (a*e the co"crete i" the (ost eco"o(ica# Ma""er0 Cost )ise a## co"creteHs $e e"$s ri(ari#y o" t)o factors, "a(e#y cost of (ateria# a"$ cost of #a'o&r0 La'o&r cost, 'y )ay of for()or*, 'atchi"+, (i3i"+, tra"s orti"+ a"$ c&ri"+ is "a(e#y sa(e for +oo$ co"crete0 5.' FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN MI= DESIGN 70 Gra$e of co"crete 80 Ty e of ce(e"t 90 Ty e L si1e of a++re+ate :0 Ce(e"t co"te"t ;0 Ty e of (i3i"+ L c&ri"+ <0 .ater Bce(e"t ratio =0 De+ree of )or*a'i#ity >0 De"sity of co"crete ?0 Air co"te"t

5.% MI= DESIGN Desi+" %ti &#atio"s, Gra$e Desi+"atio" J MA:6 Ty e of ce(e"t J P0P0CA:9 +ra$e Fi"e A++re+ate J Po"eAII % 0 Gra/ity Ce(e"t J 907; % 0 Gra/ity Fi"e A++re+ate J 80<7 % 0 Gra/ity Coarse A++re+ate J 80<; MiD C :.6: ti19# 70 Tar+et Mea" %tre"+th J :6 Q C; @ 70<;D J :>08; MPa

/)

80 %e#ectio" of )ater ce(e"t ratio Ass&(e )ater ce(e"t ratio J 609; 90 Ca#c&#atio" of ce(e"t co"te"t, A Ass&(e ce(e"t co"te"t :=; *+ B (9 :0 Ca#c&#atio" of )ater, A :=; @ 609; J 7;6 *+ )hich is #ess tha" 7>< *+ CAs er Ta'#e No0 :, I%, 768<8D He"ce o0*0 ;0 Ca#c&#atio" for C0A0 L F0A0, CAs er I%, 768<8, C#0 No0 90;07D 5 J R . Q CCB%cD Q C7B D 0 CfaB%faD S 3 C7B7666D 5 J R . Q CCB%cD Q T7BC7A DU 0 CcaB%caD S 3 C7B7666D .here 5 J a'so#&te /o#&(e of fresh co"crete, )hich is e2&a# to +ross /o#&(e C(9D (i"&s the /o#&(e of e"tra e$ air, . J (ass of )ater C*+D er (9 of co"crete, C J (ass of ce(e"t C*+D er (9 of co"crete, %c J s ecific +ra/ity of ce(e"t, C D J Ratio of fi"e a++re+ate to tota# a++re+ate 'y a'so#&te /o#&(e, CfaD , CcaD J tota# (ass of fi"e a++re+ate a"$ coarse a++re+ate C*+D er (9 of Co"crete res ecti/e#y, a"$ %fa , %ca J s ecific +ra/ities of sat&rate$ s&rface $ry fi"e a++re+ate a"$ Coarse a++re+ate res ecti/e#y0 As er Ta'#e No0 9, I%A768<8, for 86(( (a3i(&( si1e e"tra e$ air is 8K0

/1

Ass&(e F0A0 'y K of /o#&(e of tota# a++re+ate J 9<0; K 60?> J R 7<6 Q C :66 B 907; D Q C 7 B 609<; D C Fa B 80<7 DS C 7 B7666 D Ce(e"t FA CA %i#ica F&(e %& er P#astici1er C*+D :=; JV Fa J ;>>08 *+ %ay Fa J ;>> *+0 60?> J R7<6 Q C:66 B 907;D Q C7 B 60<9;D CCa B 80<;;DS C7 B7666D JV Ca J 77;?09= *+0 %ay Ca J 77;? *+0 He"ce Mi3 $etai#s er (9 Ce(e"t J :=; *+ .ater J 7;6 *+ Fi"e a++re+ate J ;>> *+ Coarse a++re+ate J 77;? *+ .ater, ce(e"t, F0A0, C0A0 J 60'5# *# *.(5# (.%( T @:2 *# MiD Pr1?1rti19 C*+D ;>> C*+D 77;? C*+D 8; C*+D ;

.ater C#iterD 7;6

/2

Fi;.' M16:3+

CHAPTER & RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

/3

&.* FRESH CONCRETE PROPERTIES The fresh co"crete ro erties a"$ th&s the co"siste"cy of the co"crete (i3t&re ca" 'e $eter(i"e$ 'y (ea"s of the s#&( test a"$ the f#o) test0 A#so the $e"sity of the fresh co"crete ca" 'e easi#y $eter(i"e$ 'y (eas&ri"+ the "et )ei+ht of a reser/oir )ith a *"o)" /o#&(e fi##e$ )ith co( acte$ HPC0 C1m?1929t S:6m? D29+it!0Fr2+/5 D29+it!0(> 3 !+5 *+B(9 8:89 89=? 898> 8966 U9it (( *+B(9 R2A :> 8:>> SAP%5 <? 89?< SAP&).5 :8 89;: SAP90 <9 899=

T @:2 (# Fr2+/ C19.r2t2 Pr1?2rti2+ &.( MECHANICAL PROPERTIES &.(.* C1m?r2++i42 Str29;t/ C&'e s eci(e"s )ith a si$e of 7;6 (( are ro$&ce$ a"$ store$ i((e$iate#y after (i3i"+ i" a c#i(ate roo(0 At the a+e of 7 $ay, = $ays a"$ 8> $ays the co( ressi/e stre"+th tests are ta'&#ate$ i" Ta'#e 90 &.(.( S?:it T29+i:2 Str29;t/ Te"si#e s #itti"+ tests are carrie$ o&t o" cy#i"$ersC$ia(eter 7;6 ((, hei+ht 966 ((D a#so store$ i((e$iate#y after (i3i"+ i" a c#i(ate roo( a"$ teste$ at the a+e of 7 $ay, = $ays a"$ 8> $ays Caccor$i"+ to the I% Co$eD0 The res&#ts are +i/e" i" Ta'#e :0 &.(.' F:2D6r : +tr29;t/ 0 For each co( ositio", the F#e3&ra# stre"+th is a#so $eter(i"e$ o" ris( erfor(e$ accor$i"+ to the I% Co$e roce$&res0 The /a#&es are

s eci(e"s Csi$e 7;6 ((, hei+ht 966 ((D at the a+e of 7 $ay, = $ays a"$ 8> $ays accor$i"+ to the I% Co$e roce$&res0 The test res&#ts are ta'&#ate$ i" Ta'#e ;0

/4

&.(.% M136:6+ 1A E: +ti.it! For each co( ositio", the E#astic (o$&#&s is $eter(i"e$ o" cy#i"$rica# s eci(e"s at the a+e of 8> $ays0 The test res&#ts are ta'&#ate$ i" Ta'#e <0
*DAY MI= STRENGTH 0MP 5 7808< 7:08= 780=: 770=: ) DAYS STRENGTH 0MP 5 8<0>8 9<0; 980?8 970?8 (> DAYS STRENGTH 0MP 5 :6089 ;:0=; :?09> :=0>> 9<07 880=: 7?068 I INCREASE AT (> DAYS

REF SAP%5 SAP&).5 SAP90

T @:2 '# C1m?r2++i42 Str29;t/ R2+6:t+


*DAY MI= STRENGTH 0MP 5 7808< 7:08= 780=: 770=: ) DAYS STRENGTH 0MP 5 8<0>8 9<0; 980?8 970?8 (> DAYS STRENGTH 0MP 5 :6089 ;:0=; :?09> :=0>> 9<07 880=: 7?068 I INCREASE AT (> DAYS

REF SAP%5 SAP&).5 SAP90

T @:2 %# S?:it T29+i:2 Str29;t/


*DAY MI= STRENGTH 0MP 5 7808< 7:08= 780=: ) DAYS STRENGTH 0MP 5 8<0>8 9<0; 980?8 (> DAYS STRENGTH 0MP 5 :6089 ;:0=; :?09> 9<07 880=: I INCREASE AT (> DAYS

REF SAP%5 SAP&).5

/5 SAP90 770=: 970?8 :=0>> 7?068

T @:2 5# F:2D6r : Str29;t/ MI= EC 0MP 5 REF 9;09 SAP%5 :<0? SAP&).5 :70? SAP90 9?09

T @:2 &# M136:6+ 1A E: +ti.it! The ta'&#ate$ res&#ts )ere the" e3 resse$ i" the for( of 'ar charts to co( are the ro erties 'et)ee" /ario&s (i3 ro ortio"s0 &.' COMPARISON OF RESULTS
Comparison of Compressive Strength
60 SAP45 %AP<=0; SAP90 50 Strength (MPa) 40 REF REF SAP45 %AP<=0; SAP90 30 20 10 0 1DAY 7 DAY 28 DAY % INCREASE SAP45 %AP<=0; SAP90

SAP45 %AP<=0; SAP90

REF

REF SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90

Fi;6r2.% C1m? ri+19 1A C1m?r2++i42 Str29;t/ Fro( the a'o/e +ra hica# res&#t co( ariso", it is c#ear#y /isi'#e that a$$itio" of %AP #ea$s to i"crease i" co( ressi/e stre"+th0 It is a#so ca" 'e "ote$ that the effecti/e"ess is hi+her )ith %AP :; co( ositio"0

0(
Comparison of Split Tensile Strength
60 SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90 50 Strength (MPa) 40 REF REF SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90 30 20 10 0 1DAY 7 DAY 28 DAY % INCREASE SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90

SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90

REF

REF SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90

Fi;6r2.5 C1m? ri+19 1A S?:it T29+i:2 Str29;t/ Fro( the a'o/e +ra hica# res&#t co( ariso", it is c#ear#y /isi'#e that a$$itio" of %AP #ea$s to i"crease i" s #it te"si#e stre"+th0 It is a#so ca" 'e "ote$ that the effecti/e"ess is hi+her )ith %AP :; co( ositio"0
Comparison of Flexural Strength
60 SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90 50 Strength (MPa) 40 REF REF SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90 30 20 10 0 1DAY 7 DAY 28 DAY % INCREASE SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90

SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90

REF

REF SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90

Fi;6r2.& C1m? ri+19 1A F:2D6r : Str29;t/ Fro( the a'o/e +ra hica# res&#t co( ariso", it is c#ear#y /isi'#e that a$$itio" of %AP #ea$s to i"crease i" f#e3&ra# stre"+th0 It is a#so ca" 'e "ote$ that the effecti/e"ess is hi+her )ith %AP :; co( ositio"0

0.

Comparison of Elastic Modulus


Elastic Modulus (MPa) 50 40 30 20 10 0 REF SAP45 SAP67.5 SAP90

Fi;6r2.) C1m? ri+19 1A E: +ti. M136:6+

&.% SUMMARY The fresh co"crete ro erties a"$ the har$e"e$ co"crete stre"+th ro erties )ere $eter(i"e$ thro&+h e3 eri(e"ta# (eas&re(e"ts a"$ they )ere ta'&#ate$0 The co( ariso" 'et)ee" the ro erties of $iffere"t (i3 ro ortio"s )ere $o"e thro&+h the 'ar charts0 For( the co( ariso" it is "ote$ $o)" that the res&#t is o ti(&( at the (i3 ro ortio" %AP :;0

0/

Fi; >. C1m?r2++i19 T2+t

Fi; 9. F:2D6r2 T2+t

Fi; *0. S?:it T29+i:2 T2+t

CHAPTER ) CONCLUSION
).* GENERAL -y a$$i"+ s& er a'sor'i"+ o#y(ers C%APD i"to the HPC as a" i"ter"a# c&ri"+ a+e"t, a"$ 'y a$$i"+ a$$itio"a# c&ri"+ )ater to the co"crete (i3t&re, the a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e of the HPC ca" 'e si+"ifica"t#y re$&ce$ a"$ he"ce the stre"+th ro erties ca" 'e i"crease$0 %e/era# (echa"ica# tests )ere erfor(e$ to e/a#&ate the effect of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ o" the hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete ro erties a"$ crac*i"+ 'eha/ior0 Therefore o"e refere"ce co( ositio" )as co( are$ to three co( ositio"s )ith a$$itio"a# a(o&"t of %AP, artia##y re #aci"+ the sa"$ of the refere"ce co( ositio"0 I" a$$itio", this st&$y

00

i"$icates the effecti/e"ess of s& er a'sor'i"+ o#y(ers C%APD as a" i"ter"a# c&ri"+ a+e"t to re/e"t ear#yAa+e crac*i"+ of hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete0 ).( CONCLUSION The (ai" co"c#&sio"s of this st&$y are #iste$ 'e#o), I I A$$itio" of %AP #ea$s to a si+"ifica"t i"crease of (echa"ica# stre"+th CCo( ressi/e, % #it te"si#e a"$ F#e3&ra# stre"+thD0 A hi+her a"$ ear#ier heat ro$&ctio" rate $&e to hy$ratio" is fo&"$ for hi+her a(o&"ts of %AP a$$e$ to the refere"ce co"crete0 The effecti/e"ess of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ 'y (ea"s of %AP a #ie$ to a hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete is the hi+hest if :; *+B (9 )ater is a$$e$ 'y (ea"s of 7 *+B(9 %AP0

CHAPTER > SCOPE FOR FUTURE <OR$


>.* GENERAL There is a sco e for $eter(i"i"+ the i"f#&e"ce of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ o" (echa"ica# ro erties s&ch as a&to+e"o&s shri"*a+e, cree etc0 There is a sco e to $eter(i"e the i"f#&e"ce of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ o" ther(a# ro erties s&ch as heat of hy$ratio", re#ati/e h&(i$ity etc0 There is a sco e to $eter(i"e the i"f#&e"ce of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ o" I"$ia" c#i(atic co"$itio"s )ith $iffere"t c&ri"+ te( erat&res0

0)

There is a sco e for $eter(i"i"+ the i"f#&e"ce of i"ter"a# c&ri"+ )he" $iffere"t a$(i3t&res are &se$ i" co"crete0

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R8S RILEM TCA7?<, I"ter"a# c&ri"+ of co"crete, stateAofAtheAart re ort of RILEM tech"ica# co((ittee 7?<AICC, i", W0 Wo/#er, O0M0 Je"se" CE$s0D, RILEM P&'#icatio"s %0A0R0L0 Fra"ce, -a+"e&3, 866=, 79? 0

R9S %0 .e'er, H0.0 Rei"har$t, A "e) +e"eratio" of hi+h erfor(a"ce co"crete, co"crete )ith a&to+e"o&s c&ri"+, A$/a"ce$ Ce(e"t -ase$ Materia#s < C8D C7??=D ;?I<>0 R:S O0M0 Je"se", P0F0 Ha"se", .aterAe"trai"e$ ce(e"tA'ase$ (ateria#s, Pri"ci #e a"$ theoretica# 'ac*+ro&"$, Ce(e"t a"$ Co"crete Research 97

01

R;S %0 Ph&to/s*y, W0 Wo/#er, A0 -e"t&r, I"f#&e"ce of ce(e"t aste (atri3 ro erties o" a&to+e"o&s c&ri"+ of hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete, Ce(e"t L Co"crete Co( osites 8< C866:D :??I;6=0 R<S D0P0 -e"t1, P0 L&ra, J0.0 Ro'erts, Mi3t&re Co"crete I"ter"atio"a# CFe'r&ary 866;D 7I<0 R=S R0E0 Phi##eo, Co"crete scie"ce a"$ rea#ity, i", J0P0 %*a#"y, %0 Mi"$ess CE$s0D, Materia#s %cie"ce of Co"crete II, A(erica" Cera(ic %ociety, .ester/i##e, U%A, 7??7, 0 7I>0 R>S ACI 879R, G&i$e for str&ct&ra# #i+ht)ei+htAa++re+ate co"crete, A(erica" Co"crete I"stit&te, Far(i"+to" Hi##s, U%A, 8669, 9> 0 =<; ro ortio"i"+ for i"ter"a# c&ri"+,

R?S T0A0 Ho#(, T0.0 -re("er, %tateAofAtheAartAre ort o" hi+hAstre"+th, hi+h$&ra'i#ity str&ct&ra# #o)A$e"sity co"crete for a #icatio"s i" se/ere (ari"e e"/iro"(e"ts, U0%0 Ar(y Cor s of E"+i"eers, Re ort No0 ERDCB%L TRA 66A9, A&+&st 8666, 77< 0

R76S J0.0 Ro'erts, -0 Jo"es, J0 H&#s(a", I( ro/i"+ the $&ra'i#ity a"$ eco"o(y of short a"$ (e$i&( s a" 'ri$+es thro&+h i"ter"a# c&ri"+, =th I"ter"atio"a# Co"fere"ce o" %hort a"$ Me$i&( % a" -ri$+es, Mo"trea#, Ca"a$a, A&+&st 866<, 76 R77S 50H0 5i##arrea#, D0A0 Croc*er, -etter Co"crete I"ter"atio"a# CFe'r&ary 866=D 98I9<0 R78S D0 C&sso", T0 Hoo+e/ee", A" e3 eri(e"ta# a roach for the a"a#ysis of ear#yAa+e 'eha/io&r of hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete str&ct&res &"$er restrai"e$ shri"*a+e, Ce(e"t a"$ Co"crete Research 9= C8D CFe'r&ary 866=D 866I86?0 R79S W0 Wo/#er, Testi"+ syste( for $eter(i"i"+ the (echa"ica# 'eha/io&r of ear#yAa+e co"crete &"$er restrai"e$ L free &"ia3ia# shri"*a+e, Materia#s L %tr&ct&res 8= C7??:D 98:I9960 R7:S O0 -!o"te+aar$, T0 Wa"sta$, E0J0 %e##e/o#$, T0A0 Ha((er, %tress i"$&ci"+ $efor(atio"s a"$ (echa"ica# ro erties of hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete at /eryAear#yAa+es, 0

a/e(e"ts thro&+h i"ter"a# hy$ratio",

02

;th I"t0 %y( osi&( o" Uti#i1atio" of Hi+hA%tre"+thBHi+hA Perfor(a"ce Co"crete, Nor)ay, %a"$ef!or$, J&"e 7???, 0 768=I76:60

R7;S P0F0 Ha"se", E0J0 Pe$erse", Mat&rity co( &ter for co"tro##e$ c&ri"+ a"$ har$e"i"+ of co"crete, Nor$is* -eto"+ :7 C7?D C7?==D 87I8;0 R7<S J0 Pha"+, D0 C&sso", L0 Mitche##, T0 Hoo+e/ee", J0 Mar+eso", The (at&rity a roach for re$icti"+ $iffere"t ro erties of hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete, =th 0 79;I7;:0 I"ter"atio"a# %y( osi&( o" Uti#i1atio" of Hi+hA%tre"+thB Hi+hAPerfor(a"ce Co"crete, .ashi"+to", U%A, ACI %P 88>A77, 7, J&"e 86I8:, 866;,

R7=S D0 -e"t1, P0 Ha##ec*, A0 Gra$er, J0 Ro'erts, Fo&rA$i(e"sio"a# @Aray (icroto(o+ra hy st&$y of )ater (o/e(e"t $&ri"+ i"ter"a# c&ri"+, %#i$e Prese"tatio" (a$e at the I"ter"atio"a# RILEM co"fere"ce o" 5o#&(e Cha"+es of Har$e"i"+ Co"crete, Testi"+ a"$ Miti+atio", A&+&st 86I89, 866<, De"(ar*, Ly"+'y0 R7>S D0 C&sso", T0 Hoo+e/ee", Ne) test (etho$ for $eter(i"i"+ coefficie"t of ther(a# e3 a"sio" at ear#y a+e i" hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete, 78th I"ter"atio"a# Co"fere"ce o" Che(istry of Ce(e"t, Mo"trea#, Ca"a$a, J&#y 866=, 78 0

R7?S A0 -e"t&r, Ear#y a+e crac*i"+ tests, i" ear#y a+e crac*i"+ i" ce(e"titio&s syste(s, re ort of RILEM co((ittee TC 7>7AEA%, i", A0 -e"t&r CE$0D, RILEM P&'#icatio"s %ar#, Fra"ce, -a+"e&3, 8668, 0 8:7I8;;0

R86S %0 Ph&to/s*y, W0 Wo/#er, A0 -e"t&r, I"f#&e"ce of ce(e"t aste (atri3 ro erties o" the a&to+e"o&s c&ri"+ of hi+hA erfor(a"ce co"crete, Ce(e"t a"$ Co"crete Co( osites 8< C866:D0 R87S D0P0 -e"t1, I"ter"a# c&ri"+ of hi+hA erfor(a"ce '#e"$e$ ce(e"t (ortars, ACI Materia#s Jo&r"a# 76: C:D CJ&#yIA&+&st 866=D :6>I:7:0 R88S A('i#y0P0%0 et0 a#, E%e#f C&ri"+ Co"crete I A" I"tro$&ctio"F, Co"crete Co( osites La', %tr&ct&ra# E"+i"eeri"+ Research Ce"tre, Che""ai0

03

PUBLICATIONS 70 E%t&$y o" Mecha"ica# Pro erties of Hi+h Perfor(a"ce Co"crete &si"+ %AP as a" I"ter"a# C&ri"+ A+e"tF, Natio"a# Co"fere"ce o" A$/a"ces a"$ I""o/atio"s i" Ci/i# E"+i"eeri"+, Me co %ch#e"* E"+i"eeri"+ Co##e+e, %i/a*asi0
/. E%t&$y o" Mecha"ica# Pro erties of HPC &si"+ %AP as a" I"ter"a# C&ri"+

A+e"tF, Natio"a# Co"fere"ce o" Mo$er" Tre"$s i" Ci/i# E"+i"eeri"+, Dr0 %i/a"thi A$ita"ar Co##e+e of E"+i"eeri"+, Tir&che"$&r0