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Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


Contents 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2. 2.5 2.+ 2.. 2.$ 2.3 Introduction to AXE What is AXE? AXE as viewed by the subscriber AXE as viewed by the telecom administration !le"ibility # the be#all and end#all AXE system structure %rocessors in the AXE system#basic &rinci&les 'ystem structure Internal interwor(in) and hardware in A%* *he di)ital )rou& switch *he di)ital subscriber sta)e A%, 211 and A%, 212#control &arts o- the AXE system *he I/0 1In&ut/0ut&ut2 system in AXE Addressin) &rinci&les and the o&eratin) system *ra--ic handlin) A&&endi"

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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10 1. 1.1 Introduction to AXE What is AXE?

*his 4uestion may be answered in many di--erent ways. 'ome would say5 6A tele&hone e"chan)e75 while others mi)ht be more s&eci-ic and say5 6A tele&hone system ca&able o- servin) all ty&es o- telecom networ(s# national as well as international7. And many o- the answers )iven would be ri)ht. 8ut i- the 4uestion reads5 6What do the three letters 9AXE: stand -or?75 there will usually be no answer. What5 then5 does 6AXE7 mean? # *he answer is that it is ;ust a three#letter code denotin) an Ericsson &roduct. All &roducts5 instruments5 tools5 etc. made or used by Ericsson are identi-ied by a three#letter code. *he three letters are usually also -ollowed by a number to indicate &roduct variants. We will discuss this matter in more detail later on in this boo(5 'ection .2. <et us now revert to the -irst 4uestion5 6What is AXE?7 *o be able to )ive a com&rehensive answer we are )oin) to use a com&arative e"am&le= we will com&are an AXE e"chan)e installed today with one othe -irst AXE e"chan)es ever installed5 that is5 the 'odertal;e E"chan)e ;ust south o'toc(holm5 which was cut over in 13.+. I- we could &lace these two e"chan)es side by side5 we would -ind that they loo( 4uite di--erent. And i- we ta(e a closer loo(5 the di--erences will become even more mani-est. *he older version uses relay#based techni4ue -or some o- its -unctions5 whereas relays are very rare in the newer one. *he modern e"chan)e -eatures a wide ran)e o- -acilities -or clients to choose amon)5 whereas the old one can o--er only a limited number.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

>et both are called AXE. Where is the lo)ic in this?

*he answer is as -ollows= Even thou)h the two versions di--er as -ar as e"ternal characteristics are concerned5 they are very similar in terms o- internal structure because the same system structure has been used. !urthermore5 the same ty&e o- desi)n aids have been used in desi)nin) the two e"chan)es. 'ince this internal structure is in no way de&endent on the technolo)y used5 the AXE system is sometimes re-erred to as 6-uture#&roo-7. Another ten years -rom now new technolo)y will be available5 resultin) &erha&s in new AXE versions.


AXE as viewed by the ubscriber

A subscriber will ma(e certain demands on his tele&hone as well as on the

telecom networ( as a whole. *hese demands are usually more or less unreasonable= 6?y tele&hone should -unction at all times5 and it is a must that I should always be connected to the number I have dialled7. 0- course5 such a demand is e"cessive5 but on the other hand reality is not many ste&s behind. In most countries5 the &ortion o- unsuccess-ul calls due to technical -aults and con)estion5 can be -ar below 1 &er cent. Another demand is that a tele&hone that is out o- service should be 4uic(ly re&aired. In these situations5 subscribers will receive better service i- the e"chan)e itsel- can decide whether the tele&hone or the line is -aulty. *hese ty&es o- demands# to)ether with the demand -or 4uic( set#u& oconnections# have always been made by subscribers. *he introduction o- com&uter#controlled tele&hone e"chan)es also meant the introduction o- a new conce&t# '@8'ABI8EB !AAI<I*IE'. An AXE e"chan)e can be &rovided with a variety o- subscriber -acilities5 which means that subscribers can be o--ered better service.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

We are now )oin) to ta(e a loo( at some o- the -acilities o--ered and see how they can be used.

ubscriber !aci"ities in AXE

Wa#e-u$ and %e&inder ervice *he subscriber can dial the hour -or automatic wa(e#u& on his tele&hone. Ca"" 'rans(er )*!o""ow &e+ or 'e&$orary Ca"" 'rans(er, *he subscriber can divert calls intended -or his number to any other number within a s&eci-ied area. Abbreviated -ia""ing A short code re&laces a lon) number or a number used -re4uently by the subscriber. *he ca&acity is u& to 100 numbers &er subscriber. .on-dia""ed Connection )*/ot 0ine+, *he subscriber need only li-t the handset 1receiver2 to be connected to a )iven number5 either directly or a-ter5 say5 5 seconds. I- the subscriber dials a di)it durin) these 5 seconds5 he can use his tele&hone in the usual manner. A"ternation on In1uiry *he subscriber &resses a button to alternate between two calls. Add-on Con(erence )'hree-$arty Con(erence, *hree subscribers can converse with each other simultaneously. Ca"" Waiting *he subscriber hears a wea( tone i- called by a third &arty durin) a conversation in &ro)ress. *his -acility also includes alternation on in4uiry. -iversion *his -acility is available in two variants= diversion on busy and diversion on no re&ly. A common characteristic o- both variants is that diversion ta(es &lace to some other number &ro)rammed by the subscriber.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

*hese are some o- the subscriber -acilities o--ered by the AXE system today. !uture AXE -acilities are dealt within section 3.55 I'CD.


AXE as 3IEWE- by the 'E0EC45 A-5I.I '%A'I4.

Who buys an AXE e"chan)e? In most cases the buyers are national telecom

administrations5 but some countries have &rivate tele&hone com&anies# !inland and the @'A5 -or e"am&le. 0- course5 the buyers also ma(e demands on the tele&hone systems they are )oin) to &urchase. *he administration usually ma(es a so#called AE0IAE 0! '>'*E?5 which means that it decides to buy a lar)e number o- e"chan)es -rom one and the same su&&lier. In this way5 maintenance5 s&are &arts handlin)5 trainin)5 etc. will be easier to or)aniFe as com&ared with a &urchase com&risin) various ty&es o- e"chan)es -rom di--erent su&&liers. Aonsiderin) the -act that the service li-e o- an e"chan)e is very lon)5 we realiFe that this (ind o- decision is a very im&ortant one. It is essential that the administration should choose the 6ri)ht7 system -rom the be)innin). We will now mention some o- the -actors that an administration must ta(e into account be-ore ado&tin) a new system. As readers5 you should have these -actors in mind when studyin) the system structure later on in this boo(. Coes the system include basic -unctions 1coin tele&hones5 &rivate e"chan)e -unctions5 etc.2?

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

Aan the system handle o&erator#controlled tra--ic5 -or instance5 to a local e"chan)e?

What other -acilities does the system o--er? Dote that subscriber -acilities can be &ro-itable to an administration. EXA?%<E= *he 6Aall Waitin)7 -acility results in a lar)er &ortion o- success-ul calls5 thus increasin) the number o- char)ed calls as well as the administration:s business earnin)s.

Will -uture e"tensions be costly? 1Is 6s&are ca&acity7 -or -uture e"tensions available?2

Coes the system include concentrators? 1Aan the administration o--er subscriber -acilities to subscribers in rural areas?2

Aan the system &rovide the administration with ade4uate statistical in-ormation? 'uch in-ormation constitutes a use-ul tool when dimensionin) the networ(5 which in turn results in a hi)her )rade o- service -or the subscribers.

Is the system ca&able o- handlin) di)ital transmission? Eow many alternative routes 1number o- routes and number o- lines &er route2 can the system handle?

Will the system be able to satis-y &resent and -uture demands as re)ards numberin)? 1A numberin) &lan o-ten covers a &eriod o- 30#50 years into the -uture2.

Will it be easy to chan)e the numberin) o- subscriber lines? 1A subscriber who moves to a new address within the same e"chan)e area usually wants to (ee& his old number2.

Is the system ca&able o- handlin) &resent and -uture call meterin) methods?

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

Coes the system incor&orate -acilities -or time#di--erentiated call meterin)? 1<ower rates in the evenin) than durin) o--ice hours2.

Aan the system handle call meterin) -or coin tele&hones and s&ecial -acilities? Is the system com&atible with all e"istin) and &lanned si)nallin) systems? 1!or instance5 AAI**:s 'i)nallin) 'ystem Do. .2.

Will the system be easy to o&erate and maintain? 0&eration and maintenance activities are &er-ormed by &ersonnel who 112 cost money and 122 need trainin). Beduction in the number o- &ersonnel and/or trainin) time will5 o- course5 reduce costs.

Will centraliFed o&eration and maintenance be &ossible? 1@nattended local e"chan)es are su&ervised -rom a central &oint. *his means less &ersonnel and lower total cost o- o&eration and maintenance2.

Is automatic testin) o- system e4ui&ment &rovided? 1'uch testin) will -acilitate -ault tracin)5 thus reducin) re&air time2.

Is the system easy to communicate with? 1'horter &ersonnel trainin) time2. As we can see5 a )reat many -actors in-luence the &urchase o- tele&hone

e"chan)es. 'ince today:s systems are be)innin) to reach a very hi)h de)ree ocom&le"ity # a -act which ma(es them di--icult to evaluate # some administrations -ind it convenient to buy one e"chan)e -rom each o- a number o- su&&liers. *his )ives the administration time to evaluate the di--erent systems and to com&are them with one another be-ore decidin) on one or5 &erha&s5 two systems. Aan we then say that AXE satis-ies these re4uirements? >E'5 IDCEEC. Its desi)ners too( them into account even at the 6drawin) board sta)e7. 'ince the develo&ment o- the system was controlled at all times by the demands made on its &er-ormance5 the solutions to the &roblems resultin) -rom

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

these demands -orm an inte)ral &art o- the system. 0r in other words= there are no tem&orary solutions in AXE.

!0EXI6I0I'7- 'he 6e-a"" and End-a""

Coes a tele&hone system have to be -le"ible? >es5 a tele&hone system must be -le"ible -rom two di--erent &oints o- view. !irst5 -le"ibility is a &rere4uisite when &roducin) and sellin) the system. It must be &ossible to use one and the same system in di--erent &arts o- the world and to satis-y di--erent re4uirements with re)ard to system o&eration. 'econd5 the system must be -le"ible -or telecom administrations to o&erate. In this conte"t5 it is o- &articular im&ortance to remember that an e"chan)e cannot ;ust be shut down -or e"tension or re&air. All modi-ications5 re&airs or chan)es must be made while the e"chan)e is in service5 and without disturbin) the tra--ic handlin). *hese -actors5 too5 have been ta(en into consideration when desi)nin) the AXE system. 0nly very e"tensive chan)es in the e"chan)e will inter-ere with the tra--ic5 thou)h still to a very small de)ree.

2. 2.1

AXE 7 'E5 '%8C'8%E P%4CE 4% in the AXE 7 'E5- 6A IC P%I.CIP0E

*he AXE system is re-erred to as an SPC system. Eere5 '%A stands -or 'tored %ro)ram Aontrol5 which means that &ro)rams stored in a com&uter control the o&eration o- the e"chan)e. 1Dote that e"chan)e is used )enerally to denote either the &lant as a whole # i.e. includin) the means o- control em&loyed # or that &art othe &lant which &er-orms the tele&hony or switchin) -unctions2. All o&erations to be &er-ormed by the e"chan)e are stored in the com&uter memory. *o modi-y a -unction we must conse4uently modi-y the com&uter memory.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

Figure. 2.1.1 An SPC Exchange *he memory contains a lar)e number o- instructions which tell the com&uter what to do in di--erent situations. *o illustrate this5 we may com&are an AXE e"chan)e with an old manual e"chan)e. A manual e"chan)e is controlled by an o&erator. Curin) the decades immediately be-ore and a-ter the turn o- the century this was the most common ty&e o- e"chan)e5 but even today manual e"chan)es are used 1small com&any %8Xs5 hotel %8Xs5 etc.G %8X H %rivate 8ranch E"chan)e2. !i)ure 2.1.2 shows a manual e"chan)e used in Iasa 1!inland2 in 1$30.

Figure 2.1.2 Manual Exchange in 1890

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


%uttin) it somewhat sim&ly5 we mi)ht say that in AXE the o&erators have been re&laced by a &ower-ul com&uter. *he com&uter memory contains all the in-ormation and s(ills &reviously &ossessed by o&erators. In those days5 6re&ro)rammin)7 the o&erator meant tellin) her how to chan)e her &rocedures. *hus5 to chan)e somethin) in AXE we must re&ro)ram the com&uter5 i.e. modi-y the list o- instructions. *here are many other similarities between manual e"chan)es and AXE. !or instance5 what would ha&&en in the manual e"chan)e i- the o&erator was ta(en ill? It would5 o- course5 6sto&7. *o im&rove the reliability o- a manual e"chan)e we may have two o&erators5 one o- whom is standby. And this is also a &rinci&le used in AXE= the switchin) e4ui&ment is controlled by two com&uters5 one o- which is standby. We will revert to this du&lication conce&t later on.

AP' and AP9

As has been said5 AXE consists o- two main &arts= switchin) e4ui&ment -or switchin) tele&hone calls5 and a com&uter -or controllin) the switchin) e4ui&ment. *hese two &arts have been )iven desi)nations resemblin) the AXE letter code. *he switchin) e4ui&ment is called A%*5 and the com&uter is called A%,. 8ut not ;ust what we can see and touch in the e"chan)e is called A%*. A%* also has &ro)rams5 which are stored in the com&uter 1A%,2 but which belon) to the e"chan)e 1switchin)2 &art 1A%*2. *o illustrate this correlation we are )oin) to desi)n a sim&le system -or tra--ic si)nals to be used at an intersection5 and these si)nals will be controlled by a com&uter. <et us assume that we buy a com&uter consistin) o- a central &rocessin) unit containin) the &rocessor and the memory5 and that we su&&lement this com&uter with a CI'%<A> @DI*5 a JE>80ABC and a !<0%%>#CI'J @DI*. *hese last three units are (nown under the collective term o- ID%@*/0@*%@* CEIIAE'.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


Figure 2.1.3 Personal Computer We assemble our com&uter e4ui&ment5 connect it5 and switch on the &ower. What will ha&&en? A bee& is heard5 and somethin) is &rinted out on the dis&lay. 0bviously5 the com&uter already contains some (ind o- &ro)ram. And this is called the o&eratin) &ro)ram because it handles the wor( &er-ormed in the com&uter. What we now have in -ront o- us on the des( corres&onds to the A%, &art o- AXE. *hus5 A%, consists ohardware 1the com&uter5 the memory5 the in&ut/out&ut devices5 etc.2 and so-tware -or handlin) memories and in&ut/out&ut devices5 and -or administerin) the wor( done by the com&uter. We are now )oin) to ta(e a loo( at the -unctions to be controlled by our com&uter. *he tra--ic si)nal system will be o- modern ty&e5 with du)#in sensors -or detectin) motor#cars. In addition5 the tra--ic si)nal &osts will have buttons to be &ressed by &edestrians be-ore crossin) the street.

Figure 2.1. !ra""ic Signals Controlle# $% a Computer

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*o control these tra--ic si)nals we must write a &ro)ram which tells the com&uter how to act in di--erent situations. And the &ro)ram that we write must have certain data to wor( with. *he data in our &ro)ram will be5 -or instance5 what the si)nals indicate at any )iven moment. *he com&uter must 6remember7 what the si)nals indicate to enable the &ro)ram to wor( satis-actorily. We &rovide the com&uter with two (inds omaterial= a &ro)ram and data. *he &ro)ram will not chan)e when the system is started u&5 but the data will. We will now com&are our tra--ic si)nal system with the AXE system and de-ine some common conce&ts. *he &ro)ram we have written is intended -or a s&eci-ic a&&lication. Eence5 as o&&osed to )eneral &ro)rams5 this ty&e o- &ro)ram is called Application Program. 0ur a&&lication &ro)ram consists o- &ro)ram and data5 or 'o-tware. *he tra--ic si)nals5 the sensors5 the lines and the &ro)ram that we have written to control these corres&ond to A%* in AXE. Aonse4uently5 A%* in AXE consists o- the e"chan)e 1&rinted board assemblies5 lines5 etc.2 and o- so-tware stored in the com&uter 1A%,2.

AP' : 'e"e$hony $art o( AXE AP9 : Contro" $art o( AXE Figure 2.1.& !he !'o Parts o" an A(E Exchange

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

<et us now ta(e a closer loo( at the com&uter that controls the e"chan)e.


'W4 '7PE o( P%4CE

in our tra--ic si)nal system.


As you will understand5 we cannot use a &ersonal com&uter li(e the one used

*he wor( to be &er-ormed in a tele&hone e"chan)e can be said to -all into two main )rou&s= 1. Boutine scannin) o- e4ui&ment to detect chan)es. An e"am&le is the chec(in) &er-ormed to see i- a subscriber has li-ted his handset. *his is done several times every second. 2. Aom&le" analyses and dia)nostics re4uirin) hi)h com&utin) ca&acity and lar)e volumes o- data. E"am&les are the selection o- out)oin) routes or tra--ic measurements. *hese two chie- tas(s have one thin) in common= the im&ortance o- the *I?E -actor. Eere5 *I?E re-ers to the moment at which somethin) is done or ha&&ens. 1When a subscriber li-ts his handset he e"&ects to receive dial tone directly # not a-ter5 say5 10 seconds2. A com&uter desi)ned to co&e with such time re4uirements is usually called a real time processor or ;ust processor. *he solution is to have two di--erent ty&es o&rocessor to control the system= one Aentral %rocessor 1A%2 and a number oBe)ional %rocessors 1B%2. *he B%s assist the A% in &er-ormin) routine tas(s and re&ort im&ortant events occurrin) in the e"chan)e to the A%. All decisions are made by the central &rocessor.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


Figure 2.1.) !he Architecture o" the Control*s%stem

Figure 2.1.+ ,P -an#les Simple $ut Fre.uent !as/s0 'hereas CP -an#les Complex !as/s *his ty&e o- con-i)uration &ermits sim&le modi-ication o- the system ca&acity by ;ust increasin) or decreasin) the number o- re)ional &rocessors. *his rule a&&lies u& to the ca&acity limit o- the central &rocessor.


7 'E5


As we have already seen5 the AXE system consists o- two main &arts= A%*5 which is the tele&hony &art5 and A%,5 which is the control &art. 8oth A%* and A%, use hardware 1&rinter board assemblies2 and so-tware 1&ro)rams and data2. We will now ta(e a closer loo( at the tele&hony &art5 A%*5 and see what it includes. <ater on in this boo( we will also discuss the control &art5 A%,.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10 AP'


*o -acilitate the handlin) o- a system the siFe o- AXE5 A%* has also been divided into a number o- 'ubsystems. *he division into subsystems is -unction#related5 and below we will brie-ly discuss some o- the many reasons why such a division is necessary. -E I;.< *he res&onsibility -or the desi)n o- a subsystem rests with a de&artment or section at Ericsson. -4C85E.'A'I4.< *he -act that the division into sub#systems is -unction# related -acilitates the locatin) o- the documents involved. 7 'E5 -E C%IP'I4.< 'ome subsystems are needed only in certain a&&lications. *he names o- the subsystems included in a &articular e"chan)e )ive a condensed descri&tion o- the tas(s to be &er-ormed by the e"chan)e concerned. *he name o- a )iven subsystem re-lects the -unction o- that subsystem. 'ome subsystems contain only so-tware whereas others contain both so-tware and hardware. We will now brie-ly discuss all the subsystems &resently used in A%* 1the tele&hony &art2. 'ome o- them will be studied in more detail later on.

86 7 'E5 in AP'
'C = '%A!!IC C4.'%40 86 7 'E5< 0nly so-tware. *A' is a central &art o- A%* and can be said to re&lace the o&erator o- a manual system. E"am&les o- the subsystem:s -unctions are= ' 'et#u&5 su&ervision and clearin) o- calls. 'election o- out)oin) routes. Analysis o- incomin) di)its. 'tora)e o- subscriber cate)ories. '%8.> and I;.A00I.; 86 7 'E5< 'o-tware and hardware. *he

subsystem handles the si)nallin) over and the su&ervision o- connections to other e"chan)es.

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; ;%48P WI'C/I.;


86 7 'E5< 'o-tware and hardware. K''

sets u&5 su&ervises and clears connections throu)h the )rou& switch. 'election o- a &ath throu)h the switch ta(es &lace in the so-tware. 45 4PE%A'I4. and 5AI.'E.A.CE 86 7'E5 < 'o-tware and

hardware. *he subsystem contains various -unctions related to statistics and su&ervision. 0?' is one o- the lar)est subsystems in A%*. 86 C%I6E% WI'C/I.; 86 7 'E5< 'o-tware and hardware.

*he subsystem handles tra--ic to and -rom subscribers connected to the e"chan)e. C/ C/A%;I.; 86 7 'E5< 0nly so-tware. *he subsystem handles call

meterin) 1call char)in)2 -unctions. *wo call meterin) methods are available= pulse metering and toll ticketing. 8 86 C%I6E% E%3ICE 86 7 'E5< 0nly so-tware. 'ubscriber

-acilities 1services25 such as abbreviated diallin)5 are im&lemented in '@'. 4P 4PE%A'4% 86 7 'E5< 0nly so-tware. *he subsystem handles the

connection and disconnection o- o&erators. 0%' coo&erates with 0*' 10&erator *erminal 'ystem25 which includes the o&erator &ositions. CC C4554. C/A..E0 I;.A00I.; 86 7 'E5< 'o-tware and

hardware. *wo variants e"ist= one -or AAI** Do. + and one -or AAI** Do. .. AA' contains -unctions -or si)nallin)5 routin)5 su&ervision and correction omessa)es sent in accordance with AAI** Do. + or Do. .. 5' 546I0E 'E0EP/4.7 86 7 'E5< 'o-tware and hardware. *he

subsystem handles tra--ic to and -rom mobile subscribers. 5. .E'W4%> 5A.A;E5E.' 86 7 'E5< 0nly so-tware. *he

subsystem contains -unctions -or su&ervisin) the tra--ic -low throu)h the e"chan)e5 and -or introducin) tem&orary chan)es in that -low.

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AP' CC C/ ; 5' .5 45 4P 8 'C '

: : : : : : : : : : : :

'e"e$hony Part o( AXE Co&&on Channe" igna""ing ubsyste& Charging ubsyste& ;rou$ witching ubsyste& 5obi"e 'e"e$hony ubsyste& .etwor# 5anage&ent ubsyste& 4$eration and 5aintenance ubsyste& 4$erator ubsyste& ubscriber witching ubsyste& ubscriber ervices ubsyste& 'ra((ic Contro" ubsyste& 'run# and igna""ing ubsyste& Figure 2.2.1 Su$s%stems in AP!

As has been said5 the control &art consists o- one central &rocessor and a number o- re)ional &rocessors. *he tas( o- the so-tware allocated to a subsystem is to control the hardware o- that subsystem. 'ince the hardware 1the tele&hony devices2 is controlled by the re)ional &rocessors5 these must5 o- course5 also contain &ro)rams belon)in) to the subsystem concerned. Aonse4uently5 the so-tware -or a subsystem can be divided into one central &art 1&ro)rams L data which are stored in the central &rocessor2 and one re)ional &art 1&ro)rams L data which are stored in the re)ional &rocessors2. Daturally5 this a&&lies only to subsystems containin) hardware.

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AP' CC C/ ; 5' .5 45 4P 8 'C '

: : : : : : : : : : : :

'e"e$hony Part o( AXE Co&&on Channe" igna""ing ubsyste& Charging ubsyste& ;rou$ witching ubsyste& 5obi"e 'e"e$hony ubsyste& .etwor# 5anage&ent ubsyste& 4$eration and 5aintenance ubsyste& 4$erator ubsyste& ubscriber witching ubsyste& ubscriber ervices ubsyste& 'ra((ic Contro" ubsyste& 'run# and igna""ing ubsyste&

Figure 2.2.2 !he Structure o" Su$s%stems in AP!

tructuring o( ubsyste&s
Each subsystem is in turn divided into a number o- &arts called !@DA*I0D 8<0AJ'. At this level5 too5 the division is -unction#related. *o illustrate this we are )oin) to study the *run( and 'i)nallin) 'ubsystem 1*''2. *'' contains a -unction bloc( called 8* 18oth#way *run(2. *he -unction o- the 8* -unction bloc( is to handle both#way di)ital lin(s between e"chan)es. 1A both#way trun( is a trun( that can carry tra--ic in both directions2. 0- course5 there is hardware to which the di)ital lin( is connected. In this case5 the hardware consists o- a &rinted board assembly containin) circuits and lo)ic -or cloc(in) the di)ital si)nals. A re)ional &rocessor contains so-tware to control and su&ervise the hardware. *he so-tware belon)s to the 8* -unction bloc(. I- a chan)e occurs in the

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


hardware5 this will be detected by the re)ional so-tware5 which scans the hardware at re)ular intervals. *he re)ional so-tware 18*B2 will then in-orm the central so-tware 18*@2 in the 8* -unction bloc(. A-ter that5 the central so-tware can interwor( with other -unction bloc(s in the central &rocessor. *he interwor(in) between -unction bloc(s always ta(es &lace at the central level5 i.e. in the central &rocessor. 'ee !i)ure 2.2.3.

6' 6'% 6'8

: : :

6othway trun# %egiona" so(tware o( b"oc# 6' Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# 6' Figure 2.2.3 Examples o" Function 1loc/s

As shown in the -i)ure5 -unction bloc( > has neither hardware nor re)ional so-tware5 and this is ;ust as -re4uent a solution as any other combination5 ta(in) into account that entire subsystems may consist e"clusively o- central so-tware. *he data belon)in) to a -unction bloc( can only be addressed by the bloc(:s own &ro)rams. I- a bloc( needs data -rom some other bloc(5 it must ma(e a 6re4uest7.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10 W/7 !8.C'I4. 604C> ?

*he basic idea o- -unction bloc(s can be e"&lained as -ollows= Well#de-ined &rocesses with data o- their 6own7.


8orders between -unction bloc(s where the e"chan)e o- in-ormation is least -re4uent.

A -unction bloc( need not (now what other bloc(s do. 'tandardiFed si)nals between the -unction bloc(s.

*o summariFe this section we are )oin) to study !i)ure 2.2. 5 which shows the structure o- the AXE system. %e&e&ber< *he division into di--erent units at di--erent levels is always -unction# related.

AP' AP9 6' 6'% 6'8 CP C !5 /W 5C 45 4' 8 '

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :

'e"e$hony Part o( AXE Contro" Part o( AXE 6othway 'run# %egiona" so(tware o( b"oc# 6' Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# 6' Centra" Processor ubsyste& Code ender !i"e 5anage&ent ubsyste& /ardware 5an-&achine Co&&unication ubsyste& 4$eration and 5aintenance ubsyste& 4utgoing 'run# ubscriber ervices ubsyste& 'run# and igna""ing ubsyste&

Figure 2.2. !he Structure o" the A(E S%stem

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10 2.2 I.'E%.A0 I.'E%W4%>I.; and /A%-WA%E in AP'


We are now )oin) to have a closer loo( at some central system &arts. *o describe the o&eration o- an AXE e"chan)e we will study how *A' 1*ra--ic Aontrol 'ubsystem2 interwor(s with the other subsystems. As has been said *A' is the central &art -rom the tra--ic#handlin) &oint oview. *A' in AXE corres&onds to the o&erators in a manual system. Bemember that *A' consists only o- central so-tware.

'C : 'ra((ic Contro" ubsyste& Figure 2.3.1 A Comparison *he *A' subsystem consists o- 3 im&ortant -unction bloc(sG see !i)ure 2.3.2.

C0 C4! -A %A %E C 'C '4'45 ECA

: : : : : : : : : :

Ca"" su$ervision Coordination o( !"ash services -igit Ana"ysis %oute Ana"ysis %egister (unctions ubscriber Categories 'ra((ic Contro" ubsyste& 'run# 4((ering -ata 'run# 4((ering 5anage&ent e&i-$er&anent Connections

Figure 2.3.2 Some o" the !CS Function 1loc/s

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10 %E %E;I 'E% !8.C'I4.

*his bloc( stores the incomin) di)its and handles the set#u& o- calls.


C0 CA00 8PE%3I I4.

*his bloc( su&ervises calls in &ro)ress and clears them.

-A -I;I' A.A07 I
*his bloc( contains tables -or di)it analysis. 'uch analysis is ordered by BE.

%A %48'E A.A07 I
*his bloc( contains tables -or selectin) out)oin) routes 1includin) alternative routes2. 'uch selection is ordered by BE.

C 86 C%I6E% CA'E;4%IE
*his bloc( stores subscriber cate)ories -or all subscribers connected to the e"chan)e.

'45 '%8.> 4!!E%I.; 5A.A;E5E.'

*his bloc( ta(es over the -unctions o- BE or A< when a busy subscriber is to be su&ervised by an o&erator.

'4- '%8.> 4!!E%I.; -A'A

<i(e *0?5 this bloc( ta(es over the -unctions o- BE or A< when a busy subscriber is to be su&ervised by an o&erator.

C4! C44%-I.A'I4. 4! !0A / E%3ICE

*his bloc( ta(es over the -unctions o- A< when more than two subscribers are to ta(e &art in one and the same s&eech connection. 1*his a&&lies to certain subscriber -acilities2.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10 ECA E5I-PE%5A.E.' C4..EC'I4.


*his bloc( &ermits the settin)#u& o- semi#&ermanent connections throu)h the )rou& switch. As we can see5 the *A' subsystem occu&ies a central &osition in the AXE system. As its name indicates 1*ra--ic Aontrol 'ubsystem25 *A':s tas(s include controllin) the set#u& and clearin) &hases. !i)ure 2.3.3 shows where in the system *A' is &ositioned.

CC ; 5' 'C '

: : : : : :

Co&&on Channe" igna""ing ubsyste& ;rou$ witching ubsyste& 5obi"e 'e"e$hony ubsyste& ubscriber ervices ubsyste& 'ra((ic Contro" ubsyste& 'ra((ic and igna""ing ubsyste&

Figure 2.3.3 A Central Part o" AP! 2!he "igure #oes not inclu#e all su$s%stems3

*o set u& a call to another e"chan)e5 the o&erator o- an old#ty&e manual system e"chan)ed verbal in-ormation 16si)nals72 with other o&erators. When automatic e"chan)es were introduced5 these5 too5 needed to e"chan)e si)nals. Ci--erent electrical si)nals were )iven di--erent meanin)s. 'i)nallin) can be divided into two main )rou&s= line si)nallin) and re)ister si)nallin). <ine si)nals control the set#u& and clearin) o- a s&eech connection. Be)ister si)nals contain in-ormation such as the number to which a call is to be connected. Be)ister si)nals are only used in the set#u& &hase. <et us com&are automatic si)nallin) with the o&erator:s way o- communicatin).

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


*o set#u& a call to another e"chan)e the o&erator sends a current throu)h the line by turnin) the handle o- a )enerator. *he current causes an indicator to react at the receivin) o&erator:s des(5 thus indicatin) that a call is comin). *his is a line si)nal. *he receivin) o&erator connects her headset to the line and says5 6Eello7. *he other o&erator hears this and says5 6%lease connect me to number 123 7. *hese are e"am&les o- re)ister si)nals. *his was one o- the -irst &rocedures -or intere"chan)e si)nallin). Curin) the hundred years o- tele&hony history5 a )reat many si)nallin) systems have been develo&ed. *hese systems have naturally been de&endent on the technolo)y available5 and conse4uently the 6history o- si)nallin)7 covers a wide ran)e o- means # -rom uncom&licated currents and tones to today:s hi)h#ca&acity di)ital si)nallin) systems. *his develo&ment &rocess has resulted in a mi"ture o- new and old technolo)y in telecom networ(s. An e"chan)e must o-ten be ca&able o- handlin) many di--erent si)nallin) systems simultaneously. In the AXE system5 this &roblem has been solved by lettin) the *'' subsystem 1*run( and 'i)nallin) 'ubsystem2 ada&t di--erent si)nallin) systems to *A'. In other words5 *A' can be said to be unchan)in).

; %P 'C '

: : : :

;rou$ witching ubsyste& %egiona" Processor 'ra((ic Contro" ubsyste& 'run# and igna""ing ubyste&

Figure 2.3. A#aptation to 4i""erent Signalling S%stems is ma#e in !SS

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


*o see how *A' wor(s we will study a small &ortion o- an incomin) call to an AXE e"chan)e.

A '8-7 CA E
*he re)ister si)nallin) system used in our e"am&le is ?!A 1?ulti !re4uency Aode2. ?!A sends re)ister si)nals by combinin) two tones. A s&ecial &iece oe4ui&ment is re4uired to handle these tones. *his e4ui&ment is called the AB 1Aode Beceiver2 and is connected via the )rou& switch.

C% -A ; I' %E %P 'C '

: : : : : : : :

Code %eceiver -igit Ana"ysis ;rou$ witching ubsyste& Inco&ing 'run# %egister !unction %egiona" Processor 'ra((ic Contro" ubsyste& 'run# and igna""ing ubsyste&

Figure 2.3.& -ar#'are an# So"t'are "or an 5ncoming Call *he se4uence o- events is as -ollows= 1i2 1ii2 1iii2 *he other e"chan)e wants to setMu& a call to 6our7 e"chan)e5 and selects a -ree line to interconnect the two e"chan)es. *he other e"chan)e sends a line si)nal to our e"chan)e simultaneously with the sendin) o- the -irst di)it by means o- ?!A si)nals. *he line si)nal is detected by the re)ional &rocessor scannin) the incomin) line 1I*5 Incomin) *run(2. *he re)ional &rocessor sends a

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


messa)e to the central so-tware o- the I* bloc(5 tellin) it that a call attem&t is in &ro)ress. 1iv2 As I*:s central so-tware 1I*@2 receives the messa)e5 it consults its data and -inds that the line concerned uses ?!A si)nallin). I*@ now re4uests a AB -rom the central so-tware 1AB@2 o- the AB bloc(. AB@ selects a -ree AB device and orders K'' 1Krou& 'witchin) 'ubsystem2 to connect the AB device to the I* device. I*@ in-orms the BE bloc( in *A' that a call is comin). BE reserves a data area in the memory to be used e"clusively -or this call. 1At this &oint5 all arran)ements have been made -or the rece&tion odi)its -rom the other e"chan)e2. 1vii2 *he -irst di)it is received by the AB device. *he re)ional &rocessor scans the AB device and sends the di)it to AB@. AB@ sends the di)it on to I*@5 which -orwards it to the re)ister5 BE. 1viii2 BE sends the di)it to the CA bloc( -or analysis. *he CA bloc( contains a number o- tables -or di)it analysis. *he result o- the analysis is stored in BE. Ce&endin) on the result o- the analysis5 the re)ister can now ta(e di--erent (inds o- action.

1v2 1vi2

C% -A ; I' %E %P 'C '

: : : : : : : :

Code %eceiver -igit Ana"ysis ;rou$ witching ubsyste& Inco&ing 'run# %egister !unction %egiona" Processor 'ra((ic Contro" ubsyste& 'run# and igna""ing ubsyste&

Figure 2.3.) !he 4igit is !rans"erre# "rom the C, 4e6ice to the ,egister

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


As has been said5 it is the re)ister that controls the set#u& &hase. *his control is based on the result obtained in the di)it analysis. *he -ollowin) data may come -rom the CA bloc( on com&letion o- the di)it analysis 1one di)it at a time is analysed # not the whole 8#number in one )o2. 'end the ne"t di)it. Boutin) case 1the analysis in the Boute Analysis 8loc(5 BA5 indicates an out)oin) route2. Ahar)in) case. Dumber len)th. *erminatin) Aall. ?odi-ication o- 8#number. End o- analysis.

We have now studied the &rocessin) o- a call in AXE5 and we will revert to this sub;ect later on in this boo(.

/A%-WA%E in '

and CC

We will now study some o- the *'' and AA' hardware in A%*. It is im&ortant to remember that all hardware is controlled by its own so-tware both in the central &rocessor and in the re)ional &rocessors.

I.C45I.; and 48';4I.; '%8.> )'

E'C ; I' 4' PC@

: : : : : : :

E?change 'er&ina" Circuit ;rou$ witching ubsyste& Inco&ing 'run# 4utgoing 'run# Pu"se Code 5odu"ation -evice Ana"og igna" -igita" igna"

Figure 2.3.+ -ar#'are "or 5ncoming an# 7utgoing !run/s

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


E*A 1E"chan)e *erminal Aircuit2 is the hardware o- the 8* bloc(s. An E*A consists o- a &rinted board assembly housed in a ma)aFine. !or e"am&les oma)aFines5 see 'ection 2.105 6Aonstruction %ractice7. *he &rinted board assembly is illustrated in !i)ure 2.3.$.

Figure 2.3.8 Exchange !erminal Circuit 2E!C3 Each channel in the di)ital connection is re)arded as a 8* device. I- a 32# channel system is used5 only 30 o- the channels can be utiliFed -or s&eech. Ahannel 0 is always used -or synchroniFation and alarm in-ormation while channel 1+ is used -or si)nallin) 1Ahannel 1+ is &rimarily used -or line si)nallin)5 but some si)nallin) systems can also use it -or re)ister si)nals2. *he @'A and 'outh Jorea are e"am&les o- countries usin) 2 #channel systems. In these systems5 all 2 channels can be used -or s&eech 1<ine si)nals are sent by 6stealin)7 one bit -rom every si" sam&les2. 0* 10ut)oin) *run(2 is the bloc( used to handle out)oin) analo) connections. *he hardware consists o- a ma)aFine containin) 32 devices5 and an analo)# to#di)ital converter. *he converter5 which is called %AC 1%ulse#Aode ?odulation Cevice25 has no so-tware and no si)nallin) -unction.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


I* 1Incomin) *run(2 is the bloc( used to handle incomin) analo) connections. *he hardware is almost identical with that o- 0*. *o distin)uish between di--erent variants5 the 6trun( bloc(s7 are )iven numbers= 8*15 8*2 N. Eere the term 6variant7 re-ers to di--erent si)nallin) systems. E"chan)es installed today are almost e"clusively e4ui&&ed with E*As. In a&&lications with analo) transmission5 the di)ital si)nals sent by E*As are converted into analo) si)nals. *he e4ui&ment used to do the conversion is called a ?ulti&le"er 1?@X2. A multi&le"er thus converts si)nals -rom di)ital to analo) -orm5 but it can also multi&le" several analo) si)nals on one and the same line 1!C?5 !re4uency Civision ?ulti&le"2. Dote that the ?@X does not belon) to the AXE systemG it is transmission e4ui&ment.

E'C ; 58X

: : : : :

E?change 'er&ina" Circuit ;rou$ witching ubsyste& 5u"ti$"e?er Ana"og signa" -igita" signa"

Figure 2.3.9 A Multiplexer 2M8(3

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10 C4-E E.-E% and C4-E %ECEI3E% )' ,


C% C C % E'C ; 58X

: : : : : : : :

Code %eceiver Code ender Code enderA%eceiver E?change 'er&ina" Circuit ;rou$ witching ubsyste& 5u"ti$"e?er Ana"og igna" -igita" igna"

Figure 2.3.10 Analog an# 4igital Co#e Sen#ers9,ecei6ers Aode 'enders 1A'2 and Aode Beceivers 1AB2 are used -or sendin) ?!A re)ister si)nals. AB/A' are connected by means o- the )rou& switch when a device 1I*5 0* or 8*2 needs to send re)ister si)nals by ?!A. AXE has two ty&es o- AB/A'= )i, Ana"og -evices< AB or A' in each ma)aFine. Analo)#to#di)ital

conversion ta(es &lace in the %AC 1%ulse Aode ?odulation Cevice2. )ii, -igita" -evices< 1+ devices in a ma)aFine5 A'B5 that can be used on both AB and A'.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10 A..48.CI.; 5AC/I.E )' ,


A -A5 ; PC%-

: : : : :

Au?i""iary ervice -evice -igita" Announcing 5achine ;rou$ witching ubsyste& Pu"se Code 5odu"ation -evice %ecorder -evice

Figure 2.3.11 Analog an# 4igital Announcing Machines 24AM3 *he announcin) machine is a subscriber -acility which uses recorded messa)es to in-orm callin) subscribers why they cannot reach dialled numbers. Announcin) machines are also necessary in combination with certain subscriber -acilities where the subscriber can control the -acility by diallin) &redetermined codes 1*he announcin) machines in-orm subscribers whether they have used the ri)ht or wron) &rocedure2. *wo di--erent ty&es o- announcin) machine can be connected to AXE= a di)ital machine o- recent desi)n5 or a 6conventional7 analo) machine. As its name indicates5 the Ci)ital Announcin) ?achine 1CA?2 is -ully di)ital. Becorded verbal messa)es and tones are stored in di)ital -orm on two ty&es ostora)e boards= one with %B0?s and one with BA?s. *he messa)es stored in %B0?s are seldom chan)ed and s&ecial e"ternal recordin) e4ui&ment is re4uired to ma(e chan)es in them. 8ut no e"ternal e4ui&ment is needed to chan)e messa)es stored in BA?s. In -act5 uses can chan)e them by diallin) &rocedures on an ordinary

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


tele&hone. Aonse4uently5 these messa)es are best suited -or the Weather <ine5 s&orts results5 news5 etc. *he ma"imum messa)e len)th is 32 seconds -or 6&ermanent7 messa)es and + seconds -or in-ormation that is -re4uently chan)ed. Ierbal messa)es -rom an

e"ternal analo) announcin) machine can be connected to CA?5 and e"ternal messa)es can be combined with messa)es stored in CA?. An e"am&le o- how this ty&e o- messa)e is used is the subscriber -acility 6automatic wa(e#u& service7. When wo(en u& by the rin)in) si)nal5 the called subscriber hears a messa)e5 -or e"am&le= 6>ou have ordered automatic wa(e#u&. *he time is NNN7. 1Eere a s&ea(in) cloc( can be activated to )ive the hour2. Ierbal messa)es can also be combined with various ty&es o- tones. As a&&ears -rom !i)ure 2.3.115 the analo) machine re4uires a )reat deal o&eri&heral e4ui&ment. Announcin) machine messa)es are recorded on ma)netic dis(s5 which re&eat the messa)e as the dis( rotates. *o &revent subscribers -rom bein) connected u& in the middle o- a messa)e5 the announcin) machines send synchroniFin) &ulses when a messa)e starts. *hese &ulses are sent to a ma)aFine called BC 1Becordin) Cevice2. BC sees to it that A'C 1Au"iliary 'ervice Cevice2 connects the subscriber at the ri)ht moment. *he A'C ma)aFine also o&erates as a 6mini#switch75 as each in&ut -rom the )rou& switch must be connectable to any o- the recorded messa)es.

I;.A00I.; 'E%5I.A0 in CC
'i)nallin) terminals 1'*2 -or si)nallin) accordin) to AAI** Do. . are connected to the )rou& switch via a %AC#C. 'ince the si)nallin) terminals are di)ital devices5 the %AC#C e4ui&ment includes no conversion -unction but merely serves as an ada&tation device towards the )rou& switch. *he si)nallin) in-ormation -rom a si)nallin) terminal is sent throu)h the )rou& switch to a certain channel in an E*A.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


*his channel is then used e"clusively -or si)nallin). *he advanta)e oconnectin) the si)nallin) terminals via the )rou& switch is that some devices can be (e&t in reserve and automatically re&lace ino&erative devices.

E'C ; PC--'-B

: : : :

E?change 'er&ina" Circuit ;rou$ witching ubsyste& Pu"se Code -evice - -igita" igna""ing 'er&ina" (or CCI'' .o. B

Figure 2.3.12 Signalling !erminals "or CC5!! :o. +

Figure 2.3.13 Signalling !erminal "or CC5!! :o. + AAI** Do. + is a si)nallin) system used -or international connections. *he basic &rinci&le is the same as -or AAI** Do. .5 but the system desi)n is ada&ted to suit analo) si)nallin) lin(s. *his means that the transmission rate is somewhat lower 12 00 bit/s25 that is in com&arison to 5+ or + (bit/s when AAI** Do.. is used.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

!i)ure 2.3.1 shows the hardware used -or AAI** Do. +.


; : PC- : '-C :

;rou$ witching ubsyste& Pu"se Code 5odu"ation -evice igna""ing 'er&ina" (or CCI'' .o. C

Figure 2.3.1 Signalling !erminals "or CC5!! :o. )


'he -igita" ;rou$ witch

8e-ore studyin) the structure o- the di)ital )rou& switch in AXE we will touch

u&on some o- the basic &rinci&les o- di)ital switchin). *he introduction o- di)ital switchin) )ave birth to a new conce&t=

'I5E WI'C/
<et us -irst see what a time switch is made u& o- and how it o&erates.


: : :

Ana"ogA-igita" converter Ana"og signa" -igita" signa"

Figure 2. .1 A Simpli"ie# !ime S'itch

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

A time switch is made u& o-=


a '&eech 'tore -or tem&orary stora)e o- the s&eech sam&les. Each channel in the time switch has a &osition o- its own in the '&eech 'tore.

a Aontrol 'tore which controls the read#out -rom the '&eech 'tore.

*his means that we can chan)e the se4uence o- s&eech sam&les in a time switch. Assume that we are )oin) to read out sam&les -rom the s&eech store in the -ollowin) order= 35 25 15 1the read#in order is 15 25 35 2. *he control store would then

have the -ollowin) contents 1see !i)ure 2. .22.


: : : :

Ana"ogA-igita" Converter -igita"AAna"og Converter Ana"og igna" -igita" igna"

Figure 2. .2 Control 5n"ormation in the Control Store *his small#siFe time switch has only in&uts. Eow5 then5 do we )o about

desi)nin) a di)ital )rou& switch with tens o- thousands o- in&uts? In theory we could use a sin)le time switch havin) the re4uired number oin&uts. 8ut then the -ollowin) 4uestion arises= 6Eow o-ten would we have to 9em&ty: a )iven &osition in the s&eech store?7 *he answer is $5000 times every second -or each &osition 1the sam&lin) -re4uency is $5000 EF2. Aonse4uently5 -or a 205000 in&ut switch the read#in/read#out rate would be 205000 " $5000 EF H 1+0 ?EF.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


*oday:s mar(et does not o--er any circuits that can co&e with these s&eeds. *he solution to the &roblem is to divide the time switch into suitable sub#units. *o set# u& connections -rom one time switch to another we use a '%AAE 'WI*AE. *he ca&acity o- each time switch in AXE is 512 in&uts. A ma"imum o- 32 time switches can be connected to one s&ace switch. *erminolo)y = *ime 'witch ?odule 1*'?2 '&ace 'witch ?odule 1'%?2

PC5 P5 ' 5

: : :

Pu"se Code 5odu"ation $ace witch 5odu"e 'i&e witch 5odu"e

Figure 2. .3 !he Fun#amental Parts o" the 4igital ;roup S'itch A connection will &ass throu)h a *'? # via '%? # to the same or another *'?. All calls are set#u& via '%?5 includin) those which return to the ori)inal *'?. We say that the switch has a *#'#* 1*ime#'&ace#*ime2 structure.

'I5E WI'C/ 54-80E )' 5,

'ince a *'? handles sam&les in both directions5 we need two s&eech stores= one -or sam&les enterin) the *'? O'&eech 'tore A 1''A2P and another -or sam&les

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


leavin) the *'? O'&eech 'tore 8 1''82P. Each s&eech store has a se&arate control store= A'A and A'85 res&ectively 1in this case5 A' stands -or Aontrol 'tore2. *'? also has a control store -or '%? called A'A.

C A C 6 C C P5 A 6 ' 5

: : : : : : :

Contro" tore A Contro" tore 6 Contro" tore C $ace witch 5odu"e $eech tore A $eech tore 6 'i&e witch 5odu"e

Figure 2. . Speech Stores an# Control Stores in !SM

PACE WI'C/ 54-80E ) P5,

*he '%? structure is very sim&le and can be drawn as an ordinary matri" with cross &oints. 0- course5 in reality5 the cross &oints re&resent lo)ic )ates that o&en and close very ra&idly.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


C C P5 ' 5

: : :

Contro" tore C $ace witch 5odu"e 'i&e witch 5odu"e

Figure 2. .& Space S'itch Mo#ule 2SPM3 As a&&ears -rom !i)ure 2. .55 the A'A o- each *'? controls a row o- 6cross &oints7. *hus5 A'A in *'?#0 controls all 6cross &oints7 leadin) to *'?#0. When a call is to be set#u& in the switch5 it is the central so-tware o- the K' bloc( 1Krou& 'witch2 that selects the &ath throu)h the switch. In this case5 &ath selection re-ers to the moment when a sam&le is to be trans-erred. *his is called 6selection o- an internal time slot7. A-ter the central so-tware 1K'@2 o- the K' bloc( has selected a &ath5 the re)ional so-tware 1K'B2 is ordered to write in-ormation to this e--ect in the control stores o- the *'?s concerned. !rom now on5 K'@ will not &ay any attention to the connection until the call is to be cleared.

CD> ;%48P WI'C/

As we (now5 32 *'?s can be connected to each '%?5 &rovidin) a total ca&acity o- 32 " 512 H 1+53$ in&uts 1*his ty&e o- )rou& switch is o-ten called 1+J2.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

What can we do5 then5 to build a lar)er switch?


We can interconnect several '%?s to -orm a lar)e matri" as illustrated in !i)ure 2. .+.

PC5 P5 ' 5

: : :

Pu"se Code 5odu"ation $ace witch 5odu"e 'i&e witch 5odu"e

Figure 2. .) A Full% E.uippe# ;roup S'itch *his )ives a total switch ca&acity o- 12$ " 512 H +5553+ in&uts 1*his ty&e is o-ten called + J2.

All ty&es o- di)ital e4ui&ment re4uire some -orm o- cloc(in). *he cloc( rate determines the rate at which sam&les are read -rom or written into the s&eech stores. *he accuracy o- this cloc( is o- )reat im&ortance in networ(s containin) several interconnected di)ital e"chan)es. *he whole networ( must be synchroniFed. It is also im&ortant that the cloc( does not sto&5 as this would sto& the whole )rou& switch.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


*o &revent this ha&&enin)5 the )rou& switch has three cloc(s5 or Aloc( ?odules 1A<?2.

C05 E'C P5 ' 5

: : : : :

C"oc# 5odu"e E?change 'er&ina" Circuit $ace witch 5odu"e 'i&e witch 5odu"e -igita" igna"

Figure 2. .+ Cloc/ Mo#ules to S%nchroni<e the ;roup S'itch *he o&eration o- the )rou& switch will be trouble#-ree even i- only one cloc( is used5 i.e. in emer)ency situations. As has been said5 the whole networ( must be synchroniFed i- it contains several di)ital e"chan)es. *here are various ways o- doin) this. *he sim&lest method is &erha&s the ?A'*EB#'<AIE con-i)uration5 which means that one o- the e"chan)es has a control 1master2 -unction5 while the others 1the slave e"chan)es2 try to -ollow the o&eratin) &attern o- the master.

Figure 2. .8 !he Master*sla6e Principle

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


*he master e"chan)e has a number 1usually 32 o- more so&histicated and accurate cloc(s called Be-erence Aloc( ?odules 1BA?2. !i)ure 2. .3 shows the hardware included in the master and slave e"chan)es.

C05 E'C %C5 P5 ' 5

: : : : : :

C"oc# 5odu"e E?change 'er&ina" Circuit %e(erence C"oc# 5odu"e $ace witch 5odu"e 'i&e witch 5odu"e -igita" igna"

Figure 2. .9 -ar#'are in Master an# Sla6e Exchanges *he &hoto)ra&h in !i)ure 2. .10 shows an BA? ma)aFine 1le-t2 and a A<? ma)aFine. *he A<? ma)aFine has hardware -or o&eratin) a switch containin) $ *'?s 1 5000 in&uts5 o-ten written as J2. !or lar)er switches5 a lar)er version o- the A<? ma)aFine is available.

C05 %C5

: :

C"oc# 5odu"e %e(erence C"oc# 5odu"e

Figure 2. .10 ,CM an# C=M "or > S'itch

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10

*here is also another way osynchroniFin) a networ(5


'ynchroniFation. *his method is to be &re-erred in national transit networ(s. *he basic &rinci&le o- mutual synchroniFation is that one o- the e"chan)es o&erates accordin) to a mean value based on all incomin) -re4uencies. Aonse4uently5 the networ( has no 6master7. In order to &revent the whole networ( -rom 6dri-tin)7 as a result o- -re4uency dis&lacement5 one o- the e"chan)es is loc(ed to a -i"ed -re4uency value. *his re-erence e"chan)e is called a 'IDJ and has three hi)hly stable cloc(s called AA?s 1Aesium Aloc( ?odules2 which are connected in the same way as BA? in !i)ure 2. .3. It is thus common &ractice to use two ty&es o- synchroniFation in a networ(. A -ully built#u& di)ital networ( may use the con-i)uration shown in !i)ure 2. .11.

Figure 2. .11 :et'or/ S%nchroni<ation

EE8IP5E.' (or '/%EE-PA%'7 CA00

'ince the di)ital )rou& switch is only ca&able o- interconnectin) two in&uts5 e"ternal e4ui&ment must be used to set u& a three#&arty call 1-or e"am&le o&erator intervention or 6Add#on con-erence72. *his e4ui&ment is called ?ulti#Qunctor Aircuit 1?QA2. An ?QA ma)aFine can handle 10 simultaneous three#&arty calls.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


?QA5 which also has re)ional and central so-tware5 -orms &art o- the K'' subsystem.

5FC : 5u"ti-Functor Circuit P5 : $ace witch 5odu"e ' 5 : 'i&e witch 5odu"e

Figure 2. .12 A Multi*?unctor Circuit 2M?C3

'ince the )rou& switch -orms a vital &art o- an AXE e"chan)e5 e"actin) demands are5 o- course5 made on its -unctional reliability. What would ha&&en i-5 -or instance5 an '%? bro(e down? Well5 as many as 1+5000 calls would 6colla&se7. And5 o- course5 this must not ha&&en. *o solve this &roblem5 AXE is e4ui&&ed with two com&lete )rou& switches= one called the A#&lane and the other the 8#&lane. A s&eech sam&le is always sent throu)h both &lanes but it is only -etched -rom one o- them5 usually the A#&lane. *o su&ervise the hardware5 a number o- &arity chec( -unctions are &rovided -or chec(in) the s&eech sam&les sent throu)h the switch. A hardware -ault will immediately be detected by these -unctions. *he -aulty e4ui&ment is bloc(ed5 and

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


corres&ondin) e4ui&ment in the other &lane ta(es over the tra--ic handlin). All these measures are ta(en without disturbin) calls in &ro)ress.


'/E -I;I'A0 86 C%I6E% 'A;E

As mentioned be-ore5 there is a subsystem -or handlin) the tra--ic between

subscribers= the 'ubscriber 'witchin) 'ubsystem 1'''2. *he subscriber sta)e in AXE is di)ital5 which means that the analo) si)nal -rom the subscriber line is converted into di)ital -orm. *his is done in the subscriber:s <ine Inter-ace Aircuit 1<IA2 and all switchin) is di)ital. *o be able to understand the structure o- the subscriber sta)e we will -irst discuss its tas(s.

6A IC !8.C'I4.
A subscriber sta)e includes the -ollowin) -unctions= !eed current to the subscriber line. Aoncentrate the tra--ic towards the )rou& switch. Beceive di)its -rom dial tele&hones 1&ulses2. Beceive di)its -rom (eyset tele&hones 1tones2. 'end rin) si)nals to the subscriber. 'end di--erent tones to the subscriber. Aarry out measurements on the subscriber line.

'ome o- the above mentioned -unctions are common to many subscribers5 others are individual. All individual -unctions are concentrated in the subscriber:s line inter-ace circuit. *hese -unctions are= current -eed5 &olarity reversal5 rece&tion o- dial &ulses5 relay -or connectin) rin) si)nals5 relay -or connectin) test e4ui&ment5 and analo)#to# di)ital conversion. Each &rinted board assembly has $ line inter-ace circuitsG see !i)ure 2.5.1.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


Figure 2.&.1 1oar# 'ith 8 =ine 5nter"ace Circuits 2=5C3 *he board is e4ui&&ed with com&onents o- s&ecial Ericsson desi)n called '<IA and '<AA 1'ubscriber <ine Inter-ace Aircuit and 'ubscriber <ine Audio &rocessin) Aircuit5 res&ectively2. *he -le"ibility o- the circuits ma(es it easy to ada&t them to varyin) re4uirements in di--erent countries. *his )oes in &articular -or &ower su&&ly5 s&eech levels and balance. As we have seen5 the line inter-ace circuit has no e4ui&ment -or the rece&tion o- di)its -rom (eyset tele&hones 1tones2. *he e4ui&ment5 -or this receivin) -unction is common to several subscribers and is called Jeyset code Bece&tion Aircuit 1JBA2. *his device is di)ital5 and each &rinted board assembly can accommodate $ JBAs. *o connect the JBAs to callin) subscribers we need a switch# the E"tension ?odule *ime 'witch 1E?*'2. All three e4ui&ment units dealt with above 1<IA5 JBA and E?*'2 have both re)ional and central so-twareG see !i)ure 2.5.2.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


E5' >%C >%% >%8 0IC 0I% 0I8 ' % ' 8

: : : : : : : : :

E?tension 5odu"e 'i&e witch >eyset Code %ece$tion Circuit %egiona" so(tware o( b"oc# >% Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# >% 0ine Inter(ace Circuit %egiona" so(tware o( b"oc# 0I Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# 0I %egiona" so(tware o( b"oc# ' Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# '

Figure 2.&.2 !he 1asic Part o" the Su$scri$er S'itch Additional e4ui&ment is re4uired to connect subscribers to the )rou& switch. *his e4ui&ment5 which handles the 32 di)ital channels to the )rou& switch5 is called the E"chan)e *erminal 8oard 1E*82. E*8 is the hardware o- a -unction bloc( called the Bemote *erminal 1B*2. It is the central so-tware o- the B* bloc( which reserves channels to the e"chan)e.

CF= A C4-4%-I.A'I.; !8.C'I4. 604C>

A -unction bloc( called Aombined Qunctor 1AQ2 is &rovided to co#ordinate all -unctions in the ''' subsystem. In addition to co#ordinatin) the set#u& and clearin) &hases5 AQ serves as an inter-ace with *A' and5 in &articular5 with the BE bloc(. 'ee !i)ure 2.5.3.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


CF8 E5' E'6 >%C >%% >%8 0IC 0I% 0I8 %'% %'8 'C ' % ' 8

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# CF E?tension 5odu"e 'i&e witch E?change 'er&ina" 6oard >eyset Code %ece$tion Circuit %egiona" so(tware o( b"oc# >% Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# >% 0ine Inter(ace Circuit %egiona" so(tware o( b"oc# 0I Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# 0I %egiona" so(tware o( b"oc# %' Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# %' 'ra((ic Contro" ubsyste& %egiona" so(tware o( b"oc# ' Centra" so(tware o( b"oc# '

Figure 2.&.3 C? * !he Central 1loc/ o" SSS Eow many subscribers can be connected to an E?*'? *he answer is 12$ subscribers5 $ JBAs and one 32#channel E*8. All this is re-erred to as an E"tension ?odule 1E?2 or an <'? 1<ine and 'witch ?odule2.

%E;I4.A0 4!'WA%E
*he re)ional so-tware -or the subscriber sta)e is stored and e"ecuted in a &rocessor incor&orated in the ma)aFine= the E"tension ?odule Be)ional %rocessor 1E?B%2. *he routine scannin) o- the hardware is done by small5 sim&le micro&rocessors located in di--erent &arts o- the hardware. *hese are called Cevice %rocessors 1C%2 and are in their turn scanned by an E?B%.

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


*he &ro)ram in C% has no decision#ma(in) -unctionsG it ;ust re&orts hardware chan)es to E?B%.

-P E5 E5%P ; >%C 0IC 0 5

: : : : : : :

-evice Processor E?tension 5odu"e E?tension 5odu"e %egiona" Processor ;rou$ witching ubsyste& >eyset Code %ece$tion Circuit 0ine Inter(ace Circuit 0ine witch 5odu"e

Figure 2.&. EM,P * 4P 5nter'or/ <'? is illustrated in !i)ure 2.5.5.

E5%P E5' E'6 >%C 0IC %; 0C'

: : : : : : :

E?tension 5odu"e %egiona" Processor E?tension 5odu"e 'i&e witch E?change 'er&ina" 6oard >eyset Code %ece$tion Circuit 0ine Inter(ace Circuit %inging ;enerator ubscriber 0ine Circuit 'ester

Figure 2.&.& An =SM Maga<ine

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


*he &rimary advanta)e o- usin) a di)ital subscriber sta)e is that it can be detached -rom the e"chan)e and installed closer to the subscribers. *his will im&ly less cost and less maintenance.

%E54'E 86 C%I6E% WI'C/ )%

8ut be-ore this can be done5 two &roblems must be solved= 1i2 *he 12$#subscriber ca&acity is too small. It must be &ossible to combine several <'?s to obtain the re4uired siFe. 1ii2 Eow can E?B% communicate with the central &rocessor over distances otens o- (ilometres? <et us see how a subscriber sta)e -or 512 subscribers is desi)ned.

E5%P E5' E'6 ; >%C 0IC ' 6-A ' 6-6

: : : : : : : :

E?tension 5odu"e %egiona" Processor E?tension 5odu"e 'i&e witch E?change 'er&ina" 6oard ;rou$ witching ubsyste& >eyset Code %ece$tion Circuit 0ine Inter(ace Circuit 'i&e witch 6us= $"ane A 'i&e witch 6us= $"ane 6

Figure 2.&.) ,emote Su$scri$er Stage "or &12 Su$scri$ers

J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


As a&&ears -rom the -i)ure5 the to&most <'? has no direct contact with the &arent e"chan)e5 and calls comin) -rom this <'? must there-ore use the bus which interconnects all the <'?s. *his bus is called *ime 'witch 8us 1*'82 and is thus used -or s&eech data. *he bus is du&licated -or reliability reasons. At -irst si)ht5 *'8 may seem 6unnecessary75 but a closer study will reveal three very im&ortant advanta)es= 1a2 *he number o- %A? lin(s to the &arent e"chan)e can be ada&ted to the tra--ic volume. *hus5 all <'?s do not need a se&arate %A? lin(. 1b2 I- the 6own7 %A? lin( has no -ree channels5 another %A? lin( can be used instead. *his ma(es the subscriber sta)e immune to situations with unbalanced tra--ic load 1-ull availability2. 1c2 I- the contact with the &arent e"chan)e is bro(en5 this will not a--ect the internal tra--ic within the subscriber sta)e. Eow many simultaneous calls can be handled by a detached subscriber sta)e? <et us study the e"am&le in !i)ure 2.5.+. 0bviously5 the tra--ic is handled by 3 %A? lin(s5 and channel 1+ o- the -irst two lin(s is used -or si)nallin). !or reasons oreliability5 we normally have two si)nallin) channels5 which means that channels 0 and 1+ cannot be used -or s&eech transmission over these two lin(s. In the third lin(5 on the other hand5 channel 1+ is available -or s&eech. Aonse4uently5 a ma"imum o31 simultaneous calls are &ossible in this e"am&le. @& to 1+ <'?s can be interconnected. In this way5 the number o- subscribers served by a detached unit can be varied between 12$ and 20 $. *he second tas( to solve is the communication between one or more E?B%s and the central &rocessor o- the &arent e"chan)e.