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IMD 253: Organization of Information

FACULTY OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT


UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY MARA

DIPLOMA IN INFORMATION MANAGEMENT


IMD 253: ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION

FINAL PROJECT:
DUBLIN CORE

Prepared By:
NORASFAHANA BT JAMIL 2007113909
NUR SYAHIRAH BT BASIRON 2007113983
NUR HAYATUL SYIMA BT HANIFAH 2007113963
UMMI KALTHUM BT MOHD TAMRINAN 2007113997
MOHD LUTFI BT YUNOS 2007113913
MOHD SYUZAIRI BIN SHAHRIR 2007139483
ISD4E2

Prepared for:
MR. NOR EZAN BIN OMAR
Date of submission:
7 OCTOBER 2009

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IMD 253: Organization of Information

DUBLIN CORE

Prepared by:

NORASFAHANA BT JAMIL 2007113909


NUR SYAHIRAH BT BASIRON 2007113983
NUR HAYATUL SYIMA BT HANIFAH 2007113963
UMMI KALTHUM BT MOHD TAMRINAN 2007113997
MOHD LUTFI BT YUNOS 2007113913
MOHD SYUZAIRI BIN SHAHRIR 2007139483

FACULTY OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT


UiTM JOHOR

7 OCTOBER 2009

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IMD 253: Organization of Information

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Assalamualaikum w.b.t.

To people we owe so much for the help and guidance throughout this assignment.
Firstly, we like to say our grateful to Allah S.W.T because give us an idea, health, and
desire to complete this assignment.

Secondly, we would like to express our thanks to Mr. Nor Ezan B. Omar, our
lecturer for IMD 253: ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION for her willingness to
advice, motivate, patience, support and ideas from the start until the end of this
assignment.

Furthermore, special thanks to our parents and family members that have been
supportive us and help us in many things such as advice, money and many more. Thank
you for your love, understanding, and expectation that have been a constant source of
strength.

Also not forgotten, we want to thanks staff in PTDI, that help us to find the
information which is related to our topic and for their kindness to share some of their
ideas about this assignment.

Lastly, thanks to all who had involved in completing this assignment.


Thank you.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

1. Introduction 1-2

2. History of Dublin Core 3

3. Goals of Dublin Core 4-5

4. Purpose of Dublin Core 6


5. Dublin Core Level of Standard 7-8
6. HTML, Dublin Core and Non- Dublin Core Metadata 9
7. The Meta Tag 10-11
8. The Link Tag 12-13
9 Function of Dublin Core Metadata Element Set 14
10 Dublin Core Element Set 14-26
.
11 Advantages of Dublin Core 27
.
12 Example of Dublin Core 28-29
.
13 Conclusion 30
.
14 References 31
.

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IMD 253: Organization of Information

INTRODUCTION

The Dublin Core metadata standard is a simple yet effective element set for
describing a wide range of networked resources. The Dublin Core standard includes two
levels: Simple and Qualified. Simple Dublin Core comprises fifteen elements; Qualified
Dublin Core includes three additional elements (Audience, Provenance and
RightsHolder), as well as a group of element refinements (also called qualifiers) that
refine the semantics of the elements in ways that may be useful in resource discovery.
The semantics of Dublin Core have been established by an international, cross-
disciplinary group of professionals from librarianship, computer science, text encoding,
the museum community, and other related fields of scholarship and practice.

Another way to look at Dublin Core is as a "small language for making a


particular class of statements about resources". In this language, there are two classes of
terms -- elements (nouns) and qualifiers (adjectives) -- which can be arranged into a
simple pattern of statements. The resources themselves are the implied subjects in this
language. In the diverse world of the Internet, Dublin Core can be seen as a "metadata
pidgin for digital tourists": easily grasped, but not necessarily up to the task of expressing
complex relationships or concepts.

Each element is optional and may be repeated. Most elements also have a limited
set of qualifiers or refinements, attributes that may be used to further refine (not extend)
the meaning of the element. The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) has established
standard ways to refine elements and encourage the use of encoding and vocabulary
schemes.

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IMD 253: Organization of Information

Three other Dublin Core principles bear mentioning here, as they are critical to
understanding how to think about the relationship of metadata to the underlying resources
they describe.

1. The One-to-One Principle.


• In general Dublin Core metadata describes one manifestation or version of
a resource, rather than assuming that manifestations stand in for one
another. For instance, a jpeg image of the Mona Lisa has much in common
with the original painting, but it is not the same as the painting. As such
the digital image should be described as itself, most likely with the creator
of the digital image included as a Creator or Contributor, rather than just
the painter of the original Mona Lisa.

2. The Dumb-down Principle.


• The qualification of Dublin Core properties is guided by a rule known
colloquially as the Dumb-Down Principle. According to this rule, a client
should be able to ignore any qualifier and use the value as if it were
unqualified. While this may result in some loss of specificity, the
remaining element value (minus the qualifier) must continue to be
generally correct and useful for discovery. Qualification is therefore
supposed only to refine, not extend the semantic scope of a property.

1. Appropriate values.
• Best practice for a particular element or qualifier may vary by context,
but in general an implementer cannot predict that the interpreter of the
metadata will always be a machine. This may impose certain constraints
on how metadata is constructed, but the requirement of usefulness for
discovery should be kept in mind.

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HISTORY OF DUBLIN CORE

DCMI traces its roots to Chicago at the 2nd International World Wide Web
Conference, October 1994. Yuri Rubinsky of SoftQuad (who chaired panels regarding
the future of HTML and Web authoring tools) along with Stuart Weibel and Eric Miller
of OCLC (who were presenting papers about scholarly publishing on the Web and
leading discussions on the delivery of Web-based library services) had a hallway
conversation with Terry Noreault, then Director of the OCLC Office of Research, and
Joseph Hardin, then Director of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA). This discussion on semantics and the Web revolved around the difficulty of
finding resources (difficult even then, with only about 500,000 addressable objects on the
Web).

Their initial brainstorming lead to NCSA and OCLC holding a joint workshop to
discuss metadata semantics in Dublin, Ohio, March 1995. At this event, called simply the
"OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop", more than 50 people discussed how a core set of
semantics for Web-based resources would be extremely useful for categorizing the Web
for easier search and retrieval. They dubbed the result "Dublin Core metadata" based on
the location of the workshop. Since that time conferences and workshops have been held
in England, Australia, Finland, Germany, Canada, Japan, Italy, and the United States.

The "Dublin" in the name refers to Dublin, Ohio, U.S., where the work originated
from an invitational workshop (the "OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop") hosted in 1995
by OCLC, a library consortium that is based there. (NCSA is the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications.) The "Core" refers to the fact that the metadata element set
is a basic but expandable "core" list. The semantics of Dublin Core were established and
are maintained by an international, cross-disciplinary group of professionals from
librarianship, computer science, text encoding, museums, and other related fields of this
matter.

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GOALS OF DUBLIN CORE

1. Simplicity of creation and maintenance

The Dublin Core element set has been kept as small and simple as possible to allow a
non-specialist to create simple descriptive records for information resources easily and
inexpensively, while providing for effective retrieval of those resources in the networked
environment.

2. Commonly understood semantics

Discovery of information across the vast commons of the Internet is hindered by


differences in terminology and descriptive practices from one field of knowledge to the
next. The Dublin Core can help the "digital tourist" -- a non-specialist searcher -- find his
or her way by supporting a common set of elements, the semantics of which are
universally understood and supported. For example, scientists concerned with locating
articles by a particular author, and art scholars interested in works by a particular artist,
can agree on the importance of a "creator" element. Such convergence on a common, if
slightly more generic, element set increases the visibility and accessibility of all
resources, both within a given discipline and beyond.

3. International scope

The Dublin Core Element Set was originally developed in English, but versions are being
created in many other languages, including Finnish, Norwegian, Thai, Japanese, French,
Portuguese, German, Greek, Indonesian, and Spanish. The DCMI Localization and
Internationalization Special Interest Group are coordinating efforts to link these versions
in a distributed registry.

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Although the technical challenges of internationalization on the World Wide Web have
not been directly addressed by the Dublin Core development community, the
involvement of representatives from virtually every continent has ensured that the
development of the standard considers the multilingual and multicultural nature of the
electronic information universe.

4. Extensibility

While balancing the needs for simplicity in describing digital resources with the need for
precise retrieval, Dublin Core developers have recognized the importance of providing a
mechanism for extending the DC element set for additional resource discovery needs. It
is expected that other communities of metadata experts will create and administer
additional metadata sets, specialized to the needs of their communities. Metadata
elements from these sets could be used in conjunction with Dublin Core metadata to meet
the need for interoperabilbility. The DCMI Usage Board is presently working on a model
for accomplishing this in the context of "application profiles."

Rachel Heery and Manjula Patel, in their article "Application profiles: mixing and
matching metadata schemas" define an application profile as:

“... Schemas which consist of data elements drawn from one or more namespaces,
combined together by implementers, and optimized for a particular local application."

This model allows different communities to use the DC elements for core descriptive
information, and allowing domain specific extensions which make sense within a more
limited arena.

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PURPOSE OF DUBLIN CORE

The Dublin Core is a proposed minimal set of data elements for describing
network-accessible materials. It designed to facilitate the description and recovery of
documents like resources in a network environment. The Dublin core also consequently
considerable attention has been given to making the Dublin Core standard flexible
enough to represent resources (and relationships among resources) that are in digital and
traditional formats. It defines conventions for describing things online in ways that make
them easy to find.

Dublin Core is widely used to describe digital materials such as video, sound,
image, text, and composite media like web pages. Indeed, Dublin Core is element set, a
simple but effective element set for describing a wide range of resources, including
Internet resources. Dublin Core's simplicity, the potential it offers for interoperability, its
international acceptability, and the flexibility it provides for extensions to the basic
elements to meet local needs.

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DUBLIN CORE LEVEL OF STANDARD

The Dublin Core standard includes two levels: Simple and Qualified. Simple Dublin
Core comprises fifteen elements; Qualified Dublin Core includes three additional
elements (Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder), as well as a group of element
refinements (also called qualifiers) that refine the semantics of the elements in ways that
may be useful in resource discovery.

1. Simple Dublin Core

The Simple Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) consists of 15 metadata
elements:

1. Title 9. Format
2. Creator 10. Identifier
3. Subject 11. Coverage
4. Description 12. Relation
5. Publisher 13. Sources
6. Contributor 14. Language
7. Right 15. Relation
8. Type

Each Dublin Core element is optional and may be repeated. The DCMI has established
standard ways to refine elements and encourage the use of encoding and vocabulary
schemes. There is no prescribed order in Dublin Core for presenting or using the
elements.

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2. Qualified Dublin Core

Subsequent to the specification of the original 15 elements, an ongoing process to


develop exemplary terms extending or refining the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set
(DCMES) was begun. The additional terms were identified, generally in working groups
of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, and judged by the DCMI Usage Board to be in
conformance with principles of good practice for the qualification of Dublin Core
metadata elements.

Elements refinements make the meaning of an element narrower or more specific.


A refined element shares the meaning of the unqualified element, but with a more
restricted scope. The guiding principle for the qualification of Dublin Core elements,
colloquially known as the Dumb-Down Principle, states that an application that does not
understand a specific element refinement term should be able to ignore the qualifier and
treat the metadata value as if it were an unqualified (broader) element. While this may
result in some loss of specificity, the remaining element value (without the qualifier)
should continue to be generally correct and useful for discovery.

In addition to element refinements, Qualified Dublin Core includes a set of


recommended encoding schemes, designed to aid in the interpretation of an element
value. These schemes include controlled vocabularies and formal notations or parsing
rules. A value expressed using an encoding scheme may thus be a token selected from a
controlled vocabulary (e.g., a term from a classification system or set of subject headings)
or a string formatted in accordance with a formal notation (e.g., "2000-12-31" as the
standard expression of a date). If an encoding scheme is not understood by an application,
the value may still be useful to a human reader.

Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder are elements, but not part of the
Simple Dublin Core fifteen elements. Use Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder only
when using Qualified Dublin Core. DCMI also maintains a small, general vocabulary
recommended for use within the element Type. This vocabulary currently consists of 12
terms

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HTML, DUBLIN CORE, and NON - DUBLIN CORE


METADATA

The Dublin Core (DC) metadata initiative has produced a small set of resource
description categories, or elements of metadata (literally, data about data). Metadata
elements are typically small relative to the resource they describe and may, if the
resource format permits, be embedded in it. Two such formats are;

• Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)


• Extensible Markup Language (XML)

HTML is currently in wide use, but once standardized, XML. The HTML encoding
allows elements of DC metadata to be interspersed with non-DC elements (provided such
mixing is consistent with rules governing use of those non-DC elements). A DC element
is indicated by the prefix "DC", and a non-DC element by another prefix. For example,
the prefix "AC" is used with elements from the A-Core.

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THE META TAG

The META tag of HTML is designed to encode a named metadata element. Each element
describes a given aspect of a document or other information resource. For example, this
tagged metadata element,

<meta name = "DC.Creator"


content = "Simpson, Homer">

Says that Homer Simpson is the Creator, where the element named Creator is defined in
the DC element set. In the more general form,

<meta name = "PREFIX.ELEMENT_NAME"


content = "ELEMENT_VALUE">

The capitalized words are meant to be replaced in actual descriptions; thus in the
example,

ELEMENT_NAME was: Creator


ELEMENT_VALUE was: Simpson, Homer
and PREFIX was: DC

Within a META tag the first letter of a Dublin Core element name is capitalized. DC
places no restriction on alphabetic case in an element value and any number of META
tagged elements may appear together, in any order. More than one DC element with the
same name may appear, and each DC element is optional. The next example is a book
description with two authors, two titles, and no other metadata.

<meta name = "DC.Title"


content = "The Communist Manifesto">
<meta name = "DC.Creator"
content = "Marx, K.">
<meta name = "DC.Creator"
content = "Engels, F.">
<meta name = "DC.Title"
content = "Capital">

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The prefix "DC" precedes each Dublin Core element encoded with META, and it is
separated by a period (.) from the element name following it. Each non-DC element
should be encoded with a prefix that can be used to trace its origin and definition; the
linkage between prefix and element definition is made with the LINK tag, as explained in
the next section. Non-DC elements, such as Email from the A-Core, may appear together
with DC elements, as in

<meta name = "DC.Creator"


content = "Da Costa, Jos&eacute;">
<meta name = "AC.Email"
content = "dacostaj@peoplesmail.org">
<meta name = "DC.Title"
content = "Jesse &#34;The Body&#34; Ventura--A Biography">

This example also shows how some special characters may be encoded. The author name
in the first element contains a diacritic encoded as an HTML character entity reference --
in this case an accented letter E. Similarly, the last line contains two double-quote
characters encoded so as to avoid being interpreted as element content delimiters.

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THE LINK TAG

The LINK tag of HTML may be used to associate an element name prefix with the
reference definition of the element set that it identifies. A sequence of META tags
describing a resource is incomplete without one such LINK tag for each different prefix
appearing in the sequence. The previous example could be considered complete with the
addition of these two LINK tags:

<link rel = "schema.DC"


href = "http://purl.org/DC/elements/1.0/">
<link rel = "schema.AC"
href = "http://metadata.net/ac/2.0/">

In general, the association takes the form

<link rel = "schema.PREFIX"


href = "LOCATION_OF_DEFINITION">

Where, in actual descriptions, PREFIX is to be replaced by the prefix and


LOCATION_OF_DEFINITION by the URL or URN of the defining document. When
embedded in the HEAD part of an HTML file, a sequence of LINK and META tags
describes the information in the surrounding HTML file itself. Here is a complete HTML
file with its own embedded description.

<html>
<head>
<title> A Dirge </title>
<link rel = "schema.DC"
href = "http://purl.org/DC/elements/1.0/">
<meta name = "DC.Title"
content = "A Dirge">
<meta name = "DC.Creator"
content = "Shelley, Percy Bysshe">
<meta name = "DC.Type"
content = "poem">
<meta name = "DC.Date"
content = "1820">
<meta name = "DC.Format"
content = "text/html">
<meta name = "DC.Language"
content = "en">
</head>
<body><pre>
Rough wind, that moanest loud

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Grief too sad for song;


Wild wind, when sullen cloud
Knells all the night long;
Sad storm, whose tears are vain,
Bare woods, whose branches strain,
Deep caves and dreary main, -
Wail, for the world's wrong!
</pre></body>
</html>

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FUNCTION OF DUBLIN CORE METADATA ELEMENT SET

The simple resource description record to be known as the "Dublin Core". It is a


core set in the sense that it is a small number of elements, judged to have general
applicability that will be universally understood if the standard is followed. It is not a
core data element set in the sense of being a minimum number of required elements. It
created in order to have an internationally agreed-upon set of the elements that could be
filled in by the creator of an electronic document. Dublin Core is now being implemented
through the use of HTML.

DUBLIN CORE ELEMENT SET

The Dublin Core Set consists of 15 elements that can be divided into 3 main groups that
are;
1. Content of resource,
2. Intellectual properties
3. Resource as an instance.

Elements related to the content of the resource:


1. Title
The name given to the resource by the CREATOR or PUBLISHER.

<meta name = "DC.Title"


content = "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination">

<meta name = "DC.Title"


content = "Crime and Punishment">

<meta name = "DC.Title"


content = "Methods of Information in Medicine, Vol 32, No
4">

<meta name = "DC.Title"


content = "Still life #4 with flowers">

<meta name = "DC.Title"

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lang = "de"
content = "Das Wohltemperierte Klavier, Teil I">

2. Subject and Keywords


The topic of the resource, or keywords or phrases that describe the subject or
content of the resource. The intent of the specification of this element is to
promote the use of controlled vocabularies and keywords. This element might
well include scheme-qualified classification data (for example, Library of
Congress Classification Numbers or Dewey Decimal numbers) or scheme-
qualified controlled vocabularies (such as MEdical Subject Headings or Art and
Architecture Thesaurus descriptors) as well.

<meta name = "DC.Subject"


content = "heart attack">
<meta name = "DC.Subject"
scheme = "MESH"
content = "Myocardial Infarction; Pericardial Effusion">

<meta name = "DC.Subject"


content = "vietnam war">
<meta name = "DC.Subject"
scheme = "LCSH"
content = "Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975">

<meta name = "DC.Subject"


content = "Friendship">
<meta name = "DC.Subject"
scheme = "ddc"
content = "158.25">

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3. Description
A textual description of the content of the resource, including abstracts in the
case of document-like objects or content descriptions in the case of visual
resources. Future metadata collections might well include computational
content description (spectral analysis of a visual resource, for example) that
may not be embeddable in current network systems. In such a case this field
might contain a link to such a description rather than the description itself.

<meta name = "DC.Description"


lang = "en"
content = "The Author gives some Account of Himself and
Family
-- His First Inducements to Travel -- He is
Shipwrecked, and Swims for his Life -- Gets
safe on
Shore in the Country of Lilliput -- Is made a
Prisoner, and carried up the Country">

<meta name = "DC.Description"


content = "A tutorial and reference manual for Java.">

<meta name = "DC.Description"


content = "Seated family of five, coconut trees to the
left,
sailboats moored off sandy beach to the right,
with volcano in the background.">

4. Source
The work, either print or electronic, from which this resource is derived, if
applicable. For example, an html encoding of a Shakespearean sonnet might
identify the paper version of the sonnet from which the electronic version was
transcribed.

<meta name = "DC.Source"


content = "Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet">

<meta name = "DC.Source"


content = "http://a.b.org/manon/">

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5. Language
Language of the intellectual content of the resource. Where practical, the
content of this field should coincide with the Z39.53 three character codes for
written languages.

<meta name = "DC.Language"


content = "en">
<meta name = "DC.Language"
scheme = "rfc1766"
content = "en">
<meta name = "DC.Language"
scheme = "ISO639-2"
content = "eng">
<meta name = "DC.Language"
scheme = "rfc1766"
content = "en-US">

<meta name = "DC.Language"


content = "zh">
<meta name = "DC.Language"
content = "ja">
<meta name = "DC.Language"
content = "es">
<meta name = "DC.Language"
content = "de">

<meta name = "DC.Language"


content = "german">
<meta name = "DC.Language"
lang = "fr"
content = "allemand">

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6. Relation
Relationship to other resources. The intent of specifying this element is to
provide a means to express relationships among resources that have formal
relationships to others, but exist as discrete resources themselves. For example,
images in a document, chapters in a book, or items in a collection. A formal
specification of RELATION is currently under development. Users and
developers should understand that use of this element should be currently
considered experimental.

<meta name = "DC.Relation.IsPartOf"


content = "http://foo.bar.org/abc/proceedings/1998/">

<meta name = "DC.Relation.IsFormatOf"


content = "http://foo.bar.org/cd145.sgml">

<meta name = "DC.Relation.IsVersionOf"


content = "http://foo.bar.org/draft9.4.4.2">

<meta name = "DC.Relation.References"


content = "urn:isbn:1-56592-149-6">

<meta name = "DC.Relation.IsBasedOn"


content = "Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet">

<meta name = "DC.Relation.Requires"


content = "LWP::UserAgent; HTML::Parse; URI::URL;
Net::DNS; Tk::Pixmap; Tk::Bitmap; Tk::Photo">

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7. Coverage
The spatial locations and temporal duration’s characteristic of the resource.
Formal specification of COVERAGE is currently under development. Users
and developers should understand that use of this element should be currently
considered experimental.

<meta name = "DC.Coverage"


content = "US civil war era; 1861-1865">

<meta name = "DC.Coverage"


content = "Columbus, Ohio, USA; Lat: 39 57 N Long: 082 59
W">

<meta name = "DC.Coverage"


scheme = "TGN"
content = "Columbus (C,V)">

<meta name = "DC.Coverage.Jurisdiction"


content = "Commonwealth of Australia">

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Elements related to the resource when viewed as intellectual property:


1. Author / Creator
The person(s) or organization(s) primarily responsible for the intellectual content
of the resource. For example, authors in the case of written documents, artists,
photographers, or illustrators in the case of visual resources.

<meta name = "DC.Creator"


content = "Gogh, Vincent van">
<meta name = "DC.Creator"
content = "van Gogh, Vincent">

<meta name = "DC.Creator"


content = "Mao Tse Tung">
<meta name = "DC.Creator"
content = "Mao, Tse Tung">

<meta name = "DC.Creator"


content = "Plato">
<meta name = "DC.Creator"
lang = "fr"
content = "Platon">

<meta name = "DC.Creator.Director"


content = "Sturges, Preston">
<meta name = "DC.Creator.Writer"
content = "Hecht, Ben">
<meta name = "DC.Creator.Producer"
content = "Chaplin, Charles">

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2. Publisher
The entity responsible for making the resource available in its present form,
such as a publisher, a university department, or a corporate entity. The intent of
specifying this field is to identify the entity that provides access to the resource.

<meta name = "DC.Publisher"


content = "O'Reilly">

<meta name = "DC.Publisher"


content = "Digital Equipment Corporation">

<meta name = "DC.Publisher"


content = "University of California Press">

<meta name = "DC.Publisher"


content = "State of Florida (USA)">

3. Other contributors
Person(s) or organization(s) in addition to those specified in the CREATOR
element that have made significant intellectual contributions to the resource but
whose contribution is secondary to the individuals or entities specified in the
CREATOR element (for example, editors, transcribers, illustrators, and
conveners).

<meta name = "DC.Contributor"


content = "Curie, Marie">

<meta name = "DC.Contributor.Photographer"


content = "Adams, Ansel">

<meta name = "DC.Contributor.Artist"


content = "Sendak, Maurice">

<meta name = "DC.Contributor.Editor"


content = "Starr, Kenneth">

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4. Right elements
The content of this element is intended to be a link (a URL or other suitable
URL as appropriate) to a copyright notice, a rights-management statement, or
perhaps a server that would provide such information in a dynamic way. The
intent of specifying this field is to allow providers a means to associate terms
and conditions or copyright statements with a resource or collection of
resources. No assumptions should be made by users if such a field is empty or
not present.

<meta name = "DC.Rights"


lang = "en"
content = "Copyright Acme 1999 - All rights reserved.">

<meta name = "DC.Rights"


content = "http://foo.bar.org/cgi-bin/terms">

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Elements related mainly to the issue of resources as an instance:


1. Date
The date the resource was made available in its present form. The recommended
best practice is an 8 digit number in the form YYYYMMDD as defined by ANSI
X3.30-1985. In this scheme, the date element for the day this is written would be
19961203, or December 3, 1996. Many other schemas are possible, but if used,
they should be identified in an unambiguous manner.

<meta name = "DC.Date"


content = "1972">

<meta name = "DC.Date"


content = "1998-05-14">
<meta name = "DC.Date"
scheme = "WTN8601"
content = "1998-05-14">

<meta name = "DC.Date.Created"


content = "1998-05-14">
<meta name = "DC.Date.Available"
content = "1998-05-21">
<meta name = "DC.Date.Valid"
content = "1998-05-28">

<meta name = "DC.Date.Created"


content = "triassic">
<meta name = "DC.Date.Acquired"
content = "1957">

<meta name = "DC.Date.Accepted"


scheme = "WTN8601"
content = "1998-12-02T16:59">

<meta name = "DC.Date.DataGathered"


scheme = "ISO8601"
content = "98-W49-3T1659">

<meta name = "DC.Date.Issued"


scheme = "ANSI.X3.X30-1985"
content = "19980514">

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IMD 253: Organization of Information

2. Resource Type
The category of the resource, such as home page, novel, poem, working paper,
technical report, essay, dictionary. It is expected that RESOURCE TYPE will
be chosen from an enumerated list of types.

<meta name = "DC.Type"


content = "poem">

<meta name = "DC.Type"


scheme = "DCT1"
content = "software">
<meta name = "DC.Type"
content = "software program source code">
<meta name = "DC.Type"
content = "interactive video game">

<meta name = "DC.Type"


scheme = "DCT1"
content = "dataset">

<meta name = "DC.Type"


content = "web home page">
<meta name = "DC.Type"
content = "web bibliography">

<meta name = "DC.Type"


content = "painting">
<meta name = "DC.Type"
content = "image; woodblock">
<meta name = "DC.Type"
scheme = "AAT"
content = "clipeus (portrait)">
<meta name = "DC.Type"
lang = "en-US"
content = "image; advertizement">

<meta name = "DC.Type"


scheme = "DCT1"
content = "event">
<meta name = "DC.Type"
content = "event; periodic">

28
IMD 253: Organization of Information

3. Format
The data representation of the resource, such as text/html, ASCII, Postscript
file, executable application, or JPEG image. The intent of specifying this
element is to provide information necessary to allow people or machines to
make decisions about the usability of the encoded data (what hardware and
software might be required to display or execute it, for example). As with
RESOURCE TYPE, FORMAT will be assigned from enumerated lists such as
registered Internet Media Types (MIME types). In principal, formats can
include physical media such as books, serials, or other non-electronic media.

<meta name = "DC.Format"


content = "text/xml">
<meta name = "DC.Format"
scheme = "IMT"
content = "text/xml">

<meta name = "DC.Format"


scheme = "IMT"
content = "image/jpeg">
<meta name = "DC.Format"
content = "A text file with mono-spaced tables and
diagrams.">

<meta name = "DC.Format"


content = "video/mpeg; 14 minutes">

<meta name = "DC.Format"


content = "unix tar archive, gzip compressed; 1.5 Mbytes">

<meta name = "DC.Format"


content = "watercolor; 23 cm x 31 cm">

29
IMD 253: Organization of Information

4. Resource identifier
String or number used to uniquely identify the resource. Examples for
networked resources include URLs and URNs (when implemented). Other
globally-unique identifiers, such as International Standard Book Numbers
(ISBN) or other formal names would also be candidates for this element.

<meta name = "DC.Identifier"


content = "http://foo.bar.org/zaf/">

<meta name = "DC.Identifier"


content = "urn:ietf:rfc:1766">

<meta name = "DC.Identifier"


scheme = "ISBN"
content = "1-56592-149-6">

<meta name = "DC.Identifier"


scheme = "LCCN"
content = "67-26020">

<meta name = "DC.Identifier"


scheme = "DOI"
content = "10.12345/33-824688ab">

The other functions of Dublin Core are:

1. Developing and maintaining international standards for describing resources or


materials
2. Supporting the whole community of users and developments in finding resources
3. Promoting the use of Dublin Core solutions to the world
4. Making guidelines and procedures to help implementers define and describe their
usage of Dublin Core Metadata

30
IMD 253: Organization of Information

ADVANTAGES OF DUBLIN CORE

1. Commonly understood semantics.

2. Easy to find and describing things online and digital material such as video,
sound, image, text, and composite media like web pages.

3. Providing for effective retrieval of those resources in the networked environment.

4. Dublin core is the emerging international and standard for Web-based resources
description.

5. They are simpler to update and display and are easier to use for many simple
look-up task.

6. Dublin core can readily be represented in HTML and in XML.

7. Better information means better decisions

8. Target information for the task at hand

9. Connect people with information efficiently

10. Make information available across the enterprise

11. Promote re-use of existing content

12. Personalize and customize the user experience

31
IMD 253: Organization of Information

EXAMPLE OF DUBLIN CORE

Example 1

The DC metadata for http://jarmin.com/meta/dcore.html document looks like this:

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Metadata - Dublin Core</TITLE>
<META NAME="DC.Title" CONTENT="Metadata - Dublin Core">
<META NAME="DC.Creator.Address" CONTENT="iris@jarmin.com">
<META NAME="DC.Subject" CONTENT="metadata, metatags, Dublin Core,
guidelines, web design, resources, HTML authoring">
<META NAME="DC.Description" CONTENT="A quick guide to Dublin Core
metadata for web designers.">
<META NAME="DC.Date.Created" CONTENT="2000-02-01">
<META NAME="DC.Date.Modified" CONTENT="2000-02-09">
<META NAME="DC.Type" CONTENT="Text.Homepage.Educational">
<META NAME="DC.Format" CONTENT="text/html">
<META NAME="DC.Language" CONTENT="en">
<META NAME="DC.Identifier"
CONTENT="http://www.jarmin.com/meta/dcore.html">
</HEAD>
<BODY>
...
</BODY>
</HTML>

32
IMD 253: Organization of Information

Example 2
Dublin Core Generator By Worthington Memory

33
IMD 253: Organization of Information

34
IMD 253: Organization of Information

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, Dublin Core is a standard that can make the work become easier
and it help the users to understand the information that they need in Web page. The
Dublin Core also makes everyone in the world can understand the language in Web page
because the provenances of Dublin Core have built up the version of Dublin Core in
many languages.

REFERENCES

35
IMD 253: Organization of Information

Attig, John C. Dublin core and cataloging rules analysis project. Retrieved Sept.
30, 2009, from the World Wide Web: http://www.dublincoreandtheCatalogingRules.htm

Cleveland, Donald B. & Cleveland, Ana D. (2001). Introduction to indexing and


abstracting. Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.

Dublin core metadata initiative. Retrieved Oct.5, 2009 from the World Wide
Web: http://dublincore.org/documents/2001/04/11/dcmes-xml/

Encoding Dublin core elements. Retrieved Oct.5, 2009 from the World Wide
Web: http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/rfc2731.html#rfc.section.7

Hillman, Diane. Using Dublin core. Retrieved Sept. 30, 2009, from the World
Wide Web: http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/11/07/usageguide.html

Kovacs, Diane K. & Robinson, Kara L. (2004). The Kovacs guide to electronic
library collection development: Essential core subject collections, selections criteria, and
guidelines. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc.

Mitchell, Anne M. & Surratt, Brian E. (2005). Cataloging and organizing digital
resources: A how-to-do-it manual for librarians. London: Facet Publishing.

The Dublin Core: a simple content description model for electronic resources.
Retrieved Sept. 23, 2009 from the World Wide Web:
http://www.cni.org/tfms/1999b.fall/handout/SWeibel-Dublin-Core.pdf

Qualified Dublin core generator. Retrieved Sept. 23, 2009 from the World Wide
Web: http://www.worthingtonmemory.org/DC_Form.cfm

36