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# Single Side Band Modulation

Introduction

Let us consider a DSB-SC signal s(t) derived from the message signal m(t) and based on a carrier fc . The Fourier transform S (f ) and M (f ) are shown on Figure 1.
|M(f)| B |S(f)|

LSB

USB

+W

fc

fc W
(b) DSB-SC signal s(t)

fc

fc + W

## (a) Original message m(t)

Figure 1: Spectrum of m(t) and s(t) USB stands for Upper Side Band and LSB stands for Lower Side Band. The bandwidth B of the modulated signal is twice the bandwidth W of the original baseband message. The principle of single side band modulation is to transmit one sideband instead of both. Assuming that we want to transmit the Upper side band (USB), the resulting single side band signal (SSB) will have a spectrum that is shown on Figure 2.
|S
USB

(f)|

fc

fc + W

Figure 2: USB SSB signal spectrum As for DSB-SC transmission, the original message can be recovered using synchronous product demodulation. The modulated signal is multiplied by a local carrier and the resulting signal 1

is low-pass ltered. Being able to recover the original signal implies that no information was lost by transmitting only one sideband. We have just suppressed some redundancy in the modulated signal and the main advantage of this technique is to save bandwidth. The extra bandwidth can, for example, be used to transmit the signal of another user. There are three well-known ways to generate SSB signals using analog techniques, namely the lter method, the phasing method and Weavers method. The lter method (see Figure 3) is a very common way of SSB generation. It consists in bandpassing a DSB-SC signal to select the side band that will be transmitted.

|S(f)|

|H(f)|

|S

USB

(f)|

fc

## fc Band pass filter

fc

Figure 3: The lter method Assuming we want to transmit the USB, this method requires a perfect bandpass lter to cut out the LSB. In practice, to accomplish this with realistic lters, we need a baseband signal with a guard band, i.e., a signal with spectrum that has an interval at zero frequency with no energy. This is typically the case of speech signals because their frequency range is 300 Hz - 3 kHz (see Figure 4).

## |M(f)| Guard band

300 Hz

3 kHz

Figure 4: Telephone signal amplitude spectrum Mass production has given rise to the development of low-cost and high-performance lters but these lters are generally only available at standard frequencies (for example 455 kHz or 10.7 MHz). SSB generation by the lter method at other frequencies can be expensive. Transmission of signals with a small guard band requires very good (and therefore expensive) lters, which increases the cost of a SSB transmission system. This is why other methods are also used to generate SSB signals. In this Lab, we will focus on the phasing method, which does not require expensive lters but an accurate phase adjustment. We will not investigate Weavers 2

method.

2
2.1

## A little bit of theory about SSB

Denition of a SSB signal

It can be shown that a SSB signal has the following form: s(t) = m(t) cos(2fc t) + mH (t) sin(2fc t) s(t) = m(t) cos(2fc t) mH (t) sin(2fc t) where fc is the carrier frequency m(t) is the original message signal mH (t) is the Hilbert transform of m(t) Recall that the Hilbert transform is a linear operation whose transfer function H (f ) is represented in the frequency domain by H (f ) = jsgn(f ) Therefore, the Fourier transform M H (f ) of mH (t) is given by: MH (f ) = jM (f ) f > 0 jM (f ) f <0 U SB LSB (1) (2)

You can refer to your textbook for more details about the Hilbert transform. A spectrum analysis of s(t) shows that the terms m(t) cos(2f c t) and mH (t) sin(2fc t) correspond to two DSB-SC signals which are so phased that their upper sidebands are identical in phase and amplitude, whilst their lower sideband are of similar amplitude but opposite phase. The two out of phase sidebands will cancel if added, giving rise to an USB SSB signal. Similarly, the two in phase sidebands will cancel if subtracted, giving rise to an LSB SSB signal. The theoretical block diagram of a USB SSB generator is shown on Figure 5. A LSB SSB signal can be obtained by subtracting the outputs of the two branches instead of adding them.

2.2

## The single tone message example

There exists a simple method to nd the expression of a SSB signal when the message is a single tone waveform that does not require computing any Hilbert transforms. Let us write the message m(t) as m(t) = Am cos(2fm t). The corresponding DSB-SC signal SDSB SC (t) based on a carrier frequency fc is: SDSB SC (t) = Ac Am Ac Am cos[2 (fc + fm )t] + cos[2 (fc fm )t] 2 2
U SB LSB

(3)

Message m(t)

Hilbert Transform

+/2
mH(t)

## USB SSB signal

Figure 5: Theoretical SSB generator If the USB signal is selected, the USB SSB signal s(t) has an equation given by Ac Am cos[2 (fc + fm )t] (4) 2 This is the equation of a sine wave at frequency f c + fm . It is important to note that the amplitude information of the message is contained in the amplitude of the SSB signal. The message frequency information is contained in the frequency oset, from f c , of the SSB signal. s(t) =

2.3

## SSB modulation - The phasing generator

This method implements the equation s(t) = m(t) cos(2f c t) mH (t) sin(2fc t). A block diagram representation assuming a sine wave message is shown on Figure 6 .
DSBSC Q Q branch

/2

/2

SSB signal

## Carrier Cosine wave (f c ) DSBSC I I branch

Figure 6: Theoretical SSB phasing generator The /2 phase shifter connected to the message signal is a wideband phase shifter whose mission is to implement the Hilbert transform. It may seem strange that a phase shifter which, 4

by denition, accepts only sine waves as inputs can implement a Hilbert transform, an operation dened for all kinds of signals. However, it can be shown that a Hilbert transformer and a /2 phase shifter are equivalent when fed with sine waves. As any signal can be decomposed in a sum of cosine and sine waves, we can use the linearity of the Hilbert transform to show that the block diagram representations involving a Hilbert transform and a /2 phase shifter are equivalent. The phase shifter has to provide a /2 phase shift over the entire message signal frequency range, e.g., the frequency range of speech or music. This is the reason why it is called a Wideband Phase Shifter. It is practically implemented in TIMS using a Quadrature Phase Splitter (QPS). The practical block diagram of the phasing method is shown on Figure 7.
DSBSC Q Q branch

/2
QPS Message Sine wave (f m )

SSB signal

## Carrier Cosine wave (f c ) DSBSC I I branch

Figure 7: Practical SSB phasing generator The wideband Quadrature Phase Splitter consists of two complementary networks, say I (In Phase) and Q (Quadrature). When each network is fed with the same input signal, the phase dierence between the two outputs is maintained at 90 . It is important to mention that the phase dierence between the common input and either of the outputs is not specied. It is also dependent of the frequency of the input signal. You can refer to the TIMS User Manual for further information about the QPS. The phase shifter that is connected to the local oscillator introduces a 90 phase shift only at a single frequency. Therefore it is a narrow band device and it presents no realization problems. There is no need to use a QPS to implement it.

2.4

Performance criteria

The performance criterion of a SSB generator is dened as its ability to suppress the unwanted sideband. Suppose that the modulated SSB signal s(t) derived from the message signal m(t) has the following form: s(t) = W cos[2 (fc + fm )t] + U cos[2 (fc fm )t] where m(t) = cos(2fm t). (5)

The wanted sideband W has the frequency f c + fm and the unwanted sideband U has the frequency fc fm . Typically, we will have W>>U. It can be shown that the envelope e(t) of s(t) has the following form: e(t) = W + U cos[2 (2fm )t] This envelope is sinusoidal and its frequency is equal to twice that of the message. One performance criterion is dened by the Sideband Suppression, a ratio of wanted to unwanted output power. Sideband Suppression = 20 log 10 ( where P and Q are dened on Figure 8.
c m

(6)

P +Q W ) = 20 log 10 ( ) U P Q
c m

(7)

## USB SSB signal centered on f + f with unwanted component at f f

20

15 Q 10

s(t)
0 5 10 15 0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2 Time t

Figure 8: Denition of P and Q for a SSB signal With the TIMS unit, the limiting factor to a good sideband suppression is the QPS. The QPS does not use precision components, which introduces an error in the 90 phase shift between its two outputs. This error limits the SSB transmission system performance to a maximum sideband suppression of around 30 dB. Note that in commercial applications, the sideband suppression required is 60 dB or more, which is not a trivial result to achieve. In general, the presence of a residual envelope can be due to a combination of dierent factors: leakage of a component at the carrier frequency incomplete cancellation of the unwanted sideband component (as seen above) distortion introduced by the multipliers It can be shown that for a single tone message m(t) = cos(2f m t) , the leakage of a component at the carrier frequency gives rise to a sinusoidal envelope of frequency f m (the same as the original message). 6

2.5
2.5.1

SSB demodulation
Synchronous product demodulator

SSB modulated signals can be demodulated using synchronous product demodulation. This demodulator is identical to the one used for DSB-SC signals demodulation. You can refer to the AM Lab for further details on product demodulation techniques. However, an upfront bandpass lter is added to allow the selection of the sideband that will be demodulated. The bandpass lter also serves to remove a substantial portion of the noise before processing the received signal. The block diagram of the SSB product demodulator is shown on Figure 9.

SSB signal

Bandpass filter

Lowpass filter

Demodulated Message

## Carrier Cosine wave (f c )

Phase shifter

Figure 9: Synchronous product demodulator In SSB modulation, the need for a high-performance bandpass lter can be an expensive constraint in the specications of a SSB demodulator, especially if the signals are based on carrier frequencies that are not standard. The phasing method eliminates the need for a highperformance bandpass lter when demodulating SSB signals. Whether the lter method or the phasing method is employed, both methods rely on synchronous demodulation. This means that the local oscillator of the receiver has to be tuned to the SSB signal carrier frequency. How can the receiver derive information about the carrier frequency? It is not as obvious how to determine the carrier frequency of a SSB signal as it is for a DSB-SC signal. Recall that in DSB-SC transmission, the positive part of the spectrum shows that the pattern is symmetric about the center frequency f c , which can then be determined by inspection. Two methods exist to perform synchronous SSB demodulation. The rst method consists in transmitting a low power pilot carrier in addition to the selected sideband. In this case, the receiver is coherent. The second method uses a local oscillator tuned to the carrier frequency at the receiver. In this case, the receiver is not coherent because there is always a phase shift error between the local oscillator and the received SSB modulated waveform. Thus, if the received signal has the following form: r (t) = m(t) cos(2fc t) + mH (t) sin(2fc t) U SB (8)

and the local oscillator waveform is l(t) = cos(2f c t + ), the signal at the output of the low-pass lter is given by: d(t) = m(t) cos() + mH (t) sin() 7 (9)

An analysis of d(t) in the Fourier domain shows that the phase error introduces a phase distortion in the received signal. Each frequency of the original message undergoes a constant phase shift. This phase shift is acceptable with voice communication because the human ear is relatively insensitive to phase distortion. However, when music or video signals are transmitted, this phase distortion is unacceptable. You will nd through experimentation that synchronous operation is not essential for speech signals. A local carrier within, say 10 Hz of the real carrier frequency is adequate. You will investigate how the error on the carrier frequency can give rise to some really interesting sounds at the output of the SSB demodulator. 2.5.2 The phasing demodulator

## The block diagram of the phasing demodulator is shown on Figure 10.

Q branch

/2

SSB signal

/2

  

Demodulated Message

## Carrier Cosine wave (f c ) I branch

Figure 10: Theoretical SSB phasing demodulator Assume that the incoming signal has the following form: r (t) = AH cos[2 (fc + fH )t] + AL cos[2 (fc fL )t] (10)

The subscripts H and L respectively stand for High and Low (compared to the center frequency fc ). The outputs of the multipliers produce components close to DC and components close to 2fc . As the nal signal is low-pass ltered, let us focus only on the terms close to DC. These terms are so phased that those coming from one side of f c will add, whilst those from the other side will cancel. Thus, the demodulator appears to look at only one side of the carrier. As for SSB generation, the 90 phase shifter of the Q arm requires a wide band phase shifter since its input signals can have a wide frequency range. Therefore, we use again a Quadrature Phase Splitter to implement it and the practical phasing-type SSB demodulator is shown on Figure 11. Again, there is no need to use a QPS to implement the phase shifter that is connected to the local oscillator. A simple narrowband 90 phase shifter is enough.

Q branch

SSB signal

/2
QPS

 

Demodulated Message

## Figure 11: Practical SSB phasing demodulator

Objectives
Learn how to generate and demodulate SSB signals using the phasing method Check the eect of asynchronous demodulation on speech and music signals. Investigate how it aects the intelligibility of the demodulated signal.

Preliminary questions
1. Show in the Fourier domain that the equation s(t) = m(t) cos(2fc t) mH (t) sin(2fc t) corresponds to a SSB signal. 2. Suppose that a single tone message (frequency f m ) is used to generate a SSB waveform whose equation is given by: s(t) = W cos[2 (fc + fm )t] + U cos[2 (fc fm )t] Show that the envelope e(t) of r (t) is approximately: e(t) = W + U cos[2 (2fm )t] Hint #1 : the envelope of a signal x(t) is |x + (t)| where x+ (t) is dened as: x+ (t) = x(t) + jxH (t) Hint #2 : use the Taylor series approximation 1 + x = 1 + (14)
x 2

(11)

(12)

(13)

when x is small

3. Show that the practical phasing-type SSB generator using a QPS and the theoretical SSB generator using Hilbert transform give the same result when the message is a cosine waveform m(t) = Am cos(2fm t). 4. Can you suggest a slight modication of the block diagram of the phasing-type SSB generator that would allow us to change the sideband that will be transmitted? 5. Assuming that the SSB received signal is: r (t) = cos[2 (fc + fH )t] + cos[2 (fc fL )t] (15)

Show that the output of the low-pass lter of a phasing-type SSB demodulator is such that only one sideband is selected. Can you suggest a slight modication in the block diagram that would allow the selection of the other sideband?

## List of modules required

1 AUDIO OSCILLATOR 2 ADDERS 3 MULTIPLIERS 1 PHASE SHIFTER 1 QUADRATURE PHASE SPLITTER 1 TUNEABLE LPF 1 VCO

6
6.1

Experiments
SSB modulation

Recall that the QPS is a wideband phase shifter whose frequency range is 200 Hz - 10 kHz. Its characteristics are listed on p.15 of the TIMS User Manual. Before patching the QPS, let us rst determine its performance. 1. Insert the QPS module and the AUDIO OSCILLATOR in the TIMS unit. Use the FREQUENCY COUNTER to tune the AUDIO OSCILLATOR signal to 5 kHz and send its cosine output to both input IN 1 and IN 2 of the QPS module. 2. Visualize the QPS outputs OUT 1 and OUT 2 on the scope display. You can trigger on OUT 1 or OUT 2 to get a stable display. Carefully measure the phase dierence between the two waveforms. Is it equal to 90 ?

10

DSBSC Q

Q branch

/2
QPS Message Sine wave (f m )

## g SSB signal G Carrier Cosine wave (f c ) DSBSC I I branch

Figure 12: SSB phasing modulator 3. Set the on-board switch of the PHASE SHIFTER to the HI position (100 kHz) before plugging it in and patch according to the diagram shown on Figure 12. Scope settings: Original message m(t) SSB signal Original message m(t) CH1-A CH2-A Ext. Trigger

11

12

16. Optional: Using speech signal as the original message Replace the AUDIO OSCILLATOR input by the speech signal available on the channel 1 of the TRUNKS PANEL. You may want to amplify the speech signal before modulating it. This can be done using the BUFFER AMPLIFIERS module. Visualize both the original message and the SSB signal. Can you see how the amplitude of the original message is contained in the SSB signal amplitude? 17. Now visualize both the DSB-SC signal available at the output of one of the MULTIPLIER and the SSB signal. Can you detect any dierence between the SSB signal and the DSB-SC signal, derived from the same speech signal, in the time domain?

6.2
6.2.1

SSB demodulation
The phasing demodulator

You will use the VCO to generate the input signal for the SSB demodulator. Make sure that the VCO on-board switch SW2 is on the VCO position and select the HI frequency range. If the VCO is tuned to 102 kHz, it will simulate a USB SSB signal derived from a 2 kHz cosine message at and based on a 100 kHz carrier. 1. Patch up the block diagram of the phasing demodulator that is shown on Figure 13.
Q branch

SSB signal

/2
QPS

 

Demodulated Message

## Carrier (f c ) Cosine wave I branch

Figure 13: SSB phasing demodulator VCO input signal Output of one of the MULTIPLIERS Demodulated message (LPF output of the HEADPHONE AMPLIFIER CH1-A CH1-B CH2-A

Scope settings:

Make sure that the MULTIPLIERS are AC coupled. The 90 phase shift is implemented with the PHASE SHIFTER. Use a 100 kHz cosine carrier coming from the MASTER SIGNALS to implement the local oscillator. The last low-pass lter is implemented using the low-pass lter of the HEADPHONE AMPLIFIER module. Remember that the input of the low-pass lter is denoted by A on the front panel and its output is denoted by 13

14

9. Flip the 180 switch of the PHASE SHIFTER. Did it reverse the sideband to which the demodulator responds? Explain your observations using Question 5 of the preliminary questions. 6.2.2 Demodulation of signals at the TRUNKS PANEL

1. Channel 2 signal Use the signal available on Channel 2 of the TRUNKS PANEL as the input to the SSB receiver. The signal available on channel 2 is based on a 100 kHz carrier and is dened as follows: LSB: SSB signal derived from speech signal