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College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

2009/2010 1430/1431 Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 1

ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION ................................................................................. 3 1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................ 3 1.2 ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS ............................................................ 5 1.2.1 Line resistance ....................................................................................................... 5

1.2.1.1 1.2.1.2 1.2.1.3 1.2.1.4 Frequency Effect .......................................................................................................... 5 Temperature Effect ...................................................................................................... 6 Spiraling and Bundle Conductor Effect ........................................................................ 6 Proximity effects .......................................................................................................... 8 Internal Inductance .................................................................................................... 10 Inductance Due To External Flux Linkage ................................................................... 11 Inductance of a two wire single phase lines............................................................... 12 Flux linkage in terms of self and mutual inductance .................................................. 14 Inductance of three phase transmission lines -symmetrical spacing- ........................ 15 Inductance of three phase transmission lines -asymmetrical spacing- ...................... 16 Transpose line ............................................................................................................ 17 GMR of bundled conductors ...................................................................................... 21

1.2.2

1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 1.2.8 1.2.9 1.2.10 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3

Inductance of composite conductors ................................................................... 18 Inductance of three phase double circuit line ...................................................... 26 Line capacitance .................................................................................................. 33 Capacitance of single phase lines ........................................................................ 34 Potential difference in a multiconductor configuration ...................................... 35 Capacitance of three phase lines ......................................................................... 36 Effect of bundling ................................................................................................ 38 Capacitance of three phase double circuit lines ................................................ 38 Effect of earth on the capacitance ...................................................................... 39 Magnetic field induction...................................................................................... 43 Electrostatic induction ......................................................................................... 45

1.2.3.1

The electric energy produced at generating stations is transported over high-voltage transmission lines to utilization points. The trend toward higher voltages is motivated by the increased line capacity while reducing line losses per unit of power transmitted. The reduction in losses is significant and is an important aspect of energy conservation. Better use of land is a benefit of the larger capacity. This chapter develops a fundamental understanding of electric power transmission systems.

1.1 BACKGROUND

The transmission and distribution of three-phase electrical power on overhead lines requires the use of at least three-phase conductors. Most low voltage lines use three-phase conductors forming a single three-phase circuit. Many higher voltage lines consist of a single three-phase circuit or two three-phase circuits strung or suspended from the same tower structure and usually called a double-circuit line. The two circuits may be strung in a variety of configurations such as vertical, horizontal or triangular configurations. Figure 1 illustrates typical single-circuit lines and double-circuit lines in horizontal, triangular and vertical phase conductor arrangements. A line may also consist of two circuits running physically in parallel but on different towers. In addition, a few lines have been built with three, four or even six three-phase circuits strung on the same tower structure in various horizontal and/or triangular formations. In addition to the phase conductors, earth wire conductors may be strung to the tower top and normally bonded to the top of the earthed tower. Earth wires perform two important functions; shielding the phase conductors from direct lightning strikes and providing a low impedance path for the short-circuit fault current in the event of a back flashover from the phase conductors to the tower structure. The ground itself over which the line runs is an important additional lossy conductor having a complex and distributed electrical characteristics. In the case of high resistivity or lossy earths, it is usual to use a counterpoise, i.e. a wire buried underground beneath the tower base and connected to the footings of the towers. This serves to reduce the effective tower footing resistance. Where a metallic pipeline runs in close proximity to an overhead line, a counterpoise may also be used in parallel with the pipeline in order to reduce the induced voltage on the pipeline from the power line. Therefore, a practical overhead transmission line is a complex arrangement of conductors all of which are mutually coupled not only to each other but also to earth. The mutual coupling is both electromagnetic (i.e. inductive) and electrostatic (i.e. capacitive). The asymmetrical positions of the phase conductors with respect to each other, the earth wire(s) and/or the surface of the earth cause some unbalance in the phase impedances, and hence currents and voltages. This is undesirable and in order to minimise the effect of line unbalance, it is possible to interchange the conductor positions at regular intervals along the line route, a practice known as transposition. The aim of this is to achieve some averaging of line parameters and hence balance for each phase. However, in practice, and in order to Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 3

avoid the inconvenience, costs and delays, most lines are not transposed along their routes but transposition is carried out where it is physically convenient at the line terminals, i.e. at substations.

Figure 1: (a) Typical single-circuit and double-circuit overhead lines and (b) double-circuit overhead lines with one earth wire: twin bundle=2 conductors per phase and quad bundle=4 conductors per phase.

Bundled phase conductors are usually used on transmission lines at 220 kV and above. These are constructed with more than one conductor per phase separated at regular intervals along the span length between two towers by metal spacers. Conductor bundles of two, three, four, six and eight are in use in various countries. The purpose of bundled conductors is to reduce the voltage gradients at the surface of the conductors because the bundle appears as an equivalent conductor of much larger diameter than that of the component conductors. This minimizes active losses due to corona, reduces noise generation, e.g. radio interference, reduces the inductive reactance and increases the capacitive susceptance or capacitance of the line. The latter two effects improve the steady state power transfer capability of the line. Figure 1 (a)(ii) shows a typical 400 kV double-circuit line of vertical phase conductor arrangement having four bundled conductors per phase, one earth wire and one counterpoise wire. The total number of conductors in such a multi-conductor system is (43)2+1+1=26 conductors, all of which are mutually coupled to each other and to earth. Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 4

The power transmission line is one of the major components of an electric power system. Its major function is to transport electric energy, with minimal losses, from the power sources to the load centers, usually separated by long distances. The design of a transmission line depends on four electrical parameters: 1. 2. 3. 4. Series resistance Series inductance Shunt capacitance Shunt conductance

The series resistance relies basically on the physical composition of the conductor at a given temperature. The series inductance and shunt capacitance are produced by the presence of magnetic and electric fields around the conductors, and depend on their geometrical arrangement. The shunt conductance is due to leakage currents flowing across insulators and air. As leakage current is considerably small compared to nominal current, it is usually neglected, and therefore, shunt conductance is normally not considered for the transmission line modeling.

The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the calculation of its DC resistance. If DC current is flowing along a round cylindrical conductor, the current is uniformly distributed over its cross-section area and its DC resistance is evaluated by = where is the resistivity of conductor l is the length A is the cross-sectional area If AC current is flowing, rather than DC current, the following factors need to be considered: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Frequency or skin effect Temperature Spiraling of stranded conductors Bundle conductors arrangement Proximity effect Also the resistance of magnetic conductors varies with current magnitude.

( 1)

The frequency of the AC voltage produces a second effect on the conductor resistance due to the nonuniform distribution of the current. This phenomenon is known as skin effect. As frequency increases, the current tends to go toward the surface of the Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 5

conductor and the current density decreases at the center. Skin effect reduces the effective cross-section area used by the current, and thus, the effective resistance increases. Also, although in small amount, a further resistance increase occurs when other current-carrying conductors are present in the immediate vicinity. A skin correction factor k, obtained by differential equations and Bessel functions, is considered to reevaluate the AC resistance. For 60 Hz, k is estimated around 1.02 =

( 2)

The resistivity of any conductive material varies linearly over an operating temperature, and therefore, the resistance of any conductor suffers the same variations. As temperature rises, the conductor resistance increases linearly, over normal operating temperatures, according to the following equation: 2 = 1 Where R2 is the resistance at second temperature t2 R1 is the resistance at initial temperature t1 T is the temperature coefficient for the particular material (C) Resistivity () and temperature coefficient (T) constants depend upon the particular conductor material. Table 1 lists resistivity and temperature coefficients of some typical conductor materials

Table 1: Resistivity and Temperature Coefficient of Some Conductors

+ 2 + 1

( 3)

There are two types of transmission line conductors: overhead and underground. Overhead conductors, made of naked metal and suspended on insulators, are preferred over underground conductors because of the lower cost and easy maintenance. Also, overhead transmission lines use aluminum conductors, because of the lower cost and lighter weight compared to copper conductors, although more cross-section area is needed to conduct the same amount of current. There are different types of commercially available aluminum conductors: aluminum-conductor-steel-reinforced (ACSR), aluminum-conductor-alloyreinforced (ACAR), all-aluminum-conductor (AAC), and all-aluminumalloy- conductor (AAAC).

ACSR is one of the most used conductors in transmission lines. It consists of alternate layers of stranded conductors, spiraled in opposite directions to hold the strands together, surrounding a core of steel strands. Figure 13.4 shows an example of aluminum and steel strands combination. The purpose of introducing a steel core inside the stranded aluminum conductors is to obtain a high strength-to-weight ratio. A stranded conductor offers more flexibility and easier to manufacture than a solid large conductor. However, the total resistance is increased because the outside strands are larger than the inside strands on account of the spiraling. The resistance of each wound conductor at any layer, per unit length, is based on its total length as follows: where : resistance of wound conductor () 1 + : length of wound conductor (m) = 2 relative pitch of wound conductor

1 = 1 +

( 4)

1 2

: length of one turn of the spiral (m) 2 : diameter of the layer (m) The parallel combination of n conductors, with same diameter per layer, gives the resistance per layer as follows: = 1 1 =1 /

( 5)

Similarly, the total resistance of the stranded conductor is evaluated by the parallel combination of resistances per layer. In high-voltage transmission lines, there may be more than one conductor per phase (bundle configuration) to increase the current capability and to reduce corona effect discharge. Corona effect occurs when the surface potential gradient of a conductor exceeds the dielectric strength of the surrounding air (30 kV/cm during fair weather), producing ionization in the area close to the conductor, with consequent corona losses, audible noise, and radio interference. Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 7

As corona effect is a function of conductor diameter, line configuration, and conductor surface condition, then meteorological conditions play a key role in its evaluation. Corona losses under rain or snow, for instance, are much higher than in dry weather.

Figure 3: Stranded conductors arranged in bundles per phase of (a) two, (b) three, and (c) four.

Corona, however, can be reduced by increasing the total conductor surface. Although corona losses rely on meteorological conditions, their evaluation takes into account the conductance between conductors and between conductors and ground. By increasing the number of conductors per phase, the total cross-section area increases, the current capacity increases, and the total AC resistance decreases proportionally to the number of conductors per bundle. Conductor bundles may be applied to any voltage but are always used at 345 kV and above to limit corona. To maintain the distance between bundle conductors along the line, spacers made of steel or aluminum bars are used. Figure 13.5 shows some typical arrangement of stranded bundle configurations.

In a transmission line there is a non-uniformity of current distribution caused by a higher current density in the elements of adjacent conductors nearest each other than in the elements farther apart. The phenomenon is known as proximity effect. It is present for three-phase as well as single-phase circuits. For the usual spacing of overhead lines at 60 Hz, the proximity effect is neglected. Example 1: A solid cylindrical aluminum conductor 25 km long has an area of 336.400 circular miles. Obtain the conductor resistance at: (a) 20 C (b) 50 (C) The resistivity of aluminum at 20 is 2.8 108 m . 1 square centimeter 197= 1 circular mils. Solution:

Example 2: A three phase transmission line is designed to deliver 190.5 MVA at 220 kV over a distance of 63 km. the total transmission loss is not to exceed 2.5 percent of the rated line MVA. If the resistivity of the conductor material at 20 is 2.8 108 m , determine the required conductor diameter and the conductor size in circular miles. Solution:

The inductive reactance is by far the most dominating impedance element. A current-carrying conductor produces a magnetic field around the conductor. The magnetic flux lines are concentric closed circles with direction given by the right hand rule. With the thumb pointing in the direction of the current, the fingers of the right hand encircled the wire point in the direction of the magnetic field. When the current changes, the flux changes and a voltage is induced in the circuit. By definition, for nonmagnetic material, the inductance L is the ratio of its total magnetic flux linkage to the current I, given by =

( 6)

Where is the flux linkage, in Weber turns. Consider a long round conductor with radius r, carrying a current I as shown in Figure 4.

The magnetic field intensity , around a circle of radius x, is constant and tangent to the circle. The Amperes law relating to the current is given by

2 0

. =

( 7)

Or = 2

( 8)

Where is the current enclosed at radius x. As shown in Figure 4. Equation ( 8) is all that required for evaluating the flux linkage of a conductor. The inductance of the conductor can be defined as the sum of contributions from flux linkages internal and external to the conductor.

A simple can be obtained for the internal flux linkage by neglecting the skin effect and assuming uniform current density throughout the conductor cross section i.e.,

10

( 9)

( 10)

For a nonmagnetic conductor wit constant permeability 0 , the magnetic flux density is given by = 0 , or = 0 2 2

( 11)

Where 0 is the permeability of free space (or air) and is equal to4 107 /. The differential flux for a small region of thickness and one meter length of the conductor is = . . = 0 2 2

( 12)

The flux links only the fraction of the conductor from the center to radius x. thus, on the assumption of uniform current density, only the fraction 2 / 2 of the total current is linked by the flux, i.e., = 2 0 3 = 2 2 4

( 13)

0

3 =

0 Wb/m 8

( 14)

From ( 6), the inductance due to the internal flux linkage is = 0 1 = 107 H/m 8 2

( 15)

Consider external to the conductor at radius > as shown in Figure 5. Since the circle at radius x encloses the entire current = and in ( 8) is replaced by I and the flux density at radius x becomes = 0 = 0 T 2

( 16)

11

Since the entire current is linked by the flux outside the conductor, the flux linkage is numerically equal to the flux . The differential flux for a small region of thickness and one meter length of the conductor is then given by = = . 1 = 0 2

( 17)

The external flux linkage between two points 1 and 2 is found by integrating from 1 to 2 = 0 2

2 1

1 2 = 2 107 ln Wb/m 1

( 18)

The inductance between two points external to a conductor is then = 2 107 ln 2 H/m 1

( 19)

Consider one meter length of a single phase line consisting of two solid round conductors of radius 1 and 2 as shown in Figure 6. The two conductors are separated by a distance D. conductor 1 carries the phasor current 1 referenced into the page and conductor 2 carries return current 2 = 1 . These currents set up magnetic field lines that links between the conductors as shown.

12

Inductance of conductor 1 due to internal flux is given by ( 15). The flux beyond D links a net current of zero and does not contribute to the net magnetic flux linkage in the circuit. Thus, to obtain the inductance of conductor 1 due to the net external flux linkage, it is necessary to evaluate ( 19) from 1 = 1 to 2 = . 1( ) = 2 107 ln H/m 1

( 20)

1

( 21)

= 2 107 ln 4 + ln = 2 107

1

1 + ln 1 1 1 ln + ln 1 1 1/4

( 22)

1 = 2 107 ln

( 23)

( 24)

If the two conductors are identical, 1 = 2 = and 1 = 2 = , and the inductance per phase per meter length of the line is given by = 2 107 ln 1 + 2 107 ln H/m 1

( 25)

Examination of ( 25) revals that the first term is only a function of the conductor radius. This term is considered as the inductance due to both the internal flux and that external to conductor 1 to a radius of 1m. the second term of ( 25) is dependent only upon conductor spacing. This term is known as the inductance spacing factor. The term = 1/4 is known mathematically as the self geometric mean distance of a circle with radius and is abbreviated by GMR. can be considered as the radius of a fictitious conductor assumed to have no internal flux but with the same inductance as the actual conductor with radius r. GMR is commonly refered to as geometric mean radius and will be designated by .thus, the inductance per phase in millihenries per kilometer becomes = 0.2 ln H/Km

( 26)

13

Example 3: A single-phase transmission line 35 Km long consists of two solid round conductors, each having a diameter of 0.9 cm. The conductor spacing is 2.5 m. calculate the equivalent diameter of a fictitious hollow, thin-walled conductor having the same equivalent inductance as the original line. What is the value of the inductance per conductor? Solution:

The series inductance per phase for the above sigle phase two wire line can be expressed in terms of self inductance of each conductor and their mutual inductance. Consider one meter length of the single phase circuit represented by two coils characterized by the self inductances 11 and 22 and the mutual inductance 12 . The magnetic polarity is indicated by dot symbols as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: The single phase line viewed as two magnetically coupled coils

( 28) ( 27)

Comparing ( 28)with ( 18)and ( 19), we conclude the following equivalent expressions for the self and mutual inductances: 11 = 2 107 ln 1 1 14

( 29)

22 = 2 107 ln

1 2 1

12 = 21 = 2 107 ln

The concept of self and mutual inductance can be extended to a group of n conductors. Consider n conductors carrying phasor currents 1 , 2 , , , such that 1 + 2 + 3 + + + + = 0 Generalzing ( 27), the flux linkage of conductor i are

( 30)

= +

=1

( 31)

Or = 2 10

7

1 ln +

ln

=1

( 32)

1.2.2.5 Inductance of three phase transmission lines -symmetrical spacingConsider one meter length of a three phase line with three conductors, each with radius r, symmetrically spaced in a triangular configuration as shown in Figure 8.

Assuming balanced three phase currents we have + + = 0 From ( 32) the total flux linkage of phase a conductor is = 2 107 ln 1 1 1 + ln + ln

( 34) ( 33)

Substituting = +

15

= 2 107 ln

1 1 ln = 2 107 ln

( 35)

Because of symmetry, = = , and the three inductances are identical. Therefore, the inductance per phase per kilometer length is = 0.2 ln mH/km

( 36)

Where r is the geometric mean radius GMR, and is shown by Ds. for a solid round conductor, = 4 for stranded conductor Ds can be evaluated from ( 50). The comparison of the two inductances expressed by ( 36)and ( 26) shows that inductance per phase for a three phase circuit with equilateral spacing is the same as for one conductor of a single phase circuit.

1

1.2.2.6 Inductance of three phase transmission lines -asymmetrical spacingPractical transmission lines cannot maintain symmetrical spacing of conductors because of construction considerations. With asymmetrical spacing, even with balanced currents, the voltage drop due to the line inductance will be unbalanced. Consider one meter length of a three phase line with three conductors, each with radius r. the conductors are asymmetrically spaced with distances shown in Figure 9.

The application of ( 32) will result in the following flux linkages. = 2 107 ln = 2 107 ln = 2 107 ln 1 1 1 + ln + ln 12 13 1 1 1 + ln + ln 12 23 1 1 1 + ln + ln 13 23

( 37)

Or in matrix form

16

( 38)

= 2 107

( 39)

For balanced three phase currents with as reference, we have = 240 = 2 = 120 =

( 40)

Where the operator = 1120 and 2 = 1240. Substituting in ( 37) result in = = = 1 1 1 = 2 107 ln + 2 ln + ln 12 13 1 1 1 = 2 107 ln + ln + 2 ln 12 23 1 1 1 = 2 107 2 ln + ln + ln 13 23

( 41)

Examination of ( 41) shows that the phase inductances are not equal and they contain an imaginary term due to the mutual inductance.

The equilateral triangular spacing configuration is not the only configuration commonly used in practice. Thus the need exists for equalizing the mutual inductances. One means for doing this is to construct transpositions or rotations of overhead line wires. A transposition is a physical rotation of the conductors, arranged so that each conductor is moved to occupy the next physical position in a regular sequence such as a-b-c, b-c-a, c-a-b, etc. Such a transposition arrangement is shown in Figure 10. If a section of line is divided into three segments of equal length separated by rotations, we say that the line is completely transposed.

17

Since a transposed line each takes all three positions, the inductance per phase can be obtained by finding the average value of ( 41) = + + 3

1 1 1

13

( 42)

Noting that + 2 = 1120 + 1240 = 1, the average of ( 41) becomes = Or = 2 107 ln 1 ln 1 (12 23 13 )3

1 210 7 3

3 ln ln ln ln

12 23

( 43)

= 2 107 ln

1 (12 23 13 )3

( 44)

mH/km

1

Or the inductance per phase per kilometer length is = 0.2 ln Where = (12 23 13 )3

( 46) ( 45)

This again is of the same form as the expression for the inductance of one phase a single-phase line. GMD (geometric mean distance) is the equivalent conductor spacing. For the above three phase line is the cube root of the product of the tree phase spacings. is the geometric mean radius, GMR. For stranded conductor is obtained from the manufactures data. For solid conductor = = 4 . In modern transmission lines, transposition is not generally used. However, for the purpose of modeling, it is most practical to treat the circuit as transposed. The error introduced as a result of this assumption is very small.

1

In the evaluation of inductance, solid round conductors were considered. However, in practical transmission lines, stranded conductors are used. Also, for reasons of economy, most EHV lines are constructed with bundled conductors. In this section an expression is found for the inductance of composite conductors. The result can be used for evaluating the GMR of stranded or bundled conductors. It is also useful in finding the equivalent GMR and GMD of parallel circuits.

18

Consider a single phase line consisting of two composite conductors and as shown in Figure 11. The current in is rreferenced into the page, and the return current in is . Conductor x consists of n identical strands of subconductors, each with radius . Conductor y consists of m identical strands of subconductors, each with radius . The current is assumed to be equally divided among the subconductors. The current per strand is / in x and / in y. the application of ( 32) will result in the following expression for the total flux linkage of conductor . = 2 107 1 1 1 1 ln + ln + ln + + ln 1 1 1 1 2 107 ln + ln + ln + + ln

( 47)

Or

= 2 107 ln

( 48)

= 2 107 ln /

( 49)

Using ( 32), the inductance of other subconductors in x are similarly obtained. For example, the inductance of the subconductor n is =

= 2 107 ln /

( 50)

( 51)

Since all subconductors of conductor x are electrically parallel, the inductance of will be = + + + + = 2

( 52)

19

2

H/meter

( 53)

( )

( 54)

( )

( 55)

Where = = = GMD is the mnth root of the product of the mnt distances between n strands of conductors x and m strands of conductor y. GMRx is the n2 root of the product of n2 terms consisting of r of every strand times the distance from each strand to all other strands within group x. The inductance of conductor y can also be similarly obtained. The geometric mean radius GMRy will be different. The geometric mean distance GMD, however, is the same. Example 4: Find the geometric mean radius of a conductor in terms of the radius r of an individual strand for (a) Three equal strands as shown in Figure 12 (a) (b) Four equal strands as shown in Figure 12 (b)

Solution:

20

Example 5: A stranded conductor consists of seven identical strands each having a radius r as shown in Figure 13. Determine the GMR of the conductor in terms of r.

Solution: From Figure 13, the distance from strand 1 to all other strands is: 12 = 16 = 17 = 2 14 = 4 13 = 15 =

2 2 14 45 = 2 3

49

. 2. 2 3. 4. 2 3. 2. 2 2

1 4

6 7

6 7

= 2.1767 With a large number of strands the calculation of GMR can become very tedious. Usually these are available in the manufacturers data.

At voltages above 230 kV (extra high voltage) and with circuits with only one conductor per phase, the corona effect becomes more excessive. Associated with this phenomenon is a power loss as well as interference with communication links. Corona is the direct result of high-voltage gradient at the conductor surface. The gradient can be reduced considerably by using more than one conductor per phase. The conductors are in close Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 21

proximity compared with the spacing between phases. A line such as this is called a bundleconductor line. The bundle consists of two or more conductors (subconductors) symmetrically arranged in configuration as shown in Figure 14. Another important advantage of bundling is the attendant reduction in line reactances, both series and shunt. The analysis of bundle-conductor lines is a specific case of the general multiconductor configuration problem.

The subconductors within a bundle are separated at frequent intervals by spacer dampers. Spacer-dampers prevent clashing, provide damping and connect the subconductors in parallel. The GMR of the equivalent single conductor is obtained by using ( 55). If is the GMR of each subconductor and d is the bundle spacing we have For the two subconductor bundle

=

4

( 56)

=

9

( 57)

=

16

= 1.09 3

( 58)

Example 6: Calculate the inductance per phase for the three-phase, double-circuit line whose phase conductors have a GMR of 0.06 ft, with the horizontal conductor configuration as shown in Figure 15.

22

Solution:

Example 7: One circuit of a single-phase transmission line is composed of three solid wires, each 0.1 in. in radius. The return circuit is composed of two wires, each 0.2 in. in radius. The arrangement of conductors is shown in Figure 16. Find the inductance due to the current in each side of the line and the inductance of the complete line in millihenrys per mile.

Figure 16: Arrangement of conductors for this example Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 23

Example 8: Evaluate and then calculate L in H/m for the single phase two conductor line shown in Figure 17.

24

Solution :

25

A three double circuit line consists of two identical three phase circuits. The circuits are opened with 1 2 , 1 2 1 2 in parallel. Because of geometrical differences between conductors, voltage drop due to line inductance will be unbalanced. To achieve balance, each phase conductor must be transposed within its group and with respect to parallel three phase line. Consider a three phase double circuit line with relative phase positions 1 1 1 2 2 2 , as shown in Figure 18

The method of GMD can be used to find inductances per phase. To do this, we group identical phases together and use ( 54) to find the GMD between each group

= = =

1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2

( 59)

3

( 60)

26

= = =

1 2 1 2 1 2

= = =

1 2 1 2 1 2

( 61)

Where is the geometric mean radius of the bundled conductors given by ( 56) ( 58). The equivalent geometric mean radius for calculating the per phase inductance to neutral is

( 62)

The inductance per phase in millihenries per kilometers is = 0.2 ln 1.2.4.1 Use of tables mH/km

( 63)

It is seldom necessary to calculate GMR or GMD for standard lines. The GMR of standard conductors is provided by conductor manufactures and can be found in various handbooks (see Table 2). Also, if the distances between conductors are large compared to distances between subconductors of each conductor, then the GMD between conductors is approximately equal to distance between conductor centers. Inductive reactance rather than inductance is usually desired. The inductive reactance of one conductor of a single-phase two-conductor line is = 0.2 = 0.4 ln m ohms/km ( 64)

Some tables give values of inductive reactance in addition to self GMD. One method is to expand the logarithmic term of ( 65) as follows: = 0.4 ln = 4.657 10

3

( 65)

If both Ds and Dm are in feet (or in meter), the first term in Equation ( 65) is the inductive reactance of one conductor of a two-conductor line having a distance of 1 ft (or one meter) between conductors. Therefore, the first term of Eq. ( 65) is called the inductive reactance at 1-ft (or one meter) spacing. It depends upon the self GMD of the conductor and the frequency. The second term of Equation ( 65) is called the inductive reactance spacing factor. This second term is independent of the type of conductor and depends on frequency and spacing only. The spacing factor is equal to zero when Dm is 1 ft (or 1 meter). If Dm is less than 1 ft (or 1 meter), the spacing factor is negative.

27

The procedure for computing inductive reactance is to look up the inductive reactance at 1m or 1ft (or 1 meter) spacing for the conductor under consideration and to add to this value the inductive reactance spacing factor, both at the desired line frequency. In the end of this chapter, tables include values of inductive reactance at 1ft (or 1 meter) spacing. Example 9: A single-circuit three-phase line operated at 60 Hz is arranged as shown in Figure 18. Each conductor is No. 2 single-strand hard-drawn copper wire. Find the inductance and inductive reactance per phase per mile.

Or, from Tables : Inductive reactance at 1 ft spacing = 0.581 Inductive reactance spacing factor for 5.45 ft = 0.2058 Inductive reactance per phase = 0.7868 ohm/phase/mile Example 10: Find the inductive reactance per mile of a two-conductor single-phase line operating at 60 Hz. The conductors are each No. 1/0 seven-strand hard-drawn copper wire spaced 18 ft bet,veen centers. Solution: The area of stranded conductor is A=105500 circular mils (from Tables) = 0.4114 = 0.4114 105500 103 ft = 0.01113 ft 12

Which is the value listed in Tables for at 60 Hz. Arrangement of calculated and tabulated values indicates that skin effect is negligible for this case. Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 28

If only is given in the tables, the above method is used. An alternative method follows:

The latter method is preferred if tables are available giving inductive reactances a 1ft (or 1meter) spacing and the inductive reactances spacing factor, for then it is necessary only to add these two values found in tables. Since the conductors composing the two sides of the line are identical, the inductive reactance of the line is = 2 0.897 = 1.794 ohms/mile Example 11: One circuit of a single-phase transmission line is composed of three solid 0.5cm radius wires. The return circuit is composed of two solid 2.5-cm radius wires. The arrangement of conductors is as shown in Figure 35. Applying the concept of the GMD and GMR, find the inductance of the complete line in millihenry per kilometer.

Solution:

29

Example 12: A three-phase transposed line is composed of one ACSR 159,000 cmil, 54/19 Lapwing conductor per phase with flat horizontal spacing of 8 meters as shown in Figure 13. The GMR of each conductor is 1.515 cm. (a) Determine the inductance per phase per kilometer of the line. (b) This line is to be replaced by a two-conductor bundle with 8-m spacing measured from the center of the bundles as shown in Figure 14. The spacing between the conductors in the bundle is 40 cm. If the line inductance per phase is to be 77 percent of the inductance in part (a), what would be the GMR of each new conductor in the bundle?

Example 14: conductor layout for this example for question (b).

Solution:

30

Example 15: A completely transposed 60H-z three phase line has flat horizontal phase spacing with 10 m between adjacent conductors. The conductors are 1,590,000 cmil ACSR with 54/3 stranding. Line length is 200 Km. Determine the inductance in H and inductive reactance in ohms. Solution: Form tables = 0.0159 m Then = 12.6 m Then, = 0.267 H Thus, = 101 Example 16: A completely transposed 60H-z three phase line has flat horizontal phase spacing with 10 m between adjacent conductors. The conductors are 1,590,000 cmil ACSR with 54/3 stranding. Line length is 200 Km. Determine the inductance in H and inductive reactance in ohms. Now, each of the 1,590,000 cmil conductors is replaced by two 795,000 cmil ACSR 26/2 conductors as shown in Figure 21. Bundle spacing is 0.40m. flat horizontal spacing is retained, with 10 m between adjacent bundle centers. Calculate the inductive reactance of the line and compare it with the previous question.

31

Solution: 1) Form tables = 0.0159 m Then = 12.6 m Then, = 0.267 Thus, = 101 2) From tables = 0.0114 m The two conductor bundle GMR is = 0.0676 m Since = 12.6 m from the first question: Then, = 0.209 Thus, = 78.8 The reactance of the bundled line 78.7 ohms, is 22% less than of the first question, even though the two conductor buddle has the same amount of conductor material (that is, the same cmil per phase). One advantage of reduced series reactance is smaller line voltage drops. Also, the loadability of medium and long EHV lines is increased.

32

Transmission line conductors exhibit capacitance with respect to each other due to the potential difference between them. The amount of capacitance between conductors is a function of conductor size, spacing, and height above ground. By definition, the capacitance C is the ratio of charge q to the voltage v, given by =

( 66)

Consider a long round conductor with radius r, carrying a charge of q coulombs per meter length as shown in Figure 22.

The charge on the conductor gives rise to an electric field with radial flux lines. The total electric flux is numerically equal to the value of charge on the conductor. The intensity of the field at any point defined as the force per unit charge and is termed electric field intensity designated as E. Concentric cylinders surrounding the conductor are equipentential surfaces and have the same electric flux density. From Gausss law for one meter length of the conductor, the electric flux density at a cylinder of a radius x is given by = = 2( )

( 67)

( 68)

Where 0 is the permittivity of free space and is equal to 8.85 1016 /. Substituting ( 67)in ( 68) result in = 20

( 69)

The potential difference between cylinders from position 1 to 2 is defined as the work done in moving a unit charge of one coulomb from 2 to 1 through the electric field produced by the charge on the conductor. This is given by

33

12 =

2 1

2 1

2 = ln 20 20 1

( 70)

The notation 12 implies the voltage drop from 1 relative to 2, that is, 1 is understood to be positive relative to 2. The charge q carries its own sign.

Consider one meter length of a single phase line consisting of two long solid round conductors each having a radius r as shown in Figure 23.

The two conductors are separated by a distance D. Conductor 1 carries a charge of 1 coulombs/meter and conductor 2 carries a charge of 2 coulombs/meter. The presence of the second conductor and ground disturbs the field of the first conductor. The distance of separation of the wires D is great with respect to r and the height of conductors is much larger compared with D. Therefore, the distortion effect is small and the charge is assumed to be uniformly distributed on the surface of the conductors. Assuming conductor 1 alone to have a charge of 1 , the voltage between conductor 1 and 2 is 12( 1 ) = 1 ln 20

( 71)

Now assuming only conductor 2, having a charge of 2 , the voltage between conductor 2 and 1 is 21( 2 ) = 2 ln 20 2 ln 20

( 72)

( 73)

From the principal of superposition, the potential difference due to presence of both charges is 12 = 12

1

+ 12( 2 ) =

1 2 ln + ln 20 20

( 74)

( 75)

( 76)

Equation ( 76) gives the line to line capacitance between conductors. For the purpose of transmission line modeling, we find convenient to define a capacitance C between each conductor and a neural as illustrated in Figure 24.

Since the voltage to neutral is half of 12 , the capacitance to neutral = 212 , or = 20 F/m ln ( 77)

Recalling 0 = 8.85 1012 / and converting to per kilometer, we have = 0.0556 F/km ln ( 78)

The capacitance per phase contains terms analogous to those derived for inductance per phase. However, unlike inductance where the conductor geometric mean radius (GMR) is used, in capacitance formula the actual conductor radius r is used.

Consider n parallel long conductors with charges 1 , 2 , , coulombs/meter as shown in

Assume that the distortion effect is negligible and charge is uniformly distributed around the conductor, with the following constraint Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 35

1 + 2 + + = 0

( 79)

Using superposition and ( 70) potential difference between conductor I and j due to the presence of all charges is 1 = 20

ln

=1

( 80)

When k=I, is the distance between the surface of the conductor and its center, namely its radius r.

Consider one meter length of a three phase line with three long conductors, each with radius r, with conductor spacing as shown in

( 81)

We shall neglect the effect of ground and the shield wires. Assume that the lines is transposed. We proceed with the calculation of the potential difference between a and b for each section of transposition. Applying ( 80) to the first section of the transposition, _ is () = 1 12 23 ln + ln + ln 20 12 13 1 23 13 ln + ln + ln 20 13 12 1 13 12 ln + ln + ln 20 13 23

( 82)

( 83)

( 84)

( 85)

Or 1 12 23 13 = ln 20

1 3

+ ln

12 23 13

1 3

( 86)

Note that the GMD of the conductor appears in the logarithm arguments and is given by = Therefore, is = 1 ln + ln 20 1 ln + ln 20

( 88)

3

12 23 13

( 87)

( 89)

( 90)

For balanced three phase voltages, = 0 120 = 0 240 Therefore, + = 3 Subsisting in ( 90) the capacitance per phase to neutral is = 20 = / ln 0.0556 / ln

( 93) ( 92) ( 91)

( 94)

This is the same form as the expression the capacitance of one phase of a single phase line. GMD (geometric mean distance) is the equivalent conductor spacing. For the above three phase line is the cube root of the product of three phase spacings.

37

The procedure for finding the capacitance per phase for a three phase transposed line with bundle conductors follows the same steps as the procedure in the precedent section. The capacitance per phase is found to be = 20 / ln

( 95)

The effect of the bundling is to introduce an equivalent radius . The equivalent radius is similar to the GMR (geometric mean radius) calculated earlier for the inductance with the exception that radius r of each subconductor is used instead of . If d is the bundle spacing, we obtain for the two-subconductor bundle = For the three-subconductor bundle =

3

( 96)

( 97)

4

( 98)

Consider a three-phase double-circuit line with relative phase positions 1 1 1 2 2 2 , as shown in Figure 18 1.2.8. Each phase conductor is transposed within its group and with respect to the parallel three-phase line. The effect of shield wires and the ground are considered to be negligible for this balanced condition. Following the procedure of section 1.2.8, the average voltages and are calculated and the per-phase equivalent capacitance to neutral is obtained to be = 20 F/m ln

( 99)

( 100)

The expression for is the same as was found for inductance calculation and is given by (4.55). The of each phase group is similar to the , with the exception that in (4.56) is used instead of . This will result in the following equations

38

= = =

1 2 1 2 12

( 101)

Where is the geometric mean radius of the bundled conductors given by ( 96), ( 97) and ( 98). The equivalent geometric mean radius for calculating the per-phase capacitance to neutral is =

3

( 102)

For an isolated charged conductor the electric flux lines are radial and are orthogonal to the cylindrical equipotential surfaces. The presence of earth will alter the distribution of electric flux lines and equipotential surfaces, which will change the effective capacitance of the line. The earth level is an equipotential surface, therefore the flux lines are forced to cut the surface of the earth orthogonally. The effect of the presence of earth can be accounted for by the method of image charges introduced by Kelvin. To illustrate this method, consider a conductor with a charge q coulombs/meter at a high H above ground. Also, imagine a charge q at a depth H below the surface of earth. This configuration without the presence of the earth surface will produce the same field distribution as a single charge and the earth surface. Thus, the earth can be replaced for the calculation of electric field potential by a fictitious charged conductor with charge equal and opposite to the charge on the actual conductor and at a depth below the surface of the earth the same as the height of the actual conductor above earth. This, imaginary conductor is called the image of the actual conductor. The procedure of section 1.2.8 can now be used for the computation of the capacitance.

Figure 27: Distribution of electric field lines from an overhead conductor to earths surface.

39

Figure 28: Equivalent image conductor representing the charge of the earth.

The effect of the earth is to increase the capacitance. But normally the height of the conductor is large as compared to the distance between the conductors, and the earth effect is negligible. Therefore, for all line models used for balanced steady state analysis, the effect of earth on the capacitance can be neglected. However, for unbalanced analysis such as unbalanced faults, the earths effect as well as the shield wires should be considered. Example 17: If a single phase line haz as parameters D=5ft, r=0.023 ft, and a flat horizontal spacing H=18ft average line height, determine the effect of the earth on capacitance. Assume a perfectly conducting earth plane.

40

Solution: The earth plane is replaced by a separate image for each overhead conductor, and the conductors are charged as shown in Figure 29. The voltages between conductors x and y is:

/m

Compared with 5.169 1012 F/m (without the earth effect). The earth effect plane is to slightly increase the capacitance. Note that as the line height H increases, the ratio

Example 18: A 500kV three phase transposed line is composed of one ACSR 1,272,000 cmil, 45/7 Bittern conductor per phase with horizontal conductor configuration as shown in Figure 30. The conductors have a diameter of 1.345 in and a GMR of 0.5328 in. find the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the line.

And = And = The inductance per phase is = 0.2 ln 44.097 = 1.38 mH/km 0.0444

3

0.5328 = 0.0444 ft 12

35 35 70 = 44.097 ft

And the capacitance per phase is = 0.0556 = 0.0083 F/km 44.097 ln 0.056

Example 19:

42

Transmission line magnetic fields affect objects in the proximity of the line. The magnetic fields related to the currents in the line induces voltage in objects that have a considerable length parallel to the line, such as fences ,pipelines, and telephone wires. The magnetic field is affected by the presence of earth return currents. Carson presents an equation for computation of mutual resistance and inductance which are functions of the earth's resistivity. For balanced three-phase systems the total earth return current is zero. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic field in proximity to balanced three-phase lines may be calculated considering the currents in the conductors and neglecting earth currents. Magnetic fields have been reported to affect blood composition, growth, behavior, immune systems, and neural functions. There are general concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic and electrostatic fields on people. Long-term effects are the subject of several worldwide research efforts. Example 20: A three-phase untransposed transmission line and a telephone line are supported on the same towers as shown in Figure 32. The power line carries a 60-Hz balanced current of 200 A per phase. The telephone line is located directly below phase b. Assuming balanced

43

three-phase currents in the power line, find the voltage per kilometer induced in the telephone line. Solution: The flux linkage between conductors 1 and 2 due to current is 12

= 0.2 ln

2 m Wb/km 1

Since 1 = 2 ,12 due to is zero. The flux linkage between conductors 1 and 2 due to current is 12

= 0.2 ln

2 Wb m 1 km

Total flux linkage between conductor 1 and 2 due to all currents is 12 = 0.2 ln 2 2 + 0.21 ln m Wb/Km 1 1 2 2 + 1 240 ln mH/Km 1 1

For positive phase sequence, with as reference, = 240 and we have 12 = 0.2 + ln

With as reference, the instantaneous flux linkage is 12 = 2 12 cos + Thus, the induced voltage in the telephone line per kilometer length is = 12 = 2 12 cos + + 90 = 12 + 90 = 12 From the circuits geometry 1 = 2 = 32 + 42 2 = 1 = 4.22 + 42 Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 44

1 2 1 2

=5m = 5.8 m

The total flux linkage is 12 = 0.2 2000 ln 5.8 5 + 0.2 200 240 ln 5 5.8

= 10.283 30 m Wb/Km The voltage induced in the telephone line per kilometer is = 12 = 260 10.283 30 103 = 3.8860 V/km

Transmission line electric fields affect objects in the proximity of the line. The electric field produced by high voltage lines induces current in objects which are in the area of the electric fields. The effects of electric fields becomes of increasing concern at higher voltage. Electric fields, related to the voltage of the line, are the primary cause of induction to vehicles, buildings, and objects of comparable size. The human body is affected with exposure to electric discharges from charged objects in the field of the line. These may be steady current or spark discharges. The current densities in humans induced by electric fields of transmission lines are known to be much higher than those induced by magnetic fields. The resultant electric field in proximity to a transmission line can be obtained by representing the earth effect by image charges located below the conductors at a depth equal to the conductor height.

1.2.4 CORONA

When the surface potential gradient of a conductor exceeds the dielectric strength of the surrounding air, ionization occurs in the area close to the conductor surface. This partial ionization is known as corona. The dielectric strength of air during fair weather and at NTP (25C and 76 cm of Hg) is about 30 kV/cm. Corona produces power loss, audible hissing sound in the vicinity of the line, ozone and radio and television interference. The audible noise is an environmental concern and occurs in foul weather. Radio interference occurs in the AM band. Rain and snow may produce moderate TVI in a low signal area. Corona is a function of conductors diameter, line configuration, type of conductor, and condition of its surface. Atmospheric conditions such as air density, humidity, and wind influence the generation of corona. Corona losses in rain or snow are many times the losses during fair weather. On a conductor surface, an irregularity such as a contaminating particle causes a voltage gradient that may become the point source of a discharge. Also, insulators are contaminated by dust or chemical deposits which will lower the disruptive voltage and increase the corona loss. The insulators are cleaned periodically to reduce the extent of the problem. Corona can be reduced by increasing the conductor size and the use of conductor bundling. The power loss associated with corona can be represented by shunt conductance. However, under normal operating conditions, which represents resistive leakage between

45

a phase and ground, has negligible effect on performance and is customarily neglected. (I,e, = 0 ) . Example 21: A three-phase, 60-Hz transposed transmission line has a flat horizontal configuration as shown in Figure 33. The line reactance is 0.486 ohms per kilometer. The conductor geometric mean radius is 2.0 cm. Determine the phase spacing D in meter.

Solution:

Example 22: A three-phase transposed line is composed of one ACSR 1,431,000 cmil, 47/7 Bobolink conductor per phase with flat horizontal spacing of 11 meters as shown in Figure 34. The conductors have a diameter of 3.625 cm and a GMR of 1.439 cm. The line is to be replaced by a three-conductor bundle of ACSR 477,000 cmil, 26/7 Hawk conductors having the same cross-sectional area of aluminum as the single-conductor line. The conductors have a diameter of 2.1793 cm and a GMR of 0.8839 cm. The new line will also have a flat horizontal configuration, but it is to be operated at a higher voltage and therefore the phase spacing is increased to 14 m as measured from the center of the bundles as shown in Figure 34 . The spacing between the conductors in the bundle is 45 cm. Determine (a) The percentage change in the inductance. (b) The percentage change in the capacitance.

46

(a)

(b)

Solution:

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

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