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2009 02 VALID presentation

Agenda

> Planning

> Basic technics of pumps

Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Planning

Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Planning
Load-conforming pump selection for standard central heating installations > Planning for new installations > Pump duty selection to be based on heat demand and pipe friction loss calculation

> Replacement of existing circulating pumps > Pump duty selection to be based on the specific heat demand of the building, provided that the following values for the heated effective floor areas are not exceeded:

> 100 W/m for freestanding residential buildings with not more than 2 apartments > 70 W/m for buildings with more than 2 apartments

Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Planning
Rule-of-thumb pump selection for standard central heating installations > Formula for the heat demand QN

QN =

AN . Qspec 1000

[kW]

> AN

= residential floor area served by the pump [m]

> Qspez = max. specific heat demand to HeizAnIV: 70 W/m 100 W/m residential buildings with more than 2 apartments freestanding residential building with not more than 2 apartments

Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Planning
Rule-of-thumb pump selection for standard central heating installations > Formula for the volume flow VPu

VPU =
> 1.16 = > > QN = = =

QN 1.16 .

[m/h]

specific heating capacity [Wh/kgK] ( 1,16 W = 1 Kcal/h ) design flow/return temperature difference [K] 10 - 20 K for standard installations heat demand [kW]

> Important: The optimum operating range is within the middle third of the pump duty curve
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Planning
Rule-of-thumb pump selection for standard central heating installations, Qspez to HeizAnIV (part 1) > Formula for the volume flow VspecPu or TV

Vspec =

Qspec 1.16 . 70 W/m 1.16 . 20K

[l/(h . m)]

Vspec =

3.0 l/h

> For residential buildings with more than 2 apartments

Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Planning
Rule-of-thump flow rate estimate based on the specific heating load
Specific heat demand/m2 floor area Residential buildings with ... max. 2 apartments more than 2 apartments low-energy building standard Qspez Specifc volume flow/m2 floor area at Vspez at 20 K 100 W/m2 70 W/m2 < 40 W/m2 4.3 l/h 3.0 l/h < 1.7 l/h Vspez at 15 K 5.7 l/h 4.0 l/h < 2.3 l/h Vspez at 10 K 8.6 l/h 6.0 l/h < 3.4 l/h Vspez at 5 K 17.2 l/h 12.0 l/h < 6.8 l/h

QPU QPU Qspec Vspec AN


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= VPU or TV = AN . Vspec [l/h] = max. specific heat demand per m2 effective floor area to HeizAnIV X = required volume flow per m2 heated effective floor area = effective floor area served by the pump in [m]

Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Planning
Operation point in the family of characteristics: volume flow VPU
Range I (left-hand third) A smaller pump must be selected if the operation point is within this range.

pumping head H [m]

I II III

Range II (mid-third) The pump is optimally selected if the operation point is within this range. Range III (right-hand third) A larger pump must be selected if the operation point is within this range.

1/3

1/3

1/3

volume flow Q [m/h]

Applicable only to installations with non-variable volume flow.


9 Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Efficiency of pump
Characteristic of pump and the behaviour curve of the efficiency

pumping head H [m]

volume flow Q [m/h]

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Planning
Operation point in the family of characteristics: volume flow VPU
Range I (left-hand third) A smaller pump must be selected if the operation point is within this range. Range II (mid-third) The pump is operate in 98% of her running time in the optimally operating range. Range III (right-hand third)
1/3 1/3 1/3

I
pumping head H [m]

II III

volume flow Q [m/h]

The regulated pump operate only in the dimensioning point (warmest day/coldest day of the year) in the adverse range. That means 2% of her running time.

Applicable only to installations with variable volume flow.


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Planning
Rule-of-thumb head calculation for standard central heating installations

HPU =
>R >I > ZF

R . I . ZF 10000

[m]

= friction loss in straight pipes [Pa/m] empirical value R = 50 to 150 Pa/m = lengths of the least favourable (index) pipe circuit [m] (flow and return pipe) = additional factors for fittings/forms thermostatic valve fittings/forms mixer/gravity break thermostatic valve 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.2 1.7

2.2 2.6

> 10000 = constant of = 1000 kg/m at 4 C and g = 9.81 m/s


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Planning, Worksheet: Multi-unit apartment building


1.1 Calculate the required flow rate

VPumpe = Vspec . AN

70 W / m2 No. of units Floor area Total floor areas Built Floor height 50 80 m2 4000 m2 1978 3.0 m 10 floors Basement Ground plan Low temp. boiler
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1.2 Frictional head loss in pipe system

HPU = R . I . ZF / 10000 [m]

1.3 Select a pump (planning with system)

1.4 Automatic controls

22 x 20 70/50

pc

pv

Planning, Worksheet: Multi-unit apartment building


Volume flow VPU Example: Multi-unit apartment building (Radiatoren / 20 K)

VPU = AN =

AN . Vspec 1000 4000 m2

[m3/h]

(50 aparments each 80 m2) Vspez VPU = 3.0 l/h (per m2) 4000 . 3.0 1000 12.0 m3/h

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Duty Chart Wilo-Stratos

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Planning, Worksheet: Multi-unit apartment building


Total pumping head HPU > Example: Multi-unit residential building with 50 apartments

HPU R I ZF
Max.

R . I . ZF 10000

[m]

Min.

Anlage

100 Pa/m 150 m index circuit 2.6 = 100 . 150 . 2,6 10000 3.9 m

HPU

selected pump: Stratos 40/ 1-8


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The ABC of hydraulics


For a efficiently operation of a pump: Hydraulic balance !

possible lack of supply

possible excess supply

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Planning
Planning software fr pumps, pumping systems and components Wilo-Select Classic > Calculations > Design > Catalogue & article search > Pump replacements > Documentation > Power costs and write-off calculations > Life Cycle Costs > Data export to Acrobat PDF, DXF, GAEB, Datanorm, VDMA, VDI, CEF > Automatic internet update
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Basic technics of pumps

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Advantage of heating systems with pumps


> tube with less diameter less quantity of pumping medium > fast reaction at variation of temperature

flow

return

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

10

Characteristic of pump

pumping head H [m]

zero-delivery pressure H0

ch

ara c

ter is

tic o

fp

um p

theoretical gradient 0 volume flow Q [m/h]

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Figure of characteristics of pump


Different steepness
H0 pumping head H [m]

steep (for examble 2,900 1/min)

H0 flat (for examble 1,450 1/min)

volume flow Q [m/h]


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11

Figure of characteristics of pump: different steepness


> flat run > steep run
H0

= high changing of volume flow, little changing of pressure = little changing of volume flow, high changing of pressure

pumping head H [m]

H0 p

volume flow Q [m/h]


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System characteristic / tube system characteristic


> change the resistance square to the volume flow

H1 H2
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 pumping head H [m]

( )
Q1 Q2

H2

H1 Q1 1 2 3 4 volume flow Q [m/h] Q2

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

12

Operation point
The pumping head is always so high as the flow resistance of the tube system.
only one thermostatic valve is open
c ha r ac teri s tic o

pumping head H [m]

f pu

mp

intersecting point = new operation point


tic

c em c ara yst risti m ch s e e w t ne arac syst ch

is ter

volume flow Q [m/h]

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Efficiency of pump
Efficiency of pump = ( pressure x volumeflow) / Power

p =
> p > Q [m/h] > H [m] > P2 [kW] > 367 >g
> [kg/m]

QHg 3600 P2

QH 367 P2

= efficiency of pump = = = = = = volume flow pumping head power at the pump shaft conversion factor 9,81 m/s density of the pumping medium

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

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Efficiency of pump
Characteristic of pump and the behaviour curve of the efficiency

pumping head H [m]

volume flow Q [m/h]

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Efficiency of pump
efficiencies of standard wet running pumps (approximate value) pumps with motor power P2
- 100 W 100 - 500 W 500 - 2500 W

motor
ap.*15% - ap. 45% ap. 45% - ap. 65% ap. 60% - ap. 70%

pump*
ap. 40% - ap. 65% ap. 40% - ap. 70% ap. 30% - ap. 75%

total **
ap. 5% - ap. 25% ap. 20% - ap. 40% ap. 30% - ap. 50%

efficiencies of dry running pumps (approximate value) pumps with motor power P2
- 1,5 kW 1,5 - 7,5 kW 7,5 - 45,0 kW

motor
ap. 75% ap. 85% ap. 90%

pump*
ap. 40% - ap. 85% ap. 40% - ap. 85% ap. 40% - ap. 85%

total **
ap. 30% - ap. 65% ap. 35% - ap. 75% ap. 40% - ap. 80%

* variations dependent on structural shape, nominal width. The minor value is in general for pumps with extreme less volume flow and big pumping head. ** limiting from total. or rather pump need not corresponding

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

14

Adjustment of the pumping capacity


Changing the speed


n1
H1

Q1 Q2 H1 H2 P1 P2

n1 n2

n2

H2 pumping head H [m]

() ()
n1 n2 n1 n2

Q2
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Q1

volume flow Q [m/h]

Planning

Twin-Head Pumps: Standby Operation I / II


Standby operation I / II > One of two pump heads in the standby mode ensures that the pump duty can be taken over by the standby pump in the case of a fault event thus avoiding a severe lack of heat supply e.g. in public buildings.

Pump I or Pump II operating

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

15

Planning

Twin-Head Pumps: Parallel Operation I + II


Parallel operation I + II > Both pump heads are selected to cover design load in parallel pump operation. > Low load duties can be covered by one of the two pump head operating only resulting in an additional power savings potential.

Both pumps operating

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Speed control
Non-regulated pump

pumping head H [m]

H2

transitional period: new operation point

H1

coldest day of the year: operation point = maximum point

Q1 Q2 volume flow Q [m/h]


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Speed control
Hand gear shift > motors have varying winding packets for speed changing (wet running pumps)
nmax transitional period: new operation point

pumping head H [m]

H3 H2 nmin H1

coldest day of the year: operation point = maximum point

Q1 Q2 Q3
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volume flow Q[m/h]

Speed control
Hand gear shift

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

17

Speed control
Electronic continuous speed control > automatic control with varying control system > electronic pumps have a lot of speed steps > family of characteristics

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Speed control
Electronic continuous speed control > automatic differential pressure control
nmax nregel nregel nregel nregel nregel nregel 3
1. The sensory analysis deter mined the actual pumping head. (actual value)

H2

non-regulated pump

2. The electronic discerened the difference between the set value (point 1) and the actual value. (point 2) 3. The controller reduced the speed and move the pumping head at the actual value now. (point 3)

pumping head H [m]

H1

Q1
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Q2

volume flow Q [m/h]

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Speed control
Electronic continuous speed control > control modes > p-c > p-v > p-T

differential pressure constant differential pressure variable temperature guided differential pressure control

> p-cv combination from differential pressure constant (second and third area of characteristic) and differential pressure variable (first area of characteristics) > Operation modes > Automatic night setback (let down function) > manual regulator > DDC (Direct Digital Control)

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Speed control
p-c differential pressure constant > From the pump produced differential pressure maintained constant over-all the permitted volume flow area tuned-in differential pressure-set value (Hset value ). > The resistance of tube is little in comparison to the resistance of the thermostatic valve and mountings. > Independent of the number of the opened thermostatic valve the same differential pressure is required as a rule. > Wilo-factory set
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Speed control
p-c differential pressure constant
pumping head H [m] nmax 2 ncontrolled 3 Hset value p-c 1

Hset value-min volume flow Q [m/h]

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Speed control
p-v differential pressure variable > The maintained differential pressure-set value of the pump is changing linear between Hset value and Hset value .

> The resistance of the tube is bigger than the resistance of the thermostatic valve and mountings.

> The required differential pressure decreases strongly at less flow.

> possible lack of supply in worst cases

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

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Speed control
p-v differential pressure variable
pumping head H [m] nmax 2

ncontrolled
p-v

Hset value Hset value Hset value-min

1 3

volume flow Q [m/h]

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Speed control
p-T temperature guided differential pressure control > From the pump maintained differential pressure-set value change in dependance on the measured temperature of the pumping medium. > exercise: > in constant volume heating systems (for example: one-pipe system) > in variable volume heating systems with sliding flow temperature > condensing value boiler (with inversed control direction and assembly of the pump in the return)
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Speed control
p-T temperature guided differential pressure control

pumping head H [m]

Hmax

pos. control direction

Hvar. Hmin
neg. control direction

Tmin

Tmax

Tmed

Qmin Qmax volume flow Q [m/h]

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Wilo-Basic technics of pumps

Speed control
Comparison of the power consumption

max.-characteristic (non-regulated)

power draw P1 [W]

p constant

p variabel

volume flow Q [m/h]


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Operation mode
Auto night setback (let down function) > During the reduction of the flow temperature move the pump of a reduced constant speed (light load operation).
pumping head H [m]

> fuzzy control

p-c

Hset value

Hset value-min volume flow Q [m/h]


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Operation mode
Auto night setback (let down function)
power consumption power consumption [%] Vorlauftemperatur Uhrzeit

flow temperature [C]

possible additional savings from 25 %


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Thank you for your attention


Wilo-Pumpenfibel Basic technics of pumps

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