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A golden rectangle is one whose side lengths are in the golden ratio, (the Greek letter phi), where is approximately 1.618.

, which is

A distinctive feature of this shape is that when a square section is removed, the remainder is another golden rectangle; that is, with the same aspect ratio as the first. Square removal can be repeated infinitely, in which case corresponding corners of the squares form an infinite sequence of points on the golden spiral, the unique logarithmic spiral with this property. According to astrophysicist and mathematics popularizer Mario Livio, since the publication of Luca [1] Pacioli's Divina Proportione in 1509, when "with Pacioli's book, the Golden Ratio started to become available to artists in theoretical treatises that were not overly mathematical, that they could actually [2] use," many artists and architects have been fascinated by the presumption that the golden rectangle is considered aesthetically pleasing. The proportions of the golden rectangle have been observed in [3] works predating Pacioli's publication.

1 Construction 2 Applications 3 See also 4 References 5 External links


A method to construct a golden rectangle. The square is outlined in red. The resulting dimensions are in the golden ratio.

A golden rectangle can be constructed with only straightedge and compass by this technique: 1. Construct a simple square 2. Draw a line from the midpoint of one side of the square to an opposite corner 3. Use that line as the radius to draw an arc that defines the height of the rectangle 4. Complete the golden rectangle. 5. In mathematics and the arts, two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio of the sum of the quantities to the larger quantity is equal to the ratio of the larger quantity to the smaller one. The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship. Expressed algebraically: 6. 7. where the Greek letter phi (

) represents the golden ratio. Its value is:


8. 9. The golden ratio is also called the golden section (Latin: sectio aurea) or golden [2][3][4] [5] mean. Other names include extreme and mean ratio, medial section, divine proportion, divine section (Latin: sectio divina), golden proportion, golden [6] [7][8][9] cut, and golden number. 10. Many 20th century artists and architects have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratioespecially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratiobelieving this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing (see Applications and observations below). Mathematicians since Euclid have studied the properties of the golden ratio, including its appearance in the dimensions of a regular pentagon and in a golden rectangle, which can be cut into a square and a smaller rectangle with the same aspect ratio. The golden ratio has also been used to analyze the proportions of natural objects as well as man-made systems such as financial markets, in some cases [10] based on dubious fits to data.

http://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/nature-golden-ratio-fibonacci.html http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/evolution/fibonacci-nature1.htm http://www.goldennumber.net/nature/ http://www.maths.surrey.ac.uk/hosted-sites/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibnat.html Project 3