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102

APPLICATIONS TO

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

31. Solve the partial differential equation

azy

at 2

31. Solve the partial differential equation azy at 2 subject to the conditions Y(O, t) =

subject to the conditions

Y(O, t)

=

0,

Y(-rr, t) = 1671",

 

Yt (x, 0)

=

0,

Taking Laplace transforms, we find

 
 

s2y

-

8 Y(x,

0)

-

Yt (x , 0)

-

4

or, on using the given, conditions,

d2y

dx2

-

1

4 (sZ + 1 )Y

-4(s2 + 1)x

8

y(O, s)

=

0,

A particular solution of (2) has the form

ax

+

b sin x

16x + 20 sinx

Y(x, 0)

d2y

dxZ

+

Y

5 sin x

--

8

=

y(,., s)

+

c sin 2x

-

16,.

8

+

16x + 12 sin2x

16x

8

+

3s sm2x .

d sin 3x

20 sin x s

+

2s sin3x

-

[CHAP. 3

8 sin3x

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Then substituting and equating co~fficients of like terms, we find the particular solution

16x

+

20 sin x

+

12s

sin 2x

88 sin 3x

8

s(s2 + 5)

82 +

17

s2 +

37

(5)

The general solution of the equation (2) with right hand side replaced by zero [i.e. the complemen-

tary solution]

is

Yc

Thus the general solution of (2) is

Using the conditions (3) in (7), we find

from which

c 1 = c 2 = 0.

(3) in (7), we find from which c 1 = c 2 = 0. Thus 16x

Thus

16x

y -

8

+

find from which c 1 = c 2 = 0. Thus 16x y - 8 +

Y

=

Yp

+

Yc

which c 1 = c 2 = 0. Thus 16x y - 8 + Y =

0

20 sin x

8(82+5)

+

12s sin 2x

8 2 +17

-

88 sin 3x

82+37

(6)

(7)

Then takin~ the inverse Laplace transform, we find the required solution

Y(x, t)

16x

+

4 sin x (1- cos V5 t)

+

12 sin 2x cos Yf7 t

-

8 sin 3x cos

J37

t

Supplementary Problems

ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS

Solve each of the following by using Laplace transforms and check solutions.

32. Y"(t) + 4Y(t)

=

9t,

Y(O) =

0,

Y'(O) = 7.

33.

Y"(t) -

Ans.

3Y'(t) + 2Y(t)

=

Y(t)

= 3et- 2e2t +

4t + 12e-t,

Y(O) =

2t +

3 +

2e-t

An8.

Y(t)

6,

Y'(O) -1.

=

3t

+

2 sin 2t

CHAP. 3]

APPLICATIONS

TO

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

Y"(t) -

4Y'(t) + 5Y(t)

= 125t2,

Y(O) = Y'(O) = 0.

Ans.

Y(t)

=

25t2 + 40t + 22 + 2e2t (2 sin t

-

11 cost)

Y"(t) + Y(t)

Ans.

Y(t)

Y'"(t) -

Ans.

Y(t)

Y(t)

= 8 cost,

=

cost -

4

Y(O) = 1,

sin t

Y'(O) = -1.

+ 4t cost

=

=

et,

Y(O) = 0,

Y'(O) = 0,

}tet + fs.e-lht { 9 cos V: t

Y"(O) = 0.

5vfa .

V3}

+ -sm-t

2

2

yiv(t) + 2Y"(t) + Y(t)

=

sin t,

Y(O) =

Y'(O) = Y"(O) = Y"'(O) = 0.

Ans.

Y(t)

=

i{(3- t2) sin t -

3t cost}

Find the general solution of the differential equations of:

(a.) Problem 2, Page 82;

(b) Problem 3, Page 83;

(c) Problem 6, Page 84.

103

Ans.

(a)

Y

c 1 et + c 2 e2t + 4t e2t

 

(c)

Y

=

c 1 sin 3t

+

c 2 cos 3t +

t

cos 2t

(b)

Y

=

e- t (c 1 sin 2t. +

c 2 cos 2t)

+ ie -t sin

t

39. Y"(t) + 9Y(t)

Solve

=

18t

if

Y(O) = 0,

Y(11-/2) = 0.

Ans.

Y(t)

=

2t

+

7T sin 3t

40. yiv(t) -

Solve

16Y(t)

=

30 sin t

if

Y(O) = 0,

Y'(O) = 2,

Y"(7r) = 0,

Y'"(7r) = -18.

 

Ans.

Y

= 2(sin 2t- sin t)

 

41.

Solve

Y" -

4Y' + 3Y

=

F(t)

if

Y(O) =

1,

Y'(O) = 0.

Ans.

Y

=

!et

-

fe3t + tit (e3u- eu) F(t- u) du

42.

Solve the differential equation

 

Y" + 4Y

F(t),

where

F(t)

= { 1

0 < t

< 1

.

0

t > 1

Ans.

Y(t)

and

=

i sin 2t + !-{cos (2t--

2) -

cos 2t}

Y(t)

=

i

sin 2t

+

!(1 -

cos 2t)

for

Y(O) = 0,

for

t > 1

t < 1

Y'(O) = 1

43.

Solve Problem 42 if:

. (a.)

= 1l(t -

2),

[Heaviside's unit step

function];

(b) F(t) = 8(t),

[Dirac

delta function];

(c)

F(t)

F(t) = 8(t -

2).

Ans.

(a.)

Y(t)

= i

sin 2t

if

t

<

2,

t

sin 2t

+

!{1 -

cos (2t- 4)}

if

t > 2

 

(b)

Y(t)

= sin 2t,

t > 0

 

(c) Y(t)

= t

sin 2t

if

t

< 2,

!{sin 2t + sin (2t- 4)}2

if

t > 2

ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH VARIABLE COEFFICIENTS

Solve each of the following by, using Laplace transforms and check solutions.

44.

Y"

+ tY' -

Y

=

0,

Y(O) = 0,

Y'(O) = 1.

 

Ans.

Y

= t

45.

tY" +

(1- 2t)Y' -

2Y

=

0,

Y(O) =

1,

Y'(O) = 2.

Ans.

 

Y

= e2t

46.

tY"

+

(t -

1)Y' -

Y

·=

0,

Y(O) =

5,

Y(oo) = 0.

 

Ans.

Y

=

5e - t

47.

Find the bounded solution of the equation

 
 

t2Y"

+

tY'

+

(t2- 1)Y

 

=

0

which is such that Y(1) = 2. Ans.

2J 1 (t)/J 1 (1)

1()4

APPLICATIONS

TO JJIFFERENTIAL

EQUATIONS

[CHAP. 3

SIMULTANEOUS ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

48.

Solve

Ans.

Y

{

Y' + Z' Y"- z

=

2

+

= t

= e-t

subject to the conditions

-ft2 + -fe-t -!sin t +

l

cost,

Z

Y(O) = 3,

Y'(O) = -2,

=

1

-

-j-e-t +

i

sin t

Z(O) = 0.

-

l

cost

49.

Solve

Ans.

50. Solve

{

Y

.

{

Y'- Z'- 2Y + 2Z

 

=

sin t

=

0

·

fl-e-t + 4\e2t -

!-cost- i

= e-t

=

1

if

Y(O)

= Y'(O) = Z(O) = 0.

Z

=

Y" + 2Z' + Y

=

sin t + tte-t,

fl-e-t -

X' + 2Y"

if X(O) = Y(O) = Y'(O) = 0.

X'+2X- Y

Ans. X= 1+e-t-e-at-e-l>t, Y = 1+e-t-oe-at-ae-bt

where

!e2t +

tte-t

a= !(2-\1'2), b = f(2+\1'2)

51. Solve Problem 49 with the conditions

5Z.

Solve

Ans.

53.

Solve

Ans.

Y

Y

tY + Z + tZ'

Y'- Z

= (t- 1)e-t

{

= e-t Z = -J 1 (t)- e-t

= J 0 (t),

{

-3Y" + 3Z"

=

te-t -

tY" -

= .ft2 +it- i- te - t,

Z'

=

sin t

Y(O) = 0,

Y'(,.) = 1, Z(O) = 0.

given that

Y(O) = 1, Z(O) = -1.

3 cost

Z

given that

Y(O) = -1,

Y'(O) = 2,

= .ft2 + J+ te - t + tte-t +cost

54. Find the general solution of the system of equations in Problem 49.

Ans.

Y

c 1 +

c 2 sin t

+

c 3 cost +

-ft 2 +

-fe-t

Z

=

1

-

c 2 sin t

-

c 3 cos t

-

-fe-t

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS

55•

.'Referring to Fig. 3-1, Page 79, suppose that mass m has a force damping forces are present.

"f'(t),

t > 0

Z(O) = 4,

Z"(O) = 0.

acting on

it but that no

(a) Show that if the mass starts from rest at a distance X= a from the equilibrium position (X =0),

then the displacement X at any time t > 0 can be

mX" + kX

= "F(t),

determined

X(O) = a,

from the equation of motion

X'(O) = 0

where primes denote derivatives with respect to t.

(b)

Find X

at any time if

"f'(t)

= F 0

(a constant)

 

for

t

>

0.

(c)

Find

X

at

any time

if

"f'(t) = F 0 e-at

where

a

> 0.

Ans.

(b)

X=

(c) X

=

F

0

a+k

(

. [k

1-cos'\jmt

)

a+ ma Fo 2 +k(e-at-cosyk/mt) -~ +

aF ma 0 2 ym/k +k

. -~

smyk/mt

56. Work Problem 55 if "ji'(t) = F 0 sin wt, treating the two cases: (a) w-~ yk/m, (b) w = yk/m. Discuss the physical significance of each case.

57. A particle moves along a line so that its displacement X from a fixed point 0 at any time t is given by

X"(t)

+

4 X(t)

+

5 X(t)

=

80 sin 5t